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Sample records for zung depression scale

  1. Screening for anxiety and depression: reassessing the utility of the Zung scales.

    PubMed

    Dunstan, Debra A; Scott, Ned; Todd, Anna K

    2017-09-08

    While the gold standard for the diagnosis of mental disorders remains the structured clinical interview, self-report measures continue to play an important role in screening and measuring progress, as well as being frequently employed in research studies. Two widely-used self-report measures in the area of depression and anxiety are Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). However, considerable confusion exists in their application, with clinical cut-offs often applied incorrectly. This study re-examines the credentials of the Zung scales by comparing them with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) in terms of their ability to predict clinical diagnoses of anxiety and depression made using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). A total sample of 376 adults, of whom 87 reported being in receipt of psychological treatment, completed the two-page version of the PHQ relating to depression and anxiety, together with the SDS, the SAS and the DASS. Overall, although the respective DASS scales emerged as marginally stronger predictors of PHQ diagnoses of anxiety and depression, the Zung indices performed more than acceptably in comparison. The DASS also had an advantage in discriminative ability. Using the current recommended cut-offs for all scales, the DASS has the edge on specificity, while the Zung scales are superior in terms of sensitivity. There are grounds to consider making the Zung cut-offs more conservative, and doing this would produce comparable numbers of 'Misses' and 'False Positives' to those obtained with the DASS. Given these promising results, further research is justified to assess the Zung scales ability against full clinical diagnoses and to further explore optimum cut-off levels.

  2. Factor analysis of the Zung self-rating depression scale in a large sample of patients with major depressive disorder in primary care.

    PubMed

    Romera, Irene; Delgado-Cohen, Helena; Perez, Teresa; Caballero, Luis; Gilaberte, Immaculada

    2008-01-14

    The aim of this study was to examine the symptomatic dimensions of depression in a large sample of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in the primary care (PC) setting by means of a factor analysis of the Zung self-rating depression scale (ZSDS). A factor analysis was performed, based on the polychoric correlations matrix, between ZSDS items using promax oblique rotation in 1049 PC patients with a diagnosis of MDD (DSM-IV). A clinical interpretable four-factor solution consisting of a core depressive factor (I); a cognitive factor (II); an anxiety factor (III) and a somatic factor (IV) was extracted. These factors accounted for 36.9% of the variance on the ZSDS. The 4-factor structure was validated and high coefficients of congruence were obtained (0.98, 0.95, 0.92 and 0.87 for factors I, II, III and IV, respectively). The model seemed to fit the data well with fit indexes within recommended ranges (GFI = 0.9330, AGFI = 0.9112 and RMR = 0.0843). Our findings suggest that depressive symptoms in patients with MDD in the PC setting cluster into four dimensions: core depressive, cognitive, anxiety and somatic, by means of a factor analysis of the ZSDS. Further research is needed to identify possible diagnostic, therapeutic or prognostic implications of the different depressive symptomatic profiles.

  3. Factor analysis of the Zung self-rating depression scale in a large sample of patients with major depressive disorder in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Romera, Irene; Delgado-Cohen, Helena; Perez, Teresa; Caballero, Luis; Gilaberte, Immaculada

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the symptomatic dimensions of depression in a large sample of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in the primary care (PC) setting by means of a factor analysis of the Zung self-rating depression scale (ZSDS). Methods A factor analysis was performed, based on the polychoric correlations matrix, between ZSDS items using promax oblique rotation in 1049 PC patients with a diagnosis of MDD (DSM-IV). Results A clinical interpretable four-factor solution consisting of a core depressive factor (I); a cognitive factor (II); an anxiety factor (III) and a somatic factor (IV) was extracted. These factors accounted for 36.9% of the variance on the ZSDS. The 4-factor structure was validated and high coefficients of congruence were obtained (0.98, 0.95, 0.92 and 0.87 for factors I, II, III and IV, respectively). The model seemed to fit the data well with fit indexes within recommended ranges (GFI = 0.9330, AGFI = 0.9112 and RMR = 0.0843). Conclusion Our findings suggest that depressive symptoms in patients with MDD in the PC setting cluster into four dimensions: core depressive, cognitive, anxiety and somatic, by means of a factor analysis of the ZSDS. Further research is needed to identify possible diagnostic, therapeutic or prognostic implications of the different depressive symptomatic profiles. PMID:18194524

  4. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, but not body weight, correlated with a reduction in depression scale scores in men with metabolic syndrome: a prospective weight-reduction study.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-Te; Fu, Chia-Po; Lee, Wen-Jane; Liang, Kae-Woei; Lin, Shih-Yi; Wan, Chu-Jen; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2014-02-13

    Obesity, a critical component of metabolic syndrome (MetS), is associated with depression. Deficiency of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the mechanism of depression. We hypothesized that weight reduction would improve depressive symptoms via increasing BDNF levels in obese men. Male adults with obesity were enrolled in a weight-reduction program for twelve weeks. All subjects underwent daily caloric restriction and an exercise program which was regularly assessed in group classes. Fasting blood samples and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (Zung SDS) scores were collected for assessments before and after the study. A total of 36 subjects completed this program. The average reduction in body weight was 8.4 ± 5.1 kg (8.8 ± 5.1%, P < 0.001). Fasting serum BDNF significantly increased after the study (from 40.4 ± 7.8 to 46.9 ± 8.9 ng/ml, P < 0.001). However, the depression symptoms, as assessed by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (Zung SDS), did not reduce significantly (P = 0.486). Divided into subgroups based on changes in BDNF, Zung SDS scores were significantly reduced in subjects with greater BDNF increase than in those with minor BDNF change (-3.9 ± 6.2 vs. 2.3 ± 6.7, P = 0.009). The increased percentage of BDNF was inversely correlated with the change in Zung SDS (r = -0.380, P = 0.022). Multivariate regression analysis showed that reduction in BDNF was independently associated with change in Zung SDS (95% confidence interval -0.315 to -0.052, P = 0.008). Zung SDS only significantly improved in men with increased fasting BDNF levels after a lifestyle intervention. (NCT01065753, ClinicalTrials.gov).

  5. A Cross-Cultural Study of Self-Report Depressive Symptoms among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crittenden, Kathleen S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of self-report depressive symptoms measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale was conducted in Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and the United States with 953 college students. There are marked differences among countries in symptoms reported. Research designs and measurement strategies for cross-cultural research are discussed. (SLD)

  6. The Interference of Introversion-Extraversion and Depressive Symptomatology with Reasoning Performance: A Behavioural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Rabavilas, Andreas D.; Stachtea, Xanthy; Giannakakis, Giorgos A.; Kyprianou, Miltiades; Papadimitriou, George N.; Stefanis, Costas N.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the link between the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) scores and depressive symptomatology with reasoning performance induced by a task including valid and invalid Aristotelian syllogisms. The EPQ and the Zung Depressive Scale (ZDS) were completed by 48 healthy subjects (27 male, 21 female)…

  7. Artery balloon angioplasty and depression symptoms.

    PubMed

    Slovacek, Ladislav; Slovackova, Birgita

    2011-06-01

    Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) as a chronic disease is associated with physical, psychological and social distress for elderly patients and their families. The study has three main aims: 1. to evaluate the occurrence and the relevance of depression symptoms in patients with PAOD, 2. to evaluate the effect of age and Fontaine stage of PAOD on relevance of depression in patients with PAOD, and 3. to evaluate the effect of artery balloon angioplasty (ABA) on occurence and relevance of depression symptoms. The study was prospective and longitudinal. Dates were obtained during year 2006. The total number of subjects with PAOD was 42 (28 males, 14 females). Thirty subjects with PAOD (20 male, 10 female) treated by ABA filled in Zung's scale 3-6 months after ABA (61%). The mean age of all subjects was 65.4 years (aged 45-79). The evaluation of occurrence and relevance of depression was performed with Czech version of Zung self-rating depression scale (ZSRS). The mean Zung self-rating depression score (ZSRDS) certifies the presence of signs of minimum or mildly depression in patients with PAOD. The results proved statistically significant dependence of depression on age and on Fontaine stage of PAOD. Also, the results proved that artery balloon angioplasty has a highly positive effect on occurrence and relevance of depression symptoms. The results had shown the existence of the association between PAOD, depression and ABA.

  8. Development of Depression Profile: a new psychometric instrument to selectively evaluate depressive symptoms based on the neurocircuitry theory.

    PubMed

    Faludi, Gábor; Gonda, Xenia; Kliment, Edit; Bekes, Vera; Mészáros, Veronika; Oláh, Attila

    2010-06-01

    Although we have several self-report instruments available to assess depression, they yield a composite score and thus do not allow for the differential examination of major symptom clusters associated with depression. However, such an instrument would be a useful tool in subtyping depression and selecting the most appropriate pharmacotherapy for each patient. The neurocircuitry theory describes the biochemical and neuroanatomic background associated with the major symptoms of depression. Based on the neurocircuitry theory, our team has developed a new instrument, the Depression Profile, to selectively assess depressive symptom clusters associated with different neurotransmitter systems and neuroanatomic structures. The aim of our study was to investigate the psychometric characteristics of Depression Profile. 339 patients consecutively admitted with DSM-IV major depression in our hospital completed the Depression Profile in the first two weeks of their hospitalisation. 81 patients in an adult outpatient unit also completed the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Internal consistency of Depression Profile was tested with item analysis. The external validity of Depression Profile against the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale was tested using Pearson correlations. The internal consistency of Depression Profile proved to be excellent. The Cronbach alpha values of the scales met the expectable minimum level derived from the number of items in the scales. In testing for convergent validity, all Pearson correlation coefficients between Depression profile subscales and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale were significant and moderate to high which indicates the good external validity of our instrument. The initial psychometric evaluation of Depression Profile indicates that our instrument has good reliability and internal and external validity. The instrument also proved to be useful in clinical work to aid the choice of medications and determine the subtype of

  9. Concurrent Validity of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory Depression Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Joel O.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared two new measures of depression (Millon Multiaxial Inventory Dysthymia and Major Depression subscales) with two established instruments: Beck Depression Inventory, a self-report measure which emphasizes the cognitive-affective aspects of depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, an interview measure that emphasizes somatic…

  10. [Correlations between Beck's suicidal ideation scale, suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and Hamilton's depression rating scale].

    PubMed

    Ducher, J-L; Dalery, J

    2008-04-01

    Most of the people who will attempt suicide, talk about it beforehand. Therefore, recognition of suicidal risk is not absolutely impossible. Beck's suicidal ideation scale and Ducher's suicidal risk assessment scale (RSD) are common tools to help practicians in this way. These scales and the Hamilton's depression scale were included in an international multicentric, phase IV, double-blind study, according to two parallel groups who had been administered a fixed dose of fluvoxamin or fluoxetin for six weeks. This allowed examination of the correlations between these scales and the relations, which could possibly exist between suicidal risk, depression and anxiety. (a) Relationships between the Beck's suicidal ideation scale, the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and Hamilton's depression before treatment. Before treatment, the analysis was conducted with 108 male and female depressive outpatients, aged 18 or over. Results revealed a significant positive correlation (with a Pearson's correlation coefficient r equal to 0.69 and risk p<0.0001) between Beck's suicidal ideation scale and the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD. These scales correlate less consistently with Hamilton's depression (Beck/Hamilton's depression: r=0.34; p=0.0004-RSD/Hamilton's depression: r=0.35; p=0.0002). We observed that the clinical anxiety scale by Snaith is also strongly correlated to these two suicidal risk assessment scales (Beck/CAS: r=0.48; p<0.0001-RSD/CAS: r=0.35; p=0.0005). Besides, the item "suicide" of Hamilton's depression scale accounts for more than a third of the variability of Beck's suicidal ideation scale and the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD. According to these results, the suicidal risk evaluated by these two scales seems to be significantly correlated with anxiety as much as with depression. On the other hand, the Clinical Global Impression is fairly significantly correlated with Beck's suicidal ideation scale (r=0.22; p=0.02), unlike the suicidal risk assessment

  11. The roles of social support in helping chinese women with antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms cope with perceived stress.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ying; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Wang, Yuqiong; Kwong, Dennis Ho Keung; Wang, Ying

    2014-10-01

    A community-based sample of 755 pregnant Chinese women were recruited to test the direct and moderating effects of social support in mitigating perceived stress associated with antenatal depressive or anxiety symptoms. The Social Support Rating Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Edinburgh Depressive Postnatal Scale and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale were used. Social support was found to have direct effects and moderating effects on the women's perceived stress on antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms in multiple linear regression models. This knowledge of the separate effects of social support on behavioral health is important to psychiatric nurse in planning preventive interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stress and depression scales in aphasia: relation between the aphasia depression rating scale, stroke aphasia depression questionnaire-10, and the perceived stress scale.

    PubMed

    Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S; Farina, Matthew; Moore, Elliot; Russell, Scott

    2017-03-01

    Assessment and diagnosis of post-stroke depression (PSD) among patients with aphasia presents unique challenges. A gold standard assessment of PSD among this population has yet to be identified. The first aim was to investigate the association between two depression scales developed for assessing depressive symptoms among patients with aphasia. The second aim was to evaluate the relation between these scales and a measure of perceived stress. Twenty-five (16 male; 9 female) individuals with history of left hemisphere cerebrovascular accident (CVA) were assessed for depression and perceived stress using the Stroke Aphasic Depression Questionnaire-10 (SADQ-10), the Aphasia Depression Rating Scale (ADRS), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). SADQ-10 and ADRS ratings were strongly correlated with each other (r = 0.708, p < 0.001). SADQ-10 ratings were strongly correlated with PSS ratings (r = 0.620, p = 0.003), while ADRS ratings were moderately correlated (r = 0.492, p = 0.027). Item analysis of each scale identified items which increased both inter-scale correlation and intra-scale consistency when excluded. The SADQ-10 and ADRS appear to be acceptable measures of depressive symptoms in aphasia patients. Measurements of perceived stress may also be an important factor in assessment of depressive symptoms.

  13. Development and Validation of a Depression Scale for Asian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Chang, W. C.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Koh, Jessie B. K.; Leong, Joyce S. F.; Kee, Carolyn H. Y.; Seah, Cheryl K. F.

    2004-01-01

    Items covering both core and culture-specific facets of depression were generated based on literature review and clinical experience. They were modified following focus group discussions with depressed adolescents and adolescents in the community. The newly constructed Asian Adolescent Depression Scale (AADS) was administered to a clinical and a…

  14. Measuring Depression at the End of Life: Is the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale a Valid Instrument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olden, Megan; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William

    2009-01-01

    Depression at the end of life is a common mental health issue with serious implications for quality of life and decision making. This study investigated the reliability and validity of one of the most frequently used measures of depression, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) in 422 patients with terminal cancer admitted to a palliative…

  15. [Depression Literacy - German Translation and Testing of the Depression Literacy Scale].

    PubMed

    Freitag, Simone; Stolzenburg, Susanne; Schomerus, Georg; Schmidt, Silke

    2017-12-13

    Objective Translation and psychometric testing of a German adaptation of the Australian Depression Literacy Scale. Methods Translation of the Depression Literacy Scale by Griffith et al. (2004) into German and testing for depression literacy in a sample of 229 people with depressive syndrome. Results The investigated sample had a mean age of 49.4 years (18 - 80 years). On average, 51 % of the 22 questions were correctly answered. The scale showed a satisfactory internal consistency with α = .74. The first-time application of the translated D-Lit German scale showed significant differences in subgroup analyzes of sex, age, and education. Hence, women, younger persons and persons with a higher school education reported higher values on the Depression Literacy Scale. Conclusion The translation of the Depression Literacy Scale (D-Lit German) resulted in an easy-to-understand and applicable questionnaire. Items relating to therapeutic and drug-related treatments of depressen were more difficult to answer. The D-Lit scale proved to be a reliable and economic instrument for the investigation of depression literacy. Future studies should include depression literacy in investigations on the demands and help-seeking behaviour of people with depression. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Anxiety, depression and coping strategies in post-hysterectomy Chinese women prior to discharge.

    PubMed

    Wang, X Q; Lambert, C E; Lambert, V A

    2007-09-01

    This survey investigated the relationships among anxiety, depression, coping strategies and demographic characteristics of post-hysterectomy Chinese women before discharge and further determined the best predictors of anxiety and depression among this group. The sample consisted of 105 women who were administered, 1-2 days prior to discharge, via one-to-one interview, the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale, the Brief COPE Scale and a demographic questionnaire. Only 1.9% of the participants experienced anxiety, while 4.8% experienced depression after having a hysterectomy. Active coping, positive reframing, planning, emotional support and venting were the most frequently used coping strategies. Significant positive and negative correlations were found among anxiety, depression, coping strategies and the demographic characteristics of the subjects. The best predictors of anxiety were self-blame, venting and medical payment. The best predictors of depression were self-blame and employment status. Self-blame was the predictor of both anxiety and depression. It implied that a patient's negative self-evaluation may influence both psychological status and mental health. The ways of medical payment and employment status were predictors of anxiety and depression respectively, both of which reflected the economic stress that affected the psychological status and quality of life of the Chinese women, post-hysterectomy, before discharge. The findings of this study indicate that care for Chinese women post-hysterectomy, before discharge, should address their physical, psychological, social and economic well-being.

  17. Psychopharmacological correlates of post-psychotic depression: a double-blind investigation of haloperidol vs thiothixene in outpatient schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Abuzzahab, F S; Zimmerman, R L

    1982-03-01

    A 24-week double-blind study was conducted to compare haloperidol and thiothixene for efficacy and safety in 46 schizophrenic outpatients. In addition to the standard psychiatric rating scales, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation (NOSIE), and Evaluation of Social Functioning Rating (ESFR), two scales more sensitive to the incidence of treatment emergent depression were utilized. They were the Hamilton Depression Scale (HPRSD) and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZUNG). On the BPRS factors, haloperidol was significantly superior to thiothixene in Thought Disturbance and Hostility-Suspiciousness, and in Total symptomatology. Haloperidol was also significantly superior to thiothixene in Cognitive Disturbance on the HPRSD. Results of global evaluations suggested haloperidol produced slightly more rapid relief of symptoms than did thiothixene. The inclusion of the depression scales was useful in following patients who exhibited depressive symptoms; clinically significant depression was seen in 5 patients receiving haloperidol and 3 receiving thiothixene. A high incidence of akathisia in the thiothixene group was responsible for a statistically significant difference between groups in the number of central nervous system symptoms. Mean doses of test drugs were 17.5 mg/day for haloperidol an 31.8 mg/day for thiothixene. The study showed that haloperidol was equal to and in some parameters superior to thiothixene in producing improvement in the symptoms of psychosis.

  18. Parsing the heterogeneity of depression: An exploratory factor analysis across commonly used depression rating scales.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Elizabeth D; Yarrington, Julia S; Farmer, Cristan A; Lener, Marc S; Kadriu, Bashkim; Lally, Níall; Williams, Deonte; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Niciu, Mark J; Park, Lawrence; Zarate, Carlos A

    2018-04-15

    Due to the heterogeneity of depressive symptoms-which can include depressed mood, anhedonia, negative cognitive biases, and altered activity levels-researchers often use a combination of depression rating scales to assess symptoms. This study sought to identify unidimensional constructs measured across rating scales for depression and to evaluate these constructs across clinical trials of a rapid-acting antidepressant (ketamine). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on baseline ratings from the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Rating Scale (SHAPS). Inpatients with major depressive disorder (n = 76) or bipolar depression (n = 43) were participating in clinical ketamine trials. The trajectories of the resulting unidimensional scores were evaluated in 41 subjects with bipolar depression who participated in clinical ketamine trials. The best solution, which exhibited excellent fit to the data, comprised eight factors: Depressed Mood, Tension, Negative Cognition, Impaired Sleep, Suicidal Thoughts, Reduced Appetite, Anhedonia, and Amotivation. Various response patterns were observed across the clinical trial data, both in treatment effect (ketamine versus placebo) and in degree of placebo response, suggesting that use of these unidimensional constructs may reveal patterns not observed with traditional scoring of individual instruments. Limitations include: 1) small sample (and related inability to confirm measurement invariance); 2) absence of an independent sample for confirmation of factor structure; and 3) the treatment-resistant nature of the population, which may limit generalizability. The empirical identification of unidimensional constructs creates more refined scores that may elucidate the connection between specific symptoms and underlying pathophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Comparative performance of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for screening antepartum depression.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qiuyue; Gelaye, Bizu; Rondon, Marta; Sánchez, Sixto E; García, Pedro J; Sánchez, Elena; Barrios, Yasmin V; Simon, Gregory E; Henderson, David C; Cripe, Swee May; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-06-01

    We sought to evaluate the psychometric properties of two widely used screening scales: the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) among pregnant Peruvian women. This cross-sectional study included 1517 women receiving prenatal care from February 2012 to March 2013. A structured interview was used to collect data using PHQ-9 and EPDS. We examined reliability, construct and concurrent validity between two scales using internal consistency indices, factor structures, correlations, and Cohen׳s kappa. Both scales had good internal consistency (Cronbach׳s alpha>0.8). Correlation between PHQ-9 and EPDS scores was fair (rho=0.52). Based on exploratory factor analysis (EFA), both scales yielded a two-factor structure. EFA including all items from PHQ-9 and EPDS yielded four factors, namely, "somatization", "depression and suicidal ideation", "anxiety and depression", and "anhedonia". The agreement between the two scales was generally fair at different cutoff scores with the highest Cohen׳s kappa being 0.46. Both the PHQ-9 and EPDS are reliable and valid scales for antepartum depression assessment. The PHQ-9 captures somatic symptoms, while EPDS detects depressive symptoms comorbid with anxiety during early pregnancy. Our findings suggest simultaneous administration of both scales may improve identification of antepartum depressive disorders in clinical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Depression: relationships to sleep paralysis and other sleep disturbances in a community sample

    PubMed Central

    Szklo-Coxe, Mariana; Young, Terry; Finn, Laurel; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Sleep disturbances are important correlates of depression, with epidemiologic research heretofore focused on insomnia and sleepiness. This epidemiologic study’s aim was to investigate, in a community sample, depression’s relationships to other sleep disturbances: sleep paralysis (SP), hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations (HH), cataplexy – considered rapid eye movement-related disturbances – and automatic behavior (AB). Although typical of narcolepsy, these disturbances are prevalent, albeit under-studied, in the population. Cross-sectional analyses (1998–2002), based on Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study population-based data from 866 participants (mean age 54, 53% male), examined: depression (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale), trait anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI-T ≥ 75th percentile), and self-reported sleep disturbances. Descriptive sleep data were obtained by overnight polysomnography. Adjusted logistic regression models estimated depression’s associations with each (>few times ever) outcome – SP, HH, AB, and cataplexy. Depression’s associations with self-reported SP and cataplexy were not explained by anxiety. After anxiety adjustment, severe depression (Zung ≥55), vis-à-vis Zung <50, increased SP odds ~500% (P = 0.0008). Depression (Zung ≥50), after stratification by anxiety given an interaction (P = 0.02), increased self-reported cataplexy odds in non-anxious (OR 8.9, P = 0.0008) but not anxious (OR 1.1, P = 0.82) participants. Insomnia and sleepiness seemed only partial mediators or confounders for depression’s associations with self-reported cataplexy and SP. Anxiety (OR 1.9, P = 0.04) partially explained depression’s (Zung ≥55) association with HH (OR 2.2, P = 0.08). Anxiety (OR 1.6, P = 0.02) was also more related than depression to AB. Recognizing depression’s relationships to oft-neglected sleep disturbances, most notably SP, might assist in better characterizing depression and the full range

  1. Initial validation of a scale to measure purposelessness, understimulation, and boredom in cancer patients: toward a redefinition of depression in advanced disease.

    PubMed

    Passik, Steven D; Inman, Alice; Kirsh, Kenneth; Theobald, Dale; Dickerson, Pamela

    2003-03-01

    The problem of boredom in people with cancer has received little research attention, and yet clinical experience suggests that it has the potential to profoundly affect quality of life in those patients. We were interested in developing a Purposelessness, Understimulation, and Boredom (PUB) Scale to identify this problem and to begin to differentiate it from depression. Cancer patients and professionals were interviewed using a semi-structured format to elicit their perceptions of the incidence, causes, scope, and consequences of boredom. From their responses, 45 questions were developed, edited for clarity, and piloted. A total of 100 cancer patients were recruited to participate in the study. Preliminary validation of the PUB using a cross-sectional survey of the measure was conducted. Other instruments used for purposes of convergent and divergent validity included the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Scale-Anemia, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, Boredom Proneness Scale, Leisure Boredom Scale, Cancer Behavior Inventory, Systems of Belief Inventory, and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status Scale. The average age of the sample was 62.37 years (SD = 13.43) and was comprised of 60 women (60.00%) and 40 men (40.00%). The results of a factor analysis on the 45 initial items (selected on the basis of professional and patient interviews) created a two-factor scale. The eight items from the strongest factor (items 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10) seemed to best tap the construct that could be deemed as overt boredom whereas the six items of the second factor (items 36, 38, 39, 42, 44, 45) seemed to tap the construct of boredom related to meaning and spirituality. Total scale internal consistency, when all 14 items were included in the analysis, yielded a coefficient alpha of 0.84 and good test-retest reliability at 2 weeks (r = .80, p < .001). The novel 14-item PUB Scale was significantly correlated to other measures of boredom; the Boredom

  2. Symptoms of depression and anxiety after the disclosure of the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Mormont, Eric; Jamart, Jacques; Jacques, Denis

    2014-12-01

    Many people fear that the disclosure of the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD) to patients will prompt depressive symptoms or catastrophic reactions. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the modification of anxiety and depressive symptoms 3 months after the disclosure of the diagnosis of AD. A total of 100 consecutive newly diagnosed patients with AD (mild or moderate stage) and their caregivers were included. The evolution of symptoms of depression and anxiety was assessed with the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (Zung SDS) and the depression item of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-d) and the anxiety item of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-a). After 3 months, the caregivers were asked their opinions on the global effect of the disclosure using a Likert-type scale. At 3 months, there was no significant change in the mean NPI-d (P = .87) and Zung SDS (P = .18) and a significant reduction in the NPI-a (P = .05). The NPI-d worsened in 22% of patients, improved in 22%, and remained unchanged in 56%. The NPI-a worsened in 12% of patients, improved in 33%, and remained unchanged in 54%. The caregivers rated the global effect of the disclosure as negative in 8%, neutral in 71%, and positive in 21% of patients. None of the patients or their proxies reported suicide attempts or catastrophic reactions. The disclosure of AD is safe in most cases and may improve anxiety. Symptoms of depression and anxiety worsen only in a minority of patients. The fear of depression or catastrophic reaction should not prevent clinicians to disclose the diagnosis of AD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Sleep disorders and depressive feelings: a global survey with the Beck depression scale.

    PubMed

    Vandeputte, Melissa; de Weerd, Al

    2003-07-01

    Patients with (chronic) sleep disorders are prone to depression. Until now studies on the prevalence of depression in the various sleep disorders focused mainly on obstructive sleep apnea patients and narcolepsy. Studies in other common sleep disorders are scarce. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of depressive feelings in the various sleep disorders diagnosed in a Center for Sleep and Wake Disorders. We included 917 consecutive patients (age between 14 and 84 years, median age: 49, 396 male and 521 female), seen in our center for sleep and wake disorders during 2001 and first half of 2002. The diagnosis was based on the history taken at the outpatient-clinic and two consecutive 24-h polysomnographic recordings at home (APSG). The final decisions on the diagnosis were made according to the ASDA international classification of sleep disorders. The severity of depressive feelings was based on the Beck depression scale. Overall, the prevalence of depressive feelings was high. There were no significant differences in age and gender. In psychophysiological insomnia, inadequate sleep- and wake hygiene, sleep state misperception and periodic limb movement disorder/restless legs syndrome some form of depression occurred in more than half of the patients. Moderate to severe depression was found in 3.5% of the patients. The study suggests that the use of a depression scale in the daily routine of diagnosing and treating sleep disorders should be encouraged in order to optimise diagnosis and therapy in these patients.

  4. [Predictors and longitudinal changes of depression and anxiety among medical college students].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Ji; Jang, Eun-Young; Park, Yong-Chon; Kim, Daeho

    2013-06-01

    This longitudinal study was designed to examine the change in depression and anxiety and their predictors over 1 year among premedical and medical students. We compared depression and anxiety from 2 waves and determined the predictive power of personality, narcissism, social comparison, and social reward value on them. Two hundred twenty-six students at a medical school in Seoul were divided into 4 groups according to academic year and completed a questionnaire at the end of 2010 and 2011. The questionnaire included the Zung Depression Scale; Zung Anxiety Scale; scales for social comparison, narcissism, and social reward value; and Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Among first- and second-year medical students, depression and anxiety increased significantly over the previous year. However, irrespective of academic year, depression increased significantly after 1 year. Also, social reward value had a moderating effect. Specifically, among students with low social reward value who entered their first year of medical school, the negative impact of the tendency toward depression and anxiety was amplified compared with older students. Because the predictors of mental health differ between groups, each group must receive specific, appropriate education. Also, because social reward value is important moderating factor of mental health, education and intervention programs that focus on social reward value are needed.

  5. Comparative Performance of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for Screening Antepartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Qiuyue; Gelaye, Bizu; Rondon, Marta; Sánchez, Sixto E; García, Pedro J; Sánchez, Elena; Barrios, Yasmin V; Simon, Gregory E.; Henderson, David C.; Cripe, Swee May; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    Objective We sought to evaluate the psychometric properties of two widely used screening scales: the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) among pregnant Peruvian women. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,517 women receiving prenatal care from February 2012 to March 2013. A structured interview was used to collect data using PHQ-9 and EPDS. We examined reliability, construct and concurrent validity between two scales using internal consistency indices, factor structures, correlations, and Cohen’s kappa. Results Both scales had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha > 0.8). Correlation between PHQ-9 and EPDS scores was fair (rho=0.52). Based on exploratory factor analysis (EFA), both scales yielded a two-factor structure. EFA including all items from PHQ-9 and EPDS yielded four factors, namely, “somatization”, “depression and suicidal ideation”, “anxiety and depression”, and “anhedonia”. The agreement between the two scales was generally fair at different cutoff scores with the highest Cohen’s kappa being 0.46. Conclusions Both the PHQ-9 and EPDS are reliable and valid scales for antepartum depression assessment. The PHQ-9 captures somatic symptoms, while EPDS detects depressive symptoms comorbid with anxiety during early pregnancy. Our findings suggest simultaneous administration of both scales may improve identification of antepartum depressive disorders in clinical settings. PMID:24766996

  6. Rasch Analysis of the Geriatric Depression Scale--Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Karl S.; Green, Kathy E.; Cox, Enid O.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine scale dimensionality, reliability, invariance, targeting, continuity, cutoff scores, and diagnostic use of the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (GDS-SF) over time with a sample of 177 English-speaking U.S. elders. Design and Methods: An item response theory, Rasch analysis, was conducted with…

  7. Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in depressed clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Page, Andrew C; Hooke, Geoffrey R; Morrison, David L

    2007-09-01

    The psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995a) were examined in depressed psychiatric hospital samples. Three studies administered the DASS and other symptom measures at admission and discharge to consecutive adult hospital patients with a primary diagnosis of depression. Study 3 aimed to address problems with the DASS by extending the response options. Study 1 found that the DASS had good reliability and validity, was moderately sensitive to change, but the Depression Scale exhibited a ceiling effect. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure and the DASS continued to demonstrate good psychometric properties, but the ceiling effect was replicated. Study 3 found that by extending the response scale to include an additional option, the factor structure of the instrument as a whole was maintained, the sensitivity to treatment was increased, but the ceiling effect was only marginally reduced. The psychometric properties of the DASS were sound in clinically depressed samples, but the Depression Scale exhibited a ceiling effect that could not be resolved with minor changes to the scale. Suggestions for revisions of the DASS are made.

  8. Self-esteem mediates the effect of the parent-adolescent relationship on depression.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junmin; Ai, Hongshan

    2016-06-01

    There is a trend of rapid growth in both the level and occurrence of depression when people reach adolescence. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the parent-adolescent relationship on depression in adolescents, and mainly focused on the confirmation of the mediator role of self-esteem. A total of 364 senior middle school students accomplished the Parent-Adolescent Relationship Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. The results suggested that both parent-adolescent relationship and self-esteem were significantly correlated with depression. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between parent-adolescent relationship and depression. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Inpatients with major depressive disorder: Psychometric properties of the new Multidimensional Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Darharaj, Mohammad; Habibi, Mojtaba; Power, Michael J; Farzadian, Farzaneh; Rahimi, Maesoumeh; Kholghi, Habibeh; Kazemitabar, Maryam

    2016-12-01

    The New Multi-dimensional Depression Scale (NMDS) is one of the most comprehensive scales that measures depression symptoms in four domains, including emotional, cognitive, somatic, and interpersonal. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the NMDS in a group of Iranian inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). At first, the scale was translated into Persian and used as part of a battery consisting of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). The battery was administered to 271 inpatients with MDD (90 men and 181 women) aged from 18 to 60 who had been referred to psychiatric hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Persian version of the NMDS upheld its original four-factor structure. Moreover, the results showed its good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranging from 0.70 for the emotional subscale to 0.83 for the interpersonal subscale). In addition, the NMDS scores were correlated with other constructs in empirically and theoretically expected ways, which provides evidence for the convergent (positive significant relationships with anxiety and cognitive and somatic-affective symptoms of depression) and divergent (negative significant relationships with happiness and mental health and physical health) validity of the scale. These findings supported the Persian version of the NMDS as a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of depression symptoms in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Combination Antiviral Therapy in the Treatment of Hepatitis C on the Occurrence of Depressive Disorder in Patients Treated for Hepatitis C in the Republic of Srpska.

    PubMed

    Banjac, Visnja; Zivlak-Radulovic, Nera; Miskovic, Mirjana

    2016-04-01

    The current standard treatment of chronic hepatitis C in Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of pegylated interferon alpha in combination with ribavirin. Interferon therapy has many psychiatric side effects, with depressive symptomatology being most prominent. The aim of the study was to establish the frequency and severity of depression in patients with chronic hepatitis C during two months of the aforementioned therapy. The overall sample consisted of 46 subjects, divided into three subgroups, aged 18 to 65. The study population consisted of subjects treated for chronic hepatitis C (n = 15), subjects infected but not treated for chronic hepatitis C (n = 15), and healthy controls (n = 16). The assessment and level of depression were based on the Structural clinical interview (SCID), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. The assessments were conducted before interferon therapy (on the day 0), after 4 and 8 weeks of therapy. Regarding its frequency, MADRS scoring showed that the number of depressed subjects receiving therapy increased after 8 weeks (46.7%). There was statistical significance between the subgroups after 4 and 8 weeks. Likewise, the ZUNG scale showed that the number of depressed subjects receiving therapy increased after 8 weeks (73.3%). There was statistical significance between the subgroups on the day 0, after 4 and 8 weeks. Depression was significantly more frequent in chronic hepatitis C subjects treated with interferon alpha in combination with ribavirin than in subjects in the group without therapy. Mild depression was most prevalent.

  11. Psychopathological dimensions of depression: a factor study of the 17-item Hamilton depression rating scale in unipolar depressed outpatients.

    PubMed

    Pancheri, P; Picardi, A; Pasquini, M; Gaetano, P; Biondi, M

    2002-02-01

    Agreement on the factor structure of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) has not been consistent among studies, and some investigators argued that the scale's factor structure is not reliable. This study aimed at shedding more light on this debated issue. We studied 186 adults with unipolar depression (Major Depressive Disorder, n=80; Dysthymic Disorder, n=71; Depressive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, n=25; Adjustment Disorder, n=10). They had no comorbid DSM-IV axis I or axis II disorders, and had received no treatment with antidepressant drugs in the previous 2 months. The factor structure of the scale was studied using the principal factor method, followed by oblique rotation. Factor scores were computed for each subject using the regression method. Using the scree-test criterion for factor extraction, we obtained a four-factor solution, explaining 43.8% of total variance. The four factors extracted were identified as (1) somatic anxiety/somatization factor; (2) a psychic anxiety dimension; (3) a pure depressive dimension; and (4) anorexia factor. Patients with Major Depressive Disorder scored significantly higher than patients with other diagnoses on the pure depressive dimension. These results need to be replicated in different cultures, using analogous factoring techniques. Though not exhibiting factorial invariance in the stricter sense of the term, the 17-item HDRS did exhibit a relatively reliable factor structure. Our analysis provides further evidence that the scale is multidimensional. However, as long as the multidimensional character of the scale is taken into account the scale should be able to play a useful role in clinical research.

  12. Relationships between the Underlying Constructs of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skorikov, Vladimir B.; Vandervoort, Debra J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationships between the constructs of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck and others, 1979) in 261 college students. Findings suggest the BDI and CES-D measure different aspects of depression and should not be used…

  13. Mokken scaling analysis of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in individuals with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Cosco, Theodore D; Doyle, Frank; Watson, Roger; Ward, Mark; McGee, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a prolifically used scale of anxiety and depression. The original bidimensional anxiety-depression latent structure of the HADS has come under significant scrutiny, with previous studies revealing one-, two-, three- and four-dimensional structures. The current study examines the latent structure of the HADS using a non-parametric item response theory method. Using data conglomerated from four independent studies of cardiovascular disease employing the HADS (n=893), Mokken scaling procedure was conducted to assess the latent structure of the HADS. A single scale consisting of 12 of 14 HADS items was revealed, indicating a unidimensional latent HADS structure. The HADS was initially intended to measure mutually exclusive levels of anxiety and depression; however, the current study indicates that a single dimension of general psychological distress is captured. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Screening for depressive disorders using the MASQ anhedonic depression scale: A receiver-operator characteristic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operator characteristic analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8 and 14-item subscales, were examined in relation to both current and lifetime DSM-IV depressive disorder diagnoses in two nonpatient samples. As a means of comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of a measure of a relevant personality dimension, neuroticism, was also examined. Results from both samples support the clinical utility of the MASQ-AD scale as a means of screening for depressive disorders. Findings were strongest for the MASQ-AD 8-item subscale and when predicting current depression status. Furthermore, the MASQ-AD 8-item subscale outperformed the neuroticism measure under certain conditions. The overall usefulness of the MASQ-AD scale as a screening device is discussed, as well as possible cutoff scores for use in research. PMID:20822283

  15. Improving discrimination in antepartum depression screening using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Kartik K; Kaimal, Anjali J; Castro, Victor M; Perlis, Roy H

    2017-05-01

    Universal screening of pregnant women for postpartum depression has recently been recommended; however, optimal application of depression screening tools in stratifying risk has not been defined. The current study examines new approaches to improve the ability of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to stratify risk for postpartum depression, including alternate cut points, use of a continuous measure, and incorporation of other putative risk factors. An observational cohort study of 4939 women screened both antepartum and postpartum with a negative EPDS screen antepartum(i.e. EPDS<10). The primary outcome was a probable postpartum major depressive episode(EPDS cut-off ≥10). Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve(AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated. 287 women(5.8%) screened positive for postpartum depression. An antepartum EPDS cut-off<5 optimally identified women with a low risk of postpartum depression with a negative predictive value of 97.6%; however, overall discrimination was modest(AUC 0.66, 95%CI: 0.64-0.69); sensitivity was 78.7%, and specificity was 53.8%, and the positive predictive value was low at 9.5%. The negative predictive values were similar(>95%) at all antepartum EPDS cut-off values from 4 to 8. Discrimination was improved(AUC ranging from 0.70 to 0.73) when the antepartum EPDS was combined with a prior history of major depressive disorder before pregnancy. An inability to assess EPDS subscales and a relatively low prevalence of depression in this cohort. Though an antepartum EPDS cut-off score <5 yielded the greatest discrimination identifying women at low risk for postpartum depression, the negative predictive value was insufficient to substitute for postpartum screening. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Unmasking materialistic depression as a mental health problem: its effect on depression and materialism in an African-United States undergraduate sample.

    PubMed

    Azibo, Daudi Ajani ya

    2013-09-05

    Misdiagnosis of African-U.S. persons is argued to be a built-in characteristic of Western-based assessment requiring augmentation with culture-focused input where possible. Regarding depression, materialistic depression is explained as an African-centered African-U.S. culture-focused construct of masked depression. Materialistic depression symptomatology is presented. Materialism orientation is postulated to necessarily be associated with materialistic depression. 144 undergraduates, 37 male (25.7%) and 107 female (74.3%), average age of 21 completed the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale, the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90-R, the materialism subscale of the Cultural Misorientation Scale, and the Materialistic Depression Quiz. Contrasting high versus lower scoring MDQ groups on both depression scores produced reliable t-tests (p<.017). One-way ANOVA on materialism scores with high, medium, low MDQ groups was reliable (p<.017). The sample precluded generalization to clinically depressed and non-college African-U.S. populations. Using the Materialistic Depression Quiz, high scorers versus medium and low scorers had greater depression scores on two depression measures and greater materialism scores. Materialistic depression appears a masked form of depression not to be overlooked. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined use of the postpartum depression screening scale (PDSS) and Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) to identify antenatal depression among Chinese pregnant women with obstetric complications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Kane, Irene; Wang, Jing; Shen, Beibei; Luo, Jianfeng; Shi, Shenxun

    2015-03-30

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate antenatal depression screening employing two scales: the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for the population of Chinese pregnant women with obstetric complications. A convenience sample of 842 Chinese pregnant women with complications participated in this study. The PDSS total score correlated strongly with the EPDS total score (r=0.652, p=0.000). Each tool performed extremely well for detecting major and major/minor depressions with PDSS resulting in a better psychometric performance than EPDS (p<0.01). If combined use, the recommended EPDS cut-off score was 8/9 for major depression, at which the sensitivity (71.6%) and specificity (87.6%) were the best, and the recommended PDSS cut-off score was 79/80 for major depression, along with its best sensitivity (86.4%) and specificity (100%). The study concluded that EPDS and PDSS appear to be reliable assessments for major and minor depression among the Chinese pregnant women with obstetric complications. Combined use of these tools should consider lower cutoff scores to reduce the misdiagnosis and improve the screening validity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a family functioning scale for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    DiBenedetti, Dana Britt; Danchenko, Natalya; François, Clement; Lewis, Sandra; Davis, Kimberly H; Fehnel, Sheri E

    2012-03-01

    To better understand depression's impact on family functioning from the perspectives of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and their partners; to develop and test patient and partner versions of a new self-reported measure, the Depression and Family Functioning Scale (DFFS), for use in clinical trials. Concept elicitation interviews were conducted with 32 adults with clinician-diagnosed moderate-to-severe MDD and their respective partners. Twenty-six items were drafted to address relevant aspects of family functioning and were then tested and refined through two iterative sets of cognitive debriefing interviews, each conducted by the same pair of highly experienced researchers, including a licensed clinical psychologist. Depression negatively affects family functioning through poorer communication, increased conflicts, decreased family interaction, and decreased intimacy. No existing instrument measured all domains of interest, or had been rigorously developed and psychometrically validated in the target populations. The draft DFFS items generally tested well and only minor modifications were made to the items after the second set of interviews. Both patients and partners indicated that the final set of 15 DFFS items addresses all concepts of importance. The DFFS evaluates the impact of depression on family functioning and has the potential to provide important information that can facilitate a more comprehensive evaluation of new treatments in clinical trial settings. Although MDD severity was not confirmed with a standardized interview, in clinical practice in the US, MDD is generally not diagnosed with the use of a structured clinical interview or clinician-administered tool. In the current study, depression severity had little (if any) impact on the specific concepts elicited as being important to family functioning. In fact, patients with milder depression had more insight and were able to better articulate changes in family functioning with

  19. Screening for Depressive Disorders Using the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire Anhedonic Depression Scale: A Receiver-Operating Characteristic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffery M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD scale) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8- and 14-item…

  20. Screening for postpartum depression using Kurdish version of Edinburgh postnatal depression scale.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hamdia Mirkhan; Alalaf, Shahla Kareem; Al-Tawil, Namir Ghanim

    2012-05-01

    One of the important public health problems affecting maternal and child health is postpartum depression (PPD). It generally occurs within 6-8 weeks after childbirth. To determine the prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) using a Kurdish version of Edinburgh postpartum depression scale (EPDS) and to analyze the risk factors for postpartum depression in a population of puerperal Kurdish women in Erbil city. A cross-sectional study was conducted between 20th of June and 30th of November 2010, in 14 antenatal care units of primary health centers, in Erbil city, Kurdistan region, Iraq. The sample of the study included 1,000 puerperal women (6-8 weeks postpartum), ranging in age from 14 to 48 years. Data were collected after interviewing the women using a questionnaire designed by the researchers, and the Kurdish version of the EPDS. Chi square test of association and the logistic regression tests were used in the analysis. The prevalence of postpartum depression was 28.4%. Logistic regression analysis showed that the factors found to be associated with PPD were: physical or sexual abuse, delivery by cesarean section, history of past psychiatric illness, and family history of past psychiatric illness; while marriage with no previous agreement, and high socio-economic level were associated with lower levels of PPD. The Kurdish version of the EPDS can be successfully used to screen depression in a Kurdish population of puerperal women.

  1. Symptom Frequency Characteristics of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale of Major Depressive Disorder in Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wiglusz, Mariusz S; Landowski, Jerzy; Michalak, Lidia; Cubała, Wiesław J

    2015-09-01

    Depressive disorders are common among patients with epilepsy (PWE). The aim of this study was to explore symptom frequencies of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and recognize the clinical characteristics of Major Depressive Disorder in PWE. A sample of 40 adults outpatients with epilepsy and depression was diagnosed using SCID-I for DSM-IV-TR and HDRS-17. The total HDRS-17 score was analysed followed by the exploratory analysis based on the hierarchical model. The frequencies of HDRS-17 items varied widely in this study. Insomnia related items and general somatic symptoms items as well as insomnia and somatic factors exhibited constant and higher frequency. Feeling guilty, suicide, psychomotor retardation and depressed mood showed relatively lower frequencies. Other symptoms had variable frequencies across the study population. Depressive disorders are common among PWE. In the study group insomnia and somatic symptoms displayed highest values which could represent atypical clinical features of mood disorders in PWE. There is a need for more studies with a use of standardized approach to the problem.

  2. Assessing Depression Related Severity and Functional Impairment: The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS)

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Masaya; Bentley, Kate H.; Oe, Yuki; Nakajima, Shun; Fujisato, Hiroko; Kato, Noriko; Miyamae, Mitsuhiro; Kanie, Ayako; Horikoshi, Masaru; Barlow, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS) is a brief, five-item measure for assessing the frequency and intensity of depressive symptoms, as well as functional impairments in pleasurable activities, work or school, and interpersonal relationships due to depression. Although this scale is expected to be useful in various psychiatric and mental health settings, the reliability, validity, and interpretability have not yet been fully examined. This study was designed to examine the reliability, factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity of a Japanese version of the ODSIS, as well as its ability to distinguish between individuals with and without a major depressive disorder diagnosis. Methods From a pool of registrants at an internet survey company, 2830 non-clinical and clinical participants were selected randomly (619 with major depressive disorder, 619 with panic disorder, 576 with social anxiety disorder, 645 with obsessive–compulsive disorder, and 371 non-clinical panelists). Participants were asked to respond to the ODSIS and conventional measures of depression, functional impairment, anxiety, neuroticism, satisfaction with life, and emotion regulation. Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of three split subsamples indicated the unidimensional factor structure of ODSIS. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed invariance of factor loadings between non-clinical and clinical subsamples. The ODSIS also showed excellent internal consistency and test–retest intraclass correlation coefficients. Convergence and discriminance of the ODSIS with various measures were in line with our expectations. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that the ODSIS was able to detect a major depressive syndrome accurately. Conclusions This study supports the reliability and validity of ODSIS in a non-western population, which can be interpreted as demonstrating cross-cultural validity. PMID:25874558

  3. Translation and validation of the Cardiac Depression Scale to Arabic.

    PubMed

    Papasavvas, T; Al-Amin, H; Ghabrash, H F; Micklewright, D

    2016-08-01

    The Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS) has been designed to measure depressive symptoms in patients with heart disease. There is no Arabic version of the CDS. We translated and validated the CDS in an Arabic sample of patients with heart disease. Forward and back translation of the CDS was followed by assessment of cultural relevance and content validity. The Arabic version of the CDS (A-CDS) and the Arabic version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (A-HADS) were then administered to 260 Arab in-patients with heart disease from 18 Arabic countries. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis with polychoric correlations. Internal consistency was assessed using ordinal reliability alpha and item-to-factor polychoric correlations. Concurrent validity was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient between the A-CDS and the depression subscale of the A-HADS (A-HADS-D). Cultural relevance and content validity of the A-CDS were satisfactory. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three robust factors, without cross-loadings, that formed a single dimension. Internal consistency was high (ordinal reliability alpha for the total scale and the three factors were .94, .91, .86, and .87, respectively; item-to-factor correlations ranged from .77 to .91). Concurrent validity was high (r=.72). The A-CDS demonstrated a closer to normal distribution of scores than the A-HADS-D. Sensitivity and specificity of the A-CDS were not objectively assessed. The A-CDS appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to measure depressive symptoms in a representative sample of Arab in-patients with heart disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in assessing depression and anxiety following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Dahm, Jane; Wong, Dana; Ponsford, Jennie

    2013-10-01

    Anxiety and depression following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are associated with poorer outcomes. A brief self-report questionnaire would assist in identifying those at risk, however validity of such measures is complicated by confounding symptoms of the injury. This study investigated the validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in screening for clinical diagnoses of anxiety and mood disorders following TBI. One hundred and twenty-three participants with mild to severe TBI were interviewed using the SCID (Axis I) and completed the DASS and HADS. The DASS, DASS21 and HADS scales demonstrated validity compared with SCID diagnoses of anxiety and mood disorders as measured by Area Under ROC Curve, sensitivity and specificity. Validity of the DASS depression scale benefited from items reflecting symptoms of devaluation of life, self-deprecation, and hopelessness that are not present on the HADS. Validity of the HADS anxiety scale benefited from items reflecting symptoms of tension and worry that are measured separately for the DASS on the stress scale. Participants were predominantly drawn from a rehabilitation centre which may limit the extent to which results can be generalized. Scores for the DASS21 were derived from the DASS rather than being administered separately. The DASS, DASS21 and HADS demonstrated validity as screening measures of anxiety and mood disorders in this TBI sample. The findings support use of these self-report questionnaires for individuals with TBI to identify those who should be referred for clinical diagnostic follow-up. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Young Athletes Using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Stephanie; Puta, Christian; Lesinski, Melanie; Gabriel, Brunhild; Steidten, Thomas; Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Herbsleb, Marco; Granacher, Urs; Gabriel, Holger H. W.

    2018-01-01

    Elite young athletes have to cope with multiple psychological demands such as training volume, mental and physical fatigue, spatial separation of family and friends or time management problems may lead to reduced mental and physical recovery. While normative data regarding symptoms of anxiety and depression for the general population is available (Hinz and Brähler, 2011), hardly any information exists for adolescents in general and young athletes in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess overall symptoms of anxiety and depression in young athletes as well as possible sex differences. The survey was carried out within the scope of the study “Resistance Training in Young Athletes” (KINGS-Study). Between August 2015 and September 2016, 326 young athletes aged (mean ± SD) 14.3 ± 1.6 years completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD Scale). Regarding the analysis of age on the anxiety and depression subscales, age groups were classified as follows: late childhood (12–14 years) and late adolescence (15–18 years). The participating young athletes were recruited from Olympic weight lifting, handball, judo, track and field athletics, boxing, soccer, gymnastics, ice speed skating, volleyball, and rowing. Anxiety and depression scores were (mean ± SD) 4.3 ± 3.0 and 2.8 ± 2.9, respectively. In the subscale anxiety, 22 cases (6.7%) showed subclinical scores and 11 cases (3.4%) showed clinical relevant score values. When analyzing the depression subscale, 31 cases (9.5%) showed subclinical score values and 12 cases (3.7%) showed clinically important values. No significant differences were found between male and female athletes (p ≥ 0.05). No statistically significant differences in the HADS scores were found between male athletes of late childhood and late adolescents (p ≥ 0.05). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing questionnaire based indicators of symptoms of anxiety and depression in young

  6. Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Young Athletes Using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stephanie; Puta, Christian; Lesinski, Melanie; Gabriel, Brunhild; Steidten, Thomas; Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Herbsleb, Marco; Granacher, Urs; Gabriel, Holger H W

    2018-01-01

    Elite young athletes have to cope with multiple psychological demands such as training volume, mental and physical fatigue, spatial separation of family and friends or time management problems may lead to reduced mental and physical recovery. While normative data regarding symptoms of anxiety and depression for the general population is available (Hinz and Brähler, 2011), hardly any information exists for adolescents in general and young athletes in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess overall symptoms of anxiety and depression in young athletes as well as possible sex differences. The survey was carried out within the scope of the study "Resistance Training in Young Athletes" (KINGS-Study). Between August 2015 and September 2016, 326 young athletes aged (mean ± SD) 14.3 ± 1.6 years completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD Scale). Regarding the analysis of age on the anxiety and depression subscales, age groups were classified as follows: late childhood (12-14 years) and late adolescence (15-18 years). The participating young athletes were recruited from Olympic weight lifting, handball, judo, track and field athletics, boxing, soccer, gymnastics, ice speed skating, volleyball, and rowing. Anxiety and depression scores were (mean ± SD) 4.3 ± 3.0 and 2.8 ± 2.9, respectively. In the subscale anxiety, 22 cases (6.7%) showed subclinical scores and 11 cases (3.4%) showed clinical relevant score values. When analyzing the depression subscale, 31 cases (9.5%) showed subclinical score values and 12 cases (3.7%) showed clinically important values. No significant differences were found between male and female athletes ( p ≥ 0.05). No statistically significant differences in the HADS scores were found between male athletes of late childhood and late adolescents ( p ≥ 0.05). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing questionnaire based indicators of symptoms of anxiety and depression in young athletes. Our

  7. Using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale to Screen for Depression in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Laura J.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Tonner, Chris; Yazdany, Jinoos; Trupin, Laura; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Yelin, ED; Katz, Patricia P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Identifying persons with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) at risk for depression would facilitate the identification and treatment of an important comorbidity conferring additional risk for poor outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of a brief screening measure, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), in detecting mood disorders in persons with SLE. Methods This cross-sectional study examined 150 persons with SLE. Screening cut points were empirically derived using threshold selection methods, and receiver operating characteristic curves were estimated. The empirically derived cut points of the CES-D were used as the screening measures and were compared to other commonly used CES-D cut points in addition to other commonly used methods to screen for depression. Diagnoses of major depressive disorder or other mood disorders were determined using a “gold standard” structured clinical interview. Results Of the 150 persons with SLE, 26% of subjects met criteria for any mood disorder and 17% met criteria for major depressive disorder. Optimal threshold estimations suggested a CES-D cut score of 24 and above, which yielded adequate sensitivity and specificity in detecting major depressive disorder (88% and 93%, respectively) and correctly classified 92% of participants. To detect the presence of any mood disorder, a cut score of 20 and above was suggested, yielding sensitivity and specificity of 87% and correctly classifying 87%. Conclusion These results suggest the CES-D may be a useful screening measure to identify patients at risk for depression. PMID:21312347

  8. Reliability and validity of two self-rating scales in the assessment of childhood depression.

    PubMed

    Fundudis, T; Berney, T P; Kolvin, I; Famuyiwa, O O; Barrett, L; Bhate, S; Tyrer, S P

    1991-07-01

    A comparison was made of the reliability and validity of two self-rating scales, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS), in the diagnosis of depression in 93 children (aged 8-16 years) attending a university child psychiatry department. The two scales were of comparable merit but had only moderate discrimination between depressed and non-depressed children, with each scale having a misclassification rate of 25%. Better agreement was obtained in more verbally intelligent children, irrespective of age. Girls scored higher on the instruments than boys. No significant relationship was found between teacher assessment of classroom behaviour and the two self-rating depression instruments.

  9. Assessing Latina/o Undergraduates' Depressive Symptomatology: Comparisons of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and the Self-Report Depression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Kanagui-Munoz, Marlen; Rico, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of depression scales as screening tools at university and college centers is increasing and thus, the question of whether scales are culturally valid for different student groups is increasingly more relevant with increased severity of depression for students and changing student demographics. As such, this study examined the reliability…

  10. Revised multicultural perspective index and measures of depression, life satisfaction, shyness, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Mowrer, Robert R; Parker, Keesha N

    2004-12-01

    In a 2002 publication, Mowrer and McCarver reported weak but significant correlations (r =.24) between scores on the Multicultural Perspective Index and scores on Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin's 1961 Life Satisfaction Index-A and the Life Satisfaction Scale developed in 1985 by Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin. Using 382 undergraduate students the present study reduced the Index from 42 to 29 items based on each item's correlation with total items. An additional 104 undergraduate students then completed the modified 29-item version, Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, Cheek and Buss's Shyness Scale, the Self-rating Depression Scale by Zung, and the Neugarten, et al. Life Satisfaction Index-A. Scores on the modified Index were negatively correlated with those on the Depression and Shyness scales and positively correlated with scores on the Self-esteem and Life Satisfaction scales (p< .05).

  11. A literature review of the application of the Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist to community nursing cohorts.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jacqui; Annells, Merilyn

    2009-04-01

    To explore through literature review the appropriateness of three common tools for use by community nurses to screen war veteran and war widow(er) clients for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. War veterans and, to a lesser extent, war widow(er)s, are prone to mental health challenges, especially depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Community nurses do not accurately identify such people with depression and related disorders although they are well positioned to do so. The use of valid and reliable self-report tools is one method of improving nurses' identification of people with actual or potential mental health difficulties for referral to a general practitioner or mental health practitioner for diagnostic assessment and treatment. The Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist are frequently recommended for mental health screening but the appropriateness of using the tools for screening war veteran and war widow(er) community nursing clients who are often aged and have functional impairment, is unknown. Systematic review. Current literature informs that the Geriatric Depression Scale accurately predicts a diagnosis of depression in community nursing cohorts. The three Depression Anxiety Stress Scales subscales of depression, anxiety and stress are valid; however, no studies were identified that compared the performance of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in predicting diagnoses of depression or anxiety. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist predicts post-traumatic stress disorder in community cohorts although no studies meeting the selection criteria included male participants. This review provides recommendations for the use of the Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist based on examination of the published evidence for the application of these screening tools in samples

  12. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21): further examination of dimensions, scale reliability, and correlates.

    PubMed

    Osman, Augustine; Wong, Jane L; Bagge, Courtney L; Freedenthal, Stacey; Gutierrez, Peter M; Lozano, Gregorio

    2012-12-01

    We conducted two studies to examine the dimensions, internal consistency reliability estimates, and potential correlates of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). Participants in Study 1 included 887 undergraduate students (363 men and 524 women, aged 18 to 35 years; mean [M] age = 19.46, standard deviation [SD] = 2.17) recruited from two public universities to assess the specificity of the individual DASS-21 items and to evaluate estimates of internal consistency reliability. Participants in a follow-up study (Study 2) included 410 students (168 men and 242 women, aged 18 to 47 years; M age = 19.65, SD = 2.88) recruited from the same universities to further assess factorial validity and to evaluate potential correlates of the original DASS-21 total and scale scores. Item bifactor and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a general factor accounted for the greatest proportion of common variance in the DASS-21 item scores (Study 1). In Study 2, the fit statistics showed good fit for the bifactor model. In addition, the DASS-21 total scale score correlated more highly with scores on a measure of mixed depression and anxiety than with scores on the proposed specific scales of depression or anxiety. Coefficient omega estimates for the DASS-21 scale scores were good. Further investigations of the bifactor structure and psychometric properties of the DASS-21, specifically its incremental and discriminant validity, using known clinical groups are needed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Variability in Depressive Symptoms of Cognitive Deficit and Cognitive Bias During the First 2 Years After Diagnosis in Australian Men With Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Christie, David R H

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and contribution to total depression of the depressive symptoms of cognitive deficit and cognitive bias in prostate cancer (PCa) patients were compared from cohorts sampled during the first 2 years after diagnosis. Survey data were collected from 394 patients with PCa, including background information, treatments, and disease status, plus total scores of depression and scores for subscales of the depressive symptoms of cognitive bias and cognitive deficit via the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. The sample was divided into eight 3-monthly time-since-diagnosis cohorts and according to depression severity. Mean scores for the depressive symptoms of cognitive deficit were significantly higher than those for cognitive bias for the whole sample, but the contribution of cognitive bias to total depression was stronger than that for cognitive deficit. When divided according to overall depression severity, patients with clinically significant depression showed reversed patterns of association between the two subsets of cognitive symptoms of depression and total depression compared with those patients who reported less severe depression. Differences in the incidence and contribution of these two different aspects of the cognitive symptoms of depression for patients with more severe depression argue for consideration of them when assessing and diagnosing depression in patients with PCa. Treatment requirements are also different between the two types of cognitive symptoms of depression, and several suggestions for matching treatment to illness via a personalized medicine approach are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Convergent validity of the MMPI-A and MACI scales of depression.

    PubMed

    Merydith, Erin K; Phelps, LeAdelle

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the depression scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescents (MMPI-A) and the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) show convergence with a sample of 252 adolescents from an inpatient psychiatric facility. Both inventories were administered as part of the intake process. Pearson correlations were computed among the (a) MMPI-A Scale 2 (Depression), (b) MMPI-A Depression Content Scale, (c) MACI Doleful Personality Scale, and (d) MACI Depressive Affect Scale. There was no significant difference between the mean scores. Evidence of convergent validity between the two tests was moderate.

  15. Evaluation of depressive symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease using the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Staniute, Margarita; Brozaitiene, Julija; Pommer, Antoinette M; Pop, Victor J M; Montgomery, Stuart A; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), factor structure and psychometric properties of the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) to identify patients with current major depressive episode (MDE). The construct validity of the MADRS against self-rating scales was also evaluated. Consecutive 522 CAD patients at admission to the cardiac rehabilitation program were interviewed for the severity of depressive symptoms using the MADRS and for current MDE using the structured MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Also, all patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. The MADRS had one-factor structure and high internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α=0.82). Confirmative factor analysis indicated an adequate fit: comparative fit index=0.95, normed fit index=0.91, and root mean square error of approximation=0.07. At a cut-off value of 10 or higher, the MADRS had good psychometric properties for the identification of current MDE (positive predictive value=42%, with sensitivity=88% and specificity=85%). There was also a moderate to strong correlation of MADRS scores with scores on self-rating depression scales. In sum, in CAD patients undergoing rehabilitation, the MADRS is a unidimensional instrument with high internal consistency and can be used for the identification of depressed CAD patients. The association between MADRS and self-rating depression scores is moderate to strong. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  16. Symptoms of anxiety in depression: assessment of item performance of the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale in patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Vaccarino, Anthony L; Evans, Kenneth R; Sills, Terrence L; Kalali, Amir H

    2008-01-01

    Although diagnostically dissociable, anxiety is strongly co-morbid with depression. To examine further the clinical symptoms of anxiety in major depressive disorder (MDD), a non-parametric item response analysis on "blinded" data from four pharmaceutical company clinical trials was performed on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) across levels of depressive severity. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). HAMA and HAMD measures were supplied for each patient on each of two post-screen visits (n=1,668 observations). Option characteristic curves were generated for all 14 HAMA items to determine the probability of scoring a particular option on the HAMA in relation to the total HAMD score. Additional analyses were conducted using Pearson's product-moment correlations. Results showed that anxiety-related symptomatology generally increased as a function of overall depressive severity, though there were clear differences between individual anxiety symptoms in their relationship with depressive severity. In particular, anxious mood, tension, insomnia, difficulties in concentration and memory, and depressed mood were found to discriminate over the full range of HAMD scores, increasing continuously with increases in depressive severity. By contrast, many somatic-related symptoms, including muscular, sensory, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastro-intestinal, and genito-urinary were manifested primarily at higher levels of depression and did not discriminate well at lower HAMD scores. These results demonstrate anxiety as a core feature of depression, and the relationship between anxiety-related symptoms and depression should be considered in the assessment of depression and evaluation of treatment strategies and outcome.

  17. Psychometric properties of the DASS-Depression scale among a Brazilian population with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Sardá, Jamir; Nicholas, Michael K; Pimenta, Cibele A M; Asghari, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Depression is a common contributor to suffering and disability in people with chronic pain. However, the assessment of depression in this population has been hampered by the presence of a number of somatic symptoms that are shared between chronic pain, treatment side-effects and traditional concepts of depression. As a result, the use of depression measures that do not contain somatic items has been encouraged. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Depression sub-scale of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) in a Brazilian chronic pain patient population. Data on a number of measures were collected from 348 participants attending pain facilities. Principal components and exploratory factor analyses indicated the presence of only one factor. Item analyses indicated adequate item-scale correlations. The Cronbach alpha was .96, which suggests an excellent internal consistency. The DASS-Depression scale has adequate psychometric properties and its further use with Brazilian chronic pain populations can now be supported.

  18. Trajectories of total depression and depressive symptoms in prostate cancer patients receiving six months of hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Sharpley, Christopher F; Christie, David R H; Bitsika, Vicki; Miller, Bradley J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hormone therapy (HT) on depression and depressive symptoms in prostate cancer patients undergoing 6 months of HT. One hundred two prostate cancer patients who had been prescribed HT completed the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and two questions about their sexual enjoyment and performance, plus a background questionnaire before HT, after 8 to 10 weeks of HT and again after 16 to 20 weeks of HT. There was a significant increase in SDS scores from before to during HT. High depression score before HT was a significant predictor of later increases in depression during HT. Increases in depressive symptoms were restricted to 8 of the 20 SDS symptoms, the most powerful change being in sexual anhedonia, which was a result of decreased ability to perform during sexual activity. The association between HT and elevated depression is confirmed, but the relative influence of sexual anhedonia over other depressive symptoms expands the understanding of this association. The effects of decreased ability to perform during sex appear to dominate the increase in depression during HT. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan…

  20. The need for cognition mediates and moderates the association between depressive symptoms and impaired effortful control.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Yuki; Takano, Keisuke; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2016-07-30

    Previous studies have shown a negative correlation between effortful control (EC) and depressive symptoms. EC is defined as the efficiency of executive attention, which may be reduced by the attentional impairment associated with depression. However, the mechanism underlying this correlation is still unclear. We investigated the relationship between EC and depressive symptoms with the hypothesis that cognitive motivation, or need for cognition (NfC), is a possible mediator of this relationship. Participants were 178 Japanese university students. Each completed the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, Effortful Control Scale, and Need for Cognition Scale at baseline and follow-up assessments. Supporting our hypothesis, mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on EC that was mediated by NfC. In addition, our data demonstrated a direct effect of depressive symptoms on EC. Longitudinal analysis indicated that an increase in depression and a decrease in NfC occurred synchronously, while NfC predicted an increase in EC over time. Depressive symptoms may decrease executive functioning and effortful control both directly and indirectly, the latter effect being mediated by motivation. These findings imply that a motivational deficit may partially explain the decreased EC found in people suffering from depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychological assessment of ICU survivors: a comparison between the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale.

    PubMed

    Sukantarat, K T; Williamson, R C N; Brett, S J

    2007-03-01

    Recovery from a critical illness can be delayed by persistent anxiety and depression. To identify such patients, a new self-report questionnaire (the Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale, DASS) was used alongside an established instrument (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, HADS) in those who had spent a minimum of 3 days (median 9 days) in a general intensive care unit. Fifty-one patients were studied 3 months later, and 45 survivors were reviewed at 9 months. High Cronbach alpha values (0.92-0.95) for each subscale of DASS confirmed its internal consistency, and likewise for HADS (0.82-0.86). HADS and DASS correlated strongly at each time point both for anxiety (r = 0.88) and depression (r = 0.93), with few discrepant values on a Bland and Altman plot. DASS performs as consistently as HADS in screening for anxiety and depression, and its psychometric properties support its use in an intensive care setting.

  2. The association of the metabolic profile in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients with obsessive-compulsive symptomatology and depressive symptomatology: new insights.

    PubMed

    Kontoangelos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Athanasios E; Papageorgiou, Charalabos C; Papadimitriou, George N; Rabavilas, Andreas D; Dimitriadis, George; Raptis, Sotirios A

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between diabetes mellitus type 2, Obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) symptomatology and depressive symptomatology with the metabolic profile of diabetic patients. One hundred and thirty-one diabetic patients were randomly selected. In the first assessment all participants completed the Zung Self Rating Scale (ZUNG) and the Maudsley O-C Inventory Questionnaire (MOCI). After 1 year, diabetic patients that were initially uncontrolled (n = 31) (HbA1c > 7) were re-evaluated by the same psychometric tools. From those 31 patients, 10 had managed to control their metabolic profile. In the first evaluation MOCI and the sub-scale of slowness were statistically related with the diabetic profile (controlled, HbA1c ≤ 7; uncontrolled, HbA1c > 7), with uncontrolled patients scoring significantly higher on the overall MOCI score and the factor of slowness of MOCI scale (P = 0.028). The analysis revealed a positive association between depressive symptomatology (P = 0.004) and obsessive-compulsive disorder symptomatology (P < 0.001) and the metabolic profile of the patients. In the second evaluation the patients that managed to control their metabolic profile scored lower in both ZDRS and MOCI, although these differences in scores failed to reach significance levels were indicative of a tendency. The present results provide initial evidence that diabetes mellitus type 2 is associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder symptomatology and depressive symptomatology.

  3. A single sample study of dissociation between expressed and experienced pleasure by gender in mild depression.

    PubMed

    Brown, S L

    Thirty male and thirty female adult subjects were divided equally into three groups on the basis of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale; mildly depressed (50-63), normal (40-49), and "low normal" (20-39). Observer ratings of positive affect were made during a one and one-half hour laboratory experiment, and self-ratings of pleasurable experience were collected at the end of the experiment. Results showed no significant differences between groups for self-report of experienced pleasure. However, a significant difference between groups was found for observer ratings of positive affect, with the mildly depressed and "low normal" subjects showing a shorter duration and a lower degree of positive affect than the normals. These results partially replicate and extended previous work. Implications for theory, research, and psychotherapy are discussed.

  4. Focusing on situation-specific expectations in major depression as basis for behavioural experiments - Development of the Depressive Expectations Scale.

    PubMed

    Kube, Tobias; D'Astolfo, Lisa; Glombiewski, Julia A; Doering, Bettina K; Rief, Winfried

    2017-09-01

    Dysfunctional expectations are considered to be core features of various mental disorders. The aim of the study was to develop the Depressive Expectations Scale (DES) as a depression-specific measure for the assessment of dysfunctional expectations. Whereas previous research primarily focused on general cognitions and attitudes, the DES assesses 25 future-directed expectations (originally 75 items) which are situation-specific and falsifiable. To evaluate the psychometric properties of the DES, the scale was completed by 175 participants with and without severe depressive symptoms in an online survey. Participants additionally completed the Patient Health Questionnaire modules for depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7). People experiencing depressive symptoms were informed about the study with the help of self-help organizations. Reliability analyses indicated excellent internal consistency of the scale. An exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors: social rejection, social support, mood regulation, and ability to perform. The DES sum score strongly correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms. The DES sum score also significantly correlated with symptoms of generalized anxiety. The DES was shown to have excellent reliability; validity analyses were promising. As the DES items are situation-specific and falsifiable, they can be tested by the individual using behavioural experiments and may therefore facilitate cognitive restructuring. Thus, a structured assessment of patients' expectation with help of the DES can provide a basis for interventions within cognitive-behavioural treatment of depression. Assessing situation-specific expectations in patients experiencing depressive symptoms can provide a basis for the conduction of behavioural experiments to test patients' expectations. For the use of behavioural experiments, therapists should choose those dysfunctional expectations which a patient strongly agrees on. To modify patients' expectations, they

  5. Isotretinoin was not associated with depression or anxiety: A twelve-week study

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Bella; Serrano, Ana; Cova, Yves; Baptista, Trino

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the frequency and severity of depression and/or anxiety in isotretinoin (ITT)-treated subjects and in a non-ITT control group. METHODS: Sixty consecutively-admitted non-psychiatric outpatients with acne were assigned to either ITT at a fixed dose of 30 mg/d (n = 36) or “other treatment” group (OT; n = 24). The Zung depression or anxiety scales (with cut-off points), two locally developed scales for depression (GeDepr) and anxiety (Ansilet) (without cut-off points) and clinical global impression scales of acne severity were administered at baseline and at weeks 6 and 12 of treatment. Data was analyzed with the chi-squared test and covariance analysis. RESULTS: Gender distribution, age, marital status and education level did not differ between both treatment groups. The frequency of depression, as defined by the Zung scale cut-off points was similar in the ITT and in the non-ITT groups: Weeks 6 and 12: 8.3% in both groups, P = 0.9. The frequency of anxiety was similar in the groups as well: Week 6: ITT = 8.3%; OT = 0.0%, P > 0.05; week 12: ITT = 11.1%, OT = 4.2%, P > 0.05. The scores in both scales’ sets did not differ between the treatment groups at any evaluation time point (P > 0.05). Five ITT-treated subjects (13.8%) and two from the OT-treated group (8.3%) developed clinically significant anxiety and/or depression during treatment (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study confirms the safety of ITT regarding psychological side effects in regular dermatological patients. Susceptible subjects may exist but their identification requires additional strategies. PMID:27014604

  6. Reliability and preliminary evidence of validity of a Farsi version of the depression anxiety stress scales.

    PubMed

    Bayani, Ali Asghar

    2010-08-01

    The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Farsi version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were examined, with a sample of 306 undergraduate students (123 men, 183 women) ranging from 18 to 51 years of age (M age = 25.4, SD = 6.1). Participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. The findings confirmed the preliminary reliabilities and preliminary construct validity of the Farsi translation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales.

  7. Detection of depression in acute schizophrenia: sensitivity and specificity of 2 standard observer rating scales.

    PubMed

    Müller, Matthias J; Müller, Kay-Maria; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2006-05-01

    To compare the psychometric properties of the Calgary Depression Rating Scale (CDRS) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) for severity assessment of depression in acute schizophrenia. During clinical routine treatment, we investigated 119 inpatients with acute schizophrenia, using the CDRS, the HDRS, and a global 4-point Depression Severity Scale (DEP-SEV). We compared CDRS and HDRS sum scores regarding their diagnostic accuracy, with global severity of depression as the criterion. We estimated sensitivity and specificity on the basis of receiver operating characteristic curves. According to global clinical ratings (DEP-SEV), 31% of patients had no depression, 19% had mild, 31% had moderate, and 19% had severe depression. Sensitivity was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for the CDRS than for the HDRS to assess mild (0.94 vs 0.76, cut-off 3 vs 10 points) or severe depression (1.00 vs 0.78, cut-off 11 vs 22 points); specificity was comparably high (> or = 0.88) for both scales. Despite the fact that both scales were effective in separating mild, moderate, and severe depression, significant advantages emerged for the CDRS to detect mild or severe depression in schizophrenia.

  8. Depressive Symptoms on the Geriatric Depression Scale and Suicide Deaths in Older Middle-aged Men: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prospective evaluations of the associations between depressive symptoms and suicide deaths have been mainly performed in high-risk populations, such as individuals with psychiatric disorders or histories of self-harm. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether more severe depressive symptoms assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were associated with a greater risk of death from suicide in a general-risk population. Methods: A total of 113 478 men from the Korean Veterans Health Study (mean age, 58.9 years) who participated in a postal survey in 2004 were followed up for suicide mortality until 2010. Results: Over 6.4 years of follow-up, 400 men died by suicide (56.7 deaths per 100 000 person-years). More severe depressive symptoms were associated with greater risk of suicide death (p for trend <0.001). The unadjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in comparison to the absence of depression were 2.18 for mild depression, 2.13 for moderate depression, 3.33 for severe depression, and 3.67 for extreme depression. After adjusting for potential confounders, men with a potential depressive disorder had an approximate 90% higher mortality from suicide (adjusted HR, 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 2.68; p<0.001) than men without depression. Each five-point increase in the GDS score was associated with a higher risk of death by suicide (adjusted HR, 1.22; p<0.001). The value of the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of GDS scores for suicide deaths was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.64). Conclusions: Depressive symptoms assessed using the GDS were found to be a strong independent predictor of future suicide. However, the estimate of relative risk was weaker than would be expected based on retrospective psychological autopsy studies. PMID:27255076

  9. Depressive Symptoms on the Geriatric Depression Scale and Suicide Deaths in Older Middle-aged Men: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook

    2016-05-01

    Prospective evaluations of the associations between depressive symptoms and suicide deaths have been mainly performed in high-risk populations, such as individuals with psychiatric disorders or histories of self-harm. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether more severe depressive symptoms assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were associated with a greater risk of death from suicide in a general-risk population. A total of 113 478 men from the Korean Veterans Health Study (mean age, 58.9 years) who participated in a postal survey in 2004 were followed up for suicide mortality until 2010. Over 6.4 years of follow-up, 400 men died by suicide (56.7 deaths per 100 000 person-years). More severe depressive symptoms were associated with greater risk of suicide death (p for trend <0.001). The unadjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in comparison to the absence of depression were 2.18 for mild depression, 2.13 for moderate depression, 3.33 for severe depression, and 3.67 for extreme depression. After adjusting for potential confounders, men with a potential depressive disorder had an approximate 90% higher mortality from suicide (adjusted HR, 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 2.68; p<0.001) than men without depression. Each five-point increase in the GDS score was associated with a higher risk of death by suicide (adjusted HR, 1.22; p<0.001). The value of the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of GDS scores for suicide deaths was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.64). Depressive symptoms assessed using the GDS were found to be a strong independent predictor of future suicide. However, the estimate of relative risk was weaker than would be expected based on retrospective psychological autopsy studies.

  10. Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide and anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 levels predict adverse clinical outcome in chronic heart failure patients with depressive symptoms: a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Parissis, John T; Farmakis, Dimitrios; Nikolaou, Maria; Birmpa, Dionysia; Bistola, Vassiliki; Paraskevaidis, Ioannis; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Gaitani, Stavroula; Venetsanou, Koula; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Kremastinos, Dimitrios Th

    2009-10-01

    To assess the prognostic value of a wide spectrum of neurohormonal and inflammatory markers along with functional status and exercise capacity, in hospitalized chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with depressive symptoms. A total of 300 consecutive hospitalized CHF patients were screened for depressive symptomatology using the Zung self-rated depression scale (SDS). Patients with depressive symptoms (Zung SDS > or = 40) underwent a 6 min walking test, and evaluation of left ventricular ejection fraction, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and plasma inflammatory/anti-inflammatory factors [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1]. Patients were subsequently followed for up to 1 year for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, death or hospitalization due to cardiovascular causes). One hundred and fourteen patients (38%) had a Zung SDS > or = 40. One-year event-free survival of these patients was 19% (mean +/- SE, 150 +/- 12 days). In multivariate analysis, only BNP (HR = 1.001, P = 0.002) and IL-10 (HR = 0.864, P = 0.049) were independent predictors of MACE. Using receiver operator characteristics analysis-derived cut-offs, a BNP value of 290 pg/mL predicted MACE with 86% sensitivity and 69% specificity, whereas an IL-10 value of 5 pg/mL predicted MACE with 61% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Event-free survival differed significantly between patients with BNP < 290 pg/mL and IL-10 > 5 pg/mL (261 +/- 44 days) and those with BNP > 290 pg/mL and IL-10 < 5 pg/mL (79 +/- 11 days, P = 0.0001). Neurohormonal activation and defective anti-inflammatory properties are independent predictors of long-term outcome in hospitalized CHF patients with depressive symptoms.

  11. [Examination of the criterion validity of the MMPI-2 Depression, Anxiety, and Anger Content scales].

    PubMed

    Uluç, Sait

    2008-01-01

    Examination of the psychometric properties and content areas of the revised MMPI's (MMPI-2 [Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2]) content scales is required. In this study the criterion-related validity of the MMPI-2 Depression, Anxiety, and Anger Content scales was examined using the following conceptually relevant scales: The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and State Triad Anger Scale (STAS). MMPI-2 Depression, Anxiety, and Anger Content scales, and BDI, BAI, and STAS were administered to a sample of 196 students at Middle East Technical University (n= 196; 122 female, 74 male). Regression analyses were performed to determine if these conceptually relevant scales contributed significantly beyond the content scales. The MMPI-2 Depression Content Scale was compared to BDI, the MMPI-2 Anxiety Scale was compared to BAI, and the MMPI-2 Anger Content Scale was compared to STAS. The internal consistency of the MMPI-2 Depression Content Scale (alpha = 0.82), the MMPI-2 Anxiety Content Scale (alpha = 0.73), and the MMPI-2 Anger Content Scale (alpha = 0.72) was obtained. Criterion validity of the 3 analyzed content scales was demonstrated for both males and females. The findings indicated that (1) the MMPI-2 Depression Content Scale provides information about the general level of depression, (2) the MMPI-2 Anxiety Content Scale assesses subjective anxiety rather than somatic anxiety, and (3) the MMPI-2 Anger Content Scale may provide information about the potential to act out. The findings also provide further evidence that the 3 conceptually relevant scales aid in the interpretation of MMPI-2 scores by contributing additional information beyond the clinical scales.

  12. Assessing depression outcome in patients with moderate dementia: sensitivity of the HoNOS65+ scale.

    PubMed

    Canuto, Alessandra; Rudhard-Thomazic, Valérie; Herrmann, François R; Delaloye, Christophe; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Weber, Kerstin

    2009-08-15

    To date, there is no widely accepted clinical scale to monitor the evolution of depressive symptoms in demented patients. We assessed the sensitivity to treatment of a validated French version of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS) 65+ compared to five routinely used scales. Thirty elderly inpatients with ICD-10 diagnosis of dementia and depression were evaluated at admission and discharge using paired t-test. Using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) "depressive mood" item as gold standard, a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis assessed the validity of HoNOS65+F "depressive symptoms" item score changes. Unlike Geriatric Depression Scale, Mini Mental State Examination and Activities of Daily Living scores, BPRS scores decreased and Global Assessment Functioning Scale score increased significantly from admission to discharge. Amongst HoNOS65+F items, "behavioural disturbance", "depressive symptoms", "activities of daily life" and "drug management" items showed highly significant changes between the first and last day of hospitalization. The ROC analysis revealed that changes in the HoNOS65+F "depressive symptoms" item correctly classified 93% of the cases with good sensitivity (0.95) and specificity (0.88) values. These data suggest that the HoNOS65+F "depressive symptoms" item may provide a valid assessment of the evolution of depressive symptoms in demented patients.

  13. Dimensionality of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in Cardiac Patients: Comparison of Mokken Scale Analysis and Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2012-01-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) measures anxiety and depressive symptoms and is widely used in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, there is some debate about the number of dimensions represented by the HADS. In a sample of 534 Dutch cardiac patients, this study examined (a) the dimensionality of the HADS using Mokken…

  14. Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R): reliability of the Hebrew version.

    PubMed

    Zalsman, Gil; Misgav, Sagit; Sommerfeld, Eliane; Kohn, Yoav; Brunstein-Klomek, Anat; Diller, Robyne; Sher, Leo; Schwartz, Joseph; Shoval, Gal; Ben-Dor, David H; Wolovik, Luisa; Oquendo, Maria A

    2005-01-01

    The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) are two widely used instruments, which measure depression in children and adolescents. This pilot study assessed the reliability of the Hebrew versions of these two instruments. Both CDRS-R and CDI were translated from English into Hebrew and then back translated. Seventeen healthy Israeli bilingual children volunteers were interviewed with both scales with a one day intermission between the interviews. Non-parametric correlations were used to compare scores in the two versions for each item. Results showed high agreement between the two versions for almost all items of the CDI and moderate to high for the CDRS-R. When CDRS-R summary scores for each item were compared, the agreement was high for this instrument as well. It is concluded that both CDI and CDRS-R Hebrew versions are reliable and can be used for studies of depression in the Israeli pediatric population.

  15. Anxiety and depression in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease and their effect on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Jiang, Hong-Mei; Hou, Xiao-Hua; Song, Jun

    2015-04-14

    To explore the role of psychological factors in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and their effect on quality of life (QoL) of GERD patients. A total of 279 consecutive patients with typical symptoms and 100 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. All of the participants were evaluated with the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS) and the SF-36 questionnaire. The scores for anxiety, depression and QoL of the two groups were analyzed. The correlation between psychological factors and QoL was also analyzed. Compared with healthy controls (34.70 ± 8.00), the scores of ZSAS in the non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) group (48.27 ± 10.34) and the reflux esophagitis (RE) group (45.38 ± 10.27) were significantly higher (P < 0.001). The mean ZSAS score of the NERD group was significantly higher than that of the RE group (P = 0.01). Compared with healthy controls (37.61 ± 8.44), the mean ZSDS scores were significantly higher in the NERD group (49.65 ± 11.09, P < 0.001) and the RE group (46.76 ± 11.83, P < 0.001). All dimensions of the SF-36 form were negatively correlated with the SAS and SDS scores in patients with NERD and RE (P < 0.05). According to the SF-36 form, vitality, mental health and social functioning were significantly correlated with symptoms of depression in patients with NERD and RE. General health was obviously affected by symptoms of depression in patients with NERD (P < 0.05). Anxiety and depression may play an important role in the occurrence of GERD and especially that of NERD. The QoL of patients with GERD is reduced by anxiety and depression.

  16. Screening for Depression after Cardiac Events Using the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the Geriatric Depression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Gail D.; Hubley, Anita M.

    2007-01-01

    Despite findings that depression is a risk factor for heart disease and for death following cardiac events and that depressed cardiac patients experience significantly reduced quality of life and are less likely to follow treatment regimens, depression is neither adequately identified nor treated in cardiac patients. Recent calls in the literature…

  17. Screening for depressive disorders using the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire Anhedonic Depression Scale: a receiver-operating characteristic analysis.

    PubMed

    Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffery M; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD scale) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8- and 14-item subscales, in relation to both current and lifetime Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) depressive disorder diagnoses in two nonpatient samples. As a means of comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of a measure of a relevant personality dimension, Neuroticism, was also examined. Results from both samples support the clinical utility of the MASQ-AD scale as a means of screening for depressive disorders. Findings were strongest for the MASQ-AD 8-item subscale and when predicting current depression status. Furthermore, the MASQ-AD 8-item subscale outperformed the Neuroticism measure under certain conditions. The overall usefulness of the MASQ-AD scale as a screening device is discussed, as are possible cutoff scores for use in research.

  18. [Depression, anxiety and stress scales: DASS--A screening procedure not only for pain patients].

    PubMed

    Nilges, P; Essau, C

    2015-12-01

    The assessment of mental distress is a central aspect in pain research and treatment. Particularly for depression the comorbidity with pain poses methodological and conceptual challenges. This study examined the psychometric properties of the short version of the depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS), used in both pain research and treatment and constructed to overcome the particular problems by omitting somatic items and concentrating on the psychological core aspects of depression, anxiety and stress. The psychometric properties of the DASS-21 were compared between patients with pain and various people without any pain problems (N = 950). The DASS has three subscales, depression, anxiety and stress, each with seven items. The construct validity of the DASS was examined using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) for anxiety and depression and the general depression scale (Allgemeine Depressionsskala, ADS) for depression. The sensitivity and specificity for depression were determined against a structured interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) and compared with the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale (CESD) and HADS in pain patients. Cronbach's alpha of the DASS for the depression subscale was at least 0.91, while the anxiety and stress subscales had Cronbach alphas of 0.78-0.82 and 0.81-0.89, respectively. Although the depression subscale has only 7 items, it is just as reliable as the ADS with 21 items. It also has a better sensitivity and specificity than the HADS in identifying clinical patients with depression. The DASS is a reliable questionnaire, free to use and brief to administer; therefore, it is an alternative to the previously used instruments for the screening of depression. Furthermore, the subscale stress measures irritability and tension, which are important aspects of pain experience but underused in assessment procedures for the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of patients

  19. [Reliability and validity of depression scales of Chinese version: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Sun, X Y; Li, Y X; Yu, C Q; Li, L M

    2017-01-10

    Objective: Through systematically reviewing the reliability and validity of depression scales of Chinese version in adults in China to evaluate the psychometric properties of depression scales for different groups. Methods: Eligible studies published before 6 May 2016 were retrieved from the following database: CNKI, Wanfang, PubMed and Embase. The HSROC model of the diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) for Meta-analysis was used to calculate the pooled sensitivity and specificity of the PHQ-9. Results: A total of 44 papers evaluating the performance of depression scales were included. Results showed that the reliability and validity of the common depression scales were eligible, including the Beck depression inventory (BDI), the Hamilton depression scale (HAMD), the center epidemiological studies depression scale (CES-D), the patient health questionnaire (PHQ) and the Geriatric depression scale (GDS). The Cronbach' s coefficient of most tools were larger than 0.8, while the test-retest reliability and split-half reliability were larger than 0.7, indicating good internal consistency and stability. The criterion validity, convergent validity, discrimination validity and screening validity were acceptable though different cut-off points were recommended by different studies. The pooled sensitivity of the 11 studies evaluating PHQ-9 was 0.88 (95 %CI : 0.85-0.91) while the pooled specificity was 0.89 (95 %CI : 0.82-0.94), which demonstrated the applicability of PHQ-9 in screening depression. Conclusion: The reliability and validity of different depression scales of Chinese version are acceptable. The characteristics of different tools and study population should be taken into consideration when choosing a specific scale.

  20. [Late-onset depression and a new psychometric scale for its clinical evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ivanets, N N; Kinkul'kina, M A; Avdeeva, T I

    2012-01-01

    The most of existed psychometric scales for depression have some shortcomings hampering their use in old patients. The authors worked out the original scale for clinical evaluation of symptoms of late-onset depression. The list of symptoms was made up basing on literature data. The most significant symptoms that characterized the structure and severity of depression in old patients were singled out. According to results of factor analyses they were combined in the groups forming the corresponding items of the scale. In addition, some symptoms with particular clinical significance for late-onset depression (suicidal thoughts, senesto-hypochondriac symptoms, insight) were singled out. The scale comprises 13 items with scores from -6 to +6. It can be implemented for symptom screening, clinical diagnosis and rating, including dynamics of depression in elderly patients.

  1. Validation of Montgomery-Åsberg Rating Scale and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia in Brazilian elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Maria da Glória; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Almeida, Cloyra; Barca, Maria Lage; Knapskog, Anne-Brita; Engedal, Knut; Laks, Jerson

    2012-08-01

    There are few studies on validation of depression scales in the elderly in Latin America. This study aimed to assess the validity of Montgomery-Åsberg. Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) in Brazilian elderly outpatients. A convenience sample of 95 outpatients was diagnosed for dementia and depression according to DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10, and PDC-dAD criteria. Receiver Operating Curves (ROC) were used to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) and to assess MADRS and CSDD cut-offs for each diagnostic criterion. Dementia was diagnosed in 71 of 95 patients. Depression was diagnosed in 35, 30, and 51 patients by ICD-10, DSM-IV, and PDC-dAD, respectively. MADRS cut-off score of 10 correctly diagnosed 67.4% and 66.3% patients as depressed according to DSM-IV and ICD-10. A cut-off of 9 correctly identified 74.7% by PDC-dAD criteria; a CSDD cut-off score of 13 best recognized depression according to DSM-IV and ICD-10. A score of 11 diagnosed depression according to PDC-dAD, while MADRS = 9 recognized depression in dementia. CSDD was more efficient in showing depression in mild than in moderate/severe dementia according to DSM-IV/ICD-10. PDC-dAD behaved nicely for any severity stage. MADRS and CSDD cut-offs of 10 and 13 were the optimal ones to diagnose depression in elderly, respectively. CSDD cut-offs are higher than those found in other countries. Other Latin American studies are needed to compare results with our study.

  2. A path analysis: a model of depression in Korean women with breast cancer-mediating effects of self-esteem and hope.

    PubMed

    Tae, Young Sook; Heitkemper, Margaret; Kim, Mi Yea

    2012-01-01

    To test a hypothetical model of depression in Korean women with breast cancer and to test the mediating effects of self-esteem and hope. Cross-sectional design. Participants were recruited from three general hospitals and one cancer hospital in Busan, South Korea. 214 Korean women diagnosed with breast cancer (stages I-III). All participants completed questionnaires (e.g., Zung Self-Rating Depression scale, Herth Hope Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Health Self-Rating Scale in Health and Activity survey, Kang's Family Support Scale). Based on the literature, Mplus, version 3.0, was used to determine the best depression model with path analysis. Depression, self-esteem, hope, perceived health status, religious beliefs, family support, economic status, and fatigue. Self-esteem was directly affected by perceived health status, religious beliefs, family support, economic status, and fatigue. Hope was directly affected by family support, self-esteem, and how patients perceived their health status. Depression was directly affected by self-esteem and hope. The path analysis model explained 31% of the variance in depression in Korean women with breast cancer. A model of depression in Korean women with breast cancer was developed, and self-esteem and hope were mediating factors of depression. Self-esteem and hope must be considered when developing services to reduce depression in Korean women with breast cancer.

  3. A sib-pair study of the Temperament and Character Inventory scales in major depression.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Anne; Mahmood, Arshad; Redman, Kate; Harris, Tanya; Sadler, Stephanie; McGuffin, Peter

    2003-05-01

    Certain aspects of the personality may be associated with the vulnerability to develop depression. A sib-pair method has been used to examine the familiality of the 7 scales of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and whether this could be related to the genetic vulnerability to develop depression. Probands with depression and their nearest-aged siblings from Wales were compared with healthy control probands and their nearest-aged siblings on the TCI and measures of depressed mood. All 7 scales of the TCI were familial, and scores on 6 of the scales were similar to US population scores. However, the Welsh subjects' scores on the self-transcendence scale were markedly lower than the US mean, suggesting strong cultural or national influences on this measure. Harm avoidance scores were substantially influenced by current and past depression, but this scale also showed stable traitlike characteristics that are likely related to the genetic vulnerability to depression. Novelty seeking and self-directedness were also partly state-dependent and were negatively correlated with low mood; high scorers may be resilient to the development of depression. High reward dependence may also protect against the development of depression and is unrelated to mood state. The cooperativeness, persistence, and self-transcendence scales appear to have a limited relationship with the development of depression. Harm avoidance, reward dependence, novelty seeking, and self-directedness have traitlike characteristics that are related to the familiality of depression. Cooperativeness, self-transcendence, and persistence are also familial, but this appears to be unrelated to depression.

  4. Evaluation of the Cardiac Depression Visual Analogue Scale in a medical and non-medical sample.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, Mirella; Sheehan, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Comorbid depression and medical illness is associated with a number of adverse health outcomes such as lower medication adherence and higher rates of subsequent mortality. Reliable and valid psychological measures capable of detecting a range of depressive symptoms found in medical settings are needed. The Cardiac Depression Visual Analogue Scale (CDVAS) is a recently developed, brief six-item measure originally designed to assess the range and severity of depressive symptoms within a cardiac population. The current study aimed to further investigate the psychometric properties of the CDVAS in a general and medical sample. The sample consisted of 117 participants, whose mean age was 40.0 years (SD = 19.0, range 18-84). Participants completed the CDVAS, the Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and a demographic and health questionnaire. The CDVAS was found to have adequate internal reliability (α = .76), strong concurrent validity with the CDS (r = .89) and the depression sub-scale of the DASS (r = .70), strong discriminant validity and strong predictive validity. The principal components analysis revealed that the CDVAS measured only one component, providing further support for the construct validity of the scale. Results of the current study indicate that the CDVAS is a short, simple, valid and reliable measure of depressive symptoms suitable for use in a general and medical sample.

  5. Screening depressive symptoms in Jordanian women: evaluation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D).

    PubMed

    Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the psychometric qualities of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) in Jordanian women. Cronbach's alpha for the 20-item CES-D was .90. Factor analysis yielded three components. Four of the items had poor factor loadings and, therefore, were dropped. Cronbach's alpha for the remaining 16 items was .85. Validity testing using independent samples t-test provided evidence of discriminant validity for the 20-item and the 16-item CES-D. Attributes of the CES-D items indicated that depression status can be easily identified by clinicians. Co morbidity of depressive symptoms with physical and mental problems necessitates routine screening for depressed mood.

  6. Influence of Habits on Depression in the Peruvian Medical Student: Study in Seven Administrative Regions.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Mariela; Talledo-Ulfe, Lincolth; Heredia, Paula; Quispe-Colquepisco, Sarita; Mejia, Christian R

    To determine the influence of habits on depression in medical students from 7 Peruvian Regions. Analytical cross-sectional study of a secondary data analysis. The diagnosis of depression was obtained according to the Zung test result, with any level of this condition being considered positive. This was also compared with other social and educational variables that were important according to previous literature. Of the 1922 respondents, 54.5% (1047) were female. The median age was 20 [interquartile range, 18-22] years, and 13.5% (259) had some degree of depression according to the Zung scale. In the multivariate analysis, the frequency of depression increased with the hours of study per day (RPA=1.03; 95%CI; 1.01-1.04; P<.001) and the student work (RPA=1.98; 95%CI; 1.21-3.23; P=.006). On the other hand, decreased the frequency of depression decreased on having similar meal schedules (RPA=0.59; 95%CI; 0.38-0.93; P=.022), and having a fixed place in which to get food (RPA=0.66; 95%CI; 0.46-0.96; P=.030), adjusted for the year of college entrance. Some stressors predisposed to depression were found (the work and studying more hours a day). On the other hand, to have order in their daily routine decreased this condition (having a set place and times for meals). Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Methods Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. Results A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. Conclusions This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use. PMID:22269280

  8. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).

    PubMed

    Covic, Tanya; Cumming, Steven R; Pallant, Julie F; Manolios, Nick; Emery, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G; Tennant, Alan

    2012-01-24

    While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use.

  9. Subscales measuring symptoms of non-specific depression, anhedonia, and anxiety in the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, Alan; McVey, Cynthia

    2008-06-01

    There has been considerable research and clinical interest in the comorbidity of anxiety and depression in the post-partum period, and specifically in the possibility that the commonly used Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) incorporates an anxiety component. We hypothesized that the recommended version of factor analysis (Fabrigar, Wegener, MacCallum, & Strahan, 1999) would identify such covert dimensions more reliably than the commonly used principal components analysis with varimax rotation and eigenvalues greater than 1. Principal axis factor extraction with parallel analysis and oblique (direct quartimin) factor rotation was applied to the 10 EPDS items. The study used a sample of recent mothers recruited and assessed via e-mail and the Internet (N=440). In addition to the EPDS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Positive and Negative Affect Scales (PANAS) were also administered. Three factors were found, which were identified as 'non-specific depressive symptoms', 'anhedonia', and 'anxietal symptoms' subscales, respectively. These subscales were regressed on the HADS anxiety and depression and the PANAS positive and negative affectivity scales, with results substantially consistent with current structural models of the taxonomy of the emotional disorders. The data were obtained from a self-selected non-clinical sample. In addition, it is known that the use of computer-based assessment may tend to inflate self-report scores. It was concluded that there is now sufficient evidence that clinicians should not assume the EPDS to be unidimensional, but should assess all three subscales when screening for susceptibility to post-partum depression and/or post-partum anxiety.

  10. Characteristics of Severely Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents with Extreme Scores on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagborg, Winston J.

    This study examined self-reported depression among severely emotionally disturbed adolescents at a private school serving publicly funded adolescents enrolled in a therapeutically supportive, non-residential educational program. From a sample of 45 students, using the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS), 15 students were selected for a…

  11. Depressive Symptoms, Depletion, or Developmental Change? Withdrawal, Apathy, and Lack of Vigor in the Geriatric Depressive Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Kathryn Betts

    2001-01-01

    This study has dual goals of confirming the existence of a "Withdrawal/Apathy/[Lack of] Vigor" (WAV) dimension of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and determining if it is descriptive of either depletion or disengagement-related change in older adults. High endorsement rates suggest WAV may be congruent with disengagement or depletion and may…

  12. Individual differences in Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) primary emotional traits and depressive tendencies.

    PubMed

    Montag, Christian; Widenhorn-Müller, Katharina; Panksepp, Jaak; Kiefer, Markus

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated individual differences in the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS), representing measures of primary emotional systems, and depressive tendencies in two independent samples. In order to be able to find support for a continuum model with respect to the relation of strength in the cross-species "affective neuroscience" taxonomy of primary emotional systems, we investigated ANPS measured personality traits in a psychologically mostly healthy population (n=614 participants) as well as a sample of clinically depressed people (n=55 depressed patients). In both normal and depressed samples robust associations appeared between higher FEAR and SADNESS scores and depressive tendencies. A similar - albeit weaker - association was observed with lower SEEKING system scores and higher depressive tendencies, an effect again seen in both samples. The study is of cross-sectional nature and therefore only associations between primary emotional systems and depressive tendencies were evaluated. These results show that similar associations between ANPS monitored primary emotional systems and tendencies toward depression can be observed in both healthy and depressed participants. This lends support for a continuum of affective changes accompanying depression, potentially reflecting differences in specific brain emotional system activities in both affectively normal as well as clinically depressed individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Screening for depression in people with epilepsy: comparative study among neurological disorders depression inventory for epilepsy (NDDI-E), hospital anxiety and depression scale depression subscale (HADS-D), and Beck depression inventory (BDI).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Guilherme Nogueira; Lessa, João Marcelo K; Gonçalves, Ana Paula; Portela, Eduardo Jardel; Sander, Josemir W; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to assess and compare the psychometric properties of the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Depression Subscale (HADS-D), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) as screening instruments for depression and suicidality in people with epilepsy. One hundred twenty-six people (54% women) diagnosed with epilepsy were recruited and evaluated on their sociodemographic and clinical features. Depression and suicide risk were assessed with a structured psychiatric interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus), and the performance of NDDI-E, HADS-D, and BDI was evaluated. The sensitivity and specificity of BDI for the diagnosis of depression was around 90%; HADS-D and NDDI-E have sensitivity higher than 80%, and specificity was greater than 75%. For identifying suicide risk, the NDDI-E sensitivity was 92.9%, and HADS-D sensitivity was 85.7%, and a reasonable specificity (68%) was observed for both instruments. All instruments showed a negative predictive value of over 90%. Comparisons of the areas under the ROC curve for these instruments were not significantly different regarding depression or moderate/severe risk of suicide. All three instruments evaluated have clinical utility in the screening of depression in people with epilepsy. Both NDDI-E and HADS-D are brief efficient screening instruments to identify depression in people with epilepsy. The BDI is a more robust instrument, but it takes longer to apply, which hampers its use by busy clinicians and by people with cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cohort study of the depression, anxiety, and anhedonia components of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale after delivery.

    PubMed

    Zanardo, Vincenzo; Giliberti, Lara; Volpe, Francesca; Parotto, Matteo; de Luca, Federico; Straface, Gianluca

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the applicability of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for identifying depressive symptoms following vaginal or cesarean delivery. The present observational study included consecutive Italian-speaking women who underwent vaginal or cesarean deliveries of uncomplicated singleton pregnancies at term at Policlinico Abano Terme, Abano Terme, Italy, between February 1, 2014, and May 31, 2015, who completed the EPDS 2 days after delivery. EPDS scores and the depression, anxiety, and anhedonia subscale items were compared between delivery methods to identify factors predictive of high EPDS scores. There were 950 patients included in the analysis; 694 (73.1%) and 256 (26.9%) patients underwent vaginal and cesarean deliveries, respectively. Total EPDS scores were higher among patients who had cesarean deliveries compared with vaginal deliveries (6.95±4.80 vs 6.05±4.20; P=0.007); the depression (0.53±0.72 vs 0.37±0.65; P=0.007), anxiety (1.07±0.88 vs 1.16±0.93; P=0.021), and anhedonia (0.32±0.59 vs 0.19±0.48; P=0.009) subscale scores were all higher among patients who underwent cesarean deliveries. Women who underwent cesarean deliveries demonstrated higher EPDS scores and could be at increased risk of developing early postpartum depressive symptomatology, particularly anhedonia, anxiety, and depression. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  15. Construct validity of the helplessness/hopelessness/haplessness scale: correlations with perfectionism and depression.

    PubMed

    Leenaars, Lindsey; Lester, David

    2007-02-01

    In a sample of 117 undergraduates, helplessness scores and the discrepancy scores on a measure of perfectionism predicted depression scores, providing evidence for construct validity for the hopelessness, helplessness, and haplessness scales.

  16. Alexithymia in anorexia nervosa: the mediating role of depression.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sandra; Guerra, Marina Prista; Lencastre, Leonor; Miller, Kylee; Vieira, Filipa Mucha; Roma-Torres, António; Brandão, Isabel; Costa, Patrício

    2015-01-30

    The role of depression in the expression of alexithymia in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been controversially explained and several variables that may mask or increase the presence of emotional difficulties have scant examination in previous studies. This study aims to analyze the associations between alexithymia and state variables, such as age, BMI, illness duration, treatment duration, and medication status in AN participants, and to test the mediating role of depression in emotional difficulties. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale were administrated to 160 females: 80 participants with AN and 80 healthy controls. High levels of alexithymia were not a function of state variables. The mediating role of depression differed by the alexithymia dimension, with total mediation found for the TAS-DDF and partial mediation found for the TAS-DIF. Alexithymia is a relevant feature throughout the spectrum of AN and does not seem to be related to developmental maturation and some clinical features. Depression is probably the variable that best accounts for the variance in alexithymia, but is not a complete explanation for the known cognitive-affective disturbances in AN. Specific emotional competencies require scrutiny during psychiatric treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening for anxiety and depression in dialysis patients: comparison of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory.

    PubMed

    Preljevic, Valjbona T; Østhus, Tone Brit Hortemo; Sandvik, Leiv; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Nordhus, Inger Hilde; Os, Ingrid; Dammen, Toril

    2012-08-01

    Although anxiety and depression are frequent comorbid disorders in dialysis patients, they remain underrecognized and often untreated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and a truncated version of the BDI, the Cognitive Depression Index (CDI), as screening tools for anxiety and depression in dialysis patients. A total of 109 participants (69.7% males), from four dialysis centers, completed the self-report symptom scales HADS and BDI. Depression and anxiety disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, overall agreement, kappa and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed. Depressive disorders were found in 22% of the patients based on the SCID-I, while anxiety disorders occurred in 17%. The optimal screening cut-off score for depression was ≥ 7 for the HADS depression subscale (HADS-D), ≥ 14 for the HADS-total, ≥ 11 for the CDI and ≥ 17 for the BDI. The optimal screening cut-off for anxiety was ≥ 6 for the HADS anxiety subscale (HADS-A) and ≥ 14 for the HADS-total. At cut-offs commonly used in clinical practice for depression screening (HADS-D: 8; BDI: 16), the BDI performed slightly better than HADS-D. The BDI, CDI and HADS demonstrated acceptable performance as screening tools for depression, as did the HADS-A for anxiety, in our sample of dialysis patients. The recommended cut-off scores for each instrument were: ≥ 17 for BDI, ≥ 11 for CDI, ≥ 7 for HADS depression subscale, ≥ 6 for HADS anxiety subscale and ≥ 14 for HADS total. The CDI did not perform better than the BDI in our study. Lower cut-off for the HADS-A than recommended in medically ill patients may be considered when screening for anxiety in dialysis patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition: initial validation of the Korean version.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Myung-Sun; Nam, Kyoung-A; Kang, Hee Sun; Reynolds, William M

    2009-03-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to test the validity and reliability of the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition in Korean culture. Depression is a significant mental health problem in adolescents. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition has been shown to be a useful tool to assess depression in adolescents, with extensive research on this measure having been conducted in western cultures. Measures developed in western cultures need to be tested and validated before being used in Asian cultures. The participants were a convenience sample of 440 Korean adolescents with a mean age of 13.78 years (sd = 0.95) from grades 7 to 9 in three public middle schools in South Korea. A cross-sectional design was used. Back-translation was used to create the Korean version, with additional testing for cultural meaning and comprehension. The data were collected at the end of 2004. Internal consistency reliability for the Korean version of the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition was 0.89, with subscale reliability ranging from 0.66 to 0.81. Evidence for criterion-related, convergent and discriminant validity for the Korean version of the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition was found. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the 4-factor structure of Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition. Our results support the validity and reliability for the Korean version of the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale - Second Edition as a measure of depression and suggest that it can be used to screen students and to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive interventions in school settings.

  19. Efficacy of aripiprazole augmentation in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder: a subgroup analysis and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression item analyses of the Aripiprazole Depression Multicenter Efficacy study.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Norio; Otsubo, Tempei; Kato, Masaki; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Ono, Hiroaki; Kamijima, Kunitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Results from this randomized, placebo-controlled study of aripiprazole augmentation to antidepressant therapy (ADT) in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (the Aripiprazole Depression Multicenter Efficacy [ADMIRE] study) revealed that aripiprazole augmentation was superior to ADT alone and was well tolerated. In subgroup analyses, we investigated the influence of demographic- and disease-related factors on the observed responses. We also examined how individual symptom improvement was related to overall improvement in MDD. Data from the ADMIRE study were analyzed. Subgroup analyses were performed on the primary outcome measures: the mean change in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score from the end of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)/serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) treatment to the end of the randomized treatment. Changes in the MADRS total scores were consistently greater with aripiprazole than placebo in each of the subgroups. Efficacy was not related to sex, age, number of adequate ADT trials in the current episode, MDD diagnosis, number of depressive episodes, duration of the current episode, age at first depressive episode, time since the first depressive episode, type of SSRI/SNRI, or severity at the end of SSRI/SNRI treatment phase. Compared to placebo, aripiprazole resulted in significant and rapid improvement on seven of the 10 MADRS items, including sadness. These post-hoc analyses indicated that aripiprazole was effective for a variety of Japanese patients with MDD who had exhibited inadequate responses to ADT. Additionally, we suggest that aripiprazole significantly and rapidly improved the core depressive symptoms. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  20. [The relationship between mobbing and depression syndrome in the female working population of service industry: the problem statement and the prevention strategies in Sicilian environment].

    PubMed

    Romano, C; De Giovanni, L; Santoro, P E; Spataro, M

    2007-01-01

    The concept of "work" and the social interactions in the workplace contribute to develop the working satisfaction and the social and personal identity of the adult. The aim of the survey is that of checking up on the presence of a statistically significant relation between The Depression Syndrome and The Mobbing Phenomenon. It is necessary to understand and value if and how some of the employer's behaviours could have a heavy influence on the worker's psychophysical condition, up to causing a state of anxiety and depression. It has been used the now famous "LIPT" (Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror), elaborated by Leymann at the beginning of the 90's. It is a short anonymous questionnaire recognized all over Europe as a standard to confirm the Mobbing existence in organizational contexts. The current version of the questionnaire is called "LIPT EGE", a more suitable tool to check the seven parameters of the Mobbing determination, as well as the quantification of the consequent harm. Some scales for depressive symptoms evaluation have been added to the Mobbing questionnaire: The Self Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and The Depression Status Inventory (DSI) of Zung. The questionnaires are administered to 500 workers women in public and private corporation in Sicily, exactly in Siracusa and Catania provinces. 206 women aged 34-50 have answered the questionnaires. In addition to the age and the sex, the distinction variables of the examined people are the position in the firm, nationality, vocational qualification, and the yearly gross income. The research has begun in july and has continued on august 2006. Attention has been focused only on the administrative sectors. Through the chi2 test and the exact Fisher test, the dependence between the changeable presence of depression in the two questionnaires (Zung 1 and Zung 2) and every single variable of the questionnaire on the Mobbing has been pointed out. In particular, the results establish a connection between

  1. Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children: psychometric testing of the Chinese version.

    PubMed

    Li, Ho Cheung William; Chung, Oi Kwan Joyce; Ho, Ka Yan

    2010-11-01

    This paper is a report of psychometric testing of the Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children. The availability of a valid and reliable instrument that accurately detects depressive symptoms in children is crucial before any psychological intervention can be appropriately planned and evaluated. There is no such an instrument for Chinese children. A test-retest, within-subjects design was used. A total of 313 primary school students between the ages of 8 and 12 years were invited to participate in the study in 2009. Participants were asked to respond to the Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children, short form of the State Anxiety Scale for Children and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The internal consistency, content validity and construct validity and test-retest reliability of the Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children were assessed. The newly-translated scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency, good content validity and appropriate convergent and discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analysis added further evidence of the construct validity of the scale. Results suggest that the newly-translated scale can be used as a self-report assessment tool in detecting depressive symptoms of Chinese children aged between 8 and 12 years. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Does Executive Functioning (EF) Predict Depression in Clinic-Referred Adults?: EF Tests vs. Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Knouse, Laura E.; Barkley, Russell A.; Murphy, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Deficits in executive functioning (EF) are implicated in neurobiological and cognitive-processing theories of depression. EF deficits are also associated with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, who are also at increased risk for depressive disorders. Given debate about the ecological validity of laboratory measures of EF, we investigated the relationship between depression diagnoses and symptoms and EF as measured by both rating scales and tests in a sample of adults referred for evaluation of adult ADHD. Method Data from two groups of adults recruited from an ADHD specialty clinic were analyzed together: Adults diagnosed with ADHD (N=146) and a clinical control group of adults referred for adult ADHD assessment but not diagnosed with the disorder ADHD (N=97). EF was assessed using a rating scale of EF deficits in daily life and a battery of tests tapping various EF constructs. Depression was assessed using current and lifetime SCID diagnoses (major depression, dysthymia) and self-report symptom ratings. Results EF as assessed via rating scale predicted depression across measures even when controlling for current anxiety and impairment. Self-Management to Time and Self-Organization and Problem-Solving showed the most robust relationships. EF tests were weakly and inconsistently related to depression measures. Limitations Prospective studies are needed to rigorously evaluate EF problems as true risk factors for depressive onset. Conclusions EF problems in everyday life were important predictors of depression. Researchers and clinicians should consistently assess for the ADHD-depression comorbidity. Clinicians should consider incorporating strategies to address EF deficits when treating people with depression. PMID:22858220

  3. Measurement-based Treatment of Residual Symptoms Using Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale: Korean Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sang Won; Han, Changsu; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seo Young; Pae, Chi-Un; Choi, Joonho; Park, Yong Chon; Kim, Jong-Woo; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Ko, Seung-Duk; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Zimmerman, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed at evaluating the diagnostic validity of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS) with varying follow-up in a typical clinical setting in multiple centers. Methods In total, 891 psychiatric outpatients were enrolled at the time of their intake appointment. Current diagnostic characteristics were examined using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (41% major depressive disorder). The CUDOS was measured and compared with three clinician rating scales and four self-report scales. Results The CUDOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach’s α, 0.91), test-retest reliability (patients at intake, r=0.81; depressed patients in ongoing treatment, r=0.89), and convergent and discriminant validity (measures of depression, r=0.80; measures of anxiety and somatization, r=0.42). The CUDOS had a high ability to discriminate between different levels of depression severity based on the rating of Clinical Global Impression for depression severity and the diagnostic classification of major depression, minor depression, and non-depression. The ability of the CUDOS to identify patients with major depression was high (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.867). A score of 20 as the optimal cutoff point was suggested when screening for major depression using the CUDOS (sensitivity=89.9%, specificity=69.5%). The CUDOS was sensitive to change after antidepressant treatment: patients with greater improvement showed a greater decrease in CUDOS scores (p<0.001). Conclusion The results of this multi-site outpatient study found that the Korean version of the CUDOS is a very useful measurement for research and for clinical practice. PMID:28138107

  4. The Swedish validation of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rubertsson, Christine; Börjesson, Karin; Berglund, Anna; Josefsson, Ann; Sydsjö, Gunilla

    2011-12-01

    Around 10-15% of women suffer from depressive illness during pregnancy or the first year postpartum. Depression during pregnancy constitutes a risk for prenatal stress and preterm birth. No validated screening instrument for detecting depression during pregnancy was available in Swedish. We aimed to validate the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) against DSM-IV criteria for depression during pregnancy, establish a reliable cut-off and estimate the correlation between the EPDS and HAD-S (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). In a population-based community sample of 1175 pregnant women, 918 women (78%) answered questionnaires with the EPDS and HAD-S. In all, 121 were interviewed using the PRIME-MD (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental disorders) for diagnosing depression. Women were interviewed in mean gestational week 13 (range 8-21). For the EPDS, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated for prediction of depression. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to investigate the association between EPDS and HAD-S scores. The optimal cut-off score on the EPDS scale for detecting depression was ≥13 (standard error coefficient of 1.09 and c-statistics of 0.84) giving a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 94%. The EPDS scores correlated strongly with the HAD-S, Pearson's correlation was 0.83 (P < 0.0001). This study confirms that the EPDS is a valid screening instrument for detection of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. The EPDS shows persuasive measuring outcomes with an optimal cut-off at ≥13. Healthcare for pregnant women should consider screening procedures and follow-up routines for depressive symptoms.

  5. Adaptation to Portuguese of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS).

    PubMed

    Apóstolo, João Luís Alves; Mendes, Aida Cruz; Azeredo, Zaida Aguiar

    2006-01-01

    To adapt to Portuguese, of Portugal, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, a 21-item short scale (DASS 21), designed to measure depression, anxiety and stress. After translation and back-translation with the help of experts, the DASS 21 was administered to patients in external psychiatry consults (N=101), and its internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were measured. The DASS 21 properties certify its quality to measure emotional states. The instrument reveals good internal consistency. Factorial analysis shows that the two-factor structure is more adequate. The first factor groups most of the items that theoretically assess anxiety and stress, and the second groups most of the items that assess depression, explaining, on the whole, 58.54% of total variance. The strong positive correlation between the DASS 21 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD) confirms the hypothesis regarding the criterion validity, however, revealing fragilities as to the divergence between theoretically different constructs.

  6. Relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress among Japanese schoolteachers.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Akihiro; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Kanchika, Masaru; Nakao, Takehisa; Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Konishi, Akihito; Ishimoto, Hideyuki; Inoue, Koki

    2016-10-08

    Japanese teachers are mentally and physically burdened with various work stressors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress including role problems among Japanese schoolteachers. This study included 1,006 teachers working in public schools in a Japanese city. The Japanese version of Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms, and the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire was used to evaluate occupational stress and three measures of social support. Subjects with SDS scores of more than 50 were categorized into the "depressive group." We examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress using multiple logistic regression analyses. A total of 202 (20.1%) teachers belonged to the depressive group. We found that high role ambiguity, high role conflict, high quantitative workload, and low social support from family or friends were significantly related to depressive symptoms. To moderate role ambiguity and role conflict experienced by teachers, it is necessary to clarify the priority order of teachers' work. Furthermore, it is necessary to reduce workload by focusing on the content of teachers' work and the setting of education itself. Focusing on these elements will reduce teachers' depressive symptoms.

  7. Evidence of depression-associated circadian rhythm disruption and regret in prostate cancer patients after surgery.

    PubMed

    Christie, Joanne; Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Christie, David

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between prostate cancer (PCa) patients' regret that their surgery harmed them, and their scores on the two key symptoms of major depressive disorder (depressed mood, anhedonia) and a symptom of melancholic depression (disruption to circadian rhythm). Forty PCa patients who had received surgery for their PCa completed a postal survey including background information, regret about surgery that 'did them a lot of harm' and three items drawn from the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale measuring depressed mood, anhedonia and circadian rhythm disruption. There were significant correlations between all three symptoms of depression (depressed mood, anhedonia, disruption to circadian rhythm) and between patients' regret that surgery did them a lot of harm and their circadian rhythm disruption, but not between depressed mood or anhedonia and regret about surgery doing harm. These findings suggest that PCa patients' post-surgery regrets about major harm may lead to a significant disruption in a central physiological function and raise the need to consider this side effect of surgery when planning supportive services for these men.

  8. A Study of Remitted and Treatment-Resistant Depression Using MMPI and Including Pessimism and Optimism Scales

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Michio; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Shirayama, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented. Methods We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34), remitted depression (n = 25), acute depression (n = 21), and healthy controls (n = 64). Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI. Results ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F), hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D. Conclusions The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts. PMID:25279466

  9. An evaluation of the quick inventory of depressive symptomatology and the hamilton rating scale for depression: a sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression trial report.

    PubMed

    Rush, A John; Bernstein, Ira H; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Carmody, Thomas J; Wisniewski, Stephen; Mundt, James C; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; Biggs, Melanie M; Woo, Ada; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Fava, Maurizio

    2006-03-15

    Nine DSM-IV-TR criterion symptom domains are evaluated to diagnose major depressive disorder (MDD). The Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) provides an efficient assessment of these domains and is available as a clinician rating (QIDS-C16), a self-report (QIDS-SR16), and in an automated, interactive voice response (IVR) (QIDS-IVR16) telephone system. This report compares the performance of these three versions of the QIDS and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17). Data were acquired at baseline and exit from the first treatment step (citalopram) in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial. Outpatients with nonpsychotic MDD who completed all four ratings within +/-2 days were identified from the first 1500 STAR*D subjects. Both item response theory and classical test theory analyses were conducted. The three methods for obtaining QIDS data produced consistent findings regarding relationships between the nine symptom domains and overall depression, demonstrating interchangeability among the three methods. The HRSD17, while generally satisfactory, rarely utilized the full range of item scores, and evidence suggested multidimensional measurement properties. In nonpsychotic MDD outpatients without overt cognitive impairment, clinician assessment of depression severity using either the QIDS-C16 or HRSD17 may be successfully replaced by either the self-report or IVR version of the QIDS.

  10. An Evaluation of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: A Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression Trial Report

    PubMed Central

    Rush, A. John; Bernstein, Ira H.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Carmody, Thomas J.; Wisniewski, Stephen; Mundt, James C.; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; Biggs, Melanie M.; Woo, Ada; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Fava, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Background Nine DSM-IV-TR criterion symptom domains are evaluated to diagnose major depressive disorder (MDD). The Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) provides an efficient assessment of these domains and is available as a clinician rating (QIDS-C16), a self-report (QIDS-SR16), and in an automated, interactive voice response (IVR) (QIDS-IVR16) telephone system. This report compares the performance of these three versions of the QIDS and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17). Methods Data were acquired at baseline and exit from the first treatment step (citalopram) in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial. Outpatients with nonpsychotic MDD who completed all four ratings within ±2 days were identified from the first 1500 STAR*D subjects. Both item response theory and classical test theory analyses were conducted. Results The three methods for obtaining QIDS data produced consistent findings regarding relationships between the nine symptom domains and overall depression, demonstrating interchangeability among the three methods. The HRSD17, while generally satisfactory, rarely utilized the full range of item scores, and evidence suggested multidimensional measurement properties. Conclusions In nonpsychotic MDD outpatients without overt cognitive impairment, clinician assessment of depression severity using either the QIDS-C16 or HRSD17 may be successfully replaced by either the self-report or IVR version of the QIDS. PMID:16199008

  11. Psychometric properties of the postpartum depression screening scale beyond the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Vogeli, Jo M; Hooker, Stephanie A; Everhart, Kevin D; Kaplan, Peter S

    2018-04-01

    Accurate postpartum depression screening measures are needed to identify mothers with depressive symptoms both in the postpartum period and beyond. Because it had not been tested beyond the immediate postpartum period, the reliability and validity of the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) and its sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value for diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD) were assessed in a diverse community sample of 238 mothers of 4- to 15-month-old infants. Mothers (N = 238; M age = 30.2, SD = 5.3) attended a lab session and completed the PDSS, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and a structured clinical interview (SCID) to diagnose MDD. The reliability, validity, specificity, sensitivity, and predictive value of the PDSS to identify maternal depression were assessed. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of five but not seven content subscales. The PDSS total and subscale scores demonstrated acceptable to high reliability (α = 0.68-0.95). Discriminant function analysis showed the scale correctly provided diagnostic classification at a rate higher than chance alone. Sensitivity and specificity for major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis were good and comparable to those of the BDI-II. Even in mothers who were somewhat more diverse and had older infants than those in the original normative study, the PDSS appears to be a psychometrically sound screener for identifying depressed mothers in the 15 months after childbirth. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The impact of displacement on the expression of depressive disorder and social functioning among the war refugees.

    PubMed

    Radanović-Grgurić, Ljiljana; Barkić, Jelena; Filaković, Pavo; Koić, Oliver; Laufer, Davor; Petek, Anamarija; Mandić, Nikola

    2009-12-01

    Our research objective was to estimate the characteristics of major depressive disorder and social adaptation of women displaced during the war in Croatia in the early 1990s. We aimed to establish the relationship between major depressive disorder and displacement and study its impact on the outcome of depression in order to improve treatment and avoid possible complications. A group of 20 women, 35 to 55 years of age, displaced some time during the 199l.-1995. war in Croatia were compared to 27 women of the same age but with no experience of exile. All the patients suffered from major depressive disorder based upon DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Zung Self Rating Depression Scale and the Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale were used. The objective intensity of depression of the displaced significantly decreased over time but not their personal experience of depression. All depressed patients manifested poor social adaptation. Many aspects of social functioning remained poor even after the improvement of depressive disorder. Displacement characteristics were: the length of time spent in exile, the place, and the circumstances of displacement regarding the members of the family accompanying the displaced women. These characteristics significantly influenced the expression of their major depressive disorder as well as social functioning. Displaced persons/refugees are at high risk of developing depressive disorder. Recognition of all risk factors and early diagnosis of depressive disorder followed by appropriate treatment could decrease the risk of chronic and complicated depression as well as the risk of poor social adaptation.

  13. The Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet; Cetin, Bayram

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). The sample of the study consisted of 590 university students, 121 English teachers and 136 emotionally disturbed individuals who sought treatment in various clinics and counseling centers. Factor loadings of the scale ranged…

  14. [Validation of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Cano, Juan Fernando; Gomez Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martín

    2016-01-01

    To adapt and to validate the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) in Colombia. Observational study for scale validation. Validity criteria were used to determine the severity cut-off points of the tool. Taking into account sensitivity and specificity values, those cut points were contrasted with ICD-10 criteria for depression severity. A a factor analysis was performed. The internal consistencY was determined with the same sample of patients used for the validity criteria. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by evaluating the 22 records of the patients that consented to a video interview. Sensitivity to change was established through a second application of the scale in 28 subjects after a lapse of 14 to 28 days. The study was performed in Bogotá, the tool was applied in 150 patients suffering from major depressive disorder. The cut-off point for moderate depression was 20 (sensitivity, 98%; specificity, 96%), and the cut-off point for severe depression was 34 (sensitivity, 98%; specificity, 92%). The tool appears as a unidimensional scale, which possesses a good internal consistency with (α=.9168). The findings of inter-rater reliability evaluation showed the scale as highly reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient=.9833). The instrument has a good sensitivity to change. The Colombian version of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale has good psychometric properties and can be used in clinical practice and in clinical research in the field of depressive disorder. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for screening of major depressive episode among adults from the general population.

    PubMed

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Munhoz, Tiago N; Tavares, Beatriz Franck; Barbosa, Ana Paula Pereira Neto; da Silva, Diego Mello; Abitante, Morgana Sonza; Dall'Agnol, Tatiane Abreu; Santos, Iná S

    2014-10-08

    Standardized questionnaires designed for the identification of depression are useful for monitoring individual as well as population mental health. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) has originally been developed to assist primary care health professionals to detect postnatal depression, but several authors recommend its use outside of the postpartum period. In Brazil, the use of the EPDS for screening depression outside the postpartum period and among non-selected populations has not been validated. The present study aimed to assess the validity of the EPDS as a screening instrument for major depressive episode (MDE) among adults from the general population. This is a validation study that used a population-based sampling technique to select the participants. The study was conducted in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Households were randomly selected by two stage conglomerates with probability proportional to size. EPDS was administered to 447 adults (≥20 years). Approximately 17 days later, participants were reinterviewed by psychiatrics and psychologists using a structured diagnostic interview (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, MINI). We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of each cutoff point of EPDS, and values were plotted as a receiver operator characteristic curve. The best cutoff point for screening depression was ≥8, with 80.0% (64.4 - 90.9%) sensitivity and 87.0% (83.3 - 90.1%) specificity. Among women the best cutoff point was ≥8 too with values of sensitivity and specificity of 84.4% (67.2 - 94.7%) and 81.3% (75.5 - 86.1%), respectively. Among men, the best cutoff point was ≥7 (75% sensitivity and 89% specificity). The EPDS was shown to be suitable for screening MDE among adults in the community.

  16. Depression Anxiety Stress Scale: is it valid for children and adolescents?

    PubMed

    Patrick, Jeff; Dyck, Murray; Bramston, Paul

    2010-09-01

    The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) is used to assess the severity of symptoms in child and adolescent samples although its validity in these populations has not been demonstrated. The authors assessed the latent structure of the 21-item version of the scale in samples of 425 and 285 children and adolescents on two occasions, one year apart. On each occasion, parallel analyses suggested that only one component should be extracted, indicating that the test does not differentiate depression, anxiety, and stress in children and adolescents. The results provide additional evidence that adult models of depression do not describe the experience of depression in children and adolescents. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... depression . It occurs when feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration interfere with daily life for weeks or longer periods of time. Persistent depressive disorder . This is a depressed mood that lasts 2 ...

  18. Sensitivity to detect change and the correlation of clinical factors with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory in depressed inpatients.

    PubMed

    Schneibel, Rebecca; Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Wilbertz, Gregor; Dykierek, Petra; Zobel, Ingo; Schramm, Elisabeth

    2012-06-30

    Discrepancies between scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), as well as differences regarding their sensitivity to detect change, have been reported. This study investigates discrepancies and their potential prediction on the basis of demographic, personality, and clinical factors in depressed inpatients and analyzes the sensitivity to change. The HAMD and the BDI were administered to 105 inpatients with major depressive disorder randomized to 5 weeks of either interpersonal psychotherapy or clinical management. Personality was assessed with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Low extraversion and high neuroticism were associated with relatively higher endorsement of depressive symptoms on the BDI compared with the HAMD. The HAMD presented a greater reduction of symptom scores than the BDI. Patients with high BDI scores, high HAMD scores or both revealed the greatest change, possibly due to a statistical effect of regression to the mean. Restricted by sample size, analyses were not differentiated by treatment condition. Regression to the mean cannot be tested directly, but it might be considered as a possible explanation. The HAMD and the BDI should be regarded as two complementary rather than redundant or competing instruments as the discrepancy is associated with personality characteristics. Attributing large effect sizes solely to effective treatment and a sensitive measure may be misleading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescent subthreshold-depression and anxiety: psychopathology, functional impairment and increased suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Balázs, Judit; Miklósi, Mónika; Keresztény, Agnes; Hoven, Christina W; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Apter, Alan; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Cosman, Doina; Cotter, Pádraig; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Marusic, Dragan; Postuvan, Vita; Resch, Franz; Saiz, Pilar A; Sisask, Merike; Snir, Avigal; Tubiana, Alexandra; Varnik, Airi; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2013-06-01

     Subthreshold-depression and anxiety have been associated with significant impairments in adults. This study investigates the characteristics of adolescent subthreshold-depression and anxiety with a focus on suicidality, using both categorical and dimensional diagnostic models.  Data were drawn from the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study, comprising 12,395 adolescents from 11 countries. Based on self-report, including Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Paykel Suicide Scale (PSS) were administered to students. Based on BDI-II, adolescents were divided into three groups: nondepressed, subthreshold-depressed and depressed; based on the SAS, they were divided into nonanxiety, subthreshold-anxiety and anxiety groups. Analyses of Covariance were conducted on SDQ scores to explore psychopathology of the defined groups. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationships between functional impairments, suicidality and subthreshold and full syndromes.  Thirty-two percent of the adolescents were subthreshold-anxious and 5.8% anxious, 29.2% subthreshold-depressed and 10.5% depressed, with high comorbidity. Mean scores of SDQ of subthreshold-depressed/anxious were significantly higher than the mean scores of the nondepressed/nonanxious groups and significantly lower than those of the depressed/anxious groups. Both subthreshold and threshold-anxiety and depression were related to functional impairment and suicidality. Subthreshold-depression and subthreshold-anxiety are associated with an increased burden of disease and suicide risk. These results highlight the importance of early identification of adolescent subthreshold-depression and anxiety to minimize suicide. Incorporating these subthreshold disorders into a diagnosis could provide a bridge between categorical and dimensional diagnostic models. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child

  20. Preliminary validation of the Satisfaction With Decision scale with depressed primary care patients

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Celia E.; Holmes‐Rovner, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Objective To conduct a preliminary validation of the Satisfaction With Decision (SWD) scale with depressed primary care patients. Design  Cross‐sectional observational pilot study using a postal survey. Setting and participants  Depressed primary care patients (n = 97) who recently had made a new decision about antidepressant medication use completed surveys regarding their treatment decisions. Main variables  Measures included patient‐reported satisfaction with decision, decisional conflict, knowledge about depression and treatment, decision involvement, pain and health status, antidepressant medication efficacy, and satisfaction with health services. Results  The SWD scale had good internal consistency reliability (α = 0.85). Evidence for construct validity was confirmed via a hypothesized pattern of relationships between the SWD scale and other measures. Decision satisfaction was associated with several issues of relevance for designing patient‐centred decision support interventions: (1) knowledge about depression and treatment; (2) involvement in health‐related decisions; and (3) aiding evaluation of trade‐offs among pros and cons of treatment. Conclusions  The results of this pilot study show that the SWD scale appears to be a psychometrically sound and practical measure for research with this population. Additional research is needed on the theoretical nature of decision satisfaction and developing and testing patient‐centred decision support interventions for depression treatment. PMID:12752743

  1. [Use of scales in depression patients in clinical practice in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Enzo; Taragano, Fernando; Krupitzki, Hugo; Pahissa, Jaime; Heiseke, Silvina

    2017-11-01

    Although depression is a treatable cause of suffering, disability and death, its identifcation and treatment continue to be a challenge in clinical practice and a severe problem for global public health. The main objective of this study was to investigate the frequency with which mental health professionals use scales to assess depressive patients in Argentina and to determine the reasons that constrain such practice. Between July and September 2012 a national survey was conducted by e-mail. Professionals registered in the database of the Argentine Association of Psychiatrists were invited to participate in the survey. Responses were obtained from 243 professionals. Of the total respondents, only 8.7% said they always used scales to assess depressive patients. The reasons recorded by most respondents why scales were not used were: lack of time and the belief that they do not help in clinical practice. Despite the fact that treatment guidelines for depression recommend the use of scales to optimize the assessment and treatment of depressive disorders, this does not seem to be the usual behavior in clinical practice in our country.

  2. Depressive and anxiety symptoms and social support are independently associated with disease-specific quality of life in Colombian patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Heather L; Brotherton, Hardin T; Olivera Plaza, Silvia Leonor; Segura Durán, María Angélica; Peña Altamar, Marvín Leonel

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between disease-specific Quality of Life (QOL) and socio-demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors in Colombian patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). One hundred and three RA patients recruited from ambulatory centers in Neiva, Colombia were administered the Disease Activity Scale 28 (DAS-28), QOL-RA, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12 (ISEL-12), and Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90R). Lower QOL-RA was associated with lower socio-economic status (SES; r=0.26, p<0.01), higher likelihood of using opioids (t=-2.51, p<0.05), higher likelihood of comorbid pulmonary disease (t=-2.22, p<0.05), and lower ISEL-12 sub-scales (r's=0.41-0.31, p's<0.001). Lower QOL-RA was associated with higher DAS-28 (r=-0.28, p<0.01), Visual Analog Scale (VAS; r=-0.35, p<0.001), Zung Depression (r=-0.72, p <0.001), STAI-State (r=-0.66, p<0.001), STAI-Trait (r=-0.70, p<0.001), SCL-90R Global Severity Index (r=-0.50, p<0.001), SCL-90R Positive Symptom Total (r=-0.57, p<0.001), and all SCL-90R sub-scales (r's=-0.54--0.21, p's<0.01). A multivariate linear regression model indicated that SES (B=2.77, p<0.05), Zung Depression (B=-0.53, p<0.001), STAI-State (B=-0.26, p<0.05), and ISEL-12 Belonging (B=1.15, p<0.01) were independently associated with QOL-RA, controlling for significant associations. More depressive and anxiety symptoms were independently associated with lower disease-specific QOL, while higher perceptions of having people to do activities with (belonging social support) and higher SES were independently associated with higher disease-specific QOL. Psychosocial factors impact QOL in RA above and beyond disease activity. Additional research into the benefits of psychosocial assessment of RA patients and provision of comprehensive care to improve QOL is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing psychological distress in patients with facial paralysis using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Pouwels, Sjaak; Beurskens, Carien H G; Kleiss, Ingrid J; Ingels, Koen J A O

    2016-08-01

    Anxiety and depression are seen among patients with facial paralysis (FP), but less is known about the exact prevalence. The aim of the current study is to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in the FP population and to investigate possible differences between patients with left- and right-sided FP. Fifty-nine patients with FP and 59 healthy individuals were included in this study between March and December of 2014. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression among these groups. The mean age of the patients and controls was 56 ± 15 and 40 ± 16 years, respectively. Twenty-eight patients had left-sided FP, 30 patients had right-sided FP, and one patient had bilateral FP. In the patient group, approximately 30% had anxiety and 25% had a depressive disorder. Compared with the control group, significantly more patients presented with mild anxiety (p = 0.031), mild depression (p = 0.047), and moderate depression (p = 0.006). No significant differences were found in terms of the prevalence of anxiety between left- and right-sided FP. However, significantly more patients with left-sided FP had mild depression (p = 0.018) than those with right-sided FP. This study found a significant difference in anxiety and depression between patients with FP and healthy controls. No clinically significant difference was noted in the prevalence of anxiety or depression between patients with left- and right-sided FP. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rasch analysis of the hospital anxiety and depression scale among Chinese cataract patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xianchai; Chen, Ziyan; Jin, Ling; Gao, Wuyou; Qu, Bo; Zuo, Yajing; Liu, Rongjiao; Yu, Minbin

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) among Chinese cataract population. A total of 275 participants with unilateral or bilateral cataract were recruited to complete the Chinese version of HADS. The patients' demographic and ophthalmic characteristics were documented. Rasch analysis was conducted to examine the model fit statistics, the thresholds ordering of the polytomous items, targeting, person separation index and reliability, local dependency, unidimentionality, differential item functioning (DIF) and construct validity of the HADS individual and summary measures. Rasch analysis was performed on anxiety and depression subscales as well as HADS-Total score respectively. The items of original HADS-Anxiety, HADS-Depression and HADS-Total demonstrated evidence of misfit of the Rasch model. Removing items A7 for anxiety subscale and rescoring items D14 for depression subscale significantly improved Rasch model fit. A 12-item higher order total scale with further removal of D12 was found to fit the Rasch model. The modified items had ordered response thresholds. No uniform DIF was detected, whereas notable non-uniform DIF in high-ability group was found. The revised cut-off points were given for the modified anxiety and depression subscales. The modified version of HADS with HADS-A and HADS-D as subscale and HADS-T as a higher-order measure is a reliable and valid instrument that may be useful for assessing anxiety and depression states in Chinese cataract population.

  5. Sex Partnership and Self-Efficacy Influence Depression in Chinese Transgender Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Lie; Hao, Chun; Gu, Yuan; Song, Wei; Wang, Jian; Chang, Margaret M; Zhao, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Transgender women often suffer from transition-related discrimination and loss of social support due to their gender transition, which may pose considerable psychological challenges and may lead to a high prevalence of depression in this population. Increased self-efficacy may combat the adverse effects of gender transition on depression. However, few available studies have investigated the protective effect of self-efficacy on depression among transgender women, and there is a scarcity of research describing the mental health of Chinese transgender women. This study aims to describe the prevalence of depression among Chinese transgender women and to explore the associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shenyang, Liaoning Province of China by convenience sampling from January 2014 to July 2014. Two hundred and nine Chinese transgender women were interviewed face-to-face with questionnaires that covered topics including the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), demographic characteristics, transition status, sex partnership, perceived transgender-related discrimination, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the adapted General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the factors associated with SDS scores. The prevalence of depression among transgender women was 45.35%. Transgender women with regular partners or casual partners exhibited higher SDS scores than those without regular partners or casual partners. Regression analyses showed that sex partnership explained most (16.6%) of the total variance in depression scores. Self-efficacy was negatively associated with depression. Chinese transgender women experienced high levels of depression. Depression was best predicted by whether transgender women had a regular partner or a casual partner rather than transgender-related discrimination and transition status. Moreover, self-efficacy had positive effects on

  6. Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in older primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Gloster, Andrew T; Rhoades, Howard M; Novy, Diane; Klotsche, Jens; Senior, Ashley; Kunik, Mark; Wilson, Nancy; Stanley, Melinda A

    2008-10-01

    The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) was designed to efficiently measure the core symptoms of anxiety and depression and has demonstrated positive psychometric properties in adult samples of anxiety and depression patients and student samples. Despite these findings, the psychometric properties of the DASS remain untested in older adults, for whom the identification of efficient measures of these constructs is especially important. To determine the psychometric properties of the DASS 21-item version in older adults, we analyzed data from 222 medical patients seeking treatment to manage worry. Consistent with younger samples, a three-factor structure best fit the data. Results also indicated good internal consistency, excellent convergent validity, and good discriminative validity, especially for the Depression scale. Receiver operating curve analyses indicated that the DASS-21 predicted the diagnostic presence of generalized anxiety disorder and depression as well as other commonly used measures. These data suggest that the DASS may be used with older adults in lieu of multiple scales designed to measure similar constructs, thereby reducing participant burden and facilitating assessment in settings with limited assessment resources.

  7. Path model of antenatal stress and depressive symptoms among Chinese primipara in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingtao; Zeng, Yingchun; Zhu, Wei; Cui, Ying; Li, Jie

    2016-07-21

    Antenatal maternal mental health problems have numerous consequences for the well-being of both mother and child. This study aimed to test and construct a pertinent model of antenatal depressive symptoms within the conceptual framework of a stress process model. This study utilized a cross-sectional study design. participants were adult women (18 years or older) having a healthy pregnancy, in their third trimester (the mean weeks gestation was 34.71). depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by Zung's Self-rating Depressive and Anxiety Scale, stress was measured by Pregnancy-related Pressure Scale, social support and coping strategies were measured by Social Support Rating Scale and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, respectively. path analysis was applied to examine the hypothesized causal paths between study variables. A total of 292 subjects were enrolled. The final testing model showed good fit, with normed χ (2) = 32.317, p = 0.061, CFI = 0.961, TLI = 0.917, IFI = 0.964, NFI = 0.900, RMSEA = 0.042. This path model supported the proposed model within the theoretical framework of the stress process model. Pregnancy-related stress, financial strain and active coping have both direct and indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Psychological preparedness for delivery, social support and anxiety levels have direct effects on antenatal depressive symptoms. Good preparedness for delivery could reduce depressive symptoms, while higher levels of anxiety could significantly increase depressive symptoms. Additionally, there were indirect effects of miscarriage history, irregular menstruation, partner relationship and passive coping with depressive symptoms. The empirical support from this study has enriched theories on the determinants of depressive symptoms among Chinese primipara, and could facilitate the formulation of appropriate interventions for reducing antenatal depressive symptoms, and enhancing the mental health of

  8. Development and validation of the Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Kate H; Gallagher, Matthew W; Carl, Jenna R; Barlow, David H

    2014-09-01

    The need to capture severity and impairment of depressive symptomatology is widespread. Existing depression scales are lengthy and largely focus on individual symptoms rather than resulting impairment. The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS) is a 5-item, continuous measure designed for use across heterogeneous mood disorders and with subthreshold depressive symptoms. This study examined the psychometric properties of the ODSIS in outpatients in a clinic for emotional disorders (N = 100), undergraduate students (N = 566), and community-based adults (N = 189). Internal consistency, latent structure, item response theory, classification accuracy, convergent and discriminant validity, and differential item functioning analyses were conducted. ODSIS scores exhibited excellent internal consistency, and confirmatory factor analyses supported a unidimensional structure. Item response theory results demonstrated that the ODSIS provides more information about individuals with high levels of depression than those with low levels of depression. Responses on the ODSIS discriminated well between individuals with and without a mood disorder and depression-related severity across clinical and subclinical levels. A cut score of 8 correctly classified 82% of outpatients as with or without a mood disorder; it evidenced a favorable balance of sensitivity and specificity and of positive and negative predictive values. The ODSIS demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity, and results indicate that items function similarly across clinical and nonclinical samples. Overall, findings suggest that the ODSIS is a valid tool for measuring depression-related severity and impairment. The brevity and ease of use of the ODSIS support its utility for screening and monitoring treatment response across a variety of settings. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale in patients with tinnitus and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Mohammed Abdel Motaal; Elmagd, Manal Hassan Abo; Elbadry, Mohammed Mohammed; Kader, Rafeek Mohammed Abdel

    2014-08-01

    The study was proposed to evaluate co-morbid depression, anxiety and stress associated with tinnitus patients. The study was done on 196 subjects: 100 patients suffering from subjective tinnitus associated with hearing loss (tinnitus group), 45 patients suffering from hearing loss only (hearing loss group) and 50 healthy subjects not suffering from tinnitus or hearing loss (control group); the age ranges from 20 to 60 years old. The studied sample was subjected to full ear, nose and throat examinations and audiological evaluation. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) was developed by Levibond H and Levibond F to assess three self-report scales designed to measure the negative emotional status of depression, anxiety and stress. All patients and control group were evaluated by DASS. (1) Depression: males were affected more than females. All patients over 60 years were affected by depression. The duration of tinnitus seems correlating with the severity of depression. Only 2 patients (4.3 %) of the hearing loss group suffer from depression. (2) Anxiety: 90 % of males suffer from anxiety as compared to 83.3 % females. The age group 20-29 years old suffers more than other age groups. Only 4 patients (8.7 %) of hearing loss group suffer from anxiety. (3) Stress: females seem to be affected by the stress (76.7 %) more than males (67.5). Patients in age group 30-39 suffer the most from the disease. There is a direct correlation between duration of tinnitus and severity of stress. No one of the hearing loss group suffers from stress. In conclusion, depression, anxiety and stress should be taken into consideration in the treatment of patients suffering from tinnitus.

  10. Results of a 100-point scale for evaluating job satisfaction and the Occupational Depression Scale questionnaire survey in workers.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Tomoyuki; Yoshimura, Miwako

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the score of job satisfaction and depression. A total of 2737 workers (2198 men and 539 women) participated. A 100-point scale for evaluating job satisfaction and the Occupational Depression Scale were used. A logistic regression analysis was applied with adjustment for age. The mean age of the subjects was 42.2 years for men and 36.0 years for women. When the group with the highest job satisfaction score was set as the control, the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for depression in the groups with the lowest and second lowest scores were 16.3 (7.51 to 35.2) and 5.90 (2.70 to 12.9) in men and 8.02 (1.78 to 36.1) and 5.68 (1.26 to 25.7) in women, respectively. Job satisfaction was significantly associated with the depressive state, and causality should be clarified by a follow-up study.

  11. Correlates of depressive symptoms among workers in small- and medium-scale manufacturing enterprises in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Tomoko; Nakata, Akinori; Takahashi, Masaya; Hojou, Minoru; Haratani, Takashi; Nishikido, Noriko; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

    2009-01-01

    Although the relationship between job stress and depressive symptoms has been well documented among workers in large scale enterprises, the situation in small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) is not fully understood. To clarify the factors associated with depressive symptoms in SMEs in Japan. 1,516 male and 738 female Japanese workers at SMEs were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. We applied hierarchical multiple linear regression with depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressive Symptoms Scale) as the dependent variable, and (1) Individual, (2) Lifestyle, (3) Job stressors, and (4) SME unique factors as independent variables entered in 4 steps. Analyses were stratified by sex due to large differences in stress scores and demographic variables. Perceived lack of understanding from others with regard to health was the strongest factor associated with increased depressive symptoms (BETA=0.29 in males and 0.28 in females). Higher intragroup conflict (BETA=0.15 in males and 0.09 in females), perceived job future ambiguity (BETA=0.09 in males and 0.11 in females), higher quantitative workload (BETA=0.06 in males and 0.10 in females), and being an employer or a member of the employer's family (BETA=0.06 in males and 0.10 in females) were additional factors associated with high depressive symptoms. Economic concern, being single, cigarette smoking, shorter sleep duration, and skill underutilization were male specific, while younger age and lower social support at work were female specific factors significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms. These data suggest that poor mental health may be prevented by creating a workplace climate which focuses on the high value of the health of fellow workers.

  12. The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories.

    PubMed

    Lovibond, P F; Lovibond, S H

    1995-03-01

    The psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) were evaluated in a normal sample of N = 717 who were also administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The DASS was shown to possess satisfactory psychometric properties, and the factor structure was substantiated both by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In comparison to the BDI and BAI, the DASS scales showed greater separation in factor loadings. The DASS Anxiety scale correlated 0.81 with the BAI, and the DASS Depression scale correlated 0.74 with the BDI. Factor analyses suggested that the BDI differs from the DASS Depression scale primarily in that the BDI includes items such as weight loss, insomnia, somatic preoccupation and irritability, which fail to discriminate between depression and other affective states. The factor structure of the combined BDI and BAI items was virtually identical to that reported by Beck for a sample of diagnosed depressed and anxious patients, supporting the view that these clinical states are more severe expressions of the same states that may be discerned in normals. Implications of the results for the conceptualisation of depression, anxiety and tension/stress are considered, and the utility of the DASS scales in discriminating between these constructs is discussed.

  13. Measurement invariance of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 across medical student genders.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Peyman; Nozari, Farnoosh; Ahrari, Forooghosadat; Bagheri, Zahra

    2017-03-30

    This study aimed to assess whether male and female Iranian medical students perceived the meaning of the items in the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 consistently. A convenience sample of 783 preclinical medical students from the first to sixth semester was invited to this cross-sectional study. Of the 477 respondents, 238 were male and 239 were female. All participants completed the Persian version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. The graded response model was used to assess measurement invariance of the instrument across the gender groups. Categorical confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the construct validity of the measure. Moreover, internal consistency was assessed via Cronbach's Alpha. Statistically significant differential item functioning was flagged for just item 6 in the depression subscales (c 2 =6.5, df=1, p=0.011). However, removing or retaining the item 6 in the stress subscale did not change our findings significantly, when we compared stress scores across two genders. The results of categorical confirmatory factor analysis supported the fit of the three-factor model of Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. Moreover, Cronbach's alpha was greater than 0.7 in depression, anxiety and stress subscales. This study revealed that Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 is an invariant measure across male and female medical students. Hence, this reliable and valid instrument can be used for meaningful comparison of distress scores between medical student genders. Gender comparisons of medical students' psychological profiles provide a better insight into gender influences on the outcome of medical education and medical practice.

  14. Measurement invariance of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 across medical student genders

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Peyman; Nozari, Farnoosh; Ahrari, Forooghosadat

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess whether male and female Iranian medical students perceived the meaning of the items in the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 consistently. Methods A convenience sample of 783 preclinical medical students from the first to sixth semester was invited to this cross-sectional study. Of the 477 respondents, 238 were male and 239 were female. All participants completed the Persian version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. The graded response model was used to assess measurement invariance of the instrument across the gender groups. Categorical confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the construct validity of the measure. Moreover, internal consistency was assessed via Cronbach's Alpha. Results Statistically significant differential item functioning was flagged for just item 6 in the depression subscales (c2=6.5, df=1, p=0.011). However, removing or retaining the item 6 in the stress subscale did not change our findings significantly, when we compared stress scores across two genders. The results of categorical confirmatory factor analysis supported the fit of the three-factor model of Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. Moreover, Cronbach’s alpha was greater than 0.7 in depression, anxiety and stress subscales. Conclusions This study revealed that Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 is an invariant measure across male and female medical students. Hence, this reliable and valid instrument can be used for meaningful comparison of distress scores between medical student genders. Gender comparisons of medical students’ psychological profiles provide a better insight into gender influences on the outcome of medical education and medical practice.  PMID:28362630

  15. Using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales-21 with U.S. Adolescents: An Alternate Models Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Stephanie A.; Dowdy, Erin; Furlong, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    As part of universal screening efforts in schools, validated measures that identify internalizing distress are needed. One promising available measure, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21), has yet to be thoroughly investigated with adolescents in the United States. This study investigated the underlying factor structure of the…

  16. The factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in individuals with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Schönberger, Michael; Ponsford, Jennie

    2010-10-30

    There is a lack of validated scales for screening for anxiety and depression in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in individuals with TBI. A total of 294 individuals with TBI (72.1% male; mean age 37.1 years, S.D. 17.5, median post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) duration 17 days) completed the HADS 1 year post-injury. A series of confirmatory factor analyses was conducted to examine the fit of a one-, two- and three-factor solution, with and without controlling for item wording effects (Multi-Trait Multi-Method approach). The one-, two- or three-factor model fit the data only when controlling for negative item wording. The results are in support of the validity of the original anxiety and depression subscales of the HADS and demonstrate the importance of evaluating item wording effects when examining the factor structure of a questionnaire. The results would also justify the use of the HADS as a single scale of emotional distress. However, even though the three-factor solution fit the data, alternative scales should be used if the purpose of the assessment is to measure stress symptoms separately from anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Validation of Geriatric Depression Scale--5 Scores among Sedentary Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, David X.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.; Elavsky, Steriani; Konopack, James F.; Jerome, Gerald J.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the validity of Geriatric Depression Scale--5 (GDS-5) scores among older sedentary adults based on its structural properties and relationship with external criteria. Participants from two samples (Ns = 185 and 93; M ages = 66 and 67 years) completed baseline assessments as part of randomized controlled exercise trials.…

  18. [Self-Stigma of Depression Scale SSDS - Evaluation of the German Version].

    PubMed

    Makowski, Anna Christin; Mnich, Eva E; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2017-05-12

    Objectives A better understanding of self-stigma facilitates the development and evaluation of anti-stigma measures. In this study, the Self-Stigma of Depression Scale (SSDS) is applied for the first time in Germany. The focus lies on feasibility and psychometric characteristics of the scale. Methods Data stem from a representative population survey in Germany (N = 2,013). The 16 items of the original SSDS are used to assess anticipated self-stigma in case of depression. Main component analysis is applied to analyze the factor structure. Results The original version of the SDSS could not be replicated in the German sample. Instead of four, three factors emerged in the German version. They are similar to three subscales of the original SSDS: "social inadequacy", "help-seeking inhibition" and "self-blame". The internal reliability of the total scale as well as of the first two subscales is acceptable. Conclusion SSDS is a multidimensional construct and can serve as an important instrument in research regarding self-stigma of depression in Germany. A further development of the German scale is recommended in order to gain greater insight into the nature of (anticipated) depression self-stigma. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Measurement Invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale across Gender and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…

  20. Suitability of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew R; Lawrence, Blake J; Corti, Emily J; Booth, Leon; Gasson, N; Thomas, Meghan G; Loftus, A M; Bucks, Romola S

    2016-05-27

    The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale -21 (DASS-21) is a frequently used measure of emotional disturbance symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the factor structure of the DASS-21 in PD has yet to be explored. To assess whether the scale is measuring these symptoms in PD in the same way as the general population. The present study fit a series of established DASS-21 factor structures with both confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) using data from 251 participants with PD. The 3-factor ESEM provided the best fit. The depression and stress scales fit well, however, few items on the anxiety subscale loaded clearly, with several items significantly loading onto the depression or stress factors. Whilst the depression and stress subscales appear suitable in PD, poor loadings and internal consistency indicate the anxiety subscale may not accurately assess anxiety symptomology in PD. This may be due to the scale's reliance on physiological symptoms as indicators of anxiety, when many of these are present in PD. Thus, the anxiety subscale of the DASS-21 may not be a suitable measure of anxiety in PD.

  1. Efficiently Assessing Negative Cognition in Depression: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beevers, Christopher G.; Strong, David R.; Meyer, Bjorn; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Miller, Ivan R.

    2007-01-01

    Despite a central role for dysfunctional attitudes in cognitive theories of depression and the widespread use of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, form A (DAS-A; A. Weissman, 1979), the psychometric development of the DAS-A has been relatively limited. The authors used nonparametric item response theory methods to examine the DAS-A items and…

  2. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basha, Ertan; Kaya, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine validity and reliability of the Albanian version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), which is developed by Lovibond and Lovibond (1995). The sample of this study is consisted of 555 subjects who were living in Kosovo. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated 42 items loaded on…

  3. Psychometric Properties of an Arabic Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Miriam Taouk; Lovibond, Peter; Laube, Roy; Megahead, Hamido A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To translate and evaluate the psychometric properties of an Arabic-language version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS). Method: The items were translated, back translated, refined, and tested in an Australian immigrant sample (N = 220). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Arabic DASS discriminates between…

  4. Independent and combined relationship of habitual unhealthy eating behaviors with depressive symptoms: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Cui, Yufei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Sugiyama, Shota; Ren, Zhongyu; Niu, Kaijun; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2017-01-01

    Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24-83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Information about participants' eating behaviors was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire, in which skipping breakfast, eating dinner shortly before bedtime, and snacking after dinner were recorded. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. The 2-year incidence of depressive symptoms was found to be 23.7% (89/376). Covariate-adjusted multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that habitual snacking after dinner was significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (relative risk [RR] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-3.14, p = 0.049), whereas no relationship was found between skipping breakfast or eating dinner shortly before bedtime and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, there was an interaction effect of snacking after dinner and dinner before bedtime on depressive symptoms (p for the interaction = 0.044). Participants with more than two unhealthy eating behaviors had a higher incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with fewer than two unhealthy eating behaviors (RR 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06-2.77, p = 0.028). This prospective study is the first to reveal the combined relationship between unhealthy eating and the incidence of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Depression and Cognitive Impairment in Peritoneal Dialysis: A Multicenter Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie; Pi, Hai-Chen; Xiong, Zu-Ying; Liao, Jin-Lan; Hao, Li; Liu, Gui-Ling; Ren, Ye-Ping; Wang, Qin; Duan, Li-Ping; Zheng, Zhao-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Depression and cognitive impairment have been identified as independent risk factors for mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The relationship between depression and global and specific cognitive functions in PD patients was investigated in this study. Multicenter cross-sectional study. 458 clinically stable patients, drawn from 5 PD units, who performed PD for at least 3 months were enrolled. Depression, defined as depression severity index score > 0.5 using the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Global and specific cognitive impairment. Global cognitive function was measured using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), Trail-Making Test forms A and B for executive function, and subtests of the Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status for immediate and delayed memory, visuospatial skills, and language ability. Prevalences of depression and cognitive impairment evaluated by the 3MS were 52% and 28.4%, respectively. Patients with mild or moderate/severe depression had higher prevalences of general cognitive impairment, executive dysfunction, and impaired immediate and delayed memory. After adjusting for demographics, comorbid conditions, and clinical parameters, depression scores were independently associated with lower 3MS scores, lower immediate and delayed memory and language ability scores, and longer completion times of Trails A and B. Even mild depression was independently associated with higher risk for cognitive impairment, executive dysfunction, and impaired immediate and delayed memory after multivariable adjustments. The causal relationship between depression and cognitive impairment could not be determined, and the potential copathogenesis behind depression and cognitive impairment was not fully investigated. Even mild depression is closely associated with global and specific cognitive impairment in PD patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Screening for depressive symptoms in adolescents at school: New validity evidences on the short form of the Reynolds Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Aritio-Solana, Rebeca; Inchausti, Félix; Chocarro de Luis, Edurne; Lucas Molina, Beatriz; Pérez de Albéniz, Alicia; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to assess the depressive symptomatology and to gather new validity evidences of the Reynolds Depression Scale-Short form (RADS-SF) in a representative sample of youths. The sample consisted of 2914 adolescents with a mean age of 15.85 years (SD = 1.68). We calculated the descriptive statistics and internal consistency of the RADS-SF scores. Also, confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) at the item level and successive multigroup CFAs to test measurement invariance, were conducted. Latent mean differences across gender and educational level groups were estimated, and finally, we studied the sources of validity evidences with other external variables. The level of internal consistency of the RADS-SF Total score by means of Ordinal alpha was .89. Results from CFAs showed that the one-dimensional model displayed appropriate goodness of-fit indices with CFI value over .95, and RMSEA value under .08. In addition, the results support the strong measurement invariance of the RADS-SF scores across gender and age. When latent means were compared, statistically significant differences were found by gender and age. Females scored 0.347 over than males in Depression latent variable, whereas older adolescents scored 0.111 higher than the younger group. In addition, the RADS-SF score was associated with the RADS scores. The results suggest that the RADS-SF could be used as an efficient screening test to assess self-reported depressive symptoms in adolescents from the general population.

  7. Depressive symptoms following natural disaster in Korea: psychometric properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungkun; Cho, Yongrae

    2017-11-28

    Depressive symptoms have been recognized as one of the most frequent complaints among natural disaster survivors. One of the most frequently used self-report measures of depressive symptoms is the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). To our knowledge, no study has yet examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the CES-D in a sample of natural disaster survivors. Thus, the present study investigated the factor structure, reliability, and validity of a Korean language version of the CES-D (KCES-D) for natural disaster survivors. We utilized two archived datasets collected independently for two different periods in 2008 in the same region of Korea (n = 192 for sample 1; n = 148 for sample 2). Participants were survivors of torrential rains in the mid-eastern region of the Korean peninsula. For analysis, Samples 1 and 2 were merged (N = 340). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to evaluate the one-factor model, the four-factor model, and the bi-factor models, as well as the second-order factor model. Composite reliability was computed to examine the internal consistency of the KCES-D total and subscale scores. Finally, Pearson's r was computed to examine the relationship between the KCES-D and the trauma-related measures. The four-factor model provided the best fit to the data among the alternatives. The KCES-D showed adequate internal consistency, except for the 'interpersonal difficulties' subscale. Also regarding concurrent validity, weak to moderate positive correlations were observed between the KCES-D and the trauma-related measures. The results support the four-factor model and indicate that the KCES-D has adequate psychometric properties for natural disaster survivors. If these findings are further confirmed, the KCES-D can be used as a useful, rapid, and inexpensive screening tool for assessing depressive symptoms in natural disaster survivors.

  8. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Teens / Depressants Print en español Depresores del sistema nervioso What They Are: Tranquilizers and other depressants ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Depression Stigma Scale (DSS) and Associations with Personal and Perceived Stigma in a Depressed and Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Cuijpers, P.; Griffiths, K. M.; Kleiboer, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research on depression stigma is needed to gain more insight into the underlying construct and to reduce the level of stigma in the community. However, few validated measurements of depression stigma are available in the Netherlands. Therefore, this study first sought to examine the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Depression Stigma Scale (DSS). Second, we examined which demographic (gender, age, education, partner status) and other variables (anxiety and knowledge of depression) are associated with personal and perceived stigma within these samples. Methods The study population consisted of an adult convenience sample (n = 253) (study 1) and a community adult sample with elevated depressive symptoms (n = 264) (study 2). Factor structure, internal consistency, and validity were assessed. The associations between stigma, demographic variables and anxiety level were examined with regression analyses. Results Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity and internal consistency of the DSS personal stigma scale. Internal consistency was sufficient (Cronbach’s alpha = .70 (study 1) and .77 (study 2)). The results regarding the perceived stigma scale revealed no clear factor structure. Regression analyses showed that personal stigma was higher in younger people, those with no experience with depression, and those with lower education. Conclusions This study established the validity and internal consistency of the DSS personal scale in the Netherlands, in a community sample and in people with elevated depressive symptoms. However, additional research is needed to examine the factor structure of the DSS perceived scale and its use in other samples. PMID:27500969

  10. Convergent Validity, Concurrent Validity, and Diagnostic Accuracy of the interRAI Depression Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Penny, Katherine; Barron, Alex; Higgins, Ann-Marie; Gee, Susan; Croucher, Matthew; Cheung, Gary

    2016-09-19

    Depression Rating Scale (DRS) is one of the clinical outcome measures of the International Resident Assessment Instrument (interRAI) assessment. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy and concurrent validity of the 3-day assessment window version of the DRS. The performance of DRS was compared with a gold standard clinical diagnosis of depression in 92 patients (age ≥65) who had interRAI version 9.1 Home Care assessment completed within 30 days of discharge from psychogeriatric inpatient care or memory clinic assessment. The DRS had poor diagnostic accuracy for depression diagnosis with an area under the curve of 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.57-0.77). The DRS score had a poor to moderate correlation with the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale 65+ depression item score (r s = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.09-0.48, P = .006). This study and the existing literature raise concerns that the DRS is not an adequate measure of depression. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. The Positive Thinking Skills Scale: A screening measure for early identification of depressive thoughts.

    PubMed

    Bekhet, Abir K; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio

    2017-12-01

    Depression is currently considered the second leading cause of disability worldwide. Positive thinking is a cognitive process that helps individuals to deal with problems more effectively, and has been suggested as a useful strategy for coping with adversity, including depression. The Positive Thinking Skills Scale (PTSS) is a reliable and valid measure that captures the frequency of use of positive thinking skills that can help in the early identification of the possibility of developing depressive thoughts. However, no meaningful cutoff score has been established for the PTSS. To establish a cutoff score for the PTSS for early identification of risk for depression. This study used a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to establish a PTSS cutoff score for risk for depression, using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) as the gold standard measure. In a sample of 109 caregivers, the ROC showed that the cutoff score of PTSS that best classify the participants is 13.5. With this PTSS score, 77.8% of the subjects with low CES-D are classify correctly, and 69.6% of the subjects with high CES-D are classify correctly. Since the PTSS score should be integer numbers, functionally the cutoff would be 13. The study showed that a cut off score of 13 is a point at which referral, intervention, or treatment would be recommended. Consequently, this can help in the early identification of depressive symptoms that might develop because of the stress of caregiving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Psychometric Analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Parent Version in a Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebesutani, Chad; Bernstein, Adam; Nakamura, Brad J.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Weisz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a 47-item parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression, with scales corresponding to the DSM-IV categories of Separation Anxiety Disorder, Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Panic Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Major Depressive…

  13. A Psychometric Analysis of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales--Parent Version in a School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebesutani, Chad; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Nakamura, Brad J.; Regan, Jennifer; Lynch, Roxanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale--Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the "DSM" diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive…

  14. Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan Africa, is unknown. Method The CES-DC was selected based on alignment with local expressions of depression-like problems in Rwandan children and adolescents. To examine criterion validity, we compared CES-DC scores to depression diagnoses on a structured diagnostic interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children (MINI KID), in a sample of 367 Rwandan children and adolescents aged 10 through 17 years. Caregiver and child or adolescent self-reports endorsing the presence of local depression-like problems agahinda kenshi (persistent sorrow) and kwiheba (severe hopelessness) were also examined for agreement with MINI KID diagnosis. Results The CES-DC exhibited good internal reliability (α = .86) and test-retest reliability (r = .85). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the CES-DC was 0.825 when compared to MINI KID diagnoses, indicating a strong ability to distinguish between depressed and nondepressed children and adolescents in Rwanda. A cut point of ≥ 30 corresponded with a sensitivity of 81.9% and a specificity of 71.9% in this referred sample. MINI KID diagnosis was well aligned with local expressions of depression-like problems. Conclusion The CES-DC demonstrates good psychometric properties for clinical screening and evaluation in Rwanda, and should be considered for use in this and other low-resource settings. Population samples are needed to determine a generalizable cut point in nonreferred samples. PMID:23200285

  15. Investigation of depression in Greek patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rekleiti, Maria; Sarafis, Pavlos; Saridi, Maria; Toska, Aikaterini; Melos, Chrysovaladis; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Tsironi, Maria

    2013-06-16

    Considerable studies directly connect the complications in diabetic patients, and especially peripheral neuropathy, with the emergence of depression. Neuropathetic pain may deteriorate the general health status of the diabetic patient and glycaemic regulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the appearance and degree of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and its correlation with depression, with other parameters of the disease and also duration. 57 diabetic patients participated with diagnosed diabetic peripheral neuropathy (male n=27, female n= 30, mean of age 72.7±6.35 years). The first part of Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument and the Zung Depression Rating Scale were used as tools for our study. Data was analysed with the SPSS 18.0 statistic program. 57.9% of the patients were overweight, 35.1% were obese and only 7% were within normal weight range. The BMI findings between the two genders indicate that male participants are more often obese than females. Women surpassed men in the category of overweight patients (p < 0.05). The score based on MNSI was high and between 3 to 12 (mean average of 8.19±2.60 with 8 as intermediate rate). Almost 60% of patients had severe neuropathy, only 2 were found with mild symptoms and the rest had moderate neuropathtic symptoms, based on the score summary from the questionnaire. Investigating in detail the relation of diabetic neuropathy and depression, it derives that a high degree of diabetic neuropathy is related with high score of depression [F(3.160)=9.821, p=0.001]. Moderate and severe neuropathy was found with almost the same levels of depression. The correlation between diabetic neuropathy and depression is confirmed, while a very high depression rate was found in patients with severe neuropathy. The issue needs further study by using common instruments to obtain comparative results from the scientific community.

  16. [Sleep Quality, Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Esteem in People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA)].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsiang-Chun; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Wen-Chuan; Yu, Chien-Tai; Feng, Ming-Chu

    2017-12-01

    HIV has become a chronic disease. Therefore, the mental health and sleep quality of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have become increasingly important issues of concern. To explore the sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem of PLWHA and the correlation between sleep quality and various related mental-health factors. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study was conducted at a medical center in southern Taiwan in 2013-2014. Data on the sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem of 146 PLWHA cases were collected using a structural questionnaire (the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung's Self-Administered Anxiety Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Three-fifths (60.3%) of the cases had poor sleep quality, 50% were inclined toward depression, and 36.3% were inclined toward anxiety, indicating that sleep quality, depression, and anxiety levels in these cases were worse than the general population. Moreover, significant correlations were identified between poor sleep quality and the variables of depression (r = .40, p < .001) and anxiety (r = .53, p < .001). Multiple variate analysis revealed that older age, subjective feelings that HIV significantly influenced personal life, anxiety, and depression were all significant predictors of sleep quality. No significant correlations were found between CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, or receiving antiretroviral therapy and the variables of sleep quality, depression, anxiety, or self-esteem. About half of the PLWHA cases in the present study exhibited poor sleep quality and tendencies toward depression and anxiety. Moreover, sleep quality and mental health factors were found to be not correlated with CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, or receiving antiretroviral therapy. Therefore, early evaluation of the sleep quality and mental health of people living with HIV/AIDS is recommended in order to

  17. Exploring depression, self-esteem and verbal fluency with different degrees of internet addiction among Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jia; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore depression, self-esteem and verbal fluency functions among normal internet users, mild internet addictions and severe internet addictions. The survey sample consisted of 316 college students, and their internet addiction symptoms, depression and self-esteem symptoms were assessed using the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. From this sample, 16 students with non-addictions, 19 students with mild internet addiction (sub-MIA) and 15 students with severe internet addiction (sub-SIA) were recruited and subjected to the classical verbal fluency tests, including the semantic and phonemic fluency task. The results indicated that severe internet addiction in the survey sample showed the highest tendency towards depressive symptoms and lowest self-esteem scores, and sub-SIA showed poor performance on the semantic fluency task. In conclusion, severe internet addiction was significantly associated with depression, low self-esteem and semantic verbal fluency problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychometric properties and validation of Nepali version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21).

    PubMed

    Tonsing, Kareen N

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the reliability of the Nepali version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) among non-clinical sample. The purpose of this paper is to report the dimensionality and internal consistency of the DASS-21in a sample of non-clinical adults. This study was conducted in Hong Kong among 212 Nepali adults, aged 18-60 years. Life satisfaction was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Scale. The dimensionality of the DASS-21 scale was investigated using exploratory factor analysis. Construct validity was evaluated using the life satisfaction scale. The intercorrelation among depression, anxiety and stress subscales indicates that symptoms of psychological distress as measured by the DASS-21-N can distinguished between the three constructs in adult community sample. The results also showed inverse correlation among DASS-21-N and life satisfaction scale, supporting the assumption that the higher the life satisfaction, the lower the psychological distress. The results of this study indicate that the Nepali version of the DASS-21 demonstrate adequate psychometric properties in relation to internal consistency and validity, lending support to prior studies and suggest that the DASS-21 can be utilized among diverse groups with confidence. It supports the reliability of the 3-factorial dimensionality of the DASS-21, and highlight that it is a valid and useful tool that can distinguish between depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and reliability of a structured interview guide for the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (SIGMA).

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet B W; Kobak, Kenneth A

    2008-01-01

    The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) is often used in clinical trials to select patients and to assess treatment efficacy. The scale was originally published without suggested questions for clinicians to use in gathering the information necessary to rate the items. Structured and semi-structured interview guides have been found to improve reliability with other scales. To describe the development and test-retest reliability of a structured interview guide for the MADRS (SIGMA). A total of 162 test-retest interviews were conducted by 81 rater pairs. Each patient was interviewed twice, once by each rater conducting an independent interview. The intraclass correlation for total score between raters using the SIGMA was r=0.93, P<0.0001. All ten items had good to excellent interrater reliability. Use of the SIGMA can result in high reliability of MADRS scores in evaluating patients with depression.

  20. The Kimberley assessment of depression of older Indigenous Australians: prevalence of depressive disorders, risk factors and validation of the KICA-dep scale.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Flicker, Leon; Fenner, Stephen; Smith, Kate; Hyde, Zoe; Atkinson, David; Skeaf, Linda; Malay, Roslyn; LoGiudice, Dina

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a culturally acceptable and valid scale to assess depressive symptoms in older Indigenous Australians, to determine the prevalence of depressive disorders in the older Kimberley community, and to investigate the sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with depression in this population. Cross-sectional survey of adults aged 45 years or over from six remote Indigenous communities in the Kimberley and 30% of those living in Derby, Western Australia. The 11 linguistic and culturally sensitive items of the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment of Depression (KICA-dep) scale were derived from the signs and symptoms required to establish the diagnosis of a depressive episode according to the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria, and their frequency was rated on a 4-point scale ranging from 'never' to 'all the time' (range of scores: 0 to 33). The diagnosis of depressive disorder was established after a face-to-face assessment with a consultant psychiatrist. Other measures included sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, and clinical history. The study included 250 participants aged 46 to 89 years (mean±SD = 60.9±10.7), of whom 143 (57.2%) were women. The internal reliability of the KICA-dep was 0.88 and the cut-point 7/8 (non-case/case) was associated with 78% sensitivity and 82% specificity for the diagnosis of a depressive disorder. The point-prevalence of a depressive disorder in this population was 7.7%; 4.0% for men and 10.4% for women. Heart problems were associated with increased odds of depression (odds ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2,8.8). The KICA-dep has robust psychometric properties and can be used with confidence as a screening tool for depression among older Indigenous Australians. Depressive disorders are common in this population, possibly because of increased stressors and health morbidities.

  1. Adaptation and validation of the depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS) to Brazilian Portuguese.

    PubMed

    Vignola, Rose Claudia Batistelli; Tucci, Adriana Marcassa

    2014-02-01

    Depression and anxiety have been associated with a range of symptoms that often overlap. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is a single instrument to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. This study aimed to adapt and validate the DASS-21 for use in the Brazilian Portuguese language. The DASS-21 has been adapted following the translation-back translation methodology from English to Portuguese. 242 subjects completed the following assessments: the DASS-21, the Beck Depression Index (BDI), Beck Anxiety Index (BAI) and the Inventory of Stress Symptoms of Lipp (ISSL). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) result was .949, indicating that the adequacy of the model was high. Cronbach's alpha was .92 for the depression, .90 for the stress, and .86 for the anxiety, indicating a good internal consistency for each subscale. The correlations between DASS scale and BDI scale, BAI scale and ISSL inventory were strong. The factorial analysis and distribution of factors among the subscales indicated that the structure of three distinct factors is adequate. Older subjects over 65 years of age were not largely represented in this sample. A study specific to this elderly population should be conducted. Another limitation of the study was education level. The impact of low education in its applicability should be considered. The findings support the validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the DASS-21 and add to the evidence of the DASS-21 quality and ability to assess emotional states separately, eliminating the use of different instruments to assess these states. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Item response theory in personality assessment: a demonstration using the MMPI-2 depression scale.

    PubMed

    Childs, R A; Dahlstrom, W G; Kemp, S M; Panter, A T

    2000-03-01

    Item response theory (IRT) analyses have, over the past 3 decades, added much to our understanding of the relationships among and characteristics of test items, as revealed in examinees response patterns. Assessment instruments used outside the educational context have only infrequently been analyzed using IRT, however. This study demonstrates the relevance of IRT to personality data through analyses of Scale 2 (the Depression Scale) on the revised Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2). A rich set of hypotheses regarding the items on this scale, including contrasts among the Harris-Lingoes and Wiener-Harmon subscales and differences in the items measurement characteristics for men and women, are investigated through the IRT analyses.

  3. Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) on the Thai–Myanmar border

    PubMed Central

    Ing, Harriet; Fellmeth, Gracia; White, Jitrachote; Stein, Alan; Simpson, Julie A; McGready, Rose

    2017-01-01

    Postnatal depression is common and may have severe consequences for women and their children. Locally validated screening tools are required to identify at-risk women in marginalised populations. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is one of the most frequently used tools globally. This cross-sectional study assessed the validity and acceptability of the EPDS in Karen and Burmese among postpartum migrant and refugee women on the Thai–Myanmar border. The EPDS was administered to participants and results compared with a diagnostic interview. Local staff provided feedback on the acceptability of the EPDS through a focus group discussion. Results from 670 women showed high accuracy and reasonable internal consistency of the EPDS. However, acceptability to local staff was low, limiting the utility of the EPDS in this setting despite its good psychometrics. Further work is required to identify a tool that is acceptable and sensitive to cultural manifestations of depression in this vulnerable population. PMID:28699396

  4. Factor structure and validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in Swedish translation.

    PubMed

    Alfonsson, S; Wallin, E; Maathz, P

    2017-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is a widely used measurement for psychological symptoms and distress. Some previous studies have shown that the DASS-21 can accurately measure symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress, while other studies have indicated that the DASS-21 mainly measures overall distress. The factor structure of the DASS-21 is important and debated since if affects interpretations of findings. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: In this study, the DASS-21 was translated into Swedish and evaluated in three diverse samples. The DASS-21 subscales of Depression and Anxiety correlated significantly with corresponding criteria instruments. The DASS-21 Stress subscale showed more diverse associations with psychological distress. The analyses supported a bifactor model of the DASS-21 with three specific factors of depression, anxiety and stress as well as a general distress factor. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The results show that the DASS-21 may be used to measure unique symptoms of depression, anxiety and, with some caveat, stress as well as overall psychological distress. This study confirms that the DASS-21 is theoretically sound instrument that is feasible for both research and clinical practice. The DASS-21 can be an accessible tool for screening and evaluation in first-line mental health services. Introduction There is a constant need for theoretically sound and valid self-report instruments for measuring psychological distress. Previous studies have shown that the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is theoretically sound, but there have been some inconsistent results regarding its factor structure. Aims The aim of the present study was to investigate and elucidate the factor structure and convergent validity of the DASS-21. Methods A total of 624 participants recruited from student, primary care and psychotherapy populations. The factor structure of the DASS

  5. The validity of dysthymia to predict clinical depressive symptoms as measured by the Hamilton Depression Scale at the 5-year follow-up of patients with first episode depression.

    PubMed

    Bech, Per; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2016-11-01

    In long-term follow-up studies on depression, the Eysenck Neuroticism Scale (ENS) at the score level of dysthymia has been found to be valid at predicting poor outcome. The ENS dysthymia level was compared with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) level to predict the prevalence of depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up of patients initially diagnosed with first episode depression using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) to express depressive symptoms. A total of 301 in- or outpatients aged 18-70 years with a recent single depressive episode were assessed by ENS, BDI, and HAM-D from 2005-2007. At 5-year follow-up from 2011-2013, the participants were re-assessed by HAM-D. The HAM-D was used to measure depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up. The Mokken analysis was used to indicate scalability of the BDI and ENS. A total of 185 participants were available for the psychometric analysis of the ESN and BDI, and the scalability was found acceptable. In total, 99 patients were available for the predictive analysis. Both the ENS and the BDI were significantly associated with depressive symptoms (HAM-D17 ≥ 8) at the 5-year follow-up (p < 0.05). Dysthymia as measured by the two self-rating scales ENS and BDI can be considered part of a 'double depression' in patients with first episode depression, implying an existence of depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up. Evaluation of dysthymia or neuroticism is important to perform, even in patients with first episode depression, in order to identify 'double depression'.

  6. Associations between emotional intelligence, depression and suicide risk in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    2014-04-01

    The most important factor which predisposes young people to suicide is depression, although protective factors such as self-esteem, emotional adaptation and social support may reduce the probability of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Several studies have indicated an elevated risk of suicide for health-related professions. Little is known, however, about the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and suicide risk among nursing students. The main goals were to determine the prevalence of suicide risk in a sample of nursing students, to examine the relationship between suicide risk and perceived emotional intelligence, depression, trait anxiety and self-esteem, and to identify any gender differences in relation to these variables. Cross-sectional study of nursing students (n=93) who completed self-report measures of perceived emotional intelligence (Trait Meta-Mood Scale, which evaluates three dimensions: emotional attention, clarity and repair), suicide risk (Plutchik Suicide Risk Scale), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale), depression (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale) and anxiety (Trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Linear regression analysis confirmed that depression and emotional attention are significant predictors of suicidal ideation. Moreover, suicide risk showed a significant negative association with self-esteem and with emotional clarity and repair. Gender differences were only observed in relation to depression, on which women scored significantly higher. Overall, 14% of the students were considered to present a substantial suicide risk. The findings suggest that interventions to prevent suicidal ideation among nursing students should include strategies to detect mood disorders (especially depression) and to improve emotional coping skills. In line with previous research the results indicate that high scores on emotional attention are linked to heightened emotional susceptibility and an increased risk of

  7. Can the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale be used on Chinese elderly in general practice?

    PubMed

    Lam, C L; Pan, P C; Chan, A W; Chan, S Y; Munro, C

    1995-06-01

    A study was carried out in a general practice in Hong Kong to find out if the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale could be used to detect psychological problems in Chinese elderly. The HAD Scale was translated into Cantonese and administered by an interviewer to 298 Chinese aged 60 or above before their doctor consultations. The acceptance rate of the Scale was 96% and each interview took only 5-10 min to complete. All 298 elderly understood and completed the HAD Scale. Validation of the results of the HAD Scale by the Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS) was done on a random sample of 100 elderly. Relative operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the optimal cut-off points of the HAD Scale was a depression score of 6 and an anxiety score of 3. The sensitivity was 80%, specificity was 90%, OMR (overall misclassification rate) was 12%, positive predictive value was 67% and negative predictive value was 95%. Thirty-six per cent of the elderly had scores above these cut-off points. More females than males had high anxiety scores. Nearly half of those with positive HAD scores were not known to have any psychological illness. The HAD Scale has great potential to be used as a screening instrument for psychological illnesses in Cantonese-speaking Chinese elderly all over the world.

  8. The Psychometric Properties of PHQ-4 Depression and Anxiety Screening Scale Among College Students.

    PubMed

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Brey, Rebecca; Kotecki, Jerome; Kleinfelder, JoAnn; Anderson, Jason

    2016-08-01

    Depression and anxiety are some of the most common causes of morbidity, social dysfunction, and reduced academic performance in college students. The combination of improved surveillance and access to care would result in better outreach. Brief screening tools can help reach larger populations of college students efficiently. However, reliability and validity of brief screeners for anxiety and depression have not been assessed in college students. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess in a sample of college students the psychometric properties of PHQ-4, a brief screening tool for depression and anxiety. Undergraduate students were recruited from general education classes at a Midwestern university. Students were given a questionnaire that asked them whether they had been diagnosed by a doctor or health professional with anxiety or depression. Next, they were asked to respond to the items on the PHQ-4 scale. A total of 934 students responded to the survey (response rate=72%). Majority of the participants were females (63%) and Whites (80%). The internal reliability of PHQ-4 was found to be high (α=0.81). Those who were diagnosed with depression or anxiety had statistically significantly higher scores on PHQ-4 (p<0.01). Corrected item total correlations for PHQ-4 were between r=0.66 and r=0.80. PHQ-4 operating characteristics were estimated and area under the curve (AUC) values were 0.835 and 0.787, respectively for anxiety and depression. The PHQ-4 is a reliable and valid tool that can serve as a mass screener for depression and anxiety in young adults. Widespread implementation of this screening tool should be explored across college campuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Validation of the Tamil version of short form Geriatric Depression Scale-15.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sonali; Kattimani, Shivananand; Roy, Gautam; Premarajan, K C; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Local language screening instruments can be helpful in early assessment of depression in the elderly in the community and primary care population. This study describes the validation of a Tamil version of Geriatric Depression Scale (short form 15 [GDS-15] item) in a rural population. A Tamil version of GDS-15 was developed using standardized procedures. The questionnaire was applied in a sample of elderly (aged 60 years and above) from a village in South India. All the participants were also assessed for depression by a clinical interview by a psychiatrist. A total of 242 participants were enrolled, 64.9% of them being females. The mean score on GDS-15 was 7.4 (±3.4), while the point prevalence of depression was 6.2% by clinical interview. The area under the receiver-operator curve was 0.659. The optimal cut-off for the GDS in this sample was found at 7/8 with sensitivity and specificity being 80% and 47.6%, respectively. The Tamil version of GDS-15 can be a useful screening instrument for assessment of depression in the elderly population.

  10. The Self-Stigma of Depression Scale (SSDS): development and psychometric evaluation of a new instrument.

    PubMed

    Barney, Lisa J; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F

    2010-12-01

    Self-stigma may feature strongly and be detrimental for people with depression, but the understanding of its nature and prevalence is limited by the lack of psychometrically-validated measures. This study aimed to develop and validate a measure of self-stigma about depression. Items assessing self-stigma were developed from focus group discussions, and were tested and refined over three studies using surveys of 408 university students, 330 members of a depression Internet network, and 1312 members of the general Australian public. Evaluation involved item-level and bivariate analyses, and factor analytic procedures. Items performed consistently across the three surveys. The resulting Self-Stigma of Depression Scale (SSDS) comprised 16 items representing subscales of Shame, Self-Blame, Social Inadequacy, and Help-Seeking Inhibition. Construct validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were satisfactory. The SSDS distinguishes self-stigma from perceptions of stigma by others, yields in-depth information about self-stigma of depression, and possesses good psychometric properties. It is a promising tool for the measurement of self-stigma and is likely to be useful in further understanding self-stigma and evaluating stigma interventions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. In-hospital risk prediction for post-stroke depression: development and validation of the Post-stroke Depression Prediction Scale.

    PubMed

    de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra B; Lindeman, Eline; Ettema, Roelof G A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    2013-09-01

    The timely detection of post-stroke depression is complicated by a decreasing length of hospital stay. Therefore, the Post-stroke Depression Prediction Scale was developed and validated. The Post-stroke Depression Prediction Scale is a clinical prediction model for the early identification of stroke patients at increased risk for post-stroke depression. The study included 410 consecutive stroke patients who were able to communicate adequately. Predictors were collected within the first week after stroke. Between 6 to 8 weeks after stroke, major depressive disorder was diagnosed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted. A bootstrap-backward selection process resulted in a reduced model. Performance of the model was expressed by discrimination, calibration, and accuracy. The model included a medical history of depression or other psychiatric disorders, hypertension, angina pectoris, and the Barthel Index item dressing. The model had acceptable discrimination, based on an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.78 (0.72-0.85), and calibration (P value of the U-statistic, 0.96). Transforming the model to an easy-to-use risk-assessment table, the lowest risk category (sum score, <-10) showed a 2% risk of depression, which increased to 82% in the highest category (sum score, >21). The clinical prediction model enables clinicians to estimate the degree of the depression risk for an individual patient within the first week after stroke.

  12. Short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21: is it valid for Brazilian adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Hítalo Andrade; dos Passos, Muana Hiandra Pereira; de Oliveira, Valéria Mayaly Alves; Palmeira, Aline Cabral; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the interday reproducibility, agreement and validity of the construct of short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 applied to adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of adolescents of both sexes, aged between 10 and 19 years, who were recruited from schools and sports centers. The validity of the construct was performed by exploratory factor analysis, and reliability was calculated for each construct using the intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement and the minimum detectable change. Results The factor analysis combining the items corresponding to anxiety and stress in a single factor, and depression in a second factor, showed a better match of all 21 items, with higher factor loadings in their respective constructs. The reproducibility values for depression were intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.86, standard error of measurement with 0.80, and minimum detectable change with 2.22; and, for anxiety/stress: intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.82, standard error of measurement with 1.80, and minimum detectable change with 4.99. Conclusion The short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 showed excellent values of reliability, and strong internal consistency. The two-factor model with condensation of the constructs anxiety and stress in a single factor was the most acceptable for the adolescent population. PMID:28076595

  13. Establishing the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression Scale in a UK student population: an online pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ahmed K; Kelly, Shona J; Challenor, Emily C; Glazebrook, Cris

    2010-12-10

    It is thought that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Recently, there is a steady increase in the number of university students diagnosed and treated as depression patients. It can be assumed that depression is a serious mental health problem for university students because it affects all age groups of the students either younger or older equally. The current study aims to establish the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression scale in a UK sample. The study was a cross-sectional online survey. A sample of 133 out of 275 undergraduate students from a range of UK Universities in the academic year 2008-2009, aged 20.3 ± 6.3 years old were recruited. A modified back translated version of Zagazig Depression scale was used. In order to validate the Zagazig Depression scale, participants were asked to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis includes Kappa analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's correlation analysis, and Confirmatory Factor analysis. Using the recommended cut-off of Zagazig Depression scale for possible minor depression it was found that 30.3% of the students have depression and higher percentage was identified according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (37.4%). Females were more depressed. The mean ZDS score was 8.3 ± 4.2. Rates of depression increase as students get older. The reliability of The ZDS was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha was .894). For validity, ZDS score was strongly associated with PHQ, with no significant difference (p-value > 0.05), with strong positive correlation (r = +.8, p-value < 0.01). The strong, significant correlation between the PHQ and ZDS, along with high internal consistency of the ZDS as a whole provides evidence that ZDS is a reliable measure of depressive symptoms and is promising for the use of the translated ZDS in a large-scale cross-culture study.

  14. The mental health characteristics of pregnant women with depressive symptoms identified by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Lydsdottir, Linda B; Howard, Louise M; Olafsdottir, Halldora; Thome, Marga; Tyrfingsson, Petur; Sigurdsson, Jon F

    2014-04-01

    Few studies are available on the effectiveness of screening tools such as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in pregnancy or the extent to which such tools may identify women with mental disorders other than depression. We therefore aimed to investigate the mental health characteristics of pregnant women who screen positive on the EPDS. Consecutive women receiving antenatal care in primary care clinics (from November 2006 to July 2011) were invited to complete the EPDS in week 16 of pregnancy. All women who scored above 11 (screen positive) on the EPDS and randomly selected women who scored below 12 (screen negative) were invited to participate in a psychiatric diagnostic interview. 2,411 women completed the EPDS. Two hundred thirty-three women (9.7%) were screened positive in week 16, of whom 153 (66%) agreed to a psychiatric diagnostic interview. Forty-eight women (31.4%) were diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV criteria, 20 (13.1%) with bipolar disorder, 93 (60.8%) with anxiety disorders (including 27 [17.6%] with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD]), 8 (5.2%) with dysthymia, 18 (11.8%) with somatoform disorder, 3 (2%) with an eating disorder, and 7 (4.6%) with current substance abuse. Women who screened positive were significantly more likely to have psychosocial risk factors, including being unemployed (χ(2)(1) = 23.37, P ≤.001), lower educational status (χ(2)(1)= 31.68, P ≤ .001), and a history of partner violence (χ(2)(1) = 10.30, P ≤ 001), compared with the women who screened negative. Use of the EPDS early in the second trimester of pregnancy identifies a substantial number of women with potentially serious mental disorders other than depression, including bipolar disorder, OCD, and eating disorders. A comprehensive clinical assessment is therefore necessary following use of the EPDS during pregnancy to ensure that women who screen positive receive appropriate mental health management. © Copyright 2014

  15. Impact of terrorism on health and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale screening in medical students, Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nasim, Sara; Khan, Mahjabeen; Aziz, Sina

    2014-03-01

    To determine the association of terrorism with psychiatric morbidity by Hospital Anxiety Depression scale among medical students in Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to March 2011 and comprised students of the Institute of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation and the Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi. The study tool was a validated Hospital Anxiety Depression scale questionnaire. The data was analysed on SPSS 16. Factor analysis was performed to check which factors had the most influence. Overall there were 1036 respondents. The impact of terrorism on physical, social and mental health was 40 (3.9%), 178 (17.2%) and 818 (79%) respectively. There was an association of terrorism in 980 (84.6%) respondents with psychiatric morbidity. There was an association of terrorism with psychiatric morbidity in majority of respondents. The significant risk factors were age, gender, physical, mental and social health and the desire to live in Pakistan.

  16. Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21): psychometric analysis across four racial groups.

    PubMed

    Norton, Peter J

    2007-09-01

    Growing cross-cultural awareness has led researchers to examine frequently used research instruments and assessment tools in racially diverse populations. The present study was conducted to assess the psychometric characteristics of the 21-item version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) among different racial groups. The DASS-21 was chosen because it appears to be a reliable and easy to administer measure, ideal for both clinical and research purposes. Results suggest that the internal consistency, and convergent and divergent validity of the DASS-21 are similar across racial groups. Multigroup CFA, however, indicated that item loadings were invariant, while scale covariances were not invariant. This suggests that, although the items may load similarly on the depression, anxiety and stress constructs, these constructs may be differentially inter-related across groups. Implications for application in clinical practice are discussed.

  17. Assessment of the structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in musculoskeletal patients

    PubMed Central

    Pallant, Julie F; Bailey, Catherine M

    2005-01-01

    Background Research suggests there is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, which can influence the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs. It is therefore important for clinicians involved in musculoskeletal rehabilitation programs to consider screening patients for elevated levels of anxiety and depression and to provide appropriate counselling or treatment where necessary. The HADS has been used as a screening tool for assessment of anxiety and depression in a wide variety of clinical groups. Recent research however has questioned its suitability for use with some patient groups due to problems with dimensionality and the behaviour of individual items. The aim of this study is to assess the underlying structure and psychometric properties of the HADS among patients attending musculoskeletal rehabilitation. Methods Data was obtained from 296 patients attending an outpatient musculoskeletal pain clinic. The total sample was used to identify the proportion of patients with elevated levels of anxiety and depression. Half the sample (n = 142) was used for exploratory factor analysis (EFA), with the holdout sample (n = 154) used for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to explore the underlying structure of the scale. Results A substantial proportion of patients were classified as probable cases on the HADS Anxiety subscale (38.2%) and HADS Depression subscale (30.1%), with the sample recording higher mean HADS subscales scores than many other patient groups (breast cancer, end-stage renal disease, heart disease) reported in the literature. EFA supported a two factor structure (representing anxiety and depression) as proposed by the scale's authors, however item 7 (an anxiety item) failed to load appropriately. Removing Item 7 resulted in a clear two factor solution in both EFA and CFA. Conclusion The high levels of anxiety and depression detected in this sample suggests that screening for psychological

  18. Evaluation of the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale using Rasch analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pallant, Julie F; Miller, Renée L; Tennant, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a 10 item self-rating post-natal depression scale which has seen widespread use in epidemiological and clinical studies. Concern has been raised over the validity of the EPDS as a single summed scale, with suggestions that it measures two separate aspects, one of depressive feelings, the other of anxiety. Methods As part of a larger cross-sectional study conducted in Melbourne, Australia, a community sample (324 women, ranging in age from 18 to 44 years: mean = 32 yrs, SD = 4.6), was obtained by inviting primiparous women to participate voluntarily in this study. Data from the EPDS were fitted to the Rasch measurement model and tested for appropriate category ordering, for item bias through Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis, and for unidimensionality through tests of the assumption of local independence. Results Rasch analysis of the data from the ten item scale initially demonstrated a lack of fit to the model with a significant Item-Trait Interaction total chi-square (chi Square = 82.8, df = 40; p < .001). Removal of two items (items 7 and 8) resulted in a non-significant Item-Trait Interaction total chi-square with a residual mean value for items of -0.467 with a standard deviation of 0.850, showing fit to the model. No DIF existed in the final 8-item scale (EPDS-8) and all items showed fit to model expectations. Principal Components Analysis of the residuals supported the local independence assumption, and unidimensionality of the revised EPDS-8 scale. Revised cut points were identified for EPDS-8 to maintain the case identification of the original scale. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that EPDS, in its original 10 item form, is not a viable scale for the unidimensional measurement of depression. Rasch analysis suggests that a revised eight item version (EPDS-8) would provide a more psychometrically robust scale. The revised cut points of 7/8 and 9/10 for the EPDS-8 show high

  19. Depression in Intimate Partner Violence Victims in Slovenia: A Crippling Pattern of Factors Identified in Family Practice Attendees.

    PubMed

    Guček, Nena Kopčavar; Selič, Polona

    2018-01-26

    This multi-centre cross-sectional study explored associations between prevalence of depression and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) at any time in patients' adult life in 471 participants of a previous IPV study. In 2016, 174 interviews were performed, using the Short Form Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire, the Zung Scale and questions about behavioural patterns of exposure to IPV. Family doctors reviewed patients' medical charts for period from 2012 to 2016, using the Domestic Violence Exposure Medical Chart Check List, for conditions which persisted for at least three years. Depression was found to be associated with any exposure to IPV in adult life and was more likely to affect women. In multivariable logistic regression modelling, factors associated with self-rated depression were identified (p < 0.05). Exposure to emotional and physical violence was identified as a risk factor in the first model, explaining 23% of the variance. The second model explained 66% of the variance; past divorce, dysfunctional family relationships and a history of incapacity to work increased the likelihood of depression in patients. Family doctors should consider IPV exposure when detecting depression, since lifetime IPV exposure was found to be 40.4% and 36.9% of depressed revealed it.

  20. Computerized Adaptive Testing Provides Reliable and Efficient Depression Measurement Using the CES-D Scale

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is a measure of depressive symptomatology which is widely used internationally. Though previous attempts were made to shorten the CES-D scale, few have attempted to develop a Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT) version for the CES-D. Objective The aim of this study was to provide evidence on the efficiency and accuracy of the CES-D when administered using CAT using an American sample group. Methods We obtained a sample of 2060 responses to the CESD-D from US participants using the myPersonality application. The average age of participants was 26 years (range 19-77). We randomly split the sample into two groups to evaluate and validate the psychometric models. We used evaluation group data (n=1018) to assess dimensionality with both confirmatory factor and Mokken analysis. We conducted further psychometric assessments using item response theory (IRT), including assessments of item and scale fit to Samejima’s graded response model (GRM), local dependency and differential item functioning. We subsequently conducted two CAT simulations to evaluate the CES-D CAT using the validation group (n=1042). Results Initial CFA results indicated a poor fit to the model and Mokken analysis revealed 3 items which did not conform to the same dimension as the rest of the items. We removed the 3 items and fit the remaining 17 items to GRM. We found no evidence of differential item functioning (DIF) between age and gender groups. Estimates of the level of CES-D trait score provided by the simulated CAT algorithm and the original CES-D trait score derived from original scale were correlated highly. The second CAT simulation conducted using real participant data demonstrated higher precision at the higher levels of depression spectrum. Conclusions Depression assessments using the CES-D CAT can be more accurate and efficient than those made using the fixed-length assessment. PMID:28931496

  1. The Arabic Version of The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21: Cumulative scaling and discriminant-validation testing.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amira Mohammed; Ahmed, Anwar; Sharaf, Amira; Kawakami, Norito; Abdeldayem, Samia M; Green, Joseph

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the validity of the Arabic version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) in 149 illicit drug users. We calculated α coefficient, inter-item and item-total correlations, coefficients of reproducibility and scalability (CR and CS), item difficulty and discrimination indices. The DASS-21 had an acceptable reliability; but values of the CR and the CS were less than acceptable. Items varied in difficulty and discrimination; some items are candidates for elimination. The DASS-21 is a probabilistic and not a deterministic measure of distress; it has problematic items and needs further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  3. Depression

    Cancer.gov

    For many women, pregnancy and having a baby is the most wonderful time of their lives. But other women struggle with depression during pregnancy or after their baby is born. In fact, about thirteen percent of pregnant women and new moms have depression.

  4. Validation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wiglusz, Mariusz S; Landowski, Jerzy; Michalak, Lidia; Cubała, Wiesław J

    2016-05-01

    Despite the fact that depressive disorders are the most common comorbidities among patients with epilepsy (PWEs), they often go unrecognized and untreated. The availability of validated screening instruments to detect depression in PWEs is limited. The aim of the present study was to validate the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in adult PWEs. A consecutive group of 118 outpatient PWEs was invited to participate in the study. Ninety-six patients met inclusion criteria, completed HADS, and were examined by a trained psychiatrist using Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-I) for DSM-IV-TR. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the optimal threshold scores for the HADS depression subscale (HADS-D). Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed areas under the curve at approximately 84%. For diagnoses of MDD, the HADS-D demonstrated the best psychometric properties for a cutoff score ≥7 with sensitivity of 90.5%, specificity of 70.7%, positive predictive value of 46.3%, and negative predictive value of 96.4%. In the case of the group with 'any depressive disorder', the HADS-D optimum cutoff score was ≥6 with sensitivity of 82.5%, specificity of 73.2%, positive predictive value of 68.8%, and negative predictive value of 85.4%. The HADS-D proved to be a valid and reliable psychometric instrument in terms of screening for depressive disorders in PWEs. In the epilepsy setting, HADS-D maintains adequate sensitivity, acceptable specificity, and high NPV but low PPV for diagnosing MDD with an optimum cutoff score ≥7. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acculturation and the Center For Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale for Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Brian E; Vermeesch, Amber L; Hall, Rosemary F; Peragallo, Nilda P; Mitrani, Victoria B

    2011-01-01

    Culturally valid measures of depression for Spanish-speaking Hispanic women are important for developing and implementing effective interventions to reduce health disparities. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) is a widely used measure of depression. Differential item functioning has been studied using language preference as a proxy for acculturation, but it is unknown if the results were due to acculturation or the language of administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of acculturation, defined with a dimensional measure, to Spanish CES-D item responses. Spanish-speaking Hispanic women (n = 504) were recruited for a randomized controlled trial of Salud, Educación, Prevención y Autocuidado (Health, Education, Prevention, and Self-Care). Acculturation, an important dimension of variation within the diverse U.S. Hispanic community, was defined by high or low scores on the Americanism subscale of the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale. Differential item functioning for each of the 20 CES-D items between more acculturated and less acculturated women was tested using ordinal logistic regression. No items on the Depressed Affect, Somatic Activity, or Positive Affect subscales showed meaningful differential item functioning, but 1 item ("People were unfriendly") on the Interpersonal subscale had small results (R = 1.1%). The majority of CES-D items performed similarly for Spanish-speaking Hispanic women with high and low acculturation. Less acculturated women responded more positively to "People were unfriendly," despite having an equivalent level of depression, than did more acculturated women. Possibilities for improving this item are proposed.

  6. Large-Scale Hypoconnectivity Between Resting-State Functional Networks in Unmedicated Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sacchet, Matthew D; Ho, Tiffany C; Connolly, Colm G; Tymofiyeva, Olga; Lewinn, Kaja Z; Han, Laura Km; Blom, Eva H; Tapert, Susan F; Max, Jeffrey E; Frank, Guido Kw; Paulus, Martin P; Simmons, Alan N; Gotlib, Ian H; Yang, Tony T

    2016-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) often emerges during adolescence, a critical period of brain development. Recent resting-state fMRI studies of adults suggest that MDD is associated with abnormalities within and between resting-state networks (RSNs). Here we tested whether adolescent MDD is characterized by abnormalities in interactions among RSNs. Participants were 55 unmedicated adolescents diagnosed with MDD and 56 matched healthy controls. Functional connectivity was mapped using resting-state fMRI. We used the network-based statistic (NBS) to compare large-scale connectivity between groups and also compared the groups on graph metrics. We further assessed whether group differences identified using nodes defined from functionally defined RSNs were also evident when using anatomically defined nodes. In addition, we examined relations between network abnormalities and depression severity and duration. Finally, we compared intranetwork connectivity between groups and assessed the replication of previously reported MDD-related abnormalities in connectivity. The NBS indicated that, compared with controls, depressed adolescents exhibited reduced connectivity (p<0.024, corrected) between a specific set of RSNs, including components of the attention, central executive, salience, and default mode networks. The NBS did not identify group differences in network connectivity when using anatomically defined nodes. Longer duration of depression was significantly correlated with reduced connectivity in this set of network interactions (p=0.020, corrected), specifically with reduced connectivity between components of the dorsal attention network. The dorsal attention network was also characterized by reduced intranetwork connectivity in the MDD group. Finally, we replicated previously reported abnormal connectivity in individuals with MDD. In summary, adolescents with MDD show hypoconnectivity between large-scale brain networks compared with healthy controls. Given that

  7. Large-Scale Hypoconnectivity Between Resting-State Functional Networks in Unmedicated Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sacchet, Matthew D; Ho, Tiffany C; Connolly, Colm G; Tymofiyeva, Olga; Lewinn, Kaja Z; Han, Laura KM; Blom, Eva H; Tapert, Susan F; Max, Jeffrey E; Frank, Guido KW; Paulus, Martin P; Simmons, Alan N; Gotlib, Ian H; Yang, Tony T

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) often emerges during adolescence, a critical period of brain development. Recent resting-state fMRI studies of adults suggest that MDD is associated with abnormalities within and between resting-state networks (RSNs). Here we tested whether adolescent MDD is characterized by abnormalities in interactions among RSNs. Participants were 55 unmedicated adolescents diagnosed with MDD and 56 matched healthy controls. Functional connectivity was mapped using resting-state fMRI. We used the network-based statistic (NBS) to compare large-scale connectivity between groups and also compared the groups on graph metrics. We further assessed whether group differences identified using nodes defined from functionally defined RSNs were also evident when using anatomically defined nodes. In addition, we examined relations between network abnormalities and depression severity and duration. Finally, we compared intranetwork connectivity between groups and assessed the replication of previously reported MDD-related abnormalities in connectivity. The NBS indicated that, compared with controls, depressed adolescents exhibited reduced connectivity (p<0.024, corrected) between a specific set of RSNs, including components of the attention, central executive, salience, and default mode networks. The NBS did not identify group differences in network connectivity when using anatomically defined nodes. Longer duration of depression was significantly correlated with reduced connectivity in this set of network interactions (p=0.020, corrected), specifically with reduced connectivity between components of the dorsal attention network. The dorsal attention network was also characterized by reduced intranetwork connectivity in the MDD group. Finally, we replicated previously reported abnormal connectivity in individuals with MDD. In summary, adolescents with MDD show hypoconnectivity between large-scale brain networks compared with healthy controls. Given that

  8. Relationship between the clinical global impression of severity for schizoaffective disorder scale and established mood scales for mania and depression.

    PubMed

    Turkoz, Ibrahim; Fu, Dong-Jing; Bossie, Cynthia A; Sheehan, John J; Alphs, Larry

    2013-08-15

    This analysis explored the relationship between ratings on HAM-D-17 or YMRS and those on the depressive or manic subscale of CGI-S for schizoaffective disorder (CGI-S-SCA). This post hoc analysis used the database (N=614) from two 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of paliperidone ER versus placebo in symptomatic subjects with schizoaffective disorder assessed using HAM-D-17, YMRS, and CGI-S-SCA scales. Parametric and nonparametric regression models explored the relationships between ratings on YMRS and HAM-D-17 and on depressive and manic domains of the CGI-S-SCA from baseline to the 6-week end point. A clinically meaningful improvement was defined as a change of 1 point in the CGI-S-SCA score. No adjustment was made for multiplicity. Multiple linear regression models suggested that a 1-point change in the depressive domain of CGI-S-SCA corresponded to an average 3.6-point (SE=0.2) change in HAM-D-17 score. Similarly, a 1-point change in the manic domain of CGI-S-SCA corresponded to an average 5.8-point (SE=0.2) change in YMRS score. Results were confirmed using local and cumulative logistic regression models in addition to equipercentile linking. Lack of subjects scoring over the complete range of possible scores may limit broad application of the analyses. Clinically meaningful score changes in depressive and manic domains of CGI-S-SCA corresponded to approximately 4- and 6-point score changes on HAM-D-17 and YMRS, respectively, in symptomatic subjects with schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Male factor infertility and lack of openness about infertility as risk factors for depressive symptoms in males undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment in Italy.

    PubMed

    Babore, Alessandra; Stuppia, Liborio; Trumello, Carmen; Candelori, Carla; Antonucci, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the association between male factor infertility and openness to discussing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment with levels of depression among men undergoing infertility treatment. Cross-sectional. Not applicable. Three hundred forty participants (170 men and their partners) undergoing ART treatments. Administration of a set of questionnaires. Depressive symptoms were detected by means of the Zung Depression Self-Rating Scale. Participants' willingness to share their infertility treatment experience with other people was assessed by means of self-report questionnaires. In this study, 51.8% of males chose not to discuss their ART treatments with people other than their partner. In addition, the decision to discuss or not discuss the ART treatments with others was significantly associated with men's depressive symptoms. Male factor infertility was significantly associated with depression when considered together with the decision not to discuss ART treatments with others. A general disposition characterized by a lack of openness with others seemed to be a significant predictor of depression. There is a need for routine fertility care to pay greater attention to men's emotional needs. Before commencing reproductive treatment, male patients may benefit from undergoing routine screening for variables (i.e., male factor infertility and openness to others about ART) that may affect their risk of depression. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Passive event-related potentials to a single tone in treatment-resistant depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and borderline personality disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shaofang; Chai, Hao; Hu, Jing; Xu, You; Chen, Wanzhen; Wang, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Treatment-resistant depression is comorbid with personality or anxiety disorder; how passive attention functions in these disorders remains unknown. A single tone-elicited event-related potential P3 component (passive P3) might help to characterize the passive attention in these disorders. The passive P3 test was applied to 32 patients with treatment-resistant depression, 35 with generalized anxiety disorder, and 21 with borderline personality disorder, as well as to 31 healthy volunteers. The Zung Self-rating Depression and Anxiety Scales were used to measure the respective depression and anxiety levels in these participants. All patients scored significantly higher on depression and anxiety than the healthy participants did. P3 amplitude was significantly reduced in groups with treatment-resistant depression and generalized anxiety disorder but not in the group with borderline personality disorder or healthy controls. Anxiety level was negatively correlated with P3 amplitude in healthy controls rather than in other groups. This study did not discriminate treatment-resistant depression and generalized anxiety disorder regarding the passive P3 but suggested that there was a generalized impairment of passive attention in these disorders.

  11. The Associations of Psychological Stress with Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms among Chinese Bladder and Renal Cancer Patients: The Mediating Role of Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mengyao; Wang, Lie

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and their associated factors in bladder and renal cancer patients are not well evaluated in China. Given the growing attention to positive psychological constructs in the field of oncology, it is necessary to explore the effects of these constructs on depressive and anxiety symptoms. This study aims to explore the associations of psychological stress with depressive and anxiety symptoms among Chinese bladder and renal cancer patients and the mediating role of resilience in these relationships. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning province. 327 bladder cancer patients and 268 renal cancer patients completed questionnaires on demographic variables, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Resilience Scale-14, and Perceived Stress Scale-10 during the period from July 2013 to July 2014. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of resilience. Results The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was 78.0% and 71.3% in bladder cancer patients, and 77.6% and 68.3% in renal cancer patients. Psychological stress was positively related to depressive and anxiety symptoms, while resilience was negatively related to these symptoms. Resilience partially mediated the relations of psychological stress with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Conclusions The high prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms among Chinese bladder and renal cancer patients should receive more attention from medical institutions and government agencies. In addition to reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms, resilience development should be included in depression and anxiety prevention and treatment strategies in China. PMID:27128438

  12. Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study.

    PubMed

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Kim, Daeho; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Jo, Sun-Jin; Park, Yong Chon

    2015-01-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS), depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale), suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation), functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version). Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  13. Verbal responses, depressive symptoms, reminiscence functions and cognitive emotion regulation in older women receiving individual reminiscence therapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dongmei; Chen, Taolin; Yang, Hao; Gong, Qiyong; Hu, Xiuying

    2018-07-01

    To examine the effectiveness of individual reminiscence therapy in community-dwelling older women with depressive symptoms and to explore the characteristics of participants' verbalisation in the process. Previous studies have found reminiscence was related to depression and anxiety. Although reminiscence therapy is widely used to reduce depression, little is known about how it works, and the content of verbalisations might provide one explanation. The study employed a one-group pretest-post-test design. Twenty-seven participants underwent 6-week interventions of individual reminiscence therapy at home that were conducted by one nurse and induced through seeing old photographs. The Geriatric Depression Scale, Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, Reminiscence Functions Scale and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire were used to measure the emotional states, reminiscence functions and cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Participants' verbalisations were categorised using the Client Behavior System. Reminiscence therapy relieved depression and anxiety. Both the reminiscence function and cognitive emotion regulation became more favourable after interventions. Furthermore, higher frequencies of recounting, cognitive-behavioural exploration and affective exploration were noted in the process. Participants with more severe depressive symptoms tended to display a higher frequency of affective exploration. The reduction in depression, self-negative reminiscence and negative-focused emotion regulation were respectively associated with verbalisations. Individual reminiscence therapy might relieve negative emotion and improve reminiscence function and cognitive emotion regulation. The participants' verbalisation is worthy of our attention, due to its correlation with the severity of depression and its mitigating effects on the depression, anxiety, self-negative reminiscence and negative-focused regulation in older women. The results contribute to our understanding of

  14. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale is an adequate screening instrument for depression and anxiety disorder in adults with congential heart disease.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ju Ryoung; Huh, June; Song, Jinyoung; Kang, I-Seok; Park, Seung Woo; Chang, Sung-A; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook

    2017-09-05

    The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is an instrument that is commonly used to screen for depression in patients with chronic disease, but the characteristics of the CES-D in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) have not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the criterion validities and the predictive powers of the CES-D for depression and anxiety disorders in adults with CHD. Two hundred patients were screened with the CES-D and secondarily interviewed with a diagnostic instrument, i.e., the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Instrument. The sensitivity and specificity values of the CES-D were calculated by cross-tabulation at different cutoff scores. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the optimal cutoff point for each disorder and to assess the predictive power of the instrument. The CES-D exhibited satisfactory criterion validities for depression and for all combinations of depression and/or anxiety. With a desired sensitivity of at least 80%, the optimal cutoff scores were 18. The predictive power of the CES-D in the patients was best for major depression and dysthymia (area under the ROC curve: 0.92) followed by the score for any combination of depression and/or anxiety (0.88). The use of CES-D to simultaneously screen for both depression and anxiety disorders may be useful in adults with CHD. CESDEP 212. Registered 2 March 2014 (retrospectively registered).

  15. Differentiating unipolar and bipolar depression by alterations in large-scale brain networks.

    PubMed

    Goya-Maldonado, Roberto; Brodmann, Katja; Keil, Maria; Trost, Sarah; Dechent, Peter; Gruber, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    Misdiagnosing bipolar depression can lead to very deleterious consequences of mistreatment. Although depressive symptoms may be similarly expressed in unipolar and bipolar disorder, changes in specific brain networks could be very distinct, being therefore informative markers for the differential diagnosis. We aimed to characterize specific alterations in candidate large-scale networks (frontoparietal, cingulo-opercular, and default mode) in symptomatic unipolar and bipolar patients using resting state fMRI, a cognitively low demanding paradigm ideal to investigate patients. Networks were selected after independent component analysis, compared across 40 patients acutely depressed (20 unipolar, 20 bipolar), and 20 controls well-matched for age, gender, and education levels, and alterations were correlated to clinical parameters. Despite comparable symptoms, patient groups were robustly differentiated by large-scale network alterations. Differences were driven in bipolar patients by increased functional connectivity in the frontoparietal network, a central executive and externally-oriented network. Conversely, unipolar patients presented increased functional connectivity in the default mode network, an introspective and self-referential network, as much as reduced connectivity of the cingulo-opercular network to default mode regions, a network involved in detecting the need to switch between internally and externally oriented demands. These findings were mostly unaffected by current medication, comorbidity, and structural changes. Moreover, network alterations in unipolar patients were significantly correlated to the number of depressive episodes. Unipolar and bipolar groups displaying similar symptomatology could be clearly distinguished by characteristic changes in large-scale networks, encouraging further investigation of network fingerprints for clinical use. Hum Brain Mapp 37:808-818, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale: A systematic review and reliability generalization meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Piqueras, Jose A; Martín-Vivar, María; Sandin, Bonifacio; San Luis, Concepción; Pineda, David

    2017-08-15

    Anxiety and depression are among the most common mental disorders during childhood and adolescence. Among the instruments for the brief screening assessment of symptoms of anxiety and depression, the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) is one of the more widely used. Previous studies have demonstrated the reliability of the RCADS for different assessment settings and different versions. The aims of this study were to examine the mean reliability of the RCADS and the influence of the moderators on the RCADS reliability. We searched in EBSCO, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and NCBI databases and other articles manually from lists of references of extracted articles. A total of 146 studies were included in our meta-analysis. The RCADS showed robust internal consistency reliability in different assessment settings, countries, and languages. We only found that reliability of the RCADS was significantly moderated by the version of RCADS. However, these differences in reliability between different versions of the RCADS were slight and can be due to the number of items. We did not examine factor structure, factorial invariance across gender, age, or country, and test-retest reliability of the RCADS. The RCADS is a reliable instrument for cross-cultural use, with the advantage of providing more information with a low number of items in the assessment of both anxiety and depression symptoms in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Factor Structure of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in Malaysian patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Satpal; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Low, Wah Yun; Ramasamy, Ravindran; Sidhu, Jaideep Singh

    2015-05-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a common screening instrument used to determine the levels of anxiety and depression experienced by a patient and has been extensively used in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to establish the factor structure of HADS in a Malaysian sample of 189 patients with CAD. Factor analysis of HADS using principal component analysis with varimax rotation yielded 3 factors. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the use of HADS in assessing 3 distinct dimensions of psychological distress--namely, anxiety, anhedonia, and psychomotor retardation. The HADS showed good internal consistency and was found to be a valid measure of psychological distress among Malaysian patients with CAD. However, low mean scores on the original 2 factors--that is, anxiety and depression--and also on the 2 depression subscales--anhedonia and psychomotor retardation--suggests that the recommended cutoff score to screen for psychological distress among CAD patients be reevaluated. Further research to determine the generalizability and consistency for the tridimensional structure of the HADS in Malaysia is recommended. © 2014 APJPH.

  18. Factor structure of the Japanese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Chika; Okada, Takashi; Aleksic, Branko; Nakamura, Yukako; Kunimoto, Shohko; Morikawa, Mako; Shiino, Tomoko; Tamaji, Ai; Ohoka, Harue; Banno, Naomi; Morita, Tokiko; Murase, Satomi; Goto, Setsuko; Kanai, Atsuko; Masuda, Tomoko; Ando, Masahiko; Ozaki, Norio

    2014-01-01

    The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a widely used screening tool for postpartum depression (PPD). Although the reliability and validity of EPDS in Japanese has been confirmed and the prevalence of PPD is found to be about the same as Western countries, the factor structure of the Japanese version of EPDS has not been elucidated yet. 690 Japanese mothers completed all items of the EPDS at 1 month postpartum. We divided them randomly into two sample sets. The first sample set (n = 345) was used for exploratory factor analysis, and the second sample set was used (n = 345) for confirmatory factor analysis. The result of exploratory factor analysis indicated a three-factor model consisting of anxiety, depression and anhedonia. The results of confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the anxiety and anhedonia factors existed for EPDS in a sample of Japanese women at 1 month postpartum. The depression factor varies by the models of acceptable fit. We examined EPDS scores. As a result, "anxiety" and "anhedonia" exist for EPDS among postpartum women in Japan as already reported in Western countries. Cross-cultural research is needed for future research.

  19. Validation of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale among Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Heo, Eun-Hye; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Yu, Je-Chun; Nam, Ji-Ae

    2018-02-01

    The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is designed to measure the current level of depressive symptomatology in the general population. However, no review has examined whether the scale is reliable and valid among children and adolescents in Korea. The purpose of this study was to test whether the Korean form of the CES-D is valid in adolescents. Data were obtained from 1,884 adolescents attending grades 1-3 in Korean middle schools. Reliability was evaluated by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha). Concurrent validity was evaluated by a correlation analysis between the CES-D and other scales. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory factor and confirmatory factor analyses. The internal consistency coefficient for the entire group was 0.88. The CES-D was positively correlated with scales that measure negative psychological constructs, such as the State Anxiety Inventory for Children, the Korean Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents, and the Reynold Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, but it was negatively correlated with scales that measure positive psychological constructs, such as the Korean version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-2. The CES-D was examined by three-dimensional exploratory factor analysis, and the three-factor structure of the scale explained 53.165% of the total variance. The variance explained by factor I was 24.836%, that explained by factor II was 15.988%, and that explained by factor III was 12.341%. The construct validity of the CES-D was tested by confirmatory factor analysis, and we applied the entire group's data using a three-factor hierarchical model. The fit index showed a level similar to those of other countries' adolescent samples. The CES-D has high internal consistency and addresses psychological constructs similar to those addressed by other scales. The CES-D showed a three-factor structure in an exploratory factor analysis. The present

  20. Validation of a Telephone-administered Geriatric Depression Scale in a Hispanic Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Carrete, Paula; Augustovski, Federico; Gimpel, Nora; Fernandez, Sebastian; Di Paolo, Rodolfo; Schaffer, Irene; Rubinstein, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop and validate a Spanish version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) for telephone administration. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS The original version of the GDS was translated into Spanish. A random sample of 282 ambulatory elderly individuals was contacted by phone. Those completing the phone GDS (GDS-T) were asked to schedule an appointment within two weeks in which we collected data on demographics, physical exam, functional and mental status, and a face-to-face version of the GDS (GDS-P). We estimated question-to-question κ statistics and the Pearson correlation coefficient between the GDS-T and GDS-P scores. We evaluated reliability of the GDS-T and GDS-P using the Cronbach's α coefficient. We estimated the sensitivity, specificity, and criterion validity of the GDS using the DSM IV criteria for depression as our gold standard. RESULTS Thirty patients (11%) refused to participate. Of the remaining 252 patients, 169 (67%) attended the personal interview. The Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.85 for GSD-P and 0.88 for GDS-T. Sensitivity and specificity were 88% and 82% for GDS-P and 84% and 79% for GDS-T. The prevalence of depression in the group completing both scales was 12.8% using the GDS-P and 14.9% using the GDS-T (P >.05). Among those who only completed the GDS-T, the prevalence was 22.7% (P <.05) suggesting that depressed patients kept their appointments less frequently. CONCLUSIONS The telephone GDS had high internal consistency and was highly correlated with the validated personal administration of the scale, suggesting that it could be a valid instrument for screening of depression among elderly ambulatory Spanish-speaking patients. Because the depression rate was significantly higher among those not presenting to the personal evaluation, the adoption of GDS-T may help detect and plan early interventions in patients who otherwise would not be identified. PMID:11520381

  1. Once-daily high-dose pindolol for SSRI-refractory depression.

    PubMed

    Sokolski, Kenneth N; Conney, Janet C; Brown, Brenda J; DeMet, Edward M

    2004-02-15

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) augmentation with the 5-HT1A antagonist pindolol has met with mixed results. Recent studies using positron emission tomography (PET) suggest that pindolol doses used in these studies were too low to effect 5-HT1A autoreceptor blockade. To test the hypothesis that a single higher dose of pindolol would effectively augment antidepressant responses in SSRI-refractory patients, nine subjects with major depression unresponsive to paroxetine 40 mg/day given for 2 months or more were randomized to AM pindolol 7.5 mg (n=4) or placebo (n=5). Subjects were administered the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D), the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), the Bech-Rafaelsen Melancholia Scale, and the Zung Depression Inventory at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4. Subjects receiving pindolol exhibited significant improvements in all ratings beginning at week 2 which continued through week 4. Aside from transient dizziness and a five-point decrease in systolic/diastolic blood pressure associated with pindolol, no adverse effects were reported. Although results must be verified in a larger sample, these findings support previous studies indicating that pindolol can accelerate antidepressant responses during SSRI therapy. In addition, results reported here suggest that a single high dose of pindolol (7.5 mg) is a more effective augmentation strategy in SSRI-refractory patients compared with the same total dose given at 2.5 mg tid.

  2. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes, including genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Depression can happen at any age, but it often begins in teens and young adults. It is much more common in women. Women ...

  3. Psychometric properties of EURO-D, a geriatric depression scale: a cross-cultural validation study.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Mariella; Ferri, Cleusa; Llibre, Juan; Prina, A Matthew; Prince, Martin

    2015-02-05

    Many of the assessment tools used to study depression among older people are adaptations of instruments developed in other cultural setting. There is a need to validate those instruments in low and middle income countries (LMIC). A one-phase cross-sectional survey of people aged [greater than or equal to] 65 years from LMIC. EURO-D was checked for psychometric properties. Calibration with clinical diagnosis was made using ICD-10. Optimal cutpoint was determined. Concurrent validity was assessed measuring correlations with WHODAS 2.0. 17,852 interviews were completed in 13 sites from nine countries. EURO-D constituted a hierarchical scale in most sites. The most commonly endorsed symptom in Latin American sites was depression; in China was sleep disturbance and tearfulness; in India, irritability and fatigue and in Nigeria loss of enjoyment. Two factor structure (affective and motivation) were demonstrated. Measurement invariance was demonstrated among Latin American and Indian sites being less evident in China and Nigeria. At the 4/5 cutpoint, sensitivity for ICD-10 depressive episode was 86% or higher in all sites and specificity exceeded 84% in all Latin America and Chinese sites. Concurrent validity was supported, at least for Latin American and Indian sites. There is evidence for the cross-cultural validity of the EURO-D scale at Latin American and Indian settings and its potential applicability in comparative epidemiological studies.

  4. Excellent reliability of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21) in Indonesia after training.

    PubMed

    Istriana, Erita; Kurnia, Ade; Weijers, Annelies; Hidayat, Teddy; Pinxten, Lucas; de Jong, Cor; Schellekens, Arnt

    2013-09-01

    The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) is the most widely used depression rating scale worldwide. Reliability of HDRS has been reported mainly from Western countries. The current study tested the reliability of HDRS ratings among psychiatric residents in Indonesia, before and after HDRS training. The hypotheses were that: (i) prior to the training reliability of HDRS ratings is poor; and (ii) HDRS training can improve reliability of HDRS ratings to excellent levels. Furthermore, we explored cultural validity at item level. Videotaped HDRS interviews were rated by 30 psychiatric residents before and after 1 day of HDRS training. Based on a gold standard rating, percentage correct ratings and deviation from the standard were calculated. Correct ratings increased from 83% to 99% at item level and from 70% to 100% for the total rating. The average deviation from the gold standard rating improved from 0.07 to 0.02 at item level and from 2.97 to 0.46 for the total rating. HDRS assessment by psychiatric trainees in Indonesia without prior training is unreliable. A short, evidence-based HDRS training improves reliability to near perfect levels. The outlined training program could serve as a template for HDRS trainings. HDRS items that may be less valid for assessment of depression severity in Indonesia are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. "Barriers to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Homework Completion Scale- Depression Version": Development and Psychometric Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Callan, Judith A; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Sereika, Susan M; Stone, Clement; Fasiczka, Amy; Jarrett, Robin B; Thase, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a two-phase study to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to identify barriers to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) homework completion in a depressed sample. In Phase I, we developed an item pool by interviewing 20 depressed patients and 20 CBT therapists. In Phase II, we created and administered a draft instrument to 56 people with depression. Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed a 2-factor oblique solution of "Patient Factors" and "Therapy/Task Factors." Internal consistency coefficients ranged from .80 to .95. Temporal stability was demonstrated through Pearson correlations of .72 (for the therapist/task subscale) to .95 (for the patient subscale) over periods of time that ranged from 2 days to 3 weeks. The patient subscale was able to satisfactorily classify patients (75 to 79 %) with low and high adherence at both sessions. Specificity was .66 at both time points. Sensitivity was .80 at sessions B and .77 at session C. There were no consistent predictors of assignment compliance when measured by the Assignment Compliance Rating Scale (Primakoff, Epstein, & Covi, 1986). The Rating Scale and subscale scores did, however, correlate significantly with assignment non-compliance (.32 to .46).

  6. “Barriers to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Homework Completion Scale- Depression Version”: Development and Psychometric Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Callan, Judith A.; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Sereika, Susan M.; Stone, Clement; Fasiczka, Amy; Jarrett, Robin B.; Thase, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a two-phase study to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to identify barriers to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) homework completion in a depressed sample. In Phase I, we developed an item pool by interviewing 20 depressed patients and 20 CBT therapists. In Phase II, we created and administered a draft instrument to 56 people with depression. Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed a 2-factor oblique solution of “Patient Factors” and “Therapy/Task Factors.” Internal consistency coefficients ranged from .80 to .95. Temporal stability was demonstrated through Pearson correlations of .72 (for the therapist/task subscale) to .95 (for the patient subscale) over periods of time that ranged from 2 days to 3 weeks. The patient subscale was able to satisfactorily classify patients (75 to 79 %) with low and high adherence at both sessions. Specificity was .66 at both time points. Sensitivity was .80 at sessions B and .77 at session C. There were no consistent predictors of assignment compliance when measured by the Assignment Compliance Rating Scale (Primakoff, Epstein, & Covi, 1986). The Rating Scale and subscale scores did, however, correlate significantly with assignment non-compliance (.32 to .46). PMID:24049556

  7. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: Factor Structure, Internal Consistency and Convergent Validity in Patients with Dizziness.

    PubMed

    Piker, Erin G; Kaylie, David M; Garrison, Douglas; Tucci, Debara L

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidities, particularly anxiety-related pathologies, are often observed in dizzy patients. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a widely used self-report instrument used to screen for anxiety and depression in medical outpatient settings. The purpose of this study was to assess the factor structure, internal consistency and convergent validity of the HADS in an unselected group of patients with dizziness. The HADS and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) were administered to 205 dizzy patients. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted and indicated a 3-factor structure, inconsistent with the 2-subscale structure (i.e. anxiety and depression) of the HADS. The total scale was found to be internally consistent, and convergent validity, as assessed using the DHI, was acceptable. Overall findings suggest that the HADS should not be used as a tool for psychiatric differential diagnosis, but rather as a helpful screener for general psychiatric distress in the two domains of psychiatric illness most germane in dizzy patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Symptoms of depression and anxiety in Serbian patients with systemic sclerosis: impact of disease severity and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Predrag; Zivojinovic, Sladjana; Reza, Tamara; Damjanov, Nemanja

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to assess symptoms of depression and anxiety in Serbian patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to estimate the impact of disease severity and socioeconomic factors on development of depression and anxiety in SSc. Thirty-five patients with SSc and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals participated. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were evaluated using the Beck's depression inventory and Zung's anxiety self-assessment scale. We estimated the impact of gender, age, economic status, marital status, disease duration, disease subset (limited or diffuse), and some clinical features on development of depressive symptoms and anxiety in patients with SSc. Symptoms of depression were found in 68.6% of patients (compared with 23.3% in the control group), were more frequent in patients with longer disease duration and in female and older patients, and were more common in unemployed and retired patients than in employed individuals. No differences in anxiety and depressive symptoms was noticed between patients with limited and diffuse SSc or those with or without restrictive lung disease, pulmonary hypertension, finger-tip ulcers, and heart involvement. Symptoms of depression were associated with severe pain. Symptoms of anxiety were found in 80% of patients compared with 13.3% of healthy individuals and were equally as frequent in patients of different gender, age, socioeconomic status, and disease duration and severity. Symptoms of depression and anxiety are common in Serbian patients with SSc. Depressive symptoms depended mostly on socioeconomic factors, disease duration, and pain intensity, whereas disease severity had no significant impact on development of depressive symptoms and anxiety.

  9. Scaling-up treatment of depression and anxiety: a global return on investment analysis.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Dan; Sweeny, Kim; Sheehan, Peter; Rasmussen, Bruce; Smit, Filip; Cuijpers, Pim; Saxena, Shekhar

    2016-05-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and disabling disorders, which result not only in an enormous amount of human misery and lost health, but also lost economic output. Here we propose a global investment case for a scaled-up response to the public health and economic burden of depression and anxiety disorders. In this global return on investment analysis, we used the mental health module of the OneHealth tool to calculate treatment costs and health outcomes in 36 countries between 2016 and 2030. We assumed a linear increase in treatment coverage. We factored in a modest improvement of 5% in both the ability to work and productivity at work as a result of treatment, subsequently mapped to the prevailing rates of labour participation and gross domestic product (GDP) per worker in each country. The net present value of investment needed over the period 2016-30 to substantially scale up effective treatment coverage for depression and anxiety disorders is estimated to be US$147 billion. The expected returns to this investment are also substantial. In terms of health impact, scaled-up treatment leads to 43 million extra years of healthy life over the scale-up period. Placing an economic value on these healthy life-years produces a net present value of $310 billion. As well as these intrinsic benefits associated with improved health, scaled-up treatment of common mental disorders also leads to large economic productivity gains (a net present value of $230 billion for scaled-up depression treatment and $169 billion for anxiety disorders). Across country income groups, resulting benefit to cost ratios amount to 2·3-3·0 to 1 when economic benefits only are considered, and 3·3-5·7 to 1 when the value of health returns is also included. Return on investment analysis of the kind reported here can contribute strongly to a balanced investment case for enhanced action to address the large and growing burden of common mental disorders worldwide. Grand

  10. True polar wander on Europa from global-scale small-circle depressions.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Paul; Matsuyama, Isamu; Nimmo, Francis

    2008-05-15

    The tectonic patterns and stress history of Europa are exceedingly complex and many large-scale features remain unexplained. True polar wander, involving reorientation of Europa's floating outer ice shell about the tidal axis with Jupiter, has been proposed as a possible explanation for some of the features. This mechanism is possible if the icy shell is latitudinally variable in thickness and decoupled from the rocky interior. It would impose high stress levels on the shell, leading to predictable fracture patterns. No satisfactory match to global-scale features has hitherto been found for polar wander stress patterns. Here we describe broad arcuate troughs and depressions on Europa that do not fit other proposed stress mechanisms in their current position. Using imaging from three spacecraft, we have mapped two global-scale organized concentric antipodal sets of arcuate troughs up to hundreds of kilometres long and 300 m to approximately 1.5 km deep. An excellent match to these features is found with stresses caused by an episode of approximately 80 degrees true polar wander. These depressions also appear to be geographically related to other large-scale bright and dark lineaments, suggesting that many of Europa's tectonic patterns may also be related to true polar wander.

  11. Trauma, depression, and resilience of earthquake/tsunami/nuclear disaster survivors of Hirono, Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kukihara, Hiroko; Yamawaki, Niwako; Uchiyama, Kumi; Arai, Shoichi; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2014-07-01

    A mega-earthquake and tsunami struck the northeastern coast of Japan, and many survivors were forced to evacuate to temporary housing due to rising radiation levels. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and poor general health among survivors, to test the predictive roles of resilience on mental and physical health, and to examine the predictive sociodemographic factors on resilience. Two hundred and forty-one evacuees (men/women: 116/125) from Hirono, Fukushima participated in the study. They were asked to complete the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, and a demographic questionnaire. Among all participants, 53.5% exhibited the clinically concerning symptoms of PTSD, and among them 33.2% indicated clinical PTSD symptoms. Additionally, 66.8% reported symptoms of depression, and among them 33.2% showed mildly depressive symptoms, while 19.1% and 14.5% demonstrated moderate and severe depressive symptoms, respectively. Resilience was a significant buffer for depression, PTSD, and general health. Additionally, employment status, eating/exercise habits, and drinking habits predicted resilience. The results indicated that depression and PTSD are prevalent among the survivors of massive earthquakes, tsunamis, and accidents from nuclear power plants. However, the results also showed that some survivors managed to endure the traumatic events relatively well, and resilience was a significant protective factor in dealing with such events. Therefore, it is crucial to assist survivors in improving their resilience by providing job opportunities and encouraging a healthy lifestyle. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. Validation of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) 21 as a screening instrument for depression and anxiety in a rural community-based cohort of northern Vietnamese women.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thach Duc; Tran, Tuan; Fisher, Jane

    2013-01-12

    Depression and anxiety are recognised increasingly as serious public health problems among women in low- and lower-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to validate the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21) for use in screening for these common mental disorders among rural women with young children in the North of Vietnam. The DASS-21 was translated from English to Vietnamese, culturally verified, back-translated and administered to women who also completed, separately, a psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis 1 diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders. The sample was a community-based representative cohort of adult women with young children living in Ha Nam Province in northern Viet Nam. Cronbach's alpha, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to identify the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales and the overall scale. Complete data were available for 221 women. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of each sub-scale and the overall scale were high, ranging from 0.70 for the Stress subscale to 0.88 for the overall scale, but EFA indicated that the 21 items all loaded on one factor. Scores on each of the three sub-scales, and the combinations of two or three of them were able to detect the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in women with a sensitivity of 79.1% and a specificity of 77.0% at the optimal cut off of >33. However, they did not distinguish between those experiencing only depression or only anxiety. The total score of the 21 items of the DASS21-Vietnamese validation appears to be comprehensible and sensitive to detecting common mental disorders in women with young children in primary health care in rural northern Vietnam and therefore might also be useful to screen for these conditions in other resource-constrained settings.

  13. Short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21: is it valid for Brazilian adolescents?

    PubMed

    Silva, Hítalo Andrade da; Passos, Muana Hiandra Pereira Dos; Oliveira, Valéria Mayaly Alves de; Palmeira, Aline Cabral; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato de

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the interday reproducibility, agreement and validity of the construct of short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 applied to adolescents. The sample consisted of adolescents of both sexes, aged between 10 and 19 years, who were recruited from schools and sports centers. The validity of the construct was performed by exploratory factor analysis, and reliability was calculated for each construct using the intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement and the minimum detectable change. The factor analysis combining the items corresponding to anxiety and stress in a single factor, and depression in a second factor, showed a better match of all 21 items, with higher factor loadings in their respective constructs. The reproducibility values for depression were intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.86, standard error of measurement with 0.80, and minimum detectable change with 2.22; and, for anxiety/stress: intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.82, standard error of measurement with 1.80, and minimum detectable change with 4.99. The short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 showed excellent values of reliability, and strong internal consistency. The two-factor model with condensation of the constructs anxiety and stress in a single factor was the most acceptable for the adolescent population. Avaliar a reprodutibilidade interdias, a concordância e a validade do construto da versão reduzida da Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 aplicada a adolescentes. A amostra foi composta por adolescentes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 10 e 19 anos, recrutados de escolas e centros esportivos. A validade de construto foi realizada por análise fatorial exploratória, e a confiabilidade foi calculada para cada construto, por meio de coeficiente de correlação intraclasse, erro padrão de medida e mudança mínima detectável. A análise fatorial combinando os itens correspondentes a ansiedade e estresse em um

  14. Sensitivity to changes during antidepressant treatment: a comparison of unidimensional subscales of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Isabella; Wagner, Stefanie; Mergl, Roland; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Hautzinger, Martin; Henkel, Verena; Hegerl, Ulrich; Tadić, André

    2012-06-01

    In the efficacy evaluation of antidepressant treatments, the total score of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) is still regarded as the 'gold standard'. We previously had shown that the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) was more sensitive to detect depressive symptom changes than the HAMD17 (Helmreich et al. 2011). Furthermore, studies suggest that the unidimensional subscales of the HAMD, which capture the core depressive symptoms, outperform the full HAMD regarding the detection of antidepressant treatment effects. The aim of the present study was to compare several unidimensional subscales of the HAMD and the IDS regarding their sensitivity to changes in depression symptoms in a sample of patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression (MIND). Biweekly IDS-C28 and HAMD17 data from 287 patients of a 10-week randomised, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of sertraline and cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with MIND were converted to subscale scores and analysed during the antidepressant treatment course. We investigated sensitivity to depressive change for all scales from assessment-to-assessment, in relation to depression severity level and placebo-verum differences. The subscales performed similarly during the treatment course, with slight advantages for some subscales in detecting treatment effects depending on the treatment modality and on the items included. Most changes in depressive symptomatology were detected by the IDS short scale, but regarding the effect sizes, it performed worse than most subscales. Unidimensional subscales are a time- and cost-saving option in judging drug therapy outcomes, especially in antidepressant treatment efficacy studies. However, subscales do not cover all facets of depression (e.g. atypical symptoms, sleep disturbances), which might be important for comprehensively understanding the nature of the disease depression. Therefore, the cost-to-benefit ratio must be

  15. Cross-cultural considerations in administering the center for epidemiologic studies depression scale.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Jae; Kim, Ki Woong; Kim, Tae Hui; Park, Joon Hyuk; Lee, Seok Bum; Park, Jin Woo; McQuoid, Douglas R; Steffens, David C

    2011-01-01

    Cultural biases may affect the individual responses to questionnaires for depression and thus confound the international or multiethnic researches on depression. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for major depressive disorder (MDD) in late life between Korean and US Caucasian elderly. This study included 332 US Caucasian MDD patients, 116 Korean MDD patients, 125 US Caucasian nondepressed subjects and 700 Korean nondepressed subjects. Differential item functioning and factor analyses were conducted to examine the differences in the response patterns to the CES-D between the US Caucasian and Korean elderly. Diagnostic accuracy of the CES-D for MDD was compared using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC). The Korean elderly were more likely to endorse 6 items compared to the US Caucasians, and the US Caucasian elderly were more likely to endorse 5 items compared to the Koreans. The factor solutions from both ethnic groups were not comparable since the congruence coefficient for the second factor was below 0.46 and that for the first factor did not reach 0.90. The AUC of the CES-D for MDD in Koreans (AUC = 0.850, 95% CI = 0.801-0.899) was significantly smaller than that in US Caucasians (AUC = 0.973, 95% CI = 0.960-0.987), and the optimal cutoff score of the CES-D in the Korean elderly (21/22) was 2 times higher than that in the US Caucasian elderly (10/11). Cross-cultural issues may significantly influence the diagnostic accuracy of depression questionnaires and thus should be considered more carefully than before in both clinical and research settings on multiethnic populations. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS): translation and validation study of the Iranian version.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, Ali; Torkan, Behnaz; Omidvari, Sepideh

    2007-04-04

    The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a widely used instrument to measure postnatal depression. This study aimed to translate and to test the reliability and validity of the EPDS in Iran. The English language version of the EPDS was translated into Persian (Iranian language) and was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered to a consecutive sample of 100 women with normal (n = 50) and caesarean section (n = 50) deliveries at two points in time: 6 to 8 weeks and 12 to 14 weeks after delivery. Statistical analysis was performed to test the reliability and validity of the EPDS. Overall 22% of women at time 1 and 18% at time 2 reported experiencing postpartum depression. In general, the Iranian version of the EPDS was found to be acceptable to almost all women. Cronbach's alpha coefficient (to test reliability) was found to be 0.77 at time 1 and 0.86 at time 2. In addition, test-rest reliability was performed and the intraclass correlation coefficient was found to be 0.80. Validity as performed using known groups comparison showed satisfactory results. The questionnaire discriminated well between sub-groups of women differing in mode of delivery in the expected direction. The factor analysis indicated a three-factor structure that jointly accounted for 58% of the variance. This preliminary validation study of the Iranian version of the EPDS proved that it is an acceptable, reliable and valid measure of postnatal depression. It seems that the EPDS not only measures postpartum depression but also may be measuring something more.

  17. Cross-cultural validation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kui; Shi, Hai-Song; Geng, Fu-Lei; Zou, Lai-Quan; Tan, Shu-Ping; Wang, Yi; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-05-01

    The gap between the demand and delivery of mental health services in mainland China can be reduced by validating freely available and psychometrically sound psychological instruments. The present research examined the Chinese version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Study 1 administered the DASS-21 to 1,815 Chinese college students and found internal consistency indices (Cronbach's alpha) of .83, .80, and .82 for the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales, respectively, and .92 for the total DASS total. Test-retest reliability over a 6-month interval was .39 to .46 for each of the 3 subscales and .46 for the total DASS. Moderate convergent validity of the Depression and Anxiety subscales was demonstrated via significant correlations with the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory (r = .51 at Time 1 and r = .64 at Time 2) and the Chinese State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = .41), respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the original 3-factor model with 1 minor change (nonnormed fit index [NNFI] = .964, comparative fit index [CFI] = .968, and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .079). Study 2 examined the clinical utility of the Chinese DASS-21 in 166 patients with schizophrenia and 90 matched healthy controls. Patients had higher Depression and Anxiety but not Stress subscale scores than healthy controls. A discriminant function composed of the linear combination of 3 subscale scores correctly discriminated 69.92% of participants, which again supported the potential clinical utility of the DASS in mainland China. Taken together, findings in these studies support the cross-cultural validity of the DASS-21 in China. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Beside the Geriatric Depression Scale: the WHO-Five Well-being Index as a valid screening tool for depression in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Kramer, Dietmar; Saravo, Barbara; Mergl, Roland; Fejtkova, Sabina; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare criterion validities of the WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5) and the Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item version (GDS-15) and 4-item version (GDS-4) as screening instruments for depression in nursing home residents. Data from 92 residents aged 65-97 years without severe cognitive impairment (Mini Mental State Examination ≥15) were analysed. Criterion validities of the WHO-5, the GDS-15 and the GDS-4 were assessed against diagnoses of major and minor depression provided by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Subanalyses were performed for major and minor depression. Areas under the receiver operating curve (AUCs) as well as sensitivities and specificities at optimal cut-off points were computed. Prevalence of depressive disorder was 28.3%. The AUC value of the WHO-5 (0.90) was similar to that of the GDS-15 (0.82). Sensitivity of the WHO-5 (0.92) at its optimal cut-off of ≤12 was significantly higher than that of the GDS-15 (0.69) at its optimal cut-off of ≥7. The WHO-5 was equally sensitive for the subgroups of major and minor depression (0.92), whereas the GDS-15 was sensitive only for major depression (0.85), but not for minor depression (0.54). For specificity, there was no significant difference between WHO-5 (0.79) and GDS-15 (0.88), but both instruments outperformed the GDS-4 (0.53). The WHO-5 demonstrated high sensitivity for major and minor depression. Being shorter than the GDS-15 and superior to the GDS-4, the WHO-5 is a promising screening tool that could help physicians improve low recognition rates of depression in nursing home residents. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Transcultural adaption and validation of the Spanish version of the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS-S).

    PubMed

    Sarró, Salvador; Madre, Mercè; Fernández-Corcuera, Paloma; Valentí, Marc; Goikolea, José M; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Berk, Michael; Amann, Benedikt L

    2015-02-01

    The Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS) arguably better captures symptoms in bipolar depression especially depressive mixed states than traditional unipolar depression rating scales. The psychometric properties of the Spanish adapted version, BDRS-S, are reported. The BDRS was translated into Spanish by two independent psychiatrists fluent in English and Spanish. After its back-translation into English, the BDRS-S was administered to 69 DSMI-IV bipolar I and II patients who were recruited from two Spanish psychiatric hospitals. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were concurrently administered. 42 patients were reviewed via video by four psychiatrists blind to the psychopathological status of those patients. In order to assess the BDRS-S intra-rater or test-retest validity, 22 subjects were assessed by the same investigator performing two evaluations within five days. The BDRS-S had a good internal consistency (Cronbach׳s α=0.870). We observed strong correlations between the BDRS-S and the HDRS (r=0.874) and MADRS (r=0.854) and also between the mixed symptom cluster score of the BDRS-S and the YMRS (r=0.803). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three factor solution: psychological depressive symptoms cluster, somatic depressive symptoms cluster and mixed symptoms cluster. A relatively small sample size for a 20-item scale. The BDRS-S provides solid psychometric performance and in particular captures depressive or mixed symptoms in Spanish bipolar patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship of Somatic Symptoms With Depression Severity, Quality of Life, and Health Resources Utilization in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Seeking Primary Health Care in Spain

    PubMed Central

    García-Campayo, Javier; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Caballero, Luis; Romera, Irene; Aragonés, Enric; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Quail, Deborah; Gilaberte, Inmaculada

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the characteristics of somatic symptoms and depression severity, quality of life (QOL), and health resources utilization in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in primary care setting. Method: This cross-sectional, nationwide epidemiologic study, carried out in 1150 primary care patients with DSM-IV–defined MDD, evaluated the characteristics of somatic symptoms by means of the Standardized Polyvalent Psychiatric Interview. Depression severity and QOL were evaluated by means of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the Physical and Mental Component Summaries of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Health resources utilization was measured in terms of doctor consultations and hospitalizations. The associations were assessed by means of adjusted analyses. The study was carried out from April 2004 to July 2004. Results: Disability associated with somatic symptoms and number of somatic symptoms were strongly associated with increased depression severity (2.45 and 0.29 increase in SDS score, respectively) and health resources utilization (odds ratios of 1.42 and 1.04, respectively). Associated disability, frequency, and persistence during leisure time of somatic symptoms were strongly associated with poorer QOL. In contrast, we found a weaker relationship between duration and intensity of somatic symptoms and depression severity, QOL, and health resources utilization. Conclusions: Of the studied somatic symptom characteristics, somatic symptom–associated disability and number of somatic symptoms are strongly associated with increased depression severity and health resources utilization, as well as with decreased QOL. Our results may help physicians identify relevant characteristics of somatic symptoms to more effectively diagnose and treat depression in primary care patients. PMID:19158973

  1. Structural differences within negative and depressive syndrome dimensions in schizophrenia, organic brain disease, and major depression: A confirmatory factor analysis of the positive and negative syndrome scale.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Daniel P; Aniskin, Dmitry B; White, Leonard; Stein, Judith A; Harvey, Philip D; Galynker, Igor I

    2009-01-01

    The emerging dimensional approach to classification and treatment of psychiatric disorders calls for better understanding of diagnosis-related variations in psychiatric syndromes and for proper validation of psychometric scales used for the evaluation of those syndromes. This study tested the hypothesis that negative and depressive syndromes as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) are consistent across different diagnoses. We administered the PANSS to subjects with schizophrenia (n = 305), organic brain disease (OBD, n = 66) and major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 75). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to establish if the PANSS items for negative symptoms and for depression fit the hypothesized factor structure and if the item factor loadings were similar among the diagnostic groups. The negative and depressive symptom subscales fit well according to a variety of fit indexes for all groups individually after some modest model modification. However, multisample modeling procedures indicated that the pattern of factor loadings was significantly different among the groups in most cases. The results of this study indicate diagnosis-related variations in the negative and depressive syndrome dimensions in schizophrenia, OBD and MDD. These results also validate limited use of the PANSS for evaluation of negative and depressive syndromes in disorders other than schizophrenia. Larger studies are warranted to further evaluate clinical and nosologic significance of diagnostic categories, dimensions and structures of psychiatric syndromes. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The impact of education, country, race and ethnicity on the self-report of postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Di Florio, A; Putnam, K; Altemus, M; Apter, G; Bergink, V; Bilszta, J; Brock, R; Buist, A; Deligiannidis, K M; Devouche, E; Epperson, C N; Guille, C; Kim, D; Lichtenstein, P; Magnusson, P K E; Martinez, P; Munk-Olsen, T; Newport, J; Payne, J; Penninx, B W; O'Hara, M; Robertson-Blackmore, E; Roza, S J; Sharkey, K M; Stuart, S; Tiemeier, H; Viktorin, A; Schmidt, P J; Sullivan, P F; Stowe, Z N; Wisner, K L; Jones, I; Rubinow, D R; Meltzer-Brody, S

    2017-04-01

    Universal screening for postpartum depression is recommended in many countries. Knowledge of whether the disclosure of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period differs across cultures could improve detection and provide new insights into the pathogenesis. Moreover, it is a necessary step to evaluate the universal use of screening instruments in research and clinical practice. In the current study we sought to assess whether the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the most widely used screening tool for postpartum depression, measures the same underlying construct across cultural groups in a large international dataset. Ordinal regression and measurement invariance were used to explore the association between culture, operationalized as education, ethnicity/race and continent, and endorsement of depressive symptoms using the EPDS on 8209 new mothers from Europe and the USA. Education, but not ethnicity/race, influenced the reporting of postpartum depression [difference between robust comparative fit indexes (∆*CFI) 0.01), but not between European countries (∆*CFI < 0.01). Investigators and clinicians should be aware of the potential differences in expression of phenotype of postpartum depression that women of different educational backgrounds may manifest. The increasing cultural heterogeneity of societies together with the tendency towards globalization requires a culturally sensitive approach to patients, research and policies, that takes into account, beyond rhetoric, the context of a person's experiences and the context in which the research is conducted.

  3. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) as a Screener for Depression in Substance Use Disorder Inpatients: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Beaufort, Ilse N; De Weert-Van Oene, Gerdien H; Buwalda, Victor A J; de Leeuw, J Rob J; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a common co-morbid disorder in substance use disorder (SUD) patients. Hence, valid instruments are needed to screen for depression in this subpopulation. In this study, the predictive validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) for the presence of a depressive disorder was investigated in SUD inpatients. Furthermore, differences between DASS-21 scores at intake and those recorded one week after inpatient detoxification were assessed in order to determine the measurement point of the assessment of the DASS-21 leading to the best predictive validity. The DASS-21 was administered to 47 patients at intake and shortly after inpatient detoxification. The results of the DASS-21 were compared to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), which served as the gold standard. Levels of sensitivity and specificity of 78-89% and 71-76% were found for the DASS-21 assessed after detoxification, satisfactorily predicting depression as diagnosed with the MINI. Total DASS-21 scores as well as the DASS subscale for depression were significantly reduced at the second measurement, compared to the DASS at intake. We conclude that the DASS-21 may be a suitable instrument to screen for depressive disorders in SUD patients when administered (shortly) after detoxification. Future research is needed to support this conclusion. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. [Cost-effectiveness of Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Telepsychiatry in Prison Inmates With Depression].

    PubMed

    Barrera-Valencia, Camilo; Benito-Devia, Alexis Vladimir; Vélez-Álvarez, Consuelo; Figueroa-Barrera, Mario; Franco-Idárraga, Sandra Milena

    Telepsychiatry is defined as the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in providing remote psychiatric services. Telepsychiatry is applied using two types of communication: synchronous (real time) and asynchronous (store and forward). To determine the cost-effectiveness of a synchronous and an asynchronous telepsychiatric model in prison inmate patients with symptoms of depression. A cost-effectiveness study was performed on a population consisting of 157 patients from the Establecimiento Penitenciario y Carcelario de Mediana Seguridad de Manizales, Colombia. The sample was determined by applying Zung self-administered surveys for depression (1965) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the latter being the tool used for the comparison. Initial Hamilton score, arrival time, duration of system downtime, and clinical effectiveness variables had normal distributions (P>.05). There were significant differences (P<.001) between care costs for the different models, showing that the mean cost of the asynchronous model is less than synchronous model, and making the asynchronous model more cost-effective. The asynchronous model is the most cost-effective model of telepsychiatry care for patients with depression admitted to a detention centre, according to the results of clinical effectiveness, cost measurement, and patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. [Depression screening test for patients with metastatic gastric and colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Ina, Kenji; Sugiyama, Akemi; Yuasa, Shu; Koga, Chiaki; Yamazaki, Emiko; Katayama, Yoshiko; Nagaoka, Masatoshi; Nagao, Seiji

    2010-06-01

    The prevalence of depression has been reported to be higher in cancer patients, especially those of advanced stage, compared to normal controls. However, depression is often under-recognized in clinical oncology settings. And this psychological problem is not routinely assessed even in patients with inoperable metastatic cancer who often have psychological disorders. Psychological distress including depression, is affected by physical, psychosocial, and clinical factors. In order to detect psychiatric problems at the early stage, we assessed the mental conditions of 47 inpatients with metastatic gastric and colorectal cancerusing the Japanese version of Zung's Self Rating Depression Scale(SDS)and analyzed the relationships between these factors and SDS scores. While SDS scores of our patients did not differ according to their gender, age, performance status (PS), ortypes of patients' character, they were significantly higher in Group B(cancer patients with palliative care alone), compared to Group A(those receiving chemotherapy)(p<0. 001). As the disease in the four identical patients progressed to the terminal stage, their scores were significantly increased, respectively(p<0. 05). These results suggest that psychological intervention should be more critical for terminally ill patients without any indication of chemotherapy.

  6. The Kimberley Assessment of Depression of Older Indigenous Australians: Prevalence of Depressive Disorders, Risk Factors and Validation of the KICA-dep Scale

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Flicker, Leon; Fenner, Stephen; Smith, Kate; Hyde, Zoe; Atkinson, David; Skeaf, Linda; Malay, Roslyn; LoGiudice, Dina

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to develop a culturally acceptable and valid scale to assess depressive symptoms in older Indigenous Australians, to determine the prevalence of depressive disorders in the older Kimberley community, and to investigate the sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with depression in this population. Methods Cross-sectional survey of adults aged 45 years or over from six remote Indigenous communities in the Kimberley and 30% of those living in Derby, Western Australia. The 11 linguistic and culturally sensitive items of the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment of Depression (KICA-dep) scale were derived from the signs and symptoms required to establish the diagnosis of a depressive episode according to the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria, and their frequency was rated on a 4-point scale ranging from ‘never’ to ‘all the time’ (range of scores: 0 to 33). The diagnosis of depressive disorder was established after a face-to-face assessment with a consultant psychiatrist. Other measures included sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, and clinical history. Results The study included 250 participants aged 46 to 89 years (mean±SD = 60.9±10.7), of whom 143 (57.2%) were women. The internal reliability of the KICA-dep was 0.88 and the cut-point 7/8 (non-case/case) was associated with 78% sensitivity and 82% specificity for the diagnosis of a depressive disorder. The point-prevalence of a depressive disorder in this population was 7.7%; 4.0% for men and 10.4% for women. Heart problems were associated with increased odds of depression (odds ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2,8.8). Conclusions The KICA-dep has robust psychometric properties and can be used with confidence as a screening tool for depression among older Indigenous Australians. Depressive disorders are common in this population, possibly because of increased stressors and health morbidities. PMID:24740098

  7. Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and Stress as Measured by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42) among Secondary School Girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Gelban, Khalid S; Al-Amri, Hasan S; Mostafa, Ossama A

    2009-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress among secondary school girls. A cross- sectional study was carried out on secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia, using the Arabic version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42). Of 545 female students recruited in this study, 73.4% had the symptoms of at least one of the three studied disorders; 50.1% had at least two disorders. The prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress was 41.5 %, 66.2% and 52.5% respectively. The majority of symptoms were mild to moderate in severity. The scores for depression, anxiety, and stress were positively and significantly correlated. No significant association was found between the girls' sociodemographic characteristics and the scores of the three studied disorders. One of the most important aspects of a primary care physician's care of females is to screen for and treat common mental disorders.

  8. Creation and Validation of the Cognitive and Behavioral Response to Stress Scale in a Depression Trial

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Adam S.; Schueller, Stephen M.; Lattie, Emily G.; Mohr, David C.

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive and Behavioral Response to Stress Scale (CB-RSS) is a self-report measure of the use and helpfulness of several cognitive and behavioral skills. Unlike other measures that focus on language specific to terms used in therapy, the CB-RSS was intended to tap the strategies in ways that might be understandable to those who had not undergone therapy. The measure was included in a clinical trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression and completed by 325 participants at baseline and end of treatment (18 weeks). Psychometric properties of the scale were assessed through iterative exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. These analyses identified two subscales, cognitive and behavioral skills, each with high reliability. Validity was addressed by investigating relationships with depression symptoms, positive affect, perceived stress, and coping self-efficacy. End of treatment scores predicted changes in all outcomes, with the largest relationships between baseline CB-RSS scales and coping self-efficacy. These findings suggest that the CB-RSS is a useful tool to measure cognitive and behavioral skills both at baseline (prior to treatment) as well as during the course of treatment. Keywords: Development, Validation, Telehealth PMID:26553147

  9. Factor analysis of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Broen, M P G; Moonen, A J H; Kuijf, M L; Dujardin, K; Marsh, L; Richard, I H; Starkstein, S E; Martinez-Martin, P; Leentjens, A F G

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have validated the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and reported adequate reliability and construct validity. However, the factorial validity of the HAMD has not yet been investigated. The aim of our analysis was to explore the factor structure of the HAMD in a large sample of PD patients. A principal component analysis of the 17-item HAMD was performed on data of 341 PD patients, available from a previous cross sectional study on anxiety. An eigenvalue ≥1 was used to determine the number of factors. Factor loadings ≥0.4 in combination with oblique rotations were used to identify which variables made up the factors. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure (KMO), Cronbach's alpha, Bartlett's test, communality, percentage of non-redundant residuals and the component correlation matrix were computed to assess factor validity. KMO verified the sample's adequacy for factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha indicated a good internal consistency of the total scale. Six factors had eigenvalues ≥1 and together explained 59.19% of the variance. The number of items per factor varied from 1 to 6. Inter-item correlations within each component were low. There was a high percentage of non-redundant residuals and low communality. This analysis demonstrates that the factorial validity of the HAMD in PD is unsatisfactory. This implies that the scale is not appropriate for studying specific symptom domains of depression based on factorial structure in a PD population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Creation and validation of the Cognitive and Behavioral Response to Stress Scale in a depression trial.

    PubMed

    Miner, Adam S; Schueller, Stephen M; Lattie, Emily G; Mohr, David C

    2015-12-30

    The Cognitive and Behavioral Response to Stress Scale (CB-RSS) is a self-report measure of the use and helpfulness of several cognitive and behavioral skills. Unlike other measures that focus on language specific to terms used in therapy, the CB-RSS was intended to tap the strategies in ways that might be understandable to those who had not undergone therapy. The measure was included in a clinical trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression and completed by 325 participants at baseline and end of treatment (18 weeks). Psychometric properties of the scale were assessed through iterative exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. These analyses identified two subscales, cognitive and behavioral skills, each with high reliability. Validity was addressed by investigating relationships with depression symptoms, positive affect, perceived stress, and coping self-efficacy. End of treatment scores predicted changes in all outcomes, with the largest relationships between baseline CB-RSS scales and coping self-efficacy. These findings suggest that the CB-RSS is a useful tool to measure cognitive and behavioral skills both at baseline (prior to treatment) as well as during the course of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of the Slovenian version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in female cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Miklavcic, Ilonka Vucko; Snoj, Zvezdana; Mlakar, Janez; Pregelj, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The present study describes the translation process of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) into the Slovenian language and the testing of its reliability and validity on the psychological morbidity in female cancer patients. The English version of the HADS was translated into the Slovene language using the 'forward-backward' procedure. The questionnaire was used in a study of 202 female cancer patients together with a clinical structured interview (CSI) to measure psychological state. A biserial correlation coefficient was calculated. The value of biserial correlation coefficient was 0.81 for the depression scale and 0.91 for the anxiety scale. The validation process of the Slovenian HADS score version shows metric properties similar to those in international studies, suggesting that it measures the same constructs, in the same way, as the original HADS score form. This validation study of the Slovenian version of the HADS proved that it is an acceptable and valid measure of psychological distress among female cancer patients.

  12. Differential item functioning of the Geriatric Depression Scale in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Broekman, B F P; Nyunt, S Z; Niti, M; Jin, A Z; Ko, S M; Kumar, R; Fones, C S L; Ng, T P

    2008-06-01

    The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is widely used for screening and assessment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Screening scales are often culture-specific and should be evaluated for item response bias (synonymously differential item functioning, DIF) before use in clinical practice and research in a different population. In this study, we examined DIF associated with age, gender, ethnicity and chronic illness in a heterogeneous Asian population in Singapore. The GDS-15 and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnosis of MDD were independently administered by interviewers on 4253 non-institutionalized community living elderly subjects aged 60 years and above who were users of social service agencies. Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause latent variable modelling was used to identify DIF. We found evidence of significant DIF associated with age, gender, ethnicity and chronic illness for 8 items: dropped many activities and interests, afraid something bad is going to happen, prefer staying home to going out, more problems with memory than most, think it is (not) wonderful to be alive, feel pretty worthless, feel (not) full of energy, feel that situation is hopeless. The smaller number of minority Indian and Malay subjects and the self-report of chronic medical illnesses. In a heterogeneous mix of respondents in Singapore, eight items of the GDS-15 showed DIF for age, gender, ethnicity and chronic illness. The awareness and identification of DIF in the GDS-15 provides a rational basis for its use in diverse population groups and guiding the derivation of abbreviated scales.

  13. Establishing a coherent and replicable measurement model of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Martin, Colin R; Redshaw, Maggie

    2018-06-01

    The 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is an established screening tool for postnatal depression. Inconsistent findings in factor structure and replication difficulties have limited the scope of development of the measure as a multi-dimensional tool. The current investigation sought to robustly determine the underlying factor structure of the EPDS and the replicability and stability of the most plausible model identified. A between-subjects design was used. EPDS data were collected postpartum from two independent cohorts using identical data capture methods. Datasets were examined with confirmatory factor analysis, model invariance testing and systematic evaluation of relational and internal aspects of the measure. Participants were two samples of postpartum women in England assessed at three months (n = 245) and six months (n = 217). The findings showed a three-factor seven-item model of the EPDS offered an excellent fit to the data, and was observed to be replicable in both datasets and invariant as a function of time point of assessment. Some EPDS sub-scale scores were significantly higher at six months. The EPDS is multi-dimensional and a robust measurement model comprises three factors that are replicable. The potential utility of the sub-scale components identified requires further research to identify a role in contemporary screening practice. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Key Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) items associated with DSM-IV depressive and anxiety disorder 12-months post traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Dean P; Downing, Marina G; Ponsford, Jennie L

    2018-08-15

    Anxiety and depression are common problems following traumatic brain injury (TBI), warranting routine screening. Self-report rating scales including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) are associated with depression and anxiety diagnoses in individuals with TBI. The relationship between individual HADS symptoms and structured clinical interview methods (SCID) requires further investigation, particularly in regard to identifying a small number of key items that can potentially be recognised by clinicians and carers of individuals with TBI. 138 individuals sustaining a complicated-mild to severe TBI completed the HADS, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Research Version (SCID) at 12-months post-injury. The associations between individual HADS items, separately and in combination, as well as overall depression and anxiety subscale scores, and SCID-diagnosed depressive and anxiety disorders were analysed. CART (Classification and Regression Tree) analysis found HADS depression item 2 "I still enjoy the things I used to enjoy" and a combination of two anxiety items, 3 "I get a sort of frightened feeling as if something awful is about to happen" and 5 "worrying thoughts go through my mind", performed similarly to total depression and anxiety subscales in terms of their association with depressive and anxiety disorders respectively, at 12-months post-injury. Patients were predominantly injured in motor vehicle accidents and received comprehensive care within a no-fault accident compensation system and so may not be representative of the wider TBI population. Although validation is required, a small number of self-report items are highly associated with 12-month post-injury diagnoses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A psychometric evaluation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for the medically hospitalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Helvik, Anne-Sofie; Engedal, Knut; Skancke, Randi H; Selbæk, Geir

    2011-10-01

    Few psychometric studies of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scale have been performed with clinical samples of elderly individuals. The participants were 484 elderly (65-101 years, 241 men) patients in an acute medical unit. The HADS, the Montgomery-Aasberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and questionnaires assessing quality of life, functional impairment, and cognitive function were used. The psychometric evaluation of the HADS included the following analyses: 1) the internal construct validity by means of principal component analysis followed by an oblique rotation and corrected item-total correlation; 2) the internal consistency reliability by means of the alpha coefficient (Cronbach's) and 3) concurrent validity by means of Spearman's rho. We found a two-factor solution explaining 45% of the variance. Six of seven items loaded adequately (≥0.40) on the HADS-A subscale (item 7 did not) and five of seven items loaded adequately on the HADS-D subscale (items 8 and 10 did not). Cronbach's alpha for the HADS-A and HADS-D subscale was 0.78 and 0.71, respectively. The correlation between HADS-D and the MADRS, a measure of the concurrent validity, was 0.51. The HADS appears to differentiate well between depression and anxiety. The internal consistency of the HADS in a sample of elderly persons was as satisfactory as it is in samples with younger persons. In contrast to younger samples, item 8 ("I feel as if I have slowed down") did not load adequately on the HADS-D subscale. This may be attributed to the way elderly people experience and describe their symptoms.

  16. The Self-Stigma of Depression Scale: Translation and Validation of the Arabic Version

    PubMed Central

    Darraj, Hussain Ahmed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Al Sanosi, Rashad Mohamed; Badedi, Mohammed; Sabai, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Self-stigma may feature strongly and be detrimental for people with depression, but the understanding of its nature and prevalence is limited by the lack of psychometrically validated measures. This study is aimed to validate the Arabic version self-stigma of depression scale (SSDS) among adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study involved 100 adolescents randomly selected. The analyses include face validation, factor analysis, and reliability testing. A test–retest was conducted within a 2-week interval. Results: The mean score for self-stigma of depression among study participants was 68.9 (Standard deviation = 8.76) median equal to 71 and range was 47. Descriptive analysis showed that the percentage of those who scored below the mean score (41.7%) is shown less than those who scored above the mean score (58.3%). Preliminary construct validation analysis confirmed that factor analysis was appropriate for the Arabic-translated version of the SSDS. Furthermore, the factor analysis showed similar factor loadings to the original English version. The total internal consistency of the translated version, which was measured by Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.70 to 0.77 for the four subscales and 0.84 for the total scale. Test–retest reliability was assessed in 65 respondents after 2 weeks. Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.70 to 0.77 for the four subscales and 0.84 for the total scale. Conclusions: Face validity, construct validity, and reliability analysis were found satisfactory for the Arabic-translated version of the SSDS. The Arabic-translated version of the SSDS was found valid and reliable to be used in future studies, with comparable properties to the original version and to previous studies. PMID:28149090

  17. Associations between quality of life, physical activity, worry, depression and insomnia: A cross-sectional designed study in healthy pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Mourady, Danielle; Richa, Sami; Karam, Rita; Papazian, Tatiana; Hajj Moussa, Fabienne; El Osta, Nada; Kesrouani, Assaad; Azouri, Joseph; Jabbour, Hicham; Hajj, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (QOL) is reported to be reduced during pregnancy. Associations between QOL, physical activity (PA), insomnia, depression and worry are insufficiently investigated among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to evaluate QOL and PA patterns among healthy pregnant women, and to examine how QOL might correlate to PA, sleep, worry and depression. This is an observational cross-sectional study, conducted among a convenient sample of 141 healthy pregnant women using five questionnaires: WHOQOL-brief (WHO quality of life questionnaire, brief version, ISI (Insomnia Severity Index), PSWQ (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), ZSRDS (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale), and Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ). Pre-gestational BMI was inversely correlated to overall health while education was positively correlated to psychological health, social relationships and environment domains. Smoking before and during pregnancy significantly impacted the general health and psychological health. Total and light PA were positively correlated to psychological health and social relationships. Sports/exercise showed positive correlations with several QOL domains. Insomnia and depression were significantly associated with a decrease in all domains of QOL, while worries were associated with a decrease in physical, psychological and environmental domains. There were significant negative correlations between ZSRDS scores and total activity. PA, worries, depression and insomnia affected QOL during pregnancy. Furthermore, pregnant women presenting depression had a reduced total PA. Sleep and mental health as well as encouraging PA during pregnancy are necessary to improve the quality of life of pregnant women. PMID:28542529

  18. Prevalence and determinants of depressive and anxiety symptoms in adults with type 2 diabetes in China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Nianquan; Lou, Peian; Shang, Yan; Zhang, Pan; Wang, Jian; Chang, Guiqiu; Shi, Chunlei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of anxiety and depression and to assess their impact on glycaemic control in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Community-based investigation in Xuzhou, China. Participants 893 Chinese men and women aged 18–84 years who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Methods People with type 2 diabetes completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and Depression Scales. Demographic and physiological characteristics were recorded. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the combined effect of factors associated with anxiety and depression and to assess the effects of anxiety and depression on glycaemic control. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms was 56.1% and 43.6%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that anxiety symptoms were associated with being woman, low income, chronic disease, depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality. Depressive symptoms were associated with being woman, older age, low education level, being single, diabetes complications, anxiety symptoms and poor sleep quality. Glycaemic control was not related to anxiety symptoms (OR=1.31, 95% CIs 0.94 to 1.67) or depressive symptoms (OR=1.23, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.63). A combination of depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms was associated with poor glycaemic control (relative excess risk due to interaction: 4.93, 95% CI 2.09 to 7.87; attributable proportion due to interaction: 0.27, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.45). Conclusions There was a high prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in this Chinese sample of participants, although depression and anxiety were not singly associated with glycaemic control. However, a combination of depressive and anxiety symptoms was negatively correlated with glycaemic control in participants with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27531739

  19. Characteristics of Residual Symptoms in Korean Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Validation Study for the Korean Version of Depression Residual Symptom Scale.

    PubMed

    Park, Sol A; Jeon, Sang Won; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Yoon, Seo Young; Shin, Cheolmin; Ko, Young-Hoon

    2018-02-01

    Residual symptoms of depression are related to more severe and chronic course of functional impairment with higher risk of relapse. The objective of this study was to validate, and determine psychometric properties of the Korean version of Depression Residual Symptom Scale (KDRSS). A total of 203 outpatients with recent episode of major depression based on DSM-IV criteria were enrolled in this study. They had been treated with antidepressants and assessed by KDRSS, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-24 (HDRS-24), and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MARDS). The validity and reliability of KDRSS were assessed, including internal consistency reliability, concurrent validity, temporal stability, factorial validity, and discriminative validity. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.961), concurrent validity (MADRS: r=0.731, p<0.01, HDRS-24: r=0.663, p<0.01), and temporal stability (r=0.726, p<0.01) of KDRSS were all excellent. KDRSS showed good discriminative validity based on MARDS. KDRSS consisted of one-factor structure accounting for 63.8% of total variance. All subjects except two in full remission group had one or more residual symptoms. In 7 subscales of KDRSS consisting of similar items respectively, 'lack of energy' was the most commonly reported, followed by 'increased emotionalism' in this group. KDRSS is a useful and sensitive instrument for measuring residual depressive symptoms. Since some depressive symptoms including 'lack of energy' and 'increased emotionalism' in patients with full remission might be persistent during psychiatric intervention, these symptoms need to be focused on in clinical practice.

  20. How well does the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale identify depression and anxiety in fathers? A validation study in a population based Swedish sample.

    PubMed

    Massoudi, Pamela; Hwang, C Philip; Wickberg, Birgitta

    2013-07-01

    Fathers are increasingly involved in infant care, and depression in postnatal fathers as well as mothers may have negative effects on child development and behaviour. The EPDS has been validated to identify depression in new mothers, but few validation studies have involved fathers and there is doubt as to whether the EPDS measures the same constructs in men as in women. A population-based sample of 1014 couples were sent the EPDS and the HAD-A subscale 3 months postnatally. All high-scoring fathers and a random sample of fathers scoring low were invited for a diagnostic interview to assess the presence of any depression or anxiety disorder. A factor analysis of the EPDS data was conducted for mothers and fathers. A factor analysis of the EPDS data revealed a different factor structure for fathers, implying that the scale picks up more worry, anxiety and unhappiness than depression. The EPDS yields high sensitivity and specificity, but low positive predictive value when screening for probable major depression at the optimal cut-off score of 12 or more. The accuracy of the EPDS, however, is modest for minor depression, and low for anxiety disorders. Neither the EPDS-3A score nor the HAD-A subscale reached acceptable validity in this study. The EPDS seems to pick up more distress than pure depression in new fathers. It is a valid instrument for screening for probable major depression, but it is questionable if it should be used to screen for minor depression. Neither the EPDS nor the HAD-A subscale can be recommended for screening for anxiety in postnatal fathers. Confidence intervals around the estimates are wide and the interviewed fathers were selected preferentially. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Association between N-terminal proB-type Natriuretic Peptide and Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yan; Jia, Jiao; Sa, Jian; Qiu, Li-Xia; Cui, Yue-Hua; Zhang, Yue-An; Yang, Hong; Liu, Gui-Fen

    2017-01-01

    Background: While depression and certain cardiac biomarkers are associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the relationship between them remains largely unexplored. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and biomarkers in patients with AMI. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 103 patients with AMI between March 2013 and September 2014. The levels of depression, N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and troponin I (TnI) were measured at baseline. The patients were divided into two groups: those with depressive symptoms and those without depressive symptoms according to Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) score. Baseline comparisons between two groups were made using Student's t-test for continuous variables, Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables, and Wilcoxon test for variables in skewed distribution. Binomial logistic regression and multivariate linear regression were performed to assess the association between depressive symptoms and biomarkers while adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. Results: Patients with depressive symptoms had significantly higher NT-proBNP levels as compared to patients without depressive symptoms (1135.0 [131.5, 2474.0] vs. 384.0 [133.0, 990.0], Z = −2.470, P = 0.013). Depressive symptoms were associated with higher NT-proBNP levels (odds ratio [OR] = 2.348, 95% CI: 1.344 to 4.103, P = 0.003) and higher body mass index (OR = 1.169, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.016 to 1.345, P = 0.029). The total SDS score was associated with the NT-proBNP level (β = 0.327, 95% CI: 1.674 to 6.119, P = 0.001) after multivariable adjustment. In particular, NT-proBNP was associated with three of the depressive dimensions, including core depression (β = 0.299, 95% CI: 0.551 to 2.428, P = 0.002), cognitive depression (β = 0.320, 95% CI: 0.476 to 1.811, P = 0.001), and somatic depression (β = 0.333, 95% CI: 0.240 to 0.847, P = 0.001). Neither the

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Beck Scale for Depression (Beck Depression Inventory BDI-II)--A Study on a Sample of Students in the State of Kuwait Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahem, Ahmed Mohammed Faleh

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) the Arabized version by Gharib (2000); the study sample consisted of 500 male and female students from the Kuwaiti universities by 250 males and 250 females on whom the BDI-II scale was applied twice; the psychometric characteristics such as the…

  3. The psychometric validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D) in first episode schizophrenia spectrum.

    PubMed

    Herniman, Sarah E; Allott, Kelly A; Killackey, Eóin; Hester, Robert; Cotton, Sue M

    2017-06-01

    Depressive pathology is common in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders (FES), and is frequently assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D), an instrument designed for use in community samples. Despite its widespread use, no prior study has examined the psychometric validity of the CES-D in assessing depressive pathology in FES. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric validity of the CES-D in FES. This study involved secondary analysis of baseline data from a single blind, randomized controlled trial of vocational intervention for individuals with FES (N=91; age range: 15-25 years). Measures used were: CES-D, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/P). The CES-D strongly correlated with the depression subscale of the BPRS, and with the presence of full-threshold depressive disorder on the SCID-I/P. There was minimal overlap between the CES-D and SANS, with weak correlations emerging for avolition and anhedonia, and not for affective flattening, alogia, and attention. The CES-D cut-off of ≥23 produced high sensitivity and specificity values for determining full-threshold comorbid depressive disorder. Such findings indicate that the CES-D is effective for assessing and measuring depressive pathology in FES. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) in untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

    PubMed

    Nanthakumar, Shenooka; Bucks, Romola S; Skinner, Timothy C; Starkstein, Sergio; Hillman, David; James, Alan; Hunter, Michael

    2017-10-01

    The assessment of depression in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is confounded by symptom overlap. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-short form (DASS-21) is a commonly used measure of negative affect, but it not known whether the DASS-21 is suitable for use in an OSA sample. This study compared the fit of Lovibond and Lovibond's (1995) correlated 3-factor structure of the DASS-21 and measurement invariance between a non-OSA and an OSA sample using confirmatory factor analysis. As measurement invariance was not found, to determine the source of non-invariance differential item functioning (DIF) was examined using dMACS. The correlated 3-factor structure (with correlated errors) of the DASS-21 was a better fit in the non-OSA sample. dMACS indicated that there was a degree of DIF for each of the subscales, especially for the Anxiety subscale, in which 2 symptoms (that are also physiological symptoms of OSA) produced lower severity scores in the OSA sample compared with the non-OSA sample. However, the degree of DIF for each of the subscales is not sufficient to cause concern when using the DASS-21; therefore, the total DASS-21 is suitable for use in an OSA sample. Interestingly, the impact of symptom overlap in anxiety symptoms may be reducing anxiety scores because of DIF, which contrasts with the proposed effect of symptom overlap in depression, where it leads to the inflation of depression scores in OSA. This deserves greater consideration in relation to OSA and other clinical disorders or chronic illness conditions with different patterns of overlapping symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The use of the edinburgh postpartum depression scale in a population of teenager pregnant women in Mexico: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    :Depression may occur in teenager pregnant women. The use of a validated tool for screening depression is highly recommended. The Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) is a screening tool for depression used in women during the postnatal period and pregnancy. However, the EPDS has not been validated in teenager pregnant women. Therefore, we sought to validate a Spanish translated Mexican version of the EPDS in a population of teenager pregnant women. One hundred and twenty teenager pregnant women attending routine prenatal consultations in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico participated in the study. All participants submitted a revised Spanish translated Mexican version of the EPDS and were examined by a psychiatrist to evaluate the presence of depression by using DSM-IV criteria. Of the 120 teenager pregnant women studied, 2 had major depression and 25 had minor depression according to the DSM-IV criteria. The optimal EPDS cut-off for screening combined major and minor depression in teenager pregnant women was 8/9. At this threshold, we found a sensitivity of 70.4%, a specificity of 84.9%, a positive predictive value of 47.6%, a negative predictive value of 91.0%, and an area under the curve of 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.07). The EPDS can be used for screening depression in Mexican teenager pregnant women whenever a cut-off score of 8/9 is used.

  6. The Use of the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale in a Population of Teenager Pregnant Women in Mexico: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background :Depression may occur in teenager pregnant women. The use of a validated tool for screening depression is highly recommended. The Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) is a screening tool for depression used in women during the postnatal period and pregnancy. However, the EPDS has not been validated in teenager pregnant women. Therefore, we sought to validate a Spanish translated Mexican version of the EPDS in a population of teenager pregnant women. Methods: One hundred and twenty teenager pregnant women attending routine prenatal consultations in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico participated in the study. All participants submitted a revised Spanish translated Mexican version of the EPDS and were examined by a psychiatrist to evaluate the presence of depression by using DSM-IV criteria. Results: Of the 120 teenager pregnant women studied, 2 had major depression and 25 had minor depression according to the DSM-IV criteria. The optimal EPDS cut-off for screening combined major and minor depression in teenager pregnant women was 8/9. At this threshold, we found a sensitivity of 70.4%, a specificity of 84.9%, a positive predictive value of 47.6%, a negative predictive value of 91.0%, and an area under the curve of 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.07). Conclusion: The EPDS can be used for screening depression in Mexican teenager pregnant women whenever a cut-off score of 8/9 is used. PMID:25493092

  7. Antenatal depression in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka and the factor structure of the Sinhalese version of Edinburgh post partum depression scale among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika; Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala

    2013-01-01

    Mental health problems among women of reproductive age group contribute to 7% of Global Burden of Diseases of women of all ages. Purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of antenatal depression among pregnant women in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, and to explore the factor structure of EPDS. Pregnant women with gestational age of 24-36 weeks and residing in Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka were recruited to the study using a two stage cluster sampling procedure. Sinhalese version of Edinburgh Post Partum Depression Scale (EPDS) and an interviewer administered questionnaire was use to collect data. A cut off value of 9 was used for the Sinhalese version of EPDS. A total of 376 pregnant women were studied. Median EPDS score among pregnant women was 5 (IQR 2-8). Prevalence of antenatal depression in this study sample was 16.2% (n = 61). Thought of self harming (item number 10) was reported by 26 pregnant women (6.9%). None of the socio-demographic factors were associated with depression in this study sample. Having heart burn was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (p = 0.041). Sri Lankan version of EPDS showed a two factor solution. Anxiety was not emerged as a separate factor in this analysis. Prevalence of antenatal depression in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka was relatively low. Anxiety was not emerged as a separate factor in the Sinhalese version of the EPDS.

  8. Variability in depression prevalence in early rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison of the CES-D and HAD-D Scales

    PubMed Central

    Covic, Tanya; Pallant, Julie F; Tennant, Alan; Cox, Sally; Emery, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G

    2009-01-01

    Background Depression is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), however reported prevalence varies considerably. Two frequently used instruments to identify depression are the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The objectives of this study were to test if the CES-D and HADS-D (a) satisfy current modern psychometric standards for unidimensional measurement in an early RA sample; (b) measure the same construct (i.e. depression); and (c) identify similar levels of depression. Methods Data from the two scales completed by patients with early RA were fitted to the Rasch measurement model to show that (a) each scale satisfies the criteria of fit to the model, including strict unidimensionality; (b) that the scales can be co-calibrated onto a single underlying continuum of depression and to (c) examine the location of the cut points on the underlying continuum as indication of the prevalence of depression. Results Ninety-two patients with early RA (62% female; mean age = 56.3, SD = 13.7) gave 141 sets of paired CES-D and HAD-D data. Fit of the data from the CES-D was found to be poor, and the scale had to be reduced to 13 items to satisfy Rasch measurement criteria whereas the HADS-D met model expectations from the outset. The 20 items combined (CES-D13 and HADS-D) satisfied Rasch model expectations. The CES-D gave a much higher prevalence of depression than the HADS-D. Conclusion The CES-D in its present form is unsuitable for use in patients with early RA, and needs to be reduced to a 13-item scale. The HADS-D is valid for early RA and the two scales measure the same underlying construct but their cut points lead to different estimates of the level of depression. Revised cut points on the CES-D13 provide comparative prevalence rates. PMID:19200388

  9. The Modified Depression Scale (MDS): A Brief, No-Cost Assessment Tool to Estimate the Level of Depressive Symptoms in Students and Schools

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Erin C.; Johnson, Renee M.; Green, Jennifer G.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent health researchers and practitioners are frequently interested in assessing depression as part of student screening and for school-wide prevention and intervention planning. However, this task is challenging given the lack of free, brief assessments of depressive symptoms in youth. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of an adapted version of the Modified Depression Scale (MDS). Data came from a school-based survey of 9th-12th graders in Boston (N=1,657). We assessed internal consistency reliability and known-groups validity, in addition to the feasibility of establishing a dichotomous cut-point to classify adolescents as having high versus low depressive symptoms. We also evaluated the validity of the adapted MDS as a school-wide measure. At the student-level, the adapted MDS demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. Students engaging in risk behaviors (e.g., substance use) or who were victimized (e.g., bullied) had significantly higher depressive symptom scores. Students who endorsed four or five MDS symptoms often or always had a heightened risk of suicidal ideation, substance use, and failing grades when compared to students who endorsed three or fewer symptoms often or always. At the school-level, higher mean levels of depressive symptoms in a school were associated with higher mean levels of suicidal ideation and failing grades. Results of this study suggest that the adapted MDS is a promising measurement tool that could be useful to school-based professionals and researchers to evaluate depressive symptoms in adolescents and ascertain the prevalence of depressive symptoms in schools. PMID:22639697

  10. Factor structure and reliability of the depression, anxiety and stress scales in a large Portuguese community sample.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos-Raposo, José; Fernandes, Helder Miguel; Teixeira, Carla M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the factor structure and reliability of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) in a large Portuguese community sample. Participants were 1020 adults (585 women and 435 men), with a mean age of 36.74 (SD = 11.90) years. All scales revealed good reliability, with Cronbach's alpha values between .80 (anxiety) and .84 (depression). The internal consistency of the total score was .92. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the best-fitting model (*CFI = .940, *RMSEA = .038) consisted of a latent component of general psychological distress (or negative affectivity) plus orthogonal depression, anxiety and stress factors. The Portuguese version of the DASS-21 showed good psychometric properties (factorial validity and reliability) and thus can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring depression, anxiety and stress symptoms.

  11. Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Depressive Cognition Scale in Brazilian adults with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Valmi D; Zanetti, Maria L; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Mendes, Isabel A C; Daguano, Michelle O

    2008-01-01

    Identifying depressive cognitions in Brazilians with diabetes can be important step to prevent the development of clinical depression, which is negatively associated with diabetes self-management. This study focused on the psychometric testing of the Portuguese version of the Depressive Cognition Scale, the Escala Cognitiva de Depressão (ECD), among 82 Brazilian adults with diabetes mellitus. The questionnaire was assessed for internal consistency, homogeneity, and construct validity using factor analysis and convergent validity assessment with the Portuguese version of the Beck Depression Inventory, the Inventário de Depressão Beck (IDB). Cronbach's alpha for the ECD was .88. The homogeneity of the instrument was supported by item-to-total correlations between .30 and .70. Factor extraction generated only one factor with eigenvalues greater than 1, which is consistent with the English version. The ECD's total score had a weak but significant correlation with the IDB's total score (r = .24, p < .05), indicating convergent validity. Evidence for the reliability and construct validity of the ECD was provided by this study. This scale has the potential to become a useful screening tool for depressive cognitions among Brazilians with diabetes.

  12. Assessing emotional status following acquired brain injury: the clinical potential of the depression, anxiety and stress scales.

    PubMed

    Ownsworth, Tamara; Little, Trudi; Turner, Ben; Hawkes, Anna; Shum, David

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the clinical potential of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS 42) and its shorter version (DASS 21) for assessing emotional status following acquired brain injury. Participants included 23 individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), 25 individuals with brain tumour and 29 non-clinical controls. Investigations of internal consistency, test-re-test reliability, theory-consistent differences, sensitivity to change and concurrent validity were conducted. Internal consistency of the DASS was generally acceptable (r > 0.70), with the exception of the anxiety scale for the TBI sample. Test-re-test reliability (1-3 weeks) was sound for the depression scale (r > 0.75) and significant but comparatively lower for other scales (r = 0.60-0.73, p < 0.01). Theory-consistent differences were only evident between the brain tumour sample and non-clinical control sample on the anxiety scale (p < 0.01). Sensitivity to change of the DASS in the context of hospital discharge was demonstrated for depression and stress (p < 0.01), but not for anxiety (p > 0.05). Concurrent validity with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was significant for all scales of the DASS (p < 0.05). While the results generally support the clinical application of the DASS following ABI, further research examining the factor structure of existing and modified versions of the DASS is recommended.

  13. Lessons from scaling up a depression treatment program in primary care in Chile.

    PubMed

    Araya, Ricardo; Alvarado, Rubén; Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Rojas, Graciela

    2012-09-01

    In Chile, the National Depression Detection and Treatment Program (Programa Nacional de Diagnóstico y Tratamiento de la Depresión, PNDTD) in primary care is a rare example of an evidence-based mental health program that was scaled up to the national level in a low- or middle-income country. This retrospective qualitative study aimed to better understand how policymakers made the decision to scale up mental health services to the national level, and to explore the elements, contexts, and processes that facilitated the decision to implement and sustain PNDTD. In-depth semistructured interviews with six key informants selected through intentional sampling were conducted in August-December 2008. Interviewees were senior officers at the Ministry of Health who were directly involved in the decision to scale up the program. Results yielded four elements pivotal to the decisionmaking process: scientific evidence, teamwork and leadership, strategic alliances, and program institutionalization. Each element contributed to building consensus, securing funding, attracting resources, and gaining lasting support from policymakers. Additionally, a review of available documentation led the authors to consider sociopolitical context and use of the media to be important factors. While research evidence for the effectiveness of mental health services in the primary care setting continues to accumulate, low- and middle-income countries should get started on the lengthy process of scaling up by incorporating the elements that led to decisionmaking and implementation of the PNDTD in Chile.

  14. Evaluation of the utility of Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale in the diagnosis of social anxiety, impulsivity and depression.

    PubMed

    Tyrała, Kinga; Seweryn, Mariusz; Bonk, Magdalena; Bulska, Weronika; Orszulak, Kamila; Bratek, Agnieszka; Krysta, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Often mental disorders are serious problems concerning psychological well-being. They require comprehensive and specialized psychiatric and psychological help, but there are no public methods of controlling your mental state. The aim of study was the evaluation of the utility of Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale in the diagnosis of social anxiety, impulsivity and depression. The study included 85 persons. The study group had 34 patients treated in an open ward of the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. The control group included 51 persons without mental disorders. Three self-rating questionnaires were used: Beck Depression Inventory, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Statistica v10 Statsoft software was used for statistical analysis. The analyzed groups had significant differences in terms of Beck Scale (U Mann-Whitney test p=0.000001). Average score in study group: 22.94±12.50; in control group: 7.15±6.44. Groups had significant differences in terms of Liebowitz Scale (U test Mann-Whitney test, p=0.000164). Average score in the study group: 60.41±30.30; in control group: 35.01±23.94. Groups had significant differences in terms of Barratt Scale (t-student test p=0.000601). Average in study group: 66.35±9,49; in control group: 59.54±7.87. Significant positive correlation was observed between the results of Beck Scale and Liebowitz Scale (r=0.64465). Correlation was not observed between the results of the Liebowitz and Barrat (r=0.12091 and Beck and Barrat (r=0.21482). The intensity of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale is directly proportional to the severity of depression according to the Beck Depression Inventory. The degree of impulsivity by Barrat Impulsiveness Scale does not correlate with the level of depression according to Beck Depression Inventory. The analyzed scales are relevant in the diagnosis of mental disorders.

  15. Rasch model analysis of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS)

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Tracey L; Tennant, Alan; Pallant, Julie F

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a growing awareness of the need for easily administered, psychometrically sound screening tools to identify individuals with elevated levels of psychological distress. Although support has been found for the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) using classical test theory approaches it has not been subjected to Rasch analysis. The aim of this study was to use Rasch analysis to assess the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 scales, using two different administration modes. Methods The DASS-21 was administered to 420 participants with half the sample responding to a web-based version and the other half completing a traditional pencil-and-paper version. Conformity of DASS-21 scales to a Rasch partial credit model was assessed using the RUMM2020 software. Results To achieve adequate model fit it was necessary to remove one item from each of the DASS-21 subscales. The reduced scales showed adequate internal consistency reliability, unidimensionality and freedom from differential item functioning for sex, age and mode of administration. Analysis of all DASS-21 items combined did not support its use as a measure of general psychological distress. A scale combining the anxiety and stress items showed satisfactory fit to the Rasch model after removal of three items. Conclusion The results provide support for the measurement properties, internal consistency reliability, and unidimensionality of three slightly modified DASS-21 scales, across two different administration methods. The further use of Rasch analysis on the DASS-21 in larger and broader samples is recommended to confirm the findings of the current study. PMID:19426512

  16. Rasch model analysis of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS).

    PubMed

    Shea, Tracey L; Tennant, Alan; Pallant, Julie F

    2009-05-09

    There is a growing awareness of the need for easily administered, psychometrically sound screening tools to identify individuals with elevated levels of psychological distress. Although support has been found for the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) using classical test theory approaches it has not been subjected to Rasch analysis. The aim of this study was to use Rasch analysis to assess the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 scales, using two different administration modes. The DASS-21 was administered to 420 participants with half the sample responding to a web-based version and the other half completing a traditional pencil-and-paper version. Conformity of DASS-21 scales to a Rasch partial credit model was assessed using the RUMM2020 software. To achieve adequate model fit it was necessary to remove one item from each of the DASS-21 subscales. The reduced scales showed adequate internal consistency reliability, unidimensionality and freedom from differential item functioning for sex, age and mode of administration. Analysis of all DASS-21 items combined did not support its use as a measure of general psychological distress. A scale combining the anxiety and stress items showed satisfactory fit to the Rasch model after removal of three items. The results provide support for the measurement properties, internal consistency reliability, and unidimensionality of three slightly modified DASS-21 scales, across two different administration methods. The further use of Rasch analysis on the DASS-21 in larger and broader samples is recommended to confirm the findings of the current study.

  17. Urdu translation of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: Results of a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Ali M.; Naz, Shahana; Asif, Aftab; Khawaja, Imran S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To develop a standardized validated version of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) in Urdu. Methods: After translation of the HAM-D into the Urdu language following standard guidelines, the final Urdu version (HAM-D-U) was administered to 160 depressed outpatients. Inter-item correlation was assessed by calculating Cronbach alpha. Correlation between HAM-D-U scores at baseline and after a 2-week interval was evaluated for test-retest reliability. Moreover, scores of two clinicians on HAM-D-U were compared for inter-rater reliability. For establishing concurrent validity, scores of HAM-D-U and BDI-U were compared by using Spearman correlation coefficient. The study was conducted at Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from May to December 2014. Results: The Cronbach alpha for HAM-D-U was 0.71. Composite scores for HAM-D-U at baseline and after a 2-week interval were also highly correlated with each other (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.83, p-value < 0.01) indicating good test-retest reliability. Composite scores for HAM-D-U and BDI-U were positively correlated with each other (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.85, p < 0.01) indicating good concurrent validity. Scores of two clinicians for HAM-D-U were also positively correlated (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.82, p-value < 0.01) indicated good inter-rater reliability. Conclusion: The HAM-D-U is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of Depression. It shows good inter-rater and test-retest reliability. The HAM-D-U can be a tool either for clinical management or research. PMID:28083049

  18. Urdu translation of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: Results of a validation study.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Ali M; Naz, Shahana; Asif, Aftab; Khawaja, Imran S

    2016-01-01

    To develop a standardized validated version of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) in Urdu. After translation of the HAM-D into the Urdu language following standard guidelines, the final Urdu version (HAM-D-U) was administered to 160 depressed outpatients. Inter-item correlation was assessed by calculating Cronbach alpha. Correlation between HAM-D-U scores at baseline and after a 2-week interval was evaluated for test-retest reliability. Moreover, scores of two clinicians on HAM-D-U were compared for inter-rater reliability. For establishing concurrent validity, scores of HAM-D-U and BDI-U were compared by using Spearman correlation coefficient. The study was conducted at Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from May to December 2014. The Cronbach alpha for HAM-D-U was 0.71. Composite scores for HAM-D-U at baseline and after a 2-week interval were also highly correlated with each other (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.83, p-value < 0.01) indicating good test-retest reliability. Composite scores for HAM-D-U and BDI-U were positively correlated with each other (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.85, p < 0.01) indicating good concurrent validity. Scores of two clinicians for HAM-D-U were also positively correlated (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.82, p-value < 0.01) indicated good inter-rater reliability. The HAM-D-U is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of Depression. It shows good inter-rater and test-retest reliability. The HAM-D-U can be a tool either for clinical management or research.

  19. Basin-scale impacts of hydropower development on the Mompós Depression wetlands, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angarita, Héctor; Wickel, Albertus J.; Sieber, Jack; Chavarro, John; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A.; Herrera-R., Guido A.; Delgado, Juliana; Purkey, David

    2018-05-01

    A number of large hydropower dams are currently under development or in an advanced stage of planning in the Magdalena River basin, Colombia, spelling uncertainty for the Mompós Depression wetlands, one of the largest wetland systems in South America at 3400 km2. Annual large-scale inundation of floodplains and their associated wetlands regulates water, nutrient, and sediment cycles, which in turn sustain a wealth of ecological processes and ecosystem services, including critical food supplies. In this study, we implemented an integrated approach focused on key attributes of ecologically functional floodplains: (1) hydrologic connectivity between the river and the floodplain, and between upstream and downstream sections; (2) hydrologic variability patterns and their links to local and regional processes; and (3) the spatial scale required to sustain floodplain-associated processes and benefits, like migratory fish biodiversity. The implemented framework provides an explicit quantification of the nonlinear or direct response relationship of those considerations with hydropower development. The proposed framework was used to develop a comparative analysis of the potential effects of the hydropower expansion necessary to meet projected 2050 electricity requirements. As part of this study, we developed an enhancement of the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) that allows resolution of the floodplains water balance at a medium scale (˜ 1000 to 10 000 km2) and evaluation of the potential impacts of upstream water management practices. In the case of the Mompós Depression wetlands, our results indicate that the potential additional impacts of new hydropower infrastructure with respect to baseline conditions can range up to one order of magnitude between scenarios that are comparable in terms of energy capacity. Fragmentation of connectivity corridors between lowland floodplains and upstream spawning habitats and reduction of sediment loads show the greatest

  20. The impact of education, country, race and ethnicity on the self-report of postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

    PubMed Central

    Di Florio, A.; Putnam, K.; Altemus, M.; Apter, G.; Bergink, V.; Bilszta, J.; Brock, R.; Buist, A.; Deligiannidis, K. M.; Devouche, E.; Epperson, C. N.; Guille, C.; Kim, D.; Lichtenstein, P.; Magnusson, P. K. E.; Martinez, P.; Munk-Olsen, T.; Newport, J.; Payne, J.; Penninx, B. W.; O’Hara, M.; Robertson-Blackmore, E.; Roza, S. J.; Sharkey, K. M.; Stuart, S.; Tiemeier, H.; Viktorin, A.; Schmidt, P. J.; Sullivan, P. F.; Stowe, Z. N.; Wisner, K. L.; Jones, I.; Rubinow, D. R.; Meltzer-Brody, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Universal screening for postpartum depression is recommended in many countries. Knowledge of whether the disclosure of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period differs across cultures could improve detection and provide new insights into the pathogenesis. Moreover, it is a necessary step to evaluate the universal use of screening instruments in research and clinical practice. In the current study we sought to assess whether the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the most widely used screening tool for postpartum depression, measures the same underlying construct across cultural groups in a large international dataset. Method Ordinal regression and measurement invariance were used to explore the association between culture, operationalized as education, ethnicity/race and continent, and endorsement of depressive symptoms using the EPDS on 8209 new mothers from Europe and the USA. Results Education, but not ethnicity/race, influenced the reporting of postpartum depression [difference between robust comparative fit indexes (Δ*CFI) < 0.01]. The structure of EPDS responses significantly differed between Europe and the USA (Δ*CFI > 0.01), but not between European countries (Δ*CFI < 0.01). Conclusions Investigators and clinicians should be aware of the potential differences in expression of phenotype of postpartum depression that women of different educational backgrounds may manifest. The increasing cultural heterogeneity of societies together with the tendency towards globalization requires a culturally sensitive approach to patients, research and policies, that takes into account, beyond rhetoric, the context of a person’s experiences and the context in which the research is conducted. PMID:27866476

  1. The Brief Anxiety and Depression Scale (BADS): a new instrument for detecting anxiety and depression in long-term care residents.

    PubMed

    Mansbach, William E; Mace, Ryan A; Clark, Kristen M

    2015-04-01

    Depression and anxiety are common among long-term care residents, yet both appear to be under-recognized and under-treated. In our survey of 164 geriatric health care professionals from 34 U.S. states, 96% of respondents reported that a new instrument that rapidly assesses both depression and anxiety is needed. The Brief Anxiety and Depression Scale (BADS) is a new screening tool that can identify possible major depressive episodes (MDE) and generalized anxiety disorders (GAD) in long-term care residents. The psychometric properties of the BADS were investigated in a sample of 224 U.S. long-term care residents (aged 80.52 ± 9.07). Participants completed a battery of several individually administered mood and cognitive tests, including the BADS. MDE and GAD were diagnosed based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Adequate internal consistency and construct validity were found. A principle component analysis (PCA) revealed an Anxiety Factor and a Depression Factor, which explained 50.26% of the total variance. The Anxiety Factor had a sensitivity of 0.73 and specificity of 0.81 for identifying GAD (PPV = 0.69, NPV = 0.84). The Depression Factor had a sensitivity of 0.76 and a specificity of 0.73 for identifying MDE (PPV = 0.77, NPV = 0.72). The BADS appears to be a reliable and valid screening instrument for MDE and GAD in long-term residents. The BADS can be rapidly administered, is sensitive to mood diagnoses in both patients without dementia and with dementia, and produces separate depression and anxiety factor scores that can be used clinically to identify probable mood diagnoses.

  2. The Koukopoulos Mixed Depression Rating Scale (KMDRS): An International Mood Network (IMN) validation study of a new mixed mood rating scale.

    PubMed

    Sani, Gabriele; Vöhringer, Paul A; Barroilhet, Sergio A; Koukopoulos, Alexia E; Ghaemi, S Nassir

    2018-05-01

    It has been proposed that the broad major depressive disorder (MDD) construct is heterogenous. Koukopoulos has provided diagnostic criteria for an important subtype within that construct, "mixed depression" (MxD), which encompasses clinical pictures characterized by marked psychomotor or inner excitation and rage/anger, along with severe depression. This study provides psychometric validation for the first rating scale specifically designed to assess MxD symptoms cross-sectionally, the Koukopoulos Mixed Depression Rating Scale (KMDRS). 350 patients from the international mood network (IMN) completed three rating scales: the KMDRS, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). KMDRS' psychometric properties assessed included Cronbach's alpha, inter-rater reliability, factor analysis, predictive validity, and Receiver Operator Curve analysis. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.76; 95% CI 0.57, 0.94) and interrater reliability (kappa = 0.73) were adequate. Confirmatory factor analysis identified 2 components: anger and psychomotor excitation (80% of total variance). Good predictive validity was seen (C-statistic = 0.82 95% CI 0.68, 0.93). Severity cut-off scores identified were as follows: none (0-4), possible (5-9), mild (10-15), moderate (16-20) and severe (> 21) MxD. Non DSM-based diagnosis of MxD may pose some difficulties in the initial use and interpretation of the scoring of the scale. Moreover, the cross-sectional nature of the evaluation does not verify the long-term stability of the scale. KMDRS was a reliable and valid instrument to assess MxD symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Improvement of depressive symptoms in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis treated with ustekinumab: an open label trial validated using beck depression inventory, Hamilton depression rating scale measures and 18fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET).

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Jang; Park, Min-Young; Pak, Kyoungjune; Han, Junhee; Kim, Gun-Wook; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2018-05-07

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease associated with psychiatric co-morbidities, especially depression. Early detection of psychological vulnerability in patients with psoriasis seems to be of great clinical importance and significantly impacts the quality of life of the patients. We sought to clarify the association between psoriasis and depressive symptoms in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, and to determine the risk factors for depressive symptoms and analyze the effect of ustekinumab on the symptoms. We also aimed to evaluate the changes in glucose metabolism using 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Fifteen patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis scheduled to be treated with ustekinumab were enrolled. At baseline and after achieving a 75% reduction in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score (PASI75), all patients underwent a psychiatric interview and FDG-PET. Fifteen healthy volunteers were enrolled for comparison. Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis were more depressed than those in the control group were (p < .05). The severity of psoriasis at baseline did not correlate with the depression symptoms. Treatment with ustekinumab significantly reduced the depressive symptoms, as verified using Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale psychiatric interviews (p < .05). However, FDG-PET of the brain showed no significant difference before and after PASI75 achievement using ustekinumab injection. Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis are at an increased risk for depressive symptoms, and treatment with ustekinumab may be beneficial. FDG-PET does not reflect the changes in depressive symptoms in such patients.

  4. Elevated depressive symptoms are associated with hypertriglyceridemia in Japanese male workers.

    PubMed

    Kamezaki, Fumihiko; Sonoda, Shinjo; Nakata, Sei; Okazaki, Masahiro; Tamura, Masahito; Abe, Haruhiko; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Otsuji, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether elevated depressive symptoms are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components in the Japanese population. Out of 1,386 male workers who underwent measurements of variables of metabolic syndrome components in their health checkup, 1,186 subjects (44.5 ± 9.6 years) completed the Zung self-rating depression scale (ZSDS) (response rate 85.6%). In this study, metabolic syndrome was defined according to the joint scientific statement proposed by 6 major organizations, including the International Diabetes Federation. The overall frequency of elevated depressive symptoms (ZSDS scores ≥40) was 42.1% (n=499). The incidence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in subjects with elevated depressive symptoms than in those without (13.2% vs. 8.9%, p<0.05). Of all the metabolic syndrome components, mean triglyceride levels were significantly higher in subjects with elevated depressive symptoms than in those without [124.7 (95% confidence interval (CI): 117.8-131.7) mg/dL vs. 111.5 (95% CI: 107.2-115.9) mg/dL, p<0.05]. Consequently, hypertriglyceridemia (28.9% vs. 21.0%, p<0.01) was the main component correlated with the between-group difference of metabolic syndrome incidence. In the logistic regression analysis after adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratio of the total ZSDS scores for the diagnosis of hypertriglyceridemia was 1.52 (95% CI: 1.13-2.04; p<0.01), and the major depressive symptom was psychomotor agitation (odds ratio: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.10-1.94; p<0.01). This study showed that elevated depressive symptoms were associated with hypertriglyceridemia in Japanese male workers, which affected the clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome.

  5. Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Factor Structure in Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Randall, Diane; Thomas, Matt; Whiting, Diane; McGrath, Andrew

    To confirm the construct validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) by investigating the fit of published factor structures in a sample of adults with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (posttraumatic amnesia > 24 hours). Archival data from 504 patient records at the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Unit at Liverpool Hospital, Australia. Participants were aged between 16 and 71 years and were engaged in a specialist rehabilitation program. The DASS-21. Two of the 6 models had adequate fit using structural equation modeling. The data best fit Henry and Crawford's quadripartite model, which comprised a Depression, Anxiety and Stress factor, as well as a General Distress factor. The data also adequately fit Lovibond and Lovibond's original 3-factor model, and the internal consistencies of each factor were very good (α = 0.82-0.90). This study confirms the structure and construct validity of the DASS-21 and provides support for its use as a screening tool in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation.

  6. Testing measurement invariance of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) across four countries.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Saskia; Velten, Julia; Bieda, Angela; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-11-01

    The rising burden of mental and behavioral disorders has become a global challenge (Murray et al., 2012). Measurement invariant clinical instruments are necessary for the assessment of relevant symptoms across countries. The present study tested the measurement invariance of the 21-item version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995b) in Poland, Russia, the United Kingdom (U.K.), and the United States of America (U.S.). Telephone interviews were conducted with population-based samples (nPL = 1003, nRU = 3020, nU.K. = 1002, nU.S. = 1002). The DASS-21 shows threshold measurement invariance. Comparisons of latent means did not indicate differences between U.K. and U.S. However, Polish and Russian samples reported more depressive symptoms compared with U.K. and U.S. samples; the Russian sample had the highest levels of anxiety symptoms and the Polish sample demonstrated the highest stress levels. The DASS-21 can be recommended to meaningfully compare the relationships between variables across groups and to compare latent means in Polish-, Russian-, and English-speaking populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Relationship between depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) and urinary hydroxyproline and proline concentrations in hospital workers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keou Won; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyung Jong

    2011-01-01

    Although increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) is caused by stress accelerates collagen degradation, there was no data on the relationship between stress and urinary hydroxyproline (Hyp) and proline (Pro), a good marker of collagen degradation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) and concentrations of urinary Hyp and Pro. 97 hospital employees aged 20 to 58 were asked to fill out comprehensive self-administrated questionnaires containing information about their medical history, lifestyle, length of the work year, shift-work and DAS. depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) was applied to evaluate chronic mental disorders. Urine samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with double derivatization for the assay of hydroxyproline and proline. The mean value of Hyp and Pro concentration in all subjects was 194.1 ± 113.4 μmol/g and 568.2 ± 310.7 μmol/g. DASS values and urinary Pro concentrations were differentiated by sex (female > male, p < 0.05) and type of job (nurse > others, p < 0.05). In the stepwise multiple linear regressions, urinary Hyp and Pro concentrations were influenced by stress (Adjusted r2 = 0.051) and anxiety and job (Adjusted r2 = 0.199), respectively. We found that stress and anxiety were correlated with urinary Hyp and Pro concentrations. To identifying a definite correlation, further study in large populations will be needed.

  8. Depressive symptomatology among Mexican-American adults: an examination with the CES-D Scale.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Marks, G

    1989-02-01

    The presence and persistence of specific depressive symptomatology among a large sample of Mexican-American adults (n = 3,084) were examined with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Compared to studies of Anglos, a substantially larger percentage reported persistent hopelessness about the future (29%), self-depreciation (21%), and lack of enjoyment out of life (14%). The prevalence of these symptoms was higher among those who had not adapted to mainstream American society and among older participants. Women were generally more distressed than men. Factor analyses of the items demonstrated a slightly different factor structure than previously obtained with Anglos. For both sexes and for those under age 30 and ages 30-59, the items "loneliness," "sadness," and "crying" loaded on a common factor. The tendency for these items to group together was stronger for those exhibiting a low or medium degree of cultural adaptation than for those exhibiting a high degree of adaptation. Discussion focuses on the cultural variation of response to items on the CES-D.

  9. The Validity of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale in an Inpatient Sample with Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Hobden, Breanne; Schwandt, Melanie L.; Carey, Mariko; Lee, Mary R.; Farokhnia, Mehdi; Bouhlal, Sofia; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Background The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) is commonly used to examine depressive symptoms in clinical settings, including facilities treating patients for alcohol addiction. No studies have examined the validity of the MADRS compared to an established clinical diagnostic tool of depression in this population. This study aimed to examine: 1) the validity of the MADRS compared to a clinical diagnosis of a depressive disorder (using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID)) in patients seeking treatment for alcohol dependence (AD); 2) whether the validity of the MADRS differs by type of SCID-based diagnosis of depression; and 3) which items contribute to the optimal predictive model of the MADRS compared to a SCID diagnosis of a depressive disorder. Methods Individuals seeking treatment for AD and admitted to an inpatient unit were administered the MADRS at day 2 of their detoxification program. Clinical diagnoses of AD and depression were made via the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV at the beginning of treatment. Results In total, 803 participants were included in the study. The MADRS demonstrated low overall accuracy relative to the clinical diagnosis of depression with an area under the curve of 0.68. The optimal threshold for balancing sensitivity and specificity identified by the Euclidean distance was >14. This cut-point demonstrated a sensitivity of 66%, a specificity of 60%, a positive predictive value of 50% and a negative predictive value of 75%. The MADRS performed slightly better for major depressive disorders compared to alcohol-induced depression. Items related to lassitude, concentration and appetite slightly decreased the accuracy of the MADRS. Conclusion The MADRS does not appear to be an appropriate substitute for a diagnostic tool among alcohol-dependent patients. The MADRS may, however, still be a useful screening tool assuming careful consideration of

  10. The Validity of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale in an Inpatient Sample with Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Hobden, Breanne; Schwandt, Melanie L; Carey, Mariko; Lee, Mary R; Farokhnia, Mehdi; Bouhlal, Sofia; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2017-06-01

    The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) is commonly used to examine depressive symptoms in clinical settings, including facilities treating patients for alcohol addiction. No studies have examined the validity of the MADRS compared to an established clinical diagnostic tool of depression in this population. This study aimed to examine the following: (i) the validity of the MADRS compared to a clinical diagnosis of a depressive disorder (using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR [SCID-IV-TR]) in patients seeking treatment for alcohol dependence (AD); (ii) whether the validity of the MADRS differs by type of SCID-IV-TR-based diagnosis of depression; and (iii) which items contribute to the optimal predictive model of the MADRS compared to a SCID-IV-TR diagnosis of a depressive disorder. Individuals seeking treatment for AD and admitted to an inpatient unit were administered the MADRS at day 2 of their detoxification program. Clinical diagnoses of AD and depression were made via the SCID-IV-TR at the beginning of treatment. In total, 803 participants were included in the study. The MADRS demonstrated low overall accuracy relative to the clinical diagnosis of depression with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.68. The optimal threshold for balancing sensitivity and specificity identified by the Euclidean distance was >14. This cut-point demonstrated a sensitivity of 66%, a specificity of 60%, a positive predictive value of 50%, and a negative predictive value of 75%. The MADRS performed slightly better for major depressive disorders compared to alcohol-induced depression. Items related to lassitude, concentration, and appetite slightly decreased the accuracy of the MADRS. The MADRS does not appear to be an appropriate substitute for a diagnostic tool among alcohol-dependent patients. The MADRS may, however, still be a useful screening tool assuming careful consideration of cut-points. Copyright © 2017 by the Research

  11. Web-based training and interrater reliability testing for scoring the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Jules; Mulsant, Benoit H; Marino, Patricia; Groening, Christopher; Young, Robert C; Fox, Debra

    2008-10-30

    Despite the importance of establishing shared scoring conventions and assessing interrater reliability in clinical trials in psychiatry, these elements are often overlooked. Obstacles to rater training and reliability testing include logistic difficulties in providing live training sessions, or mailing videotapes of patients to multiple sites and collecting the data for analysis. To address some of these obstacles, a web-based interactive video system was developed. It uses actors of diverse ages, gender and race to train raters how to score the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and to assess interrater reliability. This system was tested with a group of experienced and novice raters within a single site. It was subsequently used to train raters of a federally funded multi-center clinical trial on scoring conventions and to test their interrater reliability. The advantages and limitations of using interactive video technology to improve the quality of clinical trials are discussed.

  12. Fifty years with the Hamilton scales for anxiety and depression. A tribute to Max Hamilton.

    PubMed

    Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    From the moment Max Hamilton started his psychiatric education, he considered psychometrics to be a scientific discipline on a par with biochemistry or pharmacology in clinical research. His clinimetric skills were in operation in the 1950s when randomised clinical trials were established as the method for the evaluation of the clinical effects of psychotropic drugs. Inspired by Eysenck, Hamilton took the long route around factor analysis in order to qualify his scales for anxiety (HAM-A) and depression (HAM-D) as scientific tools. From the moment when, 50 years ago, Hamilton published his first placebo-controlled trial with an experimental anti-anxiety drug, he realized the dialectic problem in using the total score on HAM-A as a sufficient statistic for the measurement of outcome. This dialectic problem has been investigated for more than 50 years with different types of factor analyses without success. Using modern psychometric methods, the solution to this problem is a simple matter of reallocating the Hamilton scale items according to the scientific hypothesis under examination. Hamilton's original intention, to measure the global burden of the symptoms experienced by the patients with affective disorders, is in agreement with the DSM-IV and ICD-10 classification systems. Scale reliability and obtainment of valid information from patients and their relatives were the most important clinimetric innovations to be developed by Hamilton. Max Hamilton therefore belongs to the very exclusive family of eminent physicians celebrated by this journal with a tribute. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Ipsative imputation for a 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale in community-dwelling elderly people.

    PubMed

    Imai, Hissei; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Kasahara, Yoriko; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Kimura, Yumi; Fukutomi, Eriko; Chen, Wen-Ling; Tanaka, Mire; Sakamoto, Ryota; Wada, Taizo; Fujisawa, Michiko; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2014-09-01

    Missing data are inevitable in almost all medical studies. Imputation methods using the probabilistic model are common, but they cannot impute individual data and require special software. In contrast, the ipsative imputation method, which substitutes the missing items by the mean of the remaining items within the individual, is easy and does not need any special software, but it can provide individual scores. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of the ipsative imputation method using data involving the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Participants were community-dwelling elderly individuals (n = 1178). A structural equation model was constructed. The model fit indexes were calculated to assess the validity of the imputation method when it is used for individuals who were missing 20% of data or less and 40% of data or less, depending on whether we assumed that their correlation coefficients were the same as the dataset with no missing items. Finally, we compared path coefficients of the dataset imputed by ipsative imputation with those by multiple imputation. When compared with the assumption that the datasets differed, all of the model fit indexes were better under the assumption that the dataset without missing data is the same as that that was missing 20% of data or less. However, by the same assumption, the model fit indexes were worse in the dataset that was missing 40% of data or less. The path coefficients of the dataset imputed by ipsative imputation and by multiple imputation were compatible with each other if the proportion of missing items was 20% or less. Ipsative imputation appears to be a valid imputation method and can be used to impute data in studies using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, if the percentage of its missing items is 20% or less. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  14. Eating styles in major depressive disorder: Results from a large-scale study.

    PubMed

    Paans, Nadine P G; Bot, Mariska; van Strien, Tatjana; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Visser, Marjolein; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2018-02-01

    Depressed persons have been found to present disturbances in eating styles, but it is unclear whether eating styles are different in subgroups of depressed patients. We studied the association between depressive disorder, severity, course and specific depressive symptom profiles and unhealthy eating styles. Cross-sectional and course data from 1060 remitted depressed patients, 309 currently depressed patients and 381 healthy controls from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used. Depressive disorders (DSM-IV based psychiatric interview) and self-reported depressive symptoms (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology) were related to emotional, external and restrained eating (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) using analyses of covariance and linear regression. Remitted and current depressive disorders were significantly associated with higher emotional eating (Cohen's d = 0.40 and 0.60 respectively, p < 0.001) and higher external eating (Cohen's d = 0.20, p = 0.001 and Cohen's d = 0.32, p < 0.001 respectively). Little differences in eating styles between depression course groups were observed. Associations followed a dose-response association, with more emotional and external eating when depression was more severe (both p-values <0.001). Longer symptom duration was also associated to more emotional and external eating (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001 respectively). When examining individual depressive symptoms, neuro-vegetative depressive symptoms contributed relatively more to emotional and external eating, while mood and anxious symptoms contributed relatively less to emotional and external eating. No depression associations were found with restrained eating. Intervention programs for depression should examine whether treating disordered eating specifically in those with neuro-vegetative, atypical depressive symptoms may help prevent or minimize adverse health consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Subjective and Objective Measures of Hypersomnolence Demonstrate Divergent Associations with Depression among Participants in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Plante, David T; Finn, Laurel A; Hagen, Erika W; Mignot, Emmanuel; Peppard, Paul E

    2016-04-15

    To examine associations of depression with habitual sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and objective sleep propensity in a nonclinical population. Data from adults participating in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study were utilized in analyses. There were 1,287 adults (3,324 observations) who were used in the analysis of subjective hypersomnolence measures; 1,155 adults (2,981 observations) were used in the analysis of objective sleep propensity assessed by the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). Repeated-measures logistic regression estimated associations between presence of depression (defined as modified Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale ≥ 50 or use of antidepressant medications) and three primary hypersomnolence measures: subjective excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] ≥ 11), self-reported sleep duration ≥ 9 h/d, and objective sleep propensity (MSLT mean sleep latency < 8 min). After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, chronic medical conditions, sedative hypnotic medication use, caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol use, sleep disordered breathing, as well as insomnia and sleep duration when appropriate, estimated odd ratios (95% confidence interval) for depression were: 1.56 (1.31,1.86) for ESS ≥ 11; 2.01 (1.49, 2.72) for habitual sleep time ≥ 9 h; and 0.76 (0.63-0.92) for MSLT mean sleep latency < 8 min. Our results demonstrate divergent associations between subjective and objective symptoms of hypersomnolence and depression, with subjective sleepiness and excessive sleep duration associated with increased odds of depression, but objective sleep propensity as measured by the MSLT associated with decreased odds of depression. Further research is indicated to explain this paradox and the impact of different hypersomnolence measures on the course of mood disorders. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 467. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  16. An investigation into the psychometric properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Jacqui; Martin, Colin R; Morse, Rachel C; Kendell, Kate; Verrill, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Background To determine the psychometric properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in patients with breast cancer and determine the suitability of the instrument for use with this clinical group. Methods A cross-sectional design was used. The study used a pooled data set from three breast cancer clinical groups. The dependent variables were HADS anxiety and depression sub-scale scores. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on the HADS to determine its psychometric properties in 110 patients with breast cancer. Seven models were tested to determine model fit to the data. Results Both factor analysis methods indicated that three-factor models provided a better fit to the data compared to two-factor (anxiety and depression) models for breast cancer patients. Clark and Watson's three factor tripartite and three factor hierarchical models provided the best fit. Conclusion The underlying factor structure of the HADS in breast cancer patients comprises three distinct, but correlated factors, negative affectivity, autonomic anxiety and anhedonic depression. The clinical utility of the HADS in screening for anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients may be enhanced by using a modified scoring procedure based on a three-factor model of psychological distress. This proposed alternate scoring method involving regressing autonomic anxiety and anhedonic depression factors onto the third factor (negative affectivity) requires further investigation in order to establish its efficacy. PMID:16018801

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation into Punjabi of the English version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Lane, Deirdre A; Jajoo, Jagdish; Taylor, Rod S; Lip, Gregory Yh; Jolly, Kate

    2007-01-26

    We wanted to use a Punjabi version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to enable non-English speaking patients to participate in a clinical trial. The aim of the study was to translate and validate the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale into Punjabi. The HADS was translated into Punjabi by a multidisciplinary team, verified against the original version, and administered to 73 bilingual patients attending an outpatient clinic. One sample t-tests and the Bland-Altman plots demonstrated acceptable linguistic agreement between the two versions of the HADS. Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients (p < 0.0001) demonstrate excellent conceptual agreement between each item and its corresponding subscale score, for both versions. Concordance rates revealed that the Punjabi HADS adequately identified borderline cases of anxiety (80.8%), definite cases of anxiety (91.8%) and depression (91.8%), but was less reliable in identifying borderline cases of depression (65.8%). Cronbach alpha coefficients revealed high levels of internal consistency for both the Punjabi and English versions (0.81 and 0.86 for anxiety and 0.71 and 0.85 for depression, respectively). The Punjabi HADS is an acceptable, reliable and valid measure of anxiety and depression among physically ill Punjabi speaking people in the United Kingdom.

  18. Factor Structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) Among Older Men and Women Who Provide Care to Persons with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Norm

    2005-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiologic Studies?Depression Scale (CES-D) is among the most widely used depression screening measures. Existing research suggests a higher order factor structure of responses among older adults (factors labeled as Depressive Affect, Absence of Well-being, Somatic Symptoms, and Interpersonal Affect each loading on a 2nd-order…

  19. Research Note: Equivalence of French and English Language Versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) among Caregivers of Persons with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Norm

    2003-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) is among the most widely used depression screening measures. Existing research suggests a higher-order factor structure of responses among older adults (factors labelled "depressive affect," "absence of well-being," "somatic symptoms," and "interpersonal affect," each loading upon a…

  20. Depression in Choroidal Melanoma Patients Treated with Proton Beam Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Moschos, Marilita M; Moustafa, Giannis A; Lavaris, Anastasios; Damaskos, Christos; Laios, Konstantinos; Karathanou, Ekaterini; Ladas, Dimitrios S; Asproudis, Ioannis; Garmpis, Nikolaos; Kalogeropoulos, Christos

    2018-05-01

    To determine depression in patients with choroidal melanoma (CM) treated with proton beam radiotherapy. This was a cross-sectional study including 50 patients with CM (50% males, mean age=49.88±6.34 years) and 46 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (52% males, mean age=48.60±8.05 years). Participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) questionnaires. There was a considerable difference in visual acuity as logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) between the patient and control groups (1.16±0.97 and 0.04±0.05 logMAR, respectively, p<0.0001). Both PHQ-9 and SDS scores differed significantly between the two groups (10.18±4.68 and 8.07±4.90, p=0.04; and 47.94±12.56 and 39.91±8.80, p=0.004, respectively). Scores appeared to be positively correlated with logMAR visual acuity (Spearman rho=0.700, p<0.0001 for PHQ-9; and 0.767, p<0.0001 for SDS), and they were also correlated to each other (Spearman rho=0.759, p<0.0001). Patients with CM having undergone proton beam therapy seem to be more depressed compared to a sample of healthy individuals, and the level of depression is correlated with their visual acuity. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Short Version: Scale Reduction via Exploratory Bifactor Modeling of the Broad Anxiety Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebesutani, Chad; Reise, Steven P.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Ale, Chelsea; Regan, Jennifer; Young, John; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Weisz, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a school-based (N = 1,060) and clinic-referred (N = 303) youth sample, the authors developed a 25-item shortened version of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) using Schmid-Leiman exploratory bifactor analysis to reduce client burden and administration time and thus improve the transportability characteristics of this…

  2. Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale Perfectionism: A Predictor and Partial Mediator of Acute Treatment Outcome among Clinically Depressed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Silva, Susan G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Curry, John F.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of perfectionism on acute treatment outcomes was explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents (12–17 years of age) enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) who received cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), fluoxetine, a combination of CBT and FLX, or pill placebo. Measures included the Children’s Depression Rating Scale–Revised, the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire–Grades 7–9, and the perfectionism subscale from the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS). Predictor results indicate that adolescents with higher versus lower DAS perfectionism scores at baseline, regardless of treatment, continued to demonstrate elevated depression scores across the acute treatment period. In the case of suicidality, DAS perfectionism impeded improvement. Treatment outcomes were partially mediated by the change in DAS perfectionism across the 12-week period. PMID:20183664

  3. Evaluation of Depression Associated With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After Maxillofacial Injuries-A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Vatsala; Panneerselvam, Elavenil; Chellappazham, Saravanan; Balasubramaniam, Sasikala; Raja V B, Krishnakumar

    2018-06-01

    Maxillofacial injuries can result in psychological derangement, leading to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by continual re-experiencing of any traumatic event in addition to numerous systemic complications. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence and severity of "PTSD-related depression" in patients with maxillofacial injuries and to identify the risk factors involved. This prospective study involved 88 patients with maxillofacial trauma who had only cosmetic deficits (group A), only functional deficits (group B), or cosmetic and functional deficits (group C). The psychological status of all patients was assessed before and after surgery using Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale. Remission time also was analyzed. Data were analyzed with SPSS 22.0 using parametric methods. Comparison of mean values among groups was performed using 1-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey honest significance difference post hoc tests for multiple pairwise comparisons. To compare proportions, the χ 2 test was applied. The number of patients in groups A, B, and C was 11, 34 and 43, respectively. In the immediate post-trauma stage, all patients in group A showed severe depression; the percentages of patients with severe depression in groups B and C were 8.8 and 81.4%, respectively, which was statistically relevant. Depression scores of patients of all groups decreased gradually in the postsurgical phase. Patients with cosmetic defects consistently recorded higher depression scores at all intervals. The time taken for recovery from depression (remission time) was shorter for patients with only functional deficits (group B). Patients with maxillofacial injuries are prone to PTSD-related depression from functional and cosmetic deficits. The objectives of trauma management must be aimed at restoring pre-trauma form and function of the maxillofacial skeleton and the patient's psychological status. Copyright © 2018 American Association of

  4. The clinical utility of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia as a routine assessment in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yun-Hee; Li, Zhicheng; Low, Lee-Fay; Chenoweth, Lynn; O'Connor, Daniel; Beattie, Elizabeth; Liu, Zhixin; Brodaty, Henry

    2015-08-01

    To examine the clinical utility of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) in nursing homes. 14 nursing homes in Sydney and Brisbane, Australia. 92 residents with a mean age of 85 years. Consenting residents were assessed by care staff for depression using the CSDD as part of their routine assessment. Specialist clinicians conducted assessment of depression using the Semi-structured Clinical Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders for residents without dementia or the Provisional Diagnostic Criteria for Depression in Alzheimer Disease for residents with dementia to establish expert clinical diagnoses of depression. The diagnostic performance of the staff completed CSDD was analyzed against expert diagnosis using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The CSDD showed low diagnostic accuracy, with areas under the ROC curve being 0.69, 0.68 and 0.70 for the total sample, residents with dementia and residents without dementia, respectively. At the standard CSDD cutoff score, the sensitivity and specificity were 71% and 59% for the total sample, 69% and 57% for residents with dementia, and 75% and 61% for residents without dementia. The Youden index (for optimizing cut-points) suggested different depression cutoff scores for residents with and without dementia. When administered by nursing home staff the clinical utility of the CSDD is highly questionable in identifying depression. The complexity of the scale, the time required for collecting relevant information, and staff skills and knowledge of assessing depression in older people must be considered when using the CSDD in nursing homes. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Eating behavior, depression, and self-esteem in high school students.

    PubMed

    Tomori, M; Rus-Makovec, M

    2000-05-01

    In a representative sample of 4700 Slovene high school students, we examined their eating behavior and its correlations with some psychosocial and psychological characteristics with the aim of identifying the main risk factors for disordered eating. Using a questionnaire which also included Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, we compared girls (n = 2507) and boys (n = 2193) with regard to their satisfaction with their body weight, weight-reducing activities, and frequency of binge eating. We assessed their family relationships, abuse of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs, suicidal ideation, and suicidal tendences, as well as their level of depression and self-esteem. The results showed significant differences between girls and boys, between groups of those who were satisfied and those who were dissatisfied with their body weight, and also between groups which indulged in frequent binge eating and those which did not. Within a general population of adolescents, there is a substantial number of subjects with disordered eating behavior, some part of whom are at high risk for eating disorders.

  6. Validation of screening tools for antenatal depression in Malawi--a comparison of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Self Reporting Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Robert C; Umar, Eric; Tomenson, Barbara; Creed, Francis

    2013-09-25

    The detection of antenatal depression in resource-limited settings such as Malawi, Africa, is important and requires an accurate and practical screening tool. It is not known which questionnaire would be most suitable for this purpose. A rigorously translated and modified Chichewa version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was developed. The Chichewa EPDS and an existing Chichewa version of the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) were validated in women attending an antenatal clinic in rural Malawi, using DSM-IV major and major-or-minor depressive episode as the gold standard diagnoses, determined with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Weighted test characteristics for each possible cut-off were calculated and Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves derived. The participants were 224 pregnant women, 92 of whom were interviewed using the SCID. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for detection of current major depressive disorder for the EPDS was 0.811 (95% CI 0.734-0.889) and for the SRQ was 0.833 (95% CI 0.770-0.897). AUC for major-or-minor depressive disorder for the EPDS was 0.767 (95% CI 0.695-0.839) and for the SRQ was 0.883 (95% CI 0.839-0.927). These were not significant differences. Internal consistency was high for both the SRQ (Cronbach's alpha 0.825) and the EPDS (Cronbach's alpha 0.904). Inter-rater reliability testing was not done. The relatively small sample size resulted in wide confidence intervals around AUCs. The study was conducted amongst antenatal clinic attenders only, limiting generalisability to all pregnant women in this setting. The Chichewa versions of the EPDS and SRQ both show utility as brief screening measures for detection of antenatal depression in rural Malawi. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Early identification of women at risk of postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in a sample of Lebanese women.

    PubMed

    El-Hachem, Charline; Rohayem, Jihane; Bou Khalil, Rami; Richa, Sami; Kesrouani, Assaad; Gemayel, Rima; Aouad, Norma; Hatab, Najat; Zaccak, Eliane; Yaghi, Nancy; Salameh, Salimé; Attieh, Elie

    2014-09-07

    During the postpartum period, women are vulnerable to depression affecting about 10 to 20% of mothers during the first year after delivery. However, only 50% of women with prominent symptoms are diagnosed with postpartum depression (PPD). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is the most widely used screening instrument for PPD . The main objectives of this study are to assess whether an EPDS score of 9 or more on day 2 (D2) postpartum is predictive of a depressive episode between days 30 and 40 postpartum (D30-40), to determine the risk factors as well as the prevalence of PPD in a sample of Lebanese women and to determine a threshold score of EPDS predictive of PPD. A sample of 228 women were administered the EPDS on D2. An assessment for PPD was done on D30-40 during a telephone interview. On D2, the average score on EPDS was 7.1 (SD = 5.2) and 33.3% of women had an EPDS score ≥ 9. On D30-40 postpartum, the average score was 6.5 (SD = 4.7) and 19 women (12.8%) presented with PPD. A positive correlation was shown between scores on EPDS on D2 and D30-40 (r = 0.5091, p < 0.0001). A stepwise regression shows that an EPDS score ≥9 on D2 (p < 0.001) and a personal history of depression (p = 0.008) are significantly associated with the diagnosis of PPD on D30-40. The EPDS may be considered as a reliable screening tool on as early as D2 after delivery. Women with EPDS score ≥ 9 and/or a positive personal history of major depressive disorder should benefit from a closer follow-up during the rest of the post-partum period.

  8. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: The making of a “gold standard” and the unmaking of a chronic illness, 1960–1980

    PubMed Central

    Worboys, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To show why and how the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression became the ‘Gold Standard’ for assessing therapies from the mid-1960s and how it was used to frame depression as a short-term and curable illness rather than a chronic one. Methods: My approach is that of the social construction of knowledge, identifying the interests, institutional contexts and practices that produce knowledge claims and then mapping the social processes of their circulation, validation and acceptance. Results: The circulation and validation of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was relatively slow and it became a ‘Gold Standard’ ‘from below’, from an emerging consensus amongst psychiatrists undertaking clinical trials for depression, which from the 1960s were principally with psychopharmaceuticals for short-term illness. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, drug trials and the construction of depression as non-chronic were mutually constituted. Discussion: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression framed depression and its sufferers in new ways, leading psychiatrists to understand illness as a treatable episode, rather than a life course condition. As such, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression served the interests of psychiatrists and psychiatry in its new era of drug therapy outside the mental hospital. However, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was a strange kind of ‘standard’, being quite non-standard in the widely varying ways it was used and the meanings given to its findings. PMID:23172888

  9. An open label pilot study of citalopram for depression and boredom in ambulatory cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Theobald, Dale E; Kirsh, Kenneth L; Holtsclaw, Elizabeth; Donaghy, Kathleen; Passik, Steven D

    2003-03-01

    Significant levels of depressive symptoms are an impediment to adjustment and affect greater than one-third of people with cancer. The clinical diagnosis of major depression is estimated to occur in 25%. Depression is dramatically underrecognized by oncologists and oncology nurses, and as a result, often undertreated. Clinical experience suggests that antidepressants of virtually all types are well tolerated and potentially efficacious. There is, however, a lack of an evidence base for the use of antidepressants in cancer patients. We undertook an open-label pilot study using citalopram in 30 cancer patients who reported a high level of depressive symptoms on the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). In addition to the ZSDS, eligible patients completed a series of visual analog scales for pain, depression, and sleep disturbance; the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General Module; and the Purposelessness, Understimulation, and Boredom Scale developed by the research team. Patients began a 2-month course of therapy with citalopram 20 mg, increasing to 40 mg at the end of the fourth week if the patient was in the same range of depressive symptoms as measured by the ZSDS. Twenty-one of 30 patients completed the protocol. The average age of the sample was 57.32 years (SD = 12.6) and was comprised of 11 women (52.4%) and 10 men (47.6%). Depressive symptoms decreased and quality of life improved during the 8-week treatment period. Of special interest was the rate of improvement in boredom, and using the total boredom score of the PUB, significant improvement compared to baseline was seen in weeks 6 (F = 5.266, p < .05) and 8 (F = 9.248, p < .01). Overall, the positive findings suggest the need for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of citalopram in cancer patients. Regarding the interplay of boredom and depression, the relationship between improvements in depressive symptoms and boredom is complex. This is illustrated by the way in which the

  10. Longitudinal study of perinatal maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Wang, Panchalli; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-06-01

    to understand the trends in, and relationships between, maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. a prospective longitudinal survey study was undertaken to explore maternal psychological distress throughout the perinatal period. The participants were recruited after 24 completed weeks of gestation, and were followed-up monthly until one month post partum (four surveys in total). participants were recruited from a single hospital in southern Taiwan, and asked to complete questionnaires in the hospital waiting area. inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years, able to read and write Chinese, ≥24 weeks of gestation, singleton pregnancy and no pregnancy complications (including a diagnosis of antenatal depression or anxiety disorder). In total, 197 women completed all four surveys (response rate 74.62%). stress was measured with the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale, depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies' Depression scale, and anxiety was measured with the Zung Self-reported Anxiety Scale. Participants were followed-up at four time points: T1 (25-29 gestational weeks), T2 (30-34 gestational weeks), T3 (>34 gestational weeks) and T4 (4-6 weeks post partum). Appointments for data collection were made in accordance with the participants' antenatal and postnatal check-ups. The three types of maternal distress had different courses of change throughout the perinatal period, as levels of depressive symptoms remained unchanged, anxiety levels increased as gestation advanced but declined after birth, and stress decreased gradually during pregnancy but returned to the T1 level after birth. There was a low to high degree of correlation in maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. around one-quarter of the study participants had depressive symptoms during pregnancy and post partum. Stress and anxiety showed opposing courses during the perinatal period. Regardless of the

  11. Using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21) across cultures.

    PubMed

    Oei, Tian P S; Sawang, Sukanlaya; Goh, Yong Wah; Mukhtar, Firdaus

    2013-01-01

    The DASS-21 is a well-established instrument for measuring depression, anxiety, and stress with good reliability and validity reported from Hispanic American, British, and Australian adults. However, the lack of appropriate validation among Asian populations continues to pose concerns over the use of DASS-21 in Asian samples. Cultural variation may influence the individual's experience and emotional expression. Thus, when researchers and practitioners employ Western-based assessments with Asian populations by directly translating them without an appropriate validation, the process can be challenging. We conducted a series of rigorous statistical tests and minimized any potential confounds from the demographic information. Following factor analyses, we performed multigroup analysis across six nations to demonstrate consistency of our findings. The advantages of this revised DASS-18 stress scale are twofold. First, it possesses fewer items, which results in a cleaner factorial structure. Second, it has a smaller interfactor correlation. With these justifications, the revised DASS-18 stress scale is potentially more suitable for Asian populations. Nonetheless, given limitations, findings should be considered preliminary.

  12. Affects of Anxiety and Depression on Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients with Benign Breast Lumps Diagnosed via Ultrasonography in China.

    PubMed

    Lou, Zhe; Li, Yinyan; Yang, Yilong; Wang, Lie; Yang, Jun

    2015-08-28

    There is a high incidence of benign breast lumps among women, and these lumps may lead to physical and psychological problems. This study aims to evaluate anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with benign breast lumps diagnosed via ultrasonography and investigate their impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shenyang, China, from January to November 2013. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires, including the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), together with demographic characteristics, from patients of the Department of Breast Surgery of the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (HMR) was performed to explore the effects of anxiety and depression on HRQOL. The overall prevalences of anxiety (SAS score ≥ 40) and depression (CES-D scores ≥ 16) were 40.2% and 62.0%, respectively, and 37.5% of the participants had both of these psychological symptoms. The means and standard deviations of PCS and MCS were 75.42 (15.22) and 68.70 (17.71), respectively. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were significantly negatively associated with the HRQOL of patients with benign breast lumps diagnosed via ultrasonography. Women with benign breast lumps diagnosed via ultrasonography in China experienced relatively high levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Anxiety and depressive symptoms had significant negative impacts on both the mental and physical quality of life (QOL) of women with benign breast lumps. Beyond the necessary clinical treatment procedures, psychological guidance and detailed explanations of the disease should be offered to alleviate the anxiety and depressive symptoms and enhance the HRQOL of patients with benign breast lumps.

  13. Life stress and symptoms of anxiety and depression in women after cancer: The mediating effect of stress appraisal and coping.

    PubMed

    Seib, Charrlotte; Porter-Steele, Janine; Ng, Shu-Kay; Turner, Jane; McGuire, Amanda; McDonald, Nicole; Balaam, Sarah; Yates, Patsy; McCarthy, Alexandra; Anderson, Debra

    2018-04-06

    This paper examines the direct and intermediary relationships between life stress, stress appraisal, and resilience, and increased anxiety and depressive symptoms in Australian women after cancer treatment. Data examined from 278 women aged 18 years and older previously treated for breast, gynaecological, or blood cancer, participating in the Australian Women's Wellness after Cancer Program. Serial mediation models interrogated the effect of stressful life events (List of Threatening Experiences-Modified) mediated by appraisal and coping (Perceived Stress Scale and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale), on symptoms of anxiety and depression (Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Over one-quarter (30.2%) of participants reported 1 or more stressful life events, other than their cancer, in the previous 6 months. Results indicate that perceived stress fully mediated the relationships between life stress, anxiety (indirect effect = 0.09, Bias-corrected bootstrap 95% CI 0.02-0.18, Percent mediation = 0.51), and depressive symptoms (indirect effect = 0.11, Bias-corrected bootstrap 95% CI 0.02-0.23, Percent mediation = 0.71) and accounted for more than half of the relationship between predictor and outcome. Findings indicate that stress appraisal mediated the relationship between past life stressors and anxiety and depressive symptoms. This analysis also highlights the need to consider wellness within a broader care context to identify potentially vulnerable patients to possibly avert future health concerns. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The Consequences of Perfectionism Scale: Factorial Structure and Relationships with Perfectionism, Performance Perfectionism, Affect, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeber, Joachim; Hoyle, Azina; Last, Freyja

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the Consequences of Perfectionism Scale (COPS) and its relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms in 202 university students using confirmatory factor analysis, correlations, and regression analyses. Results suggest that the COPS is a reliable and valid measure of positive…

  15. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: Factor Validity and Reliability in a French Sample of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Begarie, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the factor validity and reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) within a sample of adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability (ID). A total sample of 189 adolescents (121 boys and 68 girls), aged between 12 and 18 years old, with mild to moderate ID were…

  16. The Short Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Factor Structure in a Young Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the factor structure of the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995b) in a young adolescent sample. A group of 484 high school students ("Mean" age = 13.62 years, Min = 11.83, Max = 15.67 years, 52 % boys) completed the DASS-21. Several models were tested using Confirmatory Factor…

  17. [Differences in depression severity and frequency of relapses in opiate addicts treated with methadone or opiate blocker after detoxification].

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Tatjana; Lazarević, Dusan; Nikolić, Gordana

    2012-04-01

    Relapse of opiate dependence is a common occurrence after detoxification and introduction of opiate addicts in abstinence from opiates. Clinical evaluation showed that over 90% of opiate addicts exhibit depressive manifestations during detoxification, or develop post-detoxification depression. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the frequency of relapses, severity and course of depression during a of 6-month period, and previous patterns of use of opioids in the two groups of opiate addicts treated by two different therapeutic modalities. The results of the two groups of opiate addicts were compared: the patients on substitution methadone treatment (M) and the patients treated with opiate blocker naltrexone (B). In all the patients, clinical and instrumental evaluations confirmed depressive syndrome. Opioid relapses were diagnosed by the panel test for rapid detection of metabolites of opiates in urine. Then they were brought in connection with scores of depression and addiction variables. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) and Zunge Depression Scale were the applied instruments for measuring the level of depression. All the subjects completed a questionnaire Pompidou (short version). Psychological measurements were carried out during a 6-month follow-up on three occasions. The presence of opiate metabolites in urine was controlled every two weeks. Both groups of patients (M and B) had high scores on HAMD during the study. The group on methadone had a strong depression in all three measurements. There was a drop in the level of depression in both experimental groups over time, which was accompanied by a decrease in the incidence of recurrence. In both tested groups the frequency of relapses was positively correlated with earlier addiction variables - intravenous application of opioids, the experience of overdose, the absence of immunization against hepatitis C and hepatitis C virus carriers. The opioid relapse behavior is associated with a

  18. Validation of the Arab Youth Mental Health scale as a screening tool for depression/anxiety in Lebanese children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Early detection of common mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, among children and adolescents requires the use of validated, culturally sensitive, and developmentally appropriate screening instruments. The Arab region has a high proportion of youth, yet Arabic-language screening instruments for mental disorders among this age group are virtually absent. Methods We carried out construct and clinical validation on the recently-developed Arab Youth Mental Health (AYMH) scale as a screening tool for depression/anxiety. The scale was administered with 10-14 year old children attending a social service center in Beirut, Lebanon (N = 153). The clinical assessment was conducted by a child and adolescent clinical psychiatrist employing the DSM IV criteria. We tested the scale's sensitivity, specificity, and internal consistency. Results Scale scores were generally significantly associated with how participants responded to standard questions on health, mental health, and happiness, indicating good construct validity. The results revealed that the scale exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86) and specificity (79%). However, it exhibited moderate sensitivity for girls (71%) and poor sensitivity for boys (50%). Conclusions The AYMH scale is useful as a screening tool for general mental health states and a valid screening instrument for common mental disorders among girls. It is not a valid instrument for detecting depression and anxiety among boys in an Arab culture. PMID:21435213

  19. Validation of the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) in a sample of women with high-risk pregnancies in France.

    PubMed

    Adouard, F; Glangeaud-Freudenthal, N M C; Golse, B

    2005-06-01

    This research is intended to validate the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in a high-risk pregnant population. Sixty women attending antenatal consultations for pregnancy complication in a major Parisian maternity facility were included. They completed the EPDS and were then interviewed according to a standardised psychiatric interview. The study of its sensitivity, specificity and predictive values, with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depression as the reference, found that 11.5 was the optimal cut-off score (Se 0.80; Sp 0.80). Its validity as an index of severity of depression was also good as well as internal consistency and reliability. Factor analysis showed that its internal structure is composed of two subscales (F2 "depression" and F1 with items reflecting depression and other disorders, including anxiety). The French version of the EPDS would be a valid instrument to identify pregnant women who are likely to have clinical major depression. The results may have to be confirmed on a community sample before clinical use.

  20. The hospital anxiety and depression scale--dimensionality, reliability and construct validity among cognitively intact nursing home patients.

    PubMed

    Haugan, Gørill; Drageset, Jorunn

    2014-08-01

    Depression and anxiety are particularly common among individuals living in long-term care facilities. Therefore, access to a valid and reliable measure of anxiety and depression among nursing home patients is highly warranted. To investigate the dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) in a cognitively intact nursing home population. Cross-sectional data were collected from two samples; 429 cognitively intact nursing home patients participated, representing 74 different Norwegian nursing homes. Confirmative factor analyses and correlations with selected constructs were used. The two-factor model provided a good fit in Sample1, revealing a poorer fit in Sample2. Good-acceptable measurement reliability was demonstrated, and construct validity was supported. Using listwise deletion the sample sizes were 227 and 187, for Sample1 and Sample2, respectively. Greater sample sizes would have strengthen the statistical power in the tests. The researchers visited the participants to help fill in the questionnaires; this might have introduced some bias into the respondents׳ reporting. The 14 HADS items were part of greater questionnaires. Thus, frail, older NH patients might have tired during the interview causing a possible bias. Low reliability for depression was disclosed, mainly resulting from three items appearing to be inappropriate indicators for depression in this population. Further research is needed exploring which items might perform as more reliably indicators for depression among nursing home patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the 42 item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-42) in a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Hekimoglu, Levent; Altun, Zeren Ozturk; Kaya, Emine Zeynep; Bayram, Nuran; Bilgel, Nazan

    2012-01-01

    To study the psychometric properties of the Turkish translation of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-42) in a clinical group. Outpatients diagnosed with anxiety (n = 138; mean age = 44.5 years; 74.6% female) or depression (n = 112; mean age = 46.2 years; 77.7% female) from the psychiatric outpatient clinic of a public hospital were evaluated. A group of non-clinical volunteers (n = 250; mean age = 37 years; 68% female) served as a community group for comparison. The participants completed the Turkish versions of the DASS-42, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The structure of the DASS-42 was analyzed in the clinical sample using principal components extraction. The three-factor solution accounted for 56% of the total variance, with eigenvalues of 17.6, 3.0, and 2.6. The range of factor loadings was 0.55-0.85 for depression, 0.47-0.62 for anxiety, and 0.49-0.74 for stress. The Cronbach alpha values for the DASS depression, anxiety, and stress subscales were 0.94, 0.88, 0.94 respectively. The concurrent validity of the DASS was satisfactory. The non-clincal participants scored lower on all three subscales than the individuals in all of the clinical groups. The Turkish version of the DASS-42 appears to be an excellent instrument for measuring features of depression, hyperarousal, and tension in clinical groups.

  2. The construct validity of the Major Depression Inventory: A Rasch analysis of a self-rating scale in primary care.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Marie Germund; Ørnbøl, Eva; Vestergaard, Mogens; Bech, Per; Christensen, Kaj Sparle

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to assess the measurement properties of the ten-item Major Depression Inventory when used on clinical suspicion in general practice by performing a Rasch analysis. General practitioners asked consecutive persons to respond to the web-based Major Depression Inventory on clinical suspicion of depression. We included 22 practices and 245 persons. Rasch analysis was performed using RUMM2030 software. The Rasch model fit suggests that all items contribute to a single underlying trait (defined as internal construct validity). Mokken analysis was used to test dimensionality and scalability. Our Rasch analysis showed misfit concerning the sleep and appetite items (items 9 and 10). The response categories were disordered for eight items. After modifying the original six-point to a four-point scoring system for all items, we achieved ordered response categories for all ten items. The person separation reliability was acceptable (0.82) for the initial model. Dimensionality testing did not support combining the ten items to create a total score. The scale appeared to be well targeted to this clinical sample. No significant differential item functioning was observed for gender, age, work status and education. The Rasch and Mokken analyses revealed two dimensions, but the Major Depression Inventory showed fit to one scale if items 9 and 10 were excluded. Our study indicated scalability problems in the current version of the Major Depression Inventory. The conducted analysis revealed better statistical fit when items 9 and 10 were excluded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Parenting to Reduce Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Scale: Assessing parental concordance with parenting guidelines for the prevention of adolescent depression and anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cardamone-Breen, Mairead C.; Jorm, Anthony F.; Lawrence, Katherine A.; Mackinnon, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite substantial evidence demonstrating numerous parental risk and protective factors for the development of adolescent depression and anxiety disorders, there is currently no single measure that assesses these parenting factors. To address this gap, we developed the Parenting to Reduce Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Scale (PRADAS) as a criterion-referenced measure of parental concordance with a set of evidence-based parenting guidelines for the prevention of adolescent depression and anxiety disorders. In this paper, we used a sample of Australian parents of adolescents to: (1) validate the PRADAS as a criterion-referenced measure; (2) examine parental concordance with the guidelines in the sample; and (3) examine correlates of parental concordance with the guidelines. Methods Seven hundred eleven parents completed the PRADAS, as well as two established parenting measures, and parent-report measures of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Six hundred sixty adolescent participants (aged 12–15) also completed the symptom measures. Concordance with the guidelines was assessed via nine subscale scores and a total score. Reliability of the scores was assessed with an estimate of the agreement coefficient, as well as 1-month test-retest reliability. Convergent validity was examined via correlations between the scale and two established parenting measures. Results One proposed subscale was removed from the final version of the scale, resulting in a total of eight subscales. Reliability was high for the total score, and acceptable to high for seven of the eight subscales. One-month test-retest reliability was acceptable to high for the total score. Convergent validity was supported by moderate to high correlations with two established measures of parenting. Overall, rates of parental concordance with the guidelines were low in our sample. Higher scores were associated with being female and higher levels of parental education. Greater parental

  4. A Measurement Invariance Examination of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale in a Southern Sample: Differential Item Functioning between African American and Caucasian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Lindsay Rae; Buchanan, Erin; Ebesutani, Chad; Ale, Chelsea M.; Heiden, Laurie; Hight, Terry L.; Damon, John D.; Young, John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale in a large sample of youth from the Southern United States. The authors aimed to determine (a) if the established six-factor Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale structure could be replicated in this Southern sample and (b) if scores were…

  5. The 10-item Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP10) scale: two-factor model and association with adult depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Denollet, Johan; Smolderen, Kim G E; van den Broek, Krista C; Pedersen, Susanne S

    2007-06-01

    Dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with poor mental and physical health. The 10-item Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP(10)) scale retrospectively assesses Alienation (dysfunctional communication and intimacy) and Control (overprotection by parents), with an emphasis on deficiencies in empathic parenting. We examined the 2-factor structure of the RRP(10) and its relationship with adult depression. 664 respondents from the general population (48% men, mean age 54.6+/-14.2 years) completed the RRP(10), Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and Beck Depression Inventory. The Alienation and Control dimensions of the RRP(10) displayed a sound factor structure, good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.83-0.86), and convergent validity against the PBI scales. No significant gender differences were found on the RRP(10) scales. Stratifying by RRP(10) dimensions showed that respondents high in Alienation and Control, for both father (33.3% vs. 14.5%, p<0.0001) and mother (42% vs. 12.9%, p<0.0001) items, experienced the highest levels of depressive symptoms compared with respondents low in Alienation and Control. While scoring high on Alienation or Control alone was also significantly and independently associated with depressive symptoms, scoring high on both Alienation and Control was most strongly connected with depressive symptoms for both father (OR=2.48, p<0.004) and mother (OR=5.34, p<0.0001) items. Cross-sectional study design. The RRP(10) is a reliable and valid measure of remembered parental Alienation and Control. High Alienation and Control were independently related to increased risk of depressive symptoms. Given the brevity of the RRP(10), it can easily be used in epidemiological/clinical research on the link between the remembered relationship with parents and mental/physical health.

  6. A Korean validation study of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale: Comorbidity and differentiation of anxiety and depressive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sang Won; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seoyoung; Pae, Chi-Un; Choi, Joonho; Kim, Jae-Min; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Hoseon; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Zimmerman, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale (CUXOS) and to examine the current diagnostic comorbidity and differential severity of anxiety symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders. Methodology In total, 838 psychiatric outpatients were analyzed at their intake appointment. Diagnostic characteristics were examined using the structured clinical interview from the DSM-IV because the DSM5 was not available at the start of the study. The CUXOS score was measured and compared with that of 3 clinician rating scales and 4 self-report scales. Principal findings The CUXOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.90), test–retest reliability (r = 0.74), and discriminant and convergent validity. The CUXOS significantly discriminated between different levels of anxiety severity, and the measure was sensitive to change after treatment. Approximately 45% of patients with MDD were additionally diagnosed with anxiety disorders while 55% of patients with anxiety disorders additionally reported an MDD. There was a significant difference in CUXOS scores between diagnostic categories (MDD only, anxiety only, both disorders, and no MDD or anxiety disorder). The CUXOS scores differed significantly between all categories of depression (major, minor, and non-depression) except for the comparison between minor depression and non-depression groups. Conclusions The Korean version of the CUXOS is a reliable and valid measure of the severity of anxiety symptoms. The use of the CUXOS could broaden the understanding of coexisting and differentiating characteristics of anxiety and depression. PMID:28604808

  7. Influence of mobbing (workplace bullying) on depressive symptoms: a longitudinal study among employees working with people with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-Ferraz, H; Gil-Monte, P R; Olivares-Faúndez, V E

    2015-01-01

    The problem of mobbing has attracted a great deal of attention over the past few years. This concern has increased the study of the phenomena, which has resulted in many scientific publications. Mobbing has been characterised as an emerging risk at work. The aim of this longitudinal study was to analyse the influence of mobbing on depressive symptoms in a sample of employees working with people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The sample consisted of 372 Spanish employees working with people with ID at 61 job centres in the Valencian Community (Spain). Seventy-nine (21.2%) participants were men, and 293 were (78.8%) women. Mobbing was evaluated by the Mobbing-UNIPSICO scale, and depressive symptoms were measured using the Zung Self Rating Depression Scale. Using analyses of variance (anova), we tested the differences in depressive symptoms according to the mobbing criteria indicated by Leymann, that is, frequency and duration at Time 1 and Time 2. Employees who met the mobbing criteria: frequency (at least once a week) and duration (at least 6 months) at the two study times presented significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than employees who met mobbing criteria at Time 1, but did not meet any criteria for mobbing at Time 2, and employees who did not meet any criteria for mobbing at Time 1 or Time 2. We conclude that permanence of mobbing from Time 1 to Time 2 increases depressive symptoms. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as screening instruments for depression in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Tim J; Friedrich, Michael; Johansen, Christoffer; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Faller, Herman; Koch, Uwe; Brähler, Elmar; Härter, Martin; Keller, Monika; Schulz, Holger; Wegscheider, Karl; Weis, Joachim; Mehnert, Anja

    2017-11-01

    Depression screening in patients with cancer is recommended by major clinical guidelines, although the evidence on individual screening tools is limited for this population. Here, the authors assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of 2 established screening instruments: the depression modules of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), in a representative sample of patients with cancer. This multicenter study was conducted with a proportional, stratified, random sample of 2141 patients with cancer across all major tumor sites and treatment settings. The PHQ-9 and HADS-D were assessed and compared in terms of diagnostic accuracy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition diagnosis of major depressive disorder using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Oncology as the criterion standard. The diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9 and HADS-D was fair for diagnosing major depressive disorder, with areas under the ROC curves of 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.79) and 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.77), respectively. The 2 questionnaires did not differ significantly in their areas under the ROC curves (P = .15). The PHQ-9 with a cutoff score ≥7 had the best screening performance, with a sensitivity of 83% (95% confidence interval, 78%-89%) and a specificity of 61% (95% confidence interval, 59%-63%). The American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline screening algorithm had a sensitivity of 44% (95% confidence interval, 36%-51%) and a specificity of 84% (95% confidence interval, 83%-85%). In patients with cancer, the screening performance of both the PHQ-9 and the HADS-D was limited compared with a standardized diagnostic interview. Costs and benefits of routinely screening all patients with cancer should be weighed carefully. Cancer 2017;123:4236-4243. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American

  9. Screening for depression and anxiety among older Chinese immigrants living in Western countries: The use of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI).

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoping; Haralambous, Betty; Pachana, Nancy A; Bryant, Christina; LoGiudice, Dina; Goh, Anita; Dow, Briony

    2016-03-01

    Depression and anxiety are two common mental health problems among older people. There is evidence that using well-validated screening tools can improve detection of depression and anxiety among this group. The review explored the use of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) for screening depression and anxiety among older Chinese immigrants, one of the largest and fastest growing groups of older immigrants in Western society. It focused on the GDS and GAI because both are designed specifically for older people. Online literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. A narrative approach was used to review included papers. A total of 21 articles were included. There were limited data on anxiety among older Chinese immigrants, with only one unpublished report identified. There were 13 studies (20 articles) using the GDS with this group. Results of these studies indicated that the GDS is a reliable tool in this population; however, there was limited validity data. Two versions of the GDS-15 have been used with older Chinese immigrants, including the standard GDS-15 and Mui's GDS-15. Prevalence of depression ranged between 20% and 30% in most reviewed studies. Results of this review have practical implications for clinicians in their use of these tools with older Chinese immigrants in Western countries, such as the different GDS versions. It also suggests a number of directions for future research, such as the inclusion of clinical samples and consideration of the diversity within this group. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. [Prevalence and associated factors with depressive symptoms in Health Sciences students from a private university in Lima, Peru 2010].

    PubMed

    Pereyra-Elías, Reneé; Ocampo-Mascaró, Javier; Silva-Salazar, Vera; Vélez-Segovia, Eduardo; Costa-Bullón, A Daniel da; Toro-Polo, Luis Miguel; Vicuña-Ortega, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Depressive symptoms in health sciences students are common, these might be potentially detrimental. To determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its associated factors in students from the Health Sciences Faculty of the Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas in Lima (Peru), June 2010. Cross-sectional analytic study; a pre-consented survey was applied to the population 590/869 students. Zung's abbreviated scale was used to measure depressive symptoms. To evaluate de associated factors, logistic regression was used, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age was 18.97 ± 2.45 years and 71.1% were women, 19.6% were migrants and 62.5% were medical students. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 31.2% in the whole population and in medical students was 33.6%. Depressive symptoms were not associated in bivariate analysis with sex, career, having failed a course, living alone or being a migrant (p>0.05). In the multivariate analysis, significant statistical association was found between depressive symptoms and dissatisfaction with the own academic performance (OR=2.13 CI95%1.47-3.08), dissatisfaction with the current economic status (OR=1.93 CI95%1.24-2.99) and living with a relative external to the nuclear family (OR=1.62 CI95%1.07-2.45). A high prevalence of depressive symptoms was found, especially in medical students; being dissatisfaction with academic performance, economic status and living with a relative external to the nuclear family associated factors that could be taken into account in order to build preventive programs.

  11. The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale 25-Parent Version: Scale Development and Validation in a School-Based and Clinical Sample.

    PubMed

    Ebesutani, Chad; Korathu-Larson, Priya; Nakamura, Brad J; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Chorpita, Bruce

    2017-09-01

    To help facilitate the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based assessment practices, we examined the psychometric properties of the shortened 25-item version of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-parent report (RCADS-25-P), which was based on the same items as the previously published shortened 25-item child version. We used two independent samples of youth-a school sample ( N = 967, Grades 3-12) and clinical sample ( N = 433; 6-18 years)-to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the RCADS-25-P scale scores. Results revealed that the two-factor structure (i.e., depression and broad anxiety factor) fit the data well in both the school and clinical sample. All reliability estimates, including test-retest indices, exceeded benchmark for good reliability. In the school sample, the RCADS-25-P scale scores converged significantly with related criterion measures and diverged with nonrelated criterion measures. In the clinical sample, the RCADS-25-P scale scores successfully discriminated between those with and without target problem diagnoses. In both samples, child-parent agreement indices were in the expected ranges. Normative data were also reported. The RCADS-25-P thus demonstrated robust psychometric properties across both a school and clinical sample as an effective brief screening instrument to assess for depression and anxiety in children and adolescents.

  12. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Asian Adolescent Depression Scale and Construction of a Short Form: An Item Response Theory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lo, Barbara Chuen Yee; Zhao, Yue; Kwok, Alice Wai Yee; Chan, Wai; Chan, Calais Kin Yuen

    2017-07-01

    The present study applied item response theory to examine the psychometric properties of the Asian Adolescent Depression Scale and to construct a short form among 1,084 teenagers recruited from secondary schools in Hong Kong. Findings suggested that some items of the full form reflected higher levels of severity and were more discriminating than others, and the Asian Adolescent Depression Scale was useful in measuring a broad range of depressive severity in community youths. Differential item functioning emerged in several items where females reported higher depressive severity than males. In the short form construction, preliminary validation suggested that, relative to the 20-item full form, our derived short form offered significantly greater diagnostic performance and stronger discriminatory ability in differentiating depressed and nondepressed groups, and simultaneously maintained adequate measurement precision with a reduced response burden in assessing depression in the Asian adolescents. Cultural variance in depressive symptomatology and clinical implications are discussed.

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of Death Depression Scale-Revised in Iranian Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Sharif Nia, Hamid; Pahlevan Sharif, Saeed; Lehto, Rebecca H; Allen, Kelly A; Goudarzian, Amir Hossein; Yaghoobzadeh, Ameneh; Soleimani, Mohammad Ali

    2017-07-01

    Objective: Limited research has examined the psychometric properties of death depression scales in Persian populations with cardiac disease despite the need for valid assessment tools for evaluating depressive symptoms in patients with life-limiting chronic conditions. The present study aimed at evaluating the reliability and validity of the Persian Version of Death Depression Scale - Revised (DDS-R) in Iranian patients who had recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Method: This psychometric study was conducted with a convenience sample of 407 patients with AMI diagnosis who completed the Persian version of the DDS-R. The face, content, and construct validity of the scale were ascertained. Internal consistency, test-retest, and construct reliability (CR) were used to assess reliability of the Persian Version of DDS-R. Results: Based on maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis and consideration of conceptual meaning, a 4-factor solution was identified, explaining 75.89% of the total variance. Goodness-of-fit indices (GFI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Normed Fit Index (NFI), Incremental Fit Index (IFI), and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) in the final DDS-R structure demonstrated the adequacy of the 4-domain structure. The internal consistency, construct reliability, and Intra-class Correlation Coefficients (ICC) were greater than .70. Conclusion: The DDS-R was found to be a valid and reliable assessment tool for evaluating death depression symptoms in Iranian patients with AMI.

  14. Development of anxiety, depression and health-related quality of life in oncology patients without initial symptoms according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Thalén-Lindström, Annika; Glimelius, Bengt; Johansson, Birgitta

    2017-08-01

    Depression and anxiety are associated with decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The knowledge about the development of anxiety, depression and HRQoL in cancer patients without depression or anxiety, that is initially scoring as non-cases (cutoff <8) according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), is sparse. The objectives were: (1) to evaluate changes in anxiety, depression and HRQoL over 6 months in two independent cohorts of oncology patients initially scoring as non-cases by the HADS, (2) to compare stable non-case patients with the general population regarding HRQoL and (3) to explore the outcomes using >4 rather than >7 as cutoff on any of HADS subscales. The study group (SG) included 245 and the validation group (VG), a previous cohort, included 281 non-cases. Patients who were non-cases (HADS <8) at all completed assessments were categorized as stable non-cases (stable-NC); those who were doubtful/clinical cases (HADS >7) in at least one follow-up were categorized as unstable-NC. Questionnaires were completed at baseline, and after 1, 3 and 6 months. Age- and sex-matched EORTC QLQ-C30 data from the general population were used for HRQoL comparisons. One hundred ninety-six (80%) SG and 244 (87%) VG patients were stable-NC and 49 (20%) SG and 37 (13%) VG patients were unstable-NC. SG and VG were similar in all outcomes. Anxiety, depression and HRQoL deteriorated over 6 months for unstable-NC (p < .05). HRQoL for stable-NC was comparable to that in the general population. If >4 had been used as cutoff, most unstable-NC (36/49 and 25/37, respectively) would have been identified at baseline. Most non-cases are stable-NC with a high stable HRQoL, indicating no need for re-assessment. A minority develop anxiety or depression symptoms and impaired HRQoL; for these a cutoff >4 rather than >7 on HADS subscales may be useful for early detection.

  15. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale measures a continuum from well-being to depression: Testing two key predictions of positive clinical psychology.

    PubMed

    Siddaway, Andy P; Wood, Alex M; Taylor, Peter J

    2017-04-15

    Two core but untested predictions of Positive Clinical Psychology (PCP) are that (1) Many psychiatric problems can be understood as one end of bipolar continua with well-being, and (2) that reducing psychiatric symptoms will provide an equal (near linear) decrease in risk for several other psychiatric variables, irrespective of position on continua. We test these predictions in relation to a purported well-being/depression continuum, as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D), a popular measure of depressive experiences in research and clinical practice. A large (N=4138), diverse sample completed the CES-D, which contains a mixture of negatively worded and positively worded items (e.g., "I felt sad," "I enjoyed life"). The latter are conventionally reverse scored to compute a total score. We first examined whether purportedly separate well-being and depression CES-D factors can be reconceptualised as a bipolar well-being/depression continuum. We then characterised the (linear or nonlinear) form of the relationship between this continuum and other psychiatric variables. Both predictions were supported. When controlling for shared method bias amongst positively worded items, a single factor well-being/depression continuum underlies the CES-D. Baseline levels on this continuum are found to have near linear relationships with changes in anxiety symptoms, aggression, and substance misuse over time, demonstrating that moving from depression to well-being on the CES-D provides an equal decrease in risk for several other psychological problems irrespective of position on the continuum. The CES-D does not measure well-being as comprehensively as established scales of well-being. Results support calls for mental health services to jointly focus on increasing well-being and reducing distress, and point to the value of early intervention and instilling resilience in order to prevent people moving away from high levels of well-being. Copyright

  16. Sex Partnership and Self-Efficacy Influence Depression in Chinese Transgender Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Lie; Hao, Chun; Gu, Yuan; Song, Wei; Wang, Jian; Chang, Margaret M.; Zhao, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Background Transgender women often suffer from transition-related discrimination and loss of social support due to their gender transition, which may pose considerable psychological challenges and may lead to a high prevalence of depression in this population. Increased self-efficacy may combat the adverse effects of gender transition on depression. However, few available studies have investigated the protective effect of self-efficacy on depression among transgender women, and there is a scarcity of research describing the mental health of Chinese transgender women. This study aims to describe the prevalence of depression among Chinese transgender women and to explore the associated factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shenyang, Liaoning Province of China by convenience sampling from January 2014 to July 2014. Two hundred and nine Chinese transgender women were interviewed face-to-face with questionnaires that covered topics including the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), demographic characteristics, transition status, sex partnership, perceived transgender-related discrimination, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the adapted General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the factors associated with SDS scores. Results The prevalence of depression among transgender women was 45.35%. Transgender women with regular partners or casual partners exhibited higher SDS scores than those without regular partners or casual partners. Regression analyses showed that sex partnership explained most (16.6%) of the total variance in depression scores. Self-efficacy was negatively associated with depression. Conclusions Chinese transgender women experienced high levels of depression. Depression was best predicted by whether transgender women had a regular partner or a casual partner rather than transgender-related discrimination and transition status. Moreover

  17. [Use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to evaluate anxiety and depression in fibromyalgia patients].

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Miguel A; Rivera, Javier; Esteve-Vives, Joaquim; Rodríguez-Muñoz, María F

    2012-01-01

    The HADS is a questionnaire widely used to evaluate anxiety and depression, although its use in fibromyalgia patients has not yet been reported. The aim of this study is to know the usefulness of the HADS to evaluate the emotional aspects related to fibromyalgia patients. This paper studies a sample of 301 fibromyalgia patients. The scientific goodness of the questionnaire is analyzed, and its structure is compared with other models by confirmatory factor analysis. Two external severity indices are used, number of tender points and patient's employment situation. The results show higher levels of anxiety than in other disorders, adequate reliability and a three-factor model with better statistical fit. Nevertheless, this structure was not shown more useful than the two-factor structure for the external criteria studied. The HADS has been shown to be a useful tool for exploring the presence of anxiety and depression in fibromyalgia patients and that the number of tender points does not seem to be related to the severity of the psychological aspects measured by the HADS in our sample, while there does seem to be a correspondence between psychological condition and absence from work. Copyright © 2011 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. The four-domain structure model of a depression scale for medical students: A cross-sectional study in Haiphong, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao Thi Thu; Nguyen, Ngoc Thi Minh; Pham, Manh Van; Pham, Han Van; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    Depression is a common mental health problem with a higher prevalence in medical students than in the general population. This study aims to investigate the association between depressive symptoms, particularly those in each domain of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and related factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 1319 medical students at Haiphong University of Medicine and Pharmacy in 2016. The CES-D scale and a self-reported questionnaire were used to identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms and related risk factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to assess the risk factors associated with depressive symptoms and the score for each structure factor. Depressive symptoms were observed in 514 (39%) students, including more males than females (44.2% vs 36.9%, p = 0.015). Students whose mothers' highest education level was primary school had a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than students whose mothers had higher education levels (p = 0.038). There was a significant relationship between depressive symptoms and stressful life events, especially a decline in personal health. A higher correlation was found between the somatic complaints and depressive affect domains. The impacts of risk factors differed for each domain of the depression scale. Only the factor of achieving excellence showed no statistically significant associations with depressive symptoms and the scores on the four domains considered in this study. The high prevalence of depressive symptoms among medical students with risk factors and the impact of these risk factors on each domain of depression scale need further clarification to alleviate depression in students during their medical training.

  19. Development of a scale to measure symptoms of anxiety and depression in the general UK population: the psychiatric symptom frequency scale.

    PubMed Central

    Lindelow, M; Hardy, R; Rodgers, B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The psychiatric symptom frequency (PSF) scale was developed to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression (i.e. affective symptoms) experienced over the past year in the general population. This study aimed to examine the distribution of PSF scores, internal consistency, and factor structure and to investigate relationships between total scores for this scale and other indicators of poor mental health. PARTICIPANTS: The Medical Research Council national survey of health and development, a class stratified cohort study of men and women followed up from birth in 1946, with the most recent interview at age 43 when the PSF scale was administered. MAIN RESULTS: The PSF scale showed high internal consistency between the 18 items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88). Ratings on items of the scale reflected one predominant factor, incorporating both depression and anxiety, and two additional factors of less statistical importance, one reflecting sleep problems and the other panic and situational anxiety. Total scores were calculated by adding 18 items of the scale, and high total scores were found to be strongly associated with reports of contact with a doctor or other health professional and use of prescribed medication for "nervous or emotional trouble or depression," and with suicidal ideas. CONCLUSIONS: The PSF is a useful and valid scale for evaluating affective symptoms in the general population. It is appropriate for administration by lay interviewers with minimal training, is relatively brief, and generates few missing data. The total score is a flexible measure which can be used in continuous or binary form to suit the purposes of individual investigations, and provides discrimination at lower as well as upper levels of symptom severity. PMID:9425466

  20. Correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression in medical students experiencing integrated curriculum reform.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Huang, Chun-Hsiung; Liu, Keh-Min; Huang, In-Ting

    2007-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the correlations between academic achievement and levels of anxiety and depression in medical students who were experiencing curriculum reform. The differences in academic achievement and the directions of correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression among the medical students with different levels of anxiety and depression were also examined. Grade 1 students from graduate-entry program and grade 3 students from undergraduate-entry program in their first semester of the new curriculum were recruited to complete the Zung's Anxiety and Depression Scale twice to examine their levels of anxiety and depression. Their academic achievement ratings in the four blocks of the first semester of the new curriculum were collected. The results indicated that no significant correlation was found between academic achievement and global anxiety and depression. However, by dividing the medical students into low, moderate and high level anxiety or depression groups, those who had poorer academic achievement in the first learning block were more likely to have higher levels of depression in the first psychologic assessment. Among the medical students who were in the high anxiety level group in the first psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the low anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had better academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the moderate anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the second learning block. Among the medical students who were in the high depression level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe depression had poorer academic achievement in the fourth learning block. The

  1. The interference of introversion-extraversion and depressive symptomatology with reasoning performance: a behavioural study.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Rabavilas, Andreas D; Stachtea, Xanthy; Giannakakis, Giorgos A; Kyprianou, Miltiades; Papadimitriou, George N; Stefanis, Costas N

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the link between the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) scores and depressive symptomatology with reasoning performance induced by a task including valid and invalid Aristotelian syllogisms. The EPQ and the Zung Depressive Scale (ZDS) were completed by 48 healthy subjects (27 male, 21 female) aged 33.5 ± 9.0 years. Additionally, the subjects engaged into two reasoning tasks (valid vs. invalid syllogisms). Analysis showed that the judgment of invalid syllogisms is a more difficult task than of valid judgments (65.1% vs. 74.6% of correct judgments respectively, p < 0.01). In both conditions, the subjects' degree of confidence is significantly higher when they make a correct judgment than when they make an incorrect judgment (83.8 ± 11.2 vs. 75.3 ± 17.3, p < 0.01). Subjects with extraversion as measured by EPQ and high sexual desire as rated by the relative ZDS subscale are more prone to make incorrect judgments in the valid syllogisms, while, at the same time, they are more confident in their responses. The effects of extraversion/introversion and sexual desire on the outcome measures of the valid condition are not commutative but additive. These findings indicate that extraversion/introversion and sexual desire variations may have a detrimental effect in the reasoning performance.

  2. Clinical utility of the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia in individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Rekhi, Gurpreet; Ng, Wai Yee; Lee, Jimmy

    2018-03-01

    There is a pressing need for reliable and valid rating scales to assess and measure depression in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) of psychosis. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical utility of the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) in individuals at UHR of psychosis. 167 individuals at UHR of psychosis were included as participants in this study. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, CDSS, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Global Assessment of Functioning were administered. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and factor analyses were performed. Cronbach's alpha was computed. Correlations between CDSS factor scores and other clinical variables were examined. The median CDSS total score was 5.0 (IQR 1.0-9.0). The area under ROC curve was 0.886 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.855. A score of 7 on the CDSS yielded the highest sensitivity and specificity in detecting depression in UHR individuals. Exploratory factor analysis of the CDSS yielded two factors: depression-hopelessness and self depreciation-guilt, which was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Further analysis showed that the depression-hopelessness factor predicted functioning; whereas the self depreciation-guilt factor was related to the severity of the attenuated psychotic symptoms. In conclusion, the CDSS demonstrates good psychometric properties when used to evaluate depression in individuals at UHR of psychosis. Our study results also support a two-factor structure of the CDSS in UHR individuals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between mediterranean diet and non-fatal cardiovascular events, in the context of anxiety and depression disorders: a case/case-control study.

    PubMed

    Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N; Kastorini, Christina-Maria; Milionis, Haralampos J; Ntziou, Evangelia; Kostapanos, Michael S; Nikolaou, Vassilios; Vemmos, Konstantinos N; Goudevenos, John A; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Mediterranean diet on the likelihood of having a non-fatal cardiovascular outcome, taking into account anxiety and depression status. This was a case-control study with individual matching by age and sex. During 2009-2010, 1000 participants were enrolled; 250 were consecutive patients with a first acute coronary syndrome (ACS), 250 were consecutive patients with a first ischemic stroke, and 500 were population-based control subjects, one-for-one matched to the patients by age and sex. Among other characteristics, adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by the MedDietScore, anxiety was assessed with the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y-2, while depressive symptomatology was evaluated by the Zung Depression Rating Scale. Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with a lower likelihood of ACS and ischemic stroke, even after adjusting for anxiety or depression (ACS: OR=0.92, 95%CI 0.87-0.98 and 0.93, 0.88-0.98, respectively; ischemic stroke: 0.91, 0.84-0.98 and 0.90, 0.83-0.97, respectively). For both ACS and stroke patients, anxiety and depression were associated with a higher likelihood of ACS and stroke. When stratifying for depression or anxiety status, the Mediterranean diet remained a significantly protective factor only for people with low levels of depression and anxiety for ACS, and only for people with low levels of anxiety, as far as stroke was concerned. Anxiety and depression seem to play a mediating role in the protective relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the likelihood of developing cardiovascular events.

  4. Managing pregnant women with serious mental illness: using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as a marker of anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thinh N; Faulkner, Deb; Allen, Suzanna; Hauck, Yvonne L; Frayne, Jacqueline; Rock, Daniel; Rampono, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    To examine the course of depressive and anxiety symptoms using serial measurements of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in pregnant women with serious mental illness (SMI) attending a specialist multi-disciplinary antenatal clinic in Perth, Western Australia. A retrospective review of case notes was undertaken for 48 Western Australian pregnant women with schizophrenia and related psychoses and bipolar affective disorders who attended the Childbirth and Mental Illness (CAMI) antenatal clinic between December 2007 and November 2009. Of these patients, 27 completed the EPDS at booking (first appointment) and at 32 weeks gestation. Additional variables collected were demographic data, gestation at booking, and attendance rates for these 27 women, and for comparison another 21 women who did not complete the EPDS for one or both screening periods. Mean total EPDS score decreased from 12.2 (SD 7.6) at booking to 8.5 (SD 6.4) at 32 weeks gestation (p = 0.007). Overall mean attendance rates and number of appointments were similar to the non-SMI population and in keeping with standard guidelines. We speculate from these preliminary findings that being managed by a consistent small multi-disciplinary team and knowing that they will be supported throughout their pregnancy could lead to improvement of anxiety and depressive symptoms in pregnant women with SMI, and has the potential to increase their attendance for antenatal care.

  5. Validation and factor structure of the Thai version of the EURO-D scale for depression among older psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Jirapramukpitak, Tawanchai; Darawuttimaprakorn, Niphon; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Abas, Melanie

    2009-11-01

    To assess the concurrent and the construct validity of the Euro-D in older Thai persons. Eight local psychiatrists used the major depressive episode section of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview to interview 150 consecutive psychiatric clinic attendees. A trained interviewer administered the Euro-D. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to assess the overall discriminability of the Euro-D scale and principal components factor analysis to assess its construct validity. The area under the ROC curve for the Euro-D with respect to major depressive episode was 0.78 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.90] indicating moderately good discriminability. At a cut-point of 5/6 the sensitivity for major depressive episodes is 84.3%, specificity 58.6%, and kappa 0.37 (95% CI 0.22-0.52) indicating fair concordance. However, at the 3/4 cut-point recommended from European studies there is high sensitivity (94%) but poor specificity (34%). The principal components analysis suggested four factors. The first two factors conformed to affective suffering (depression, suicidality and tearfulness) and motivation (interest, concentration and enjoyment). Sleep and appetite constituted a separate factor, whereas pessimism loaded on its own factor. Among Thai psychiatric clinic attendees Euro-D is moderately valid for major depression. A much higher cut-point may be required than that which is usually advocated. The Thai version also shares two common factors as reported from most of previous studies.

  6. Identification of Distress in Oncology Patients: A Comparison of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a Thorough Clinical Assessment.

    PubMed

    Thalén-Lindström, Annika M; Glimelius, Bengt G; Johansson, Birgitta B

    2016-01-01

    Screening is recommended to identify cancer patients with distress, anxiety, and depression. The ability of current methods to identify distress in oncology patients is of high importance. We compared the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) with a thorough clinical assessment. Furthermore, we explored the agreement of HADS with clinical assessment outcomes as a function of age, sex, and treatment intention. One hundred forty-six oncology patients, representing both sexes, different ages (<65/≥ 65 years), and treatment intention (curative/palliative), completed the HADS before the clinical assessment. Two study team members (blind to the HADS results) completed clinical assessments of anxiety, depression, and distress analogous to categories used in the HADS. The HADS identified 49 participants and the clinical assessment 71 participants as having anxiety, depression, or distress. The overall agreement between the HADS and the clinical assessment was moderate. The greatest differences were found to be a function of participant sex and age. Agreement between the methods was better for females than for males in relation to distress and anxiety and better for the older (≥ 65 years) than younger participants in relation to depression. By treatment intention, agreement was equal for all domains. Especially male and young participants appear to have potential problems that the HADS fails to identify. When the HADS is used for screening, nurses must be aware of psychosocial problems perceived by patients that are not covered by the HADS. Many patients identified as having distress have resources to manage problems without additional support.

  7. Emotional disturbance assessed by the Self-Rating Depression Scale test is associated with mortality among Japanese Hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Sakumi; Kazama, Junichiro James; Wakasugi, Minako; Ito, Yumi; Narita, Ichiei; Tanaka, Motoko; Horiguchi, Fumi; Tanigawa, Koichi

    2018-04-17

    Emotional disturbance including depression is associated with increased mortality among dialysis patients. The Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) is a simple tool for assessing emotional disturbance. This study investigated the relationship between emotional conditions as assessed with the SDS test and mortality among 491 hemodialysis patients. At baseline, 183 (37.3%), 180 (36.7%), 108 (22.0%), and 20 (4.1%) were classified as normal, borderline depression, depression, and severe depression, respectively. During the two years of observation period, 57 of 491 (11.6%) died. The SDS scores in the non-survivors were significantly higher than those in the survivors (p<0.0001). Logistic analyses showed that the diagnoses made by the SDS test were associated with significantly greater risks for all-cause mortality (99%CI: 1.905-3.698 for that without adjustment, 1.999-4.382 for that with full adjustment). When the SDS score = 50 was selected as the cut off value, the test screened two-year all cause death with sensitivity = 57.9% and the specificity = 78.1%. In conclusion, hemodialysis patients had high prevalence of emotional disturbance assessed by the SDS test, and high SDS score was significantly associated with all-cause mortality. These findings underscore the importance of screening for emotional conditions using the SDS test among hemodialysis patients.

  8. Rasch Rating Scale Modeling of the Korean Version of the Beck Depression Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sehee; Wong, Eunice C.

    2005-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is one of the most frequently used instruments in the study of depression both within and outside of the United States. Though developed primarily with European American clinical populations, the BDI has been applied in nonclinical and non-Western samples. To determine whether such a practice is warranted, the…

  9. Factor structure and dimensionality of the two depression scales in STAR*D using level 1 datasets.

    PubMed

    Bech, P; Fava, M; Trivedi, M H; Wisniewski, S R; Rush, A J

    2011-08-01

    The factor structure and dimensionality of the HAM-D(17) and the IDS-C(30) are as yet uncertain, because psychometric analyses of these scales have been performed without a clear separation between factor structure profile and dimensionality (total scores being a sufficient statistic). The first treatment step (Level 1) in the STAR*D study provided a dataset of 4041 outpatients with DSM-IV nonpsychotic major depression. The HAM-D(17) and IDS-C(30) were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) without rotation. Mokken analysis tested the unidimensionality of the IDS-C(6), which corresponds to the unidimensional HAM-D(6.) For both the HAM-D(17) and IDS-C(30), PCA identified a bi-directional factor contrasting the depressive symptoms versus the neurovegetative symptoms. The HAM-D(6) and the corresponding IDS-C(6) symptoms all emerged in the depression factor. Both the HAM-D(6) and IDS-C(6) were found to be unidimensional scales, i.e., their total scores are each a sufficient statistic for the measurement of depressive states. STAR*D used only one medication in Level 1. The unidimensional HAM-D(6) and IDS-C(6) should be used when evaluating the pure clinical effect of antidepressive treatment, whereas the multidimensional HAM-D(17) and IDS-C(30) should be considered when selecting antidepressant treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Italian version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21: Factor structure and psychometric properties on community and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Bottesi, Gioia; Ghisi, Marta; Altoè, Gianmarco; Conforti, Erica; Melli, Gabriele; Sica, Claudio

    2015-07-01

    The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) is the short version of a self-report measure that was originally developed to provide maximum differentiation between depressive and anxious symptoms. Despite encouraging evidence, the factor structure and other features of the DASS-21 are yet to be firmly established. A community sample of 417 participants and two clinical groups (32 depressive patients and 25 anxious patients) completed the Italian version of the DASS-21 along with several measures of psychopathology. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested that the DASS-21 is a measure of general distress plus three additional orthogonal dimensions (anxiety, depression, and stress). The internal consistency and temporal stability of the measure were good; each DASS-21 scale correlated more strongly with a measure of a similar construct, demonstrating good convergent and divergent validity. Lastly, the DASS-21 demonstrated good criterion-oriented validity. The validity of the Italian DASS-21 and its utility, both for community and clinical individuals, are supported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Validity and test–retest reliability of the Persian version of the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Sheikhbabaei, Meisam; Haghighi, Mohammad; Roham, Fatemeh; Jahangard, Leila; Akhondi, Amineh; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Bajoghli, Hafez; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) is an expert’s rating tool to assess the severity and symptoms of depression. The aim of the present two studies was to validate the Persian version of the MADRS and determine its test–retest reliability in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorders (MDD). Methods In study 1, the translated MADRS and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were applied to 210 patients diagnosed with MDD and 100 healthy adults. In study 2, 200 patients diagnosed with MDD were assessed with the MADRS in face-to-face interviews. Thereafter, 100 patients were assessed 3–14 days later, again via face-to-face-interviews, while the other 100 patients were assessed 3–14 days later via a telephone interview. Results Study 1: The MADRS and HDRS scores between patients with MDD and healthy controls differed significantly. Agreement between scoring of the MADRS and HDRS was high (r=0.95). Study 2: The intraclass correlation coefficient (test–retest reliability) was r=0.944 for the face-to-face interviews, and r=0.959 for the telephone interviews. Conclusion The present data suggest that the Persian MADRS has high validity and excellent test–retest reliability over a time interval of 3–14 days, irrespective of whether the second assessment was carried out face-to-face or via a telephone interview. PMID:27022265

  12. Validation of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale definition of response for adults with major depressive disorder using equipercentile linking to Clinical Global Impression scale ratings: analysis of Pharmacogenomic Research Network Antidepressant Medication Pharmacogenomic Study (PGRN-AMPS) data.

    PubMed

    Bobo, William V; Angleró, Gabriela C; Jenkins, Gregory; Hall-Flavin, Daniel K; Weinshilboum, Richard; Biernacka, Joanna M

    2016-05-01

    The study aimed to define thresholds of clinically significant change in 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) scores using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) Scale as a gold standard. We conducted a secondary analysis of individual patient data from the Pharmacogenomic Research Network Antidepressant Medication Pharmacogenomic Study, an 8-week, single-arm clinical trial of citalopram or escitalopram treatment of adults with major depression. We used equipercentile linking to identify levels of absolute and percent change in HDRS-17 scores that equated with scores on the CGI-I at 4 and 8 weeks. Additional analyses equated changes in the HDRS-7 and Bech-6 scale scores with CGI-I scores. A CGI-I score of 2 (much improved) corresponded to an absolute decrease (improvement) in HDRS-17 total score of 11 points and a percent decrease of 50-57%, from baseline values. Similar results were observed for percent change in HDRS-7 and Bech-6 scores. Larger absolute (but not percent) decreases in HDRS-17 scores equated with CGI-I scores of 2 in persons with higher baseline depression severity. Our results support the consensus definition of response based on HDRS-17 scores (>50% decrease from baseline). A similar definition of response may apply to the HDRS-7 and Bech-6. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Psychometric Evaluation of a Persian Version of the Cardiac Depression Scale in Iranian Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Nia, Hamid Sharif; Sharif, Saeed Pahlevan; Froelicher, Erika Sivarajan; Boyle, Christopher; Goudarzian, Amir Hossein; Yaghoobzadeh, Ameneh; Oskouie, Fatemeh

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a Persian version of the Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS) in Iranian patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The CDS was forward translated from English into Persian and back-translated to English. Validity was assessed using face, content, and construct validity. Also Cronbach's alpha (α), theta (), and McDonald's omega coefficient were used to evaluate the reliability. Construct validity of the scale showed two factors with eigenvalues greater than one. The Cronbach's α, , McDonald's omega, and construct reliability were greater than .70. The Persian version of the CDS has a two-factor structure (i.e., death anxiety and life satisfaction) and has acceptable reliability and validity. Therefore, the validated instrument can be used in future studies to assess depression in patients with AMI in Iranians.

  14. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Taiwan Geriatric Depression Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sheau-Ling; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Wu, Ruey-Meei

    2017-01-01

    Background The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Taiwan Geriatric Depression Scale (TGDS) are self-report scales used for assessing depression in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and geriatric people. The minimal detectable change (MDC) represents the least amount of change that indicates real difference (i.e., beyond random measurement error) for a single subject. Our aim was to investigate the test-retest reliability and MDC of the BDI-II and the TGDS in people with PD. Methods Seventy patients were recruited from special clinics for movement disorders at a medical center. The patients’ mean age was 67.7 years, and 63.0% of the patients were male. All patients were assessed with the BDI-II and the TGDS twice, 2 weeks apart. We used the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to determine the reliability between test and retest. We calculated the MDC based on standard error of measurement. The MDC% was calculated (i.e., by dividing the MDC by the possible maximal score of the measure). Results The test-retest reliabilities of the BDI-II/TGDS were high (ICC = 0.86/0.89). The MDCs (MDC%s) of the BDI-II and TGDS were 8.7 (13.8%) and 5.4 points (18.0%), respectively. Both measures had acceptable to nearly excellent random measurement errors. Conclusions The test-retest reliabilities of the BDI-II and the TGDS are high. The MDCs of both measures are acceptable to nearly excellent in people with PD. These findings imply that the BDI-II and the TGDS are suitable for use in a research context and in clinical settings to detect real change in a single subject. PMID:28945776

  15. Using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) on patients with epilepsy: Confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch models.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Pakpour, Amir H

    2017-02-01

    The problems of mood disorders are critical in people with epilepsy. Therefore, there is a need to validate a useful tool for the population. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) has been used on the population, and showed that it is a satisfactory screening tool. However, more evidence on its construct validity is needed. A total of 1041 people with epilepsy were recruited in this study, and each completed the HADS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis were used to understand the construct validity of the HADS. In addition, internal consistency was tested using Cronbachs' α, person separation reliability, and item separation reliability. Ordering of the response descriptors and the differential item functioning (DIF) were examined using the Rasch models. The HADS showed that 55.3% of our participants had anxiety; 56.0% had depression based on its cutoffs. CFA and Rasch analyses both showed the satisfactory construct validity of the HADS; the internal consistency was also acceptable (α=0.82 in anxiety and 0.79 in depression; person separation reliability=0.82 in anxiety and 0.73 in depression; item separation reliability=0.98 in anxiety and 0.91 in depression). The difficulties of the four-point Likert scale used in the HADS were monotonically increased, which indicates no disordering response categories. No DIF items across male and female patients and across types of epilepsy were displayed in the HADS. The HADS has promising psychometric properties on construct validity in people with epilepsy. Moreover, the additive item score is supported for calculating the cutoff. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution-based estimates of minimal important difference for hospital anxiety and depression scale and impact of event scale-revised in survivors of acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kitty S; Aronson Friedman, Lisa; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Dinglas, Victor D; Cuthbertson, Brian H; Porter, Richard; Jones, Christina; Hopkins, Ramona O; Needham, Dale M

    2016-01-01

    This study will estimate distribution-based minimal important difference (MID) for the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety (HADS-A) and depression (HADS-D) subscales, and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) in survivors of acute respiratory failure (ARF). Secondary analyses of data from two US and three UK studies of ARF survivors (total N=1223). HADS-D and HADS-A were used to assess depression and anxiety symptoms. IES-R assessed post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Standard error of measurement, minimal detectable change90, 0.5 standard deviation (S.D.), and 0.2 S.D. were used to estimate MID for the combined sample, by studies, 6- and 12-month follow-ups, country and mental health condition. Overall, MID estimates converged to 2.0-2.5 for the HADS-A, 1.9-2.3 for the HADS-D and 0.17-0.18 for the IES-R. MID estimates were comparable across studies, follow-up, country and mental health condition. Among ARF survivors, 2.0-2.5 is a reasonable range for the MID for both HADS subscales, and 0.2 is reasonable for IES-R. Until anchor-based MIDs for these instruments are available, these distribution-based estimates can help researchers plan future studies and interpret the clinical importance of findings in ARF patient populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Agreement for depression diagnosis between DSM-IV-TR criteria, three validated scales, oncologist assessment, and psychiatric clinical interview in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rhondali, Wadih; Freyer, Gilles; Adam, Virginie; Filbet, Marilène; Derzelle, Martine; Abgrall-Barbry, Gaelle; Bourcelot, Sophie; Machavoine, Jean-Louis; Chomat-Neyraud, Muriel; Gisserot, Olivier; Largillier, Rémi; Le Rol, Annick; Priou, Frank; Saltel, Pierre; Falandry, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression, a major outcome in cancer patients, is often evaluated by physicians relying on their clinical impressions rather than patient self-report. Our aim was to assess agreement between patient self-reported depression, oncologist assessment (OA), and psychiatric clinical interview (PCI) in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC). Methods This analysis was a secondary endpoint of the Elderly Women AOC Trial 3 (EWOT3), designed to assess the impact of geriatric covariates, notably depression, on survival in patients older than 70 years of age. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-30 (GDS), the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, the distress thermometer, the mood thermometer, and OA. The interview guide for PCI was constructed from three validated scales: the GDS, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, revised (DSM) criteria for depression were used as a gold standard. Results Out of 109 patients enrolled at 21 centers, 99 (91%) completed all the assessments. Patient characteristics were: mean age 78, performance status ≥2: 47 (47%). Thirty six patients (36%) were identified as depressed by the PCI versus 15 (15%) identified by DSM. We found moderate agreement for depression identification between DSM and GDS (κ=0.508) and PCI (κ=0.431) and high agreement with MADRS (κ=0.663). We found low or no agreement between DSM with the other assessment strategies, including OA (κ=−0.043). Identification according to OA (yes/no) resulted in a false-negative rate of 87%. As a screening tool, GDS had the best sensitivity and specificity (94% and 80%, respectively). Conclusion The use of validated tools, such as GDS, and collaboration between psychologists and oncologists are warranted to better identify emotional disorders in elderly women with AOC. PMID:26203235

  18. Agreement for depression diagnosis between DSM-IV-TR criteria, three validated scales, oncologist assessment, and psychiatric clinical interview in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Rhondali, Wadih; Freyer, Gilles; Adam, Virginie; Filbet, Marilène; Derzelle, Martine; Abgrall-Barbry, Gaelle; Bourcelot, Sophie; Machavoine, Jean-Louis; Chomat-Neyraud, Muriel; Gisserot, Olivier; Largillier, Rémi; Le Rol, Annick; Priou, Frank; Saltel, Pierre; Falandry, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Depression, a major outcome in cancer patients, is often evaluated by physicians relying on their clinical impressions rather than patient self-report. Our aim was to assess agreement between patient self-reported depression, oncologist assessment (OA), and psychiatric clinical interview (PCI) in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC). This analysis was a secondary endpoint of the Elderly Women AOC Trial 3 (EWOT3), designed to assess the impact of geriatric covariates, notably depression, on survival in patients older than 70 years of age. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-30 (GDS), the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, the distress thermometer, the mood thermometer, and OA. The interview guide for PCI was constructed from three validated scales: the GDS, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, revised (DSM) criteria for depression were used as a gold standard. Out of 109 patients enrolled at 21 centers, 99 (91%) completed all the assessments. Patient characteristics were: mean age 78, performance status ≥2: 47 (47%). Thirty six patients (36%) were identified as depressed by the PCI versus 15 (15%) identified by DSM. We found moderate agreement for depression identification between DSM and GDS (κ=0.508) and PCI (κ=0.431) and high agreement with MADRS (κ=0.663). We found low or no agreement between DSM with the other assessment strategies, including OA (κ=-0.043). Identification according to OA (yes/no) resulted in a false-negative rate of 87%. As a screening tool, GDS had the best sensitivity and specificity (94% and 80%, respectively). The use of validated tools, such as GDS, and collaboration between psychologists and oncologists are warranted to better identify emotional disorders in elderly women with AOC.

  19. Relationship between levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, age, and gender, with symptoms of depression among patients with thyroid disorders as measured by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21).

    PubMed

    Saidi, Sanisah; Iliani Jaafar, Siti Nur; Daud, Azlina; Musa, Ramli; Nik Ahmad, Nik Noor Fatnoon

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between levels of depression symptoms and age, thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, and stressful life events of the participants. Patients above 18 years old, with any thyroid disorders, and without psychiatric disorders were included in this study. All participants completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21). The depression symptom score was calculated and interpreted as follows: less than 9: no depression; between 10 and 13: mild depression; between 14 and 20: moderate depression; between 21 and 27: severe depression, and more than 28: extremely severe depression. The total number of participants in this study was 199. There was no correlation between age, thyroid stimulating hormone, and the DASS score. There was also no significant difference in the DASS-21 score between genders. However, there was a positive correlation between depression symptoms and stressful life events (r=0.201, n=199, p < 0.05). These findings would suggest that increased depression symptom scores correlate with increased stressful life events. A larger study should be undertaken to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Displacement, county social cohesion and depression after a large-scale traumatic event

    PubMed Central

    Lê, Félice; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H.; Galea, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a common and potentially debilitating consequence of traumatic events. Mass traumatic events cause wide-ranging disruptions to community characteristics, influencing the population risk of depression. In the aftermath of such events, population displacement is common. Stressors associated with displacement may increase risk of depression directly. Indirectly, persons who are displaced may experience erosion in social cohesion, further exacerbating their risk for depression. Methods Using data from a population-based cross-sectional survey of adults living in the 23 southernmost counties of Mississippi (N = 708), we modeled the independent and joint relations of displacement and county-level social cohesion with depression 18–24 months after Hurricane Katrina. Results After adjustment for individual- and county-level sociodemographic characteristics and county-level hurricane exposure, joint exposure to both displacement and low social cohesion was associated with substantially higher log-odds of depression (b = 1.34 [0.86–1.83]). Associations were much weaker for exposure only to low social cohesion (b = 0.28 [−0.35–0.90]) or only to displacement (b = 0.04 [−0.80– 0.88]). The associations were robust to additional adjustment for individually perceived social cohesion and social support. Conclusion Addressing the multiple, simultaneous disruptions that are a hallmark of mass traumatic events is important to identify vulnerable populations and understand the psychological ramifications of these events. PMID:23644724

  1. Displacement, county social cohesion, and depression after a large-scale traumatic event.

    PubMed

    Lê, Félice; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro

    2013-11-01

    Depression is a common and potentially debilitating consequence of traumatic events. Mass traumatic events cause wide-ranging disruptions to community characteristics, influencing the population risk of depression. In the aftermath of such events, population displacement is common. Stressors associated with displacement may increase risk of depression directly. Indirectly, persons who are displaced may experience erosion in social cohesion, further exacerbating their risk for depression. Using data from a population-based cross-sectional survey of adults living in the 23 southernmost counties of Mississippi (N = 708), we modeled the independent and joint relations of displacement and county-level social cohesion with depression 18-24 months after Hurricane Katrina. After adjustment for individual- and county-level socio-demographic characteristics and county-level hurricane exposure, joint exposure to both displacement and low social cohesion was associated with substantially higher log-odds of depression (b = 1.34 [0.86-1.83]). Associations were much weaker for exposure only to low social cohesion (b = 0.28 [-0.35-0.90]) or only to displacement (b = 0.04 [-0.80-0.88]). The associations were robust to additional adjustment for individually perceived social cohesion and social support. Addressing the multiple, simultaneous disruptions that are a hallmark of mass traumatic events is important to identify vulnerable populations and understand the psychological ramifications of these events.

  2. Exposure to stress across the life course and its association with anxiety and depressive symptoms: Results from the Australian Women's Wellness After Cancer Program (WWACP).

    PubMed

    Seib, Charrlotte; McCarthy, Alexandra; McGuire, Amanda; Porter-Steele, Janine; Balaam, Sarah; Ware, Robert S; Anderson, Debra

    2017-11-01

    Earlier life stressors can increase the risk of persistent anxiety and depressive symptoms in women after cancer, though our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is limited. In this study, we tested alternative life course models to determine which best described associations between exposure to stressors in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and self-reported health in women previously treated for breast, gynaecological, and blood cancer. Data were drawn from 351 Australian women within 2 years of completing active cancer treatment who were participating in the Women's Wellness After Cancer Program (WWACP) randomised controlled trial. A model-building framework compared "accumulative risk" and "sensitive period" stress exposure hypotheses with the saturated model to determine best fit. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). Participants with the greatest number of stressful life events (SLEs) reported higher anxiety scores and more depressive symptoms. Alternative life course models for psychological distress (measured through the CES-D and SAS) and stress were compared with the saturated model (i.e., the accumulative risk). The more restrictive "sensitive period" models were the best fit for depressive symptoms though none was significantly better than another. In contrast, an "early sensitive" model provided the best fit for anxiety data. Anxiety scores were higher in women with early life stressors. This study highlights the need for whole-of-life supportive care approaches for women previously treated for cancer, which should include targeted strategies for effective management of stress, anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Inter-rater reliability of Hamilton depression rating scale using video-recorded interviews — Focus on rater-blinding

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, M. Krishna; Udupa, K.; Kishore, K. R.; Thirthalli, J.; Sathyaprabha, T. N.; Gangadhar, B. N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hamilton depression rating scale (Ham-D) is the most widely used clinician rating scale for depression. There has been no Indian study that has examined the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of video-recorded interviews of the 21-item Ham-D. Aim: To study the IRR of scoring video-recorded interviews for 21-item Ham-D. Materials and Methods: Eighteen subjects with major depressive disorder involved in a larger study were interviewed using the semi-structured clinical interview of the 21-item Ham-D by a primary rater after informed consent. These interviews were video-recorded and portions edited to ensure rater blinding. Subsequently, the video-recorded interviews were rated by a “blind” rater. Both rated the different sub-domains of Ham-D according to Rhoades and Overall (1983). IRR was evaluated using intra-class correlation coefficient. Results: Excellent IRR was observed (0.9891) between the two raters. This was true for each of the primary factors and super-factors. Conclusion: Video recorded 21-item Ham-D has excellentIRR. Video-recorded interviews of Ham-D can be reliably used to blind raters in research. PMID:19881046

  4. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS): normative data and latent structure in a large non-clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Crawford, John R; Henry, Julie D

    2003-06-01

    To provide UK normative data for the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and test its convergent, discriminant and construct validity. Cross-sectional, correlational and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The DASS was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1,771) in terms of demographic variables. Competing models of the latent structure of the DASS were derived from theoretical and empirical sources and evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Correlational analysis was used to determine the influence of demographic variables on DASS scores. The convergent and discriminant validity of the measure was examined through correlating the measure with two other measures of depression and anxiety (the HADS and the sAD), and a measure of positive and negative affectivity (the PANAS). The best fitting model (CFI =.93) of the latent structure of the DASS consisted of three correlated factors corresponding to the depression, anxiety and stress scales with correlated error permitted between items comprising the DASS subscales. Demographic variables had only very modest influences on DASS scores. The reliability of the DASS was excellent, and the measure possessed adequate convergent and discriminant validity Conclusions: The DASS is a reliable and valid measure of the constructs it was intended to assess. The utility of this measure for UK clinicians is enhanced by the provision of large sample normative data.

  5. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 versus Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in screening for major depressive episodes: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Iná S; Tavares, Beatriz Franck; Munhoz, Tiago N; Manzolli, Patricia; de Ávila, Gisele Bartz; Jannke, Eduardo; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2017-01-21

    Major depressive episodes (MDE) are frequent at the population level and are generally associated with severe symptoms that impair performance of activities of daily living of individuals suffering from this condition. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of two tests that separately showed suitable properties in screening for MDE: the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). In a previous study, the sensitivity and specificity of the PHQ-9 and the EPDS in screening for MDE were compared with a structured diagnostic interview conducted by psychiatrics and psychologists using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview as the gold standard. In a sample of adults living in the community in Pelotas, Brazil, the PHQ-9 and EPDS were applied at the same interview and the gold standard on a median of 17 days later. The interviews were carried out at the participant's home. 447 Individuals (191 men and 256 women) were assessed. The PHQ-9 and the EPDS results were concordant in 87.5% of the respondents, with a moderate agreement beyond what was expected by chance alone (kappa = 0.61). The areas below the ROC curves were not statistically different (82.1% for PHQ-9 and 83.5% for EPDS) (p = 0.291), thus indicating that the two tests had similar moderate accuracy. PHQ-9 and EPDS may be applied with equal confidence in screening for MDE in the community.

  6. Patient health questionnaire-9 versus Edinburgh postnatal depression scale in screening for major depressive episodes: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Iná S; Tavares, Beatriz Franck; Munhoz, Tiago N; Manzolli, Patricia; de Ávila, Gisele Bartz; Jannke, Eduardo; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2016-09-27

    Major depressive episodes (MDE) are frequent at the population level and are generally associated with severe symptoms that impair performance of activities of daily living of individuals suffering from this condition. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of two tests that separately showed suitable properties in screening for MDE: the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS). In a previous study, the sensitivity and specificity of the PHQ-9 and the EPDS in screening for MDE were compared with a structured diagnostic interview conducted by psychiatrics and psychologists using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview as the gold standard. In a sample of adults living in the community in Pelotas, Brazil, the PHQ-9 and EPDS were applied at the same interview and the gold standard on a median of 17 days later. The interviews were carried out at the participant's home. 447 individuals (191 men and 256 women) were assessed. The PHQ-9 and the EPDS results were concordant in 87.5 % of the respondents, with a moderate agreement beyond what was expected by chance alone (kappa = 0.61). The areas below the ROC curves were not statistically different (82.1 % for PHQ-9 and 83.5 % for EPDS) (p = 0.291), thus indicating that the two tests had similar moderate accuracy. PHQ-9 and EPDS may be applied with equal confidence in screening for MDE in the community.

  7. Development and validation of the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS) in a community sample and individuals with major depression.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Sakina J; Quilty, Lena C; Sproule, Beth A; Cyriac, Anna; Michael Bagby, R; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2015-09-30

    Anhedonia, a core symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), is predictive of antidepressant non-response. In contrast to the definition of anhedonia as a "loss of pleasure", neuropsychological studies provide evidence for multiple facets of hedonic function. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS), a dynamic scale that measures desire, motivation, effort and consummatory pleasure across hedonic domains. Following item selection procedures and reliability testing using data from community participants (N=229) (Study 1), the 17-item scale was validated in an online study with community participants (N=150) (Study 2). The DARS was also validated in unipolar or bipolar depressed patients (n=52) and controls (n=50) (Study 3). Principal components analysis of the 17-item DARS revealed a 4-component structure mapping onto the domains of anhedonia: hobbies, food/drink, social activities, and sensory experience. Reliability of the DARS subscales was high across studies (Cronbach's α=0.75-0.92). The DARS also demonstrated good convergent and divergent validity. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed the DARS showed additional utility over the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) in predicting reward function and distinguishing MDD subgroups. These studies provide support for the reliability and validity of the DARS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Extending the utility of the Depression Anxiety Stress scale by examining its psychometric properties in Chinese settings.

    PubMed

    Chan, Raymond C K; Xu, Ting; Huang, Jia; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Qing; Shum, David H K; O'Gorman, John; Potangaroa, Regan

    2012-12-30

    The Depression Anxiety Stress scale (DASS) is a widely used instrument for assessing mental health status, but the construct validity of the Chinese version of the test has not been demonstrated. The current study recruited three independent samples of Chinese participants to examine its reliability, factor structure, and utility in differentiating groups expected to show high and low scores on the scales. The first sample comprised 605 undergraduate student volunteers from Beijing, the second sample comprised 138 residents from the Sichuan Province who had experienced the 2008 earthquake there, and the third sample comprised 86 Beijing residents. Cronbach's alpha values in excess of 0.80 were found for all samples and all scales. Confirmatory factor analysis with the student sample supported a three-factor latent structure for the DASS (depression, anxiety, and stress). Substantially higher scores on all scales were found for the Sichuan earthquake sample compared with the Beijing resident's sample. Implications of these findings for the assessment of mental status using the DASS in China are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CAREGIVER'S DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND YOUNG CHILDREN'S SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT DELAYS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN POOR RURAL AREAS OF CHINA.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qianwei; Zhang, Cuihong; Zhang, Jingxu; Luo, Shusheng; Wang, Xiaoli

    2018-03-01

    Poverty and its associated factors put people at risk for depression. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of depressive symptoms (DS) of primary caregivers and socioemotional development (SED) delays of young children in poor rural areas of China, and to explore the association between them. Cross-sectional data of 2,664 children aged 3 to 35 months and their primary caregivers were used for analysis. Characteristics of the child, caregiver, and family were collected through face-to-face caregiver interviews. DS were assessed by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (W.W. Zung, 1965, as cited in World Health Organization, ), and SED was evaluated by the Ages and Stage Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (J. Squires, D. Bricker, & L. Potter, 1997). The χ 2 test, stratification analysis, and logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association. Among the caregivers, 40.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] [38.4, 42.1]), reported DS. Caregivers who were male, older and ethnic minorities as well as had a low level of education, a low family income, or more children were more likely to have DS. Of the children, 24.4% (95% CI [22.8, 26.0]) were recognized with SED delays. Older children displayed more delays than did younger children, but no significant differences between males and females were found. SED delays were significantly associated with mother outmigrating, male caregivers, older age, ethnic minorities, and low education or families with a single parent, low-income, and having more children. Caregivers having DS, odds ratio (OR) = 2.40, 95% CI [1.99, 2.88], was a significant predictor of increased odds of SED delays; other factors were single-parent family, OR = 1.99, 95% CI [1.37, 2.89], inadequate care, OR = 1.69, 95% CI [1.30, 2.21], physical punishment, OR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.33, 1.95], ethnic minorities, OR = 1.41, 95% CI [1.17, 1.71], and child age in months, OR = 1.03, 95% CI [1.02, 1.04], according to the logistic regression

  10. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression Scale in Black and White dementia caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Flynn Longmire, Crystal V.; Knight, Bob G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In order to better understand if measurement problems underlie the inconsistent findings that exist regarding differences in depression levels between Black and White caregivers, this study examined the factor structure and invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Method A confirmatory factor analysis of the 20-item CES-D was performed on a sample of 167 Black and 214 White family caregivers of older adults with dementia from Los Angeles County. Results The relationships between the 20 items and the four factors, as well as the relationships among each of the factors, were equivalent across both caregiver groups, indicating that the four-factor model fit the data for both racial groups. Conclusion These findings offer further evidence that the standard four-factor model is the best fitting model for the CES-D and is invariant across racial groups. PMID:21069602

  11. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale in black and white dementia caregivers.

    PubMed

    Flynn Longmire, Crystal V; Knight, Bob G

    2010-11-01

    In order to better understand if measurement problems underlie the inconsistent findings that exist regarding differences in depression levels between Black and White caregivers, this study examined the factor structure and invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale. A confirmatory factor analysis of the 20-item CES-D was performed on a sample of 167 Black and 214 White family caregivers of older adults with dementia from Los Angeles County. The relationships between the 20 items and the four factors, as well as the relationships among each of the factors, were equivalent across both caregiver groups, indicating that the four-factor model fit the data for both the racial groups. These findings offer further evidence that the standard four-factor model is the best fitting model for the CES-D and is invariant across racial groups.

  12. Evaluation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in screening stroke patients for symptoms: Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis.

    PubMed

    Ayis, Salma A; Ayerbe, Luis; Ashworth, Mark; DA Wolfe, Charles

    2018-03-01

    Variations have been reported in the number of underlying constructs and choice of thresholds that determine caseness of anxiety and /or depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS). This study examined the properties of each item of HADS as perceived by stroke patients, and assessed the information these items convey about anxiety and depression between 3 months to 5 years after stroke. The study included 1443 stroke patients from the South London Stroke Register (SLSR). The dimensionality of HADS was examined using factor analysis methods, and items' properties up to 5 years after stroke were tested using Item Response Theory (IRT) methods, including graded response models (GRMs). The presence of two dimensions of HADS (anxiety and depression) for stroke patients was confirmed. Items that accurately inferred about the severity of anxiety and depression, and offered good discrimination of caseness were identified as "I can laugh and see the funny side of things" (Q4) and "I get sudden feelings of panic" (Q13), discrimination 2.44 (se = 0.26), and 3.34 (se = 0.35), respectively. Items that shared properties, hence replicate inference were: "I get a sort of frightened feeling as if something awful is about to happen" (Q3), "I get a sort of frightened feeling like butterflies in my stomach" (Q6), and "Worrying thoughts go through my mind" (Q9). Item properties were maintained over time. Approximately 20% of patients were lost to follow up. A more concise selection of items based on their properties, would provide a precise approach for screening patients and for an optimal allocation of patients into clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Patient-Centered Research to Support the Development of the Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder Scale (SMDDS): Initial Qualitative Research.

    PubMed

    McCarrier, Kelly P; Deal, Linda S; Abraham, Lucy; Blum, Steven I; Bush, Elizabeth Nicole; Martin, Mona L; Thase, Michael E; Coons, Stephen Joel

    2016-04-01

    Content valid, patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures of major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms are needed to assess MDD treatment benefit. While a range of questionnaires are currently available to evaluate aspects of depression from the patient's perspective, their comprehensiveness and qualitative development histories are unclear. The objective of this study was to describe the process and results of the preliminary qualitative development of a new symptom-based PRO measure intended to assess treatment benefit in MDD clinical trials. Qualitative interviews were conducted with adult MDD patients in the USA who recently experienced a major depressive episode. Experienced interviewers conducted concept elicitation (CE) and cognitive interviews using semi-structured interview guides. The CE interview guide was used to elicit spontaneous reports of symptom experiences along with probing to further explore and confirm concepts. The cognitive interview guide was developed to evaluate concept relevance, understandability, and structure of the draft items, and to facilitate further instrument refinement. Forty patients participated in the CE interviews. A total of 3022 symptom codes, representing 84 different concepts were derived from the transcripts. Data from the CE interviews were considered alongside existing literature and clinical expert opinion during an item-generation process, leading to development of a preliminary version of the Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder Scale (SMDDS). Fifteen patients participated in three waves of cognitive interviews, during which the SMDDS was further refined. The SMDDS is a 35-item PRO measure intended for use as an endpoint in MDD clinical trials to support medical product labeling. The SMDDS uses a 7-day recall period and verbal rating scales. It was developed in accordance with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s PRO Guidance and best practices. Qualitative interviews have provided evidence for content validity

  14. The performance of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in English speaking and non-English speaking populations in Australia.

    PubMed

    Small, Rhonda; Lumley, Judith; Yelland, Jane; Brown, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) has been widely used to assess maternal depression following childbirth in a range of English speaking countries, and increasingly also in translation in non-English speaking ones. It has performed satisfactorily in most validation studies, has proved easy to administer, is acceptable to women, and rates of depression in the range of 10-20% have been consistently found. The performance of the EPDS was compared across different population samples in Australia: (i) Women born in Australia or in another English speaking country who completed the EPDS in English as part of the 1994 postal Survey of Recent Mothers (SRM) 6-7 months after birth (n = 1166); (ii) Women born in non-English speaking countries who also completed the EPDS in English in the same survey (n = 142); and (iii) Women born in Vietnam (n = 103), Turkey (n = 104) and the Philippines (n = 106) who completed the EPDS 6-9 months after birth in translation in the Mothers in a New Country Study (MINC) study (total n = 313). The pattern of item responses on the EPDS was assessed in various ways across the samples and internal reliability coefficients were calculated. Exploratory factor analyses were also conducted to assess the similarity in the factor solutions across the samples. The EPDS had good construct validity and item endorsement by women was similar across the samples. Internal reliability of the scale was also very satisfactory with Cronbach's alpha for each sample being > or = 8. Between 39 and 46% of the variance in each of the three main samples was accounted for by one principal factor 'depression' (6-7 items loading), with two supplementary factors 'loss of enjoyment' (2 items loading) and 'despair/self-harm' (2-3 items loading) accounting for a further 20-25% of the variance. Alternative one and two factor solutions also showed a great deal of consistency between the samples. The good item consistency of the EPDS and the relative stability of

  15. Validity of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Lindsey; Renno, Patricia; Storch, Eric A.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse; Lin, Enjey; Wood, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    High rates of anxiety and depression are reported among youth with autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are generally assessed using measures validated for typically developing youth. Few studies have investigated their validity for autism spectrum disorders, which is crucial for accurate assessment and the provision of proper treatment.…

  16. Moderating role of self-efficacy on the associations of social support with depressive and anxiety symptoms in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Xu, Neili; Wang, Lie

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is significantly associated with depression and anxiety. Social support and self-efficacy are the coping resources of psychological distress. However, little research is available on the interaction of social support and self-efficacy in RA patients. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and to examine whether or not self-efficacy moderates the associations of social support with depressive and anxiety symptoms in Chinese RA patients. A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in northeast of China from December 2014 to January 2016. A total of 297 RA patients completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and General Self-Efficacy Scale. The associations of social support, self-efficacy and social support × self-efficacy interaction with depressive and anxiety symptoms were examined by hierarchical regression analysis. If the interaction was statistically significant, simple slope analysis was conducted. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 58.2%, while 47.5% RA patients had anxiety symptoms. Social support and social support × self-efficacy interaction were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Social support, self-efficacy and their interaction were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms. The association between social support and depressive symptoms was gradually reduced in the low (1 standard deviation [SD] below the mean, B =-0.614, β =-0.876, P <0.001), mean ( B =-0.395, β =-0.563, P <0.001) and high (1 SD above the mean, B =-0.176, β =-0.251, P =0.002) groups of self-efficacy. For anxiety symptoms, the association was also gradually reduced in the low ( B =-0.527, β =-0.774, P <0.001), mean ( B =-0.288, β =-423, P <0.001) and high ( B =-0.049, β =-0.071, P =0.447) groups of self-efficacy. There was a high prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms

  17. Moderating role of self-efficacy on the associations of social support with depressive and anxiety symptoms in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Xu, Neili; Wang, Lie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is significantly associated with depression and anxiety. Social support and self-efficacy are the coping resources of psychological distress. However, little research is available on the interaction of social support and self-efficacy in RA patients. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and to examine whether or not self-efficacy moderates the associations of social support with depressive and anxiety symptoms in Chinese RA patients. Methods A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in northeast of China from December 2014 to January 2016. A total of 297 RA patients completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and General Self-Efficacy Scale. The associations of social support, self-efficacy and social support × self-efficacy interaction with depressive and anxiety symptoms were examined by hierarchical regression analysis. If the interaction was statistically significant, simple slope analysis was conducted. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 58.2%, while 47.5% RA patients had anxiety symptoms. Social support and social support × self-efficacy interaction were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Social support, self-efficacy and their interaction were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms. The association between social support and depressive symptoms was gradually reduced in the low (1 standard deviation [SD] below the mean, B=−0.614, β=−0.876, P<0.001), mean (B=−0.395, β=−0.563, P<0.001) and high (1 SD above the mean, B=−0.176, β=−0.251, P=0.002) groups of self-efficacy. For anxiety symptoms, the association was also gradually reduced in the low (B=−0.527, β=−0.774, P<0.001), mean (B=−0.288, β=−423, P<0.001) and high (B=−0.049, β=−0.071, P=0.447) groups of self-efficacy. Conclusion There was a high

  18. Genetically reduced FAAH activity may be a risk for the development of anxiety and depression in persons with repetitive childhood trauma.

    PubMed

    Lazary, Judit; Eszlari, Nora; Juhasz, Gabriella; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors are addressed for promising anxiolytics, but human studies on genetically reduced FAAH activity, stress and affective phenotypes are scarce. We investigated the effect of a functional polymorphism of FAAH (FAAH C385A or rs324420; low FAAH activity and high anandamide concentration are associated with the A allele) together with childhood adversity on the anxious and depressive phenotypes in 858 subjects from the general population. Phenotypes were measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), the depression and anxiety subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-DEP, BSI-ANX) and the State-Trait Anxiety scales (STAI-S, STAI-T). Childhood Adversity Questionnaire (CHA) was used to assess early life traumas. Frequency of the A allele was greater among subjects with high ZSDS scores compared to the CC genotype. Furthermore, FAAH C385A and the CHA have shown a robust gene-environment interaction, namely, significantly higher anxiety and depression scores were exhibited by individuals carrying the A allele if they had high CHA scores compared to CC carriers. These data provided preliminary evidence that genetically reduced FAAH activity and repetitive stress in the childhood are associated with increased vulnerability for anxiety and depression in later life. Our results together with earlier experimental data suggest that permanently elevated anandamide level together with early life stress may cause a lifelong damage on stress response probably via the downregulation of CB1R during the neurodevelopment in the brain. It may also point to pharmacogenomic consequences, namely ineffectiveness or adverse effects of FAAH inhibitors in this subpopulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  19. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: Screening Tool for Postpartum Anxiety as Well? Findings from a Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Hebrew Version.

    PubMed

    Bina, Rena; Harrington, Donna

    2016-04-01

    The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was originally created as a uni-dimensional scale to screen for postpartum depression (PPD); however, evidence from various studies suggests that it is a multi-dimensional scale measuring mainly anxiety in addition to depression. The factor structure of the EPDS seems to differ across various language translations, raising questions regarding its stability. This study examined the factor structure of the Hebrew version of the EPDS to assess whether it is uni- or multi-dimensional. Seven hundred and fifteen (n = 715) women were screened at 6 weeks postpartum using the Hebrew version of the EPDS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test four models derived from the literature. Of the four CFA models tested, a 9-item two factor model fit the data best, with one factor representing an underlying depression construct and the other representing an underlying anxiety construct. for Practice The Hebrew version of the EPDS appears to consist of depression and anxiety sub-scales. Given the widespread PPD screening initiatives, anxiety symptoms should be addressed in addition to depressive symptoms, and a short scale, such as the EPDS, assessing both may be efficient.

  20. Detecting depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients in primary care; comparative diagnostic accuracy of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).

    PubMed

    Terluin, Berend; Brouwers, Evelien P M; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Verhaak, Peter F M; van der Horst, Henriëtte E

    2009-08-23

    Depressive and anxiety disorders often go unrecognized in distressed primary care patients, despite the overtly psychosocial nature of their demand for help. This is especially problematic in more severe disorders needing specific treatment (e.g. antidepressant pharmacotherapy or specialized cognitive behavioural therapy). The use of a screening tool to detect (more severe) depressive and anxiety disorders may be useful not to overlook such disorders. We examined the accuracy with which the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) are able to detect (more severe) depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients, and which cut-off points should be used. Seventy general practitioners (GPs) included 295 patients on sick leave due to psychological problems. They excluded patients with recognized depressive or anxiety disorders. Patients completed the 4DSQ and HADS. Standardized diagnoses of DSM-IV defined depressive and anxiety disorders were established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to obtain sensitivity and specificity values for a range of scores, and area under the curve (AUC) values as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. With respect to the detection of any depressive or anxiety disorder (180 patients, 61%), the 4DSQ and HADS scales yielded comparable results with AUC values between 0.745 and 0.815. Also with respect to the detection of moderate or severe depressive disorder, the 4DSQ and HADS depression scales performed comparably (AUC 0.780 and 0.739, p 0.165). With respect to the detection of panic disorder, agoraphobia and social phobia, the 4DSQ anxiety scale performed significantly better than the HADS anxiety scale (AUC 0.852 versus 0.757, p 0.001). The recommended cut-off points of both HADS scales appeared to be too low while those of the 4DSQ anxiety scale appeared to be too high. In general

  1. A qualitative study of the acceptability of routine screening of postnatal women using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    PubMed Central

    Shakespeare, Judy; Blake, Fiona; Garcia, Jo

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Screening for postnatal depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) has been widely recommended and implemented in primary care, although little is known about how acceptable it is to women. AIM: To explore the acceptability to women of postnatal screening by health visitors with the EPDS. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitative interview study. SETTING: Postnatal patients from 22 general practices within the area of Oxford City Primary Care Group. METHOD: Thirty-nine postnatal women from a purposive sample were interviewed, chosen on the basis of different general practices, EPDS results at eight weeks and eight months postnatal, and whether 'listening visits' were received. The interviews were analysed using the constant comparative method. RESULTS: Just over half of the women interviewed found screening with the EPDS less than acceptable, whatever their postnatal emotional health. The main themes identified were problems with the process of screening and, in particular, the venue, the personal intrusion of screening and stigma. The women interviewed had a clear preference for talking about how they felt, rather than filling out a questionnaire. CONCLUSION: For this sample, routine screening with the EPDS was less than acceptable for the majority of women. This is of concern, as universal screening with the EPDS for the detection of postnatal depression is already recommended and widespread in primary care. PMID:14601337

  2. Are different measures of depressive symptoms in old age comparable? An analysis of the CES-D and Euro-D scales in 13 countries.

    PubMed

    Courtin, Emilie; Knapp, Martin; Grundy, Emily; Avendano-Pabon, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    The Centre for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression (CES-D) and the Euro-D are commonly used depressive symptom scales but their comparability has not been assessed to date. This article aims to contribute to the literature comparing the drivers of depression in old age across countries by examining whether CES-D (in its eight-item short version) and Euro-D are comparable. Data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, N = 15,487) covering 13 countries was used to examine the scales' distributional properties, systematic differences between population subgroups, sensitivity and specificity, and associations with established risk factors for depression in old age. CES-D and Euro-D were strongly correlated (r = 0.6819, p < 0.000). However, agreement between the two scales was moderate. There were systematic discrepancies in scores by demographic characteristics. CES-D captures a more extreme pool of depressed individuals than Euro-D. Although associations with risk factors are always in the same direction, they are often stronger for CES-D than Euro-D. Findings highlight the need to be cautious when comparing depression levels and associations with risk factors between surveys using different measures of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Screening for depression in advanced disease: psychometric properties, sensitivity, and specificity of two items of the Palliative Care Outcome Scale (POS).

    PubMed

    Antunes, Bárbara; Murtagh, Fliss; Bausewein, Claudia; Harding, Richard; Higginson, Irene J

    2015-02-01

    Depression is common among patients with advanced disease but often difficult to detect. To assess the Palliative care Outcome Scale (POS) (10 items) against the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)-10 total score and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)-Depression subscale total score and determine if the POS has appropriate items to screen for depression among people with advanced disease. This was a secondary analysis performed on five studies. Four psychometric properties were assessed: data quality, scaling assumptions, acceptability, and internal consistency (reliability). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the area under the curve. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, false positive and negative rates, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were computed. The overall sample had 416 patients from Germany and England: 144 had cancer and 267 had nonmalignant conditions. Prevalence of depression across the sample was 17.5%. Floor and ceiling effects were rare. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for POS items 7 and 8 summed, GDS-10 and HADS-Depression items varied: 0.61 (heart failure) and 0.80 (cancer). Two items combined (Item 7-feeling depressed and Item 8-feeling good about yourself) consistently presented the highest area under the ROC curve, ranging from 0.76 (95% CI 0.60, 0.93) (Germany, lung cancer) to 0.97 (95% CI 0.91, 1.0) (heart failure), highest negative predictive value, and lowest false negative rate. For the overall sample, the cutoff 2/3 presented a negative predictive value of 89.4% (95% CI 84.7, 92.8) and false negative rate of 10.6 (95% CI 7.2, 15.3). POS items 7 and 8 summed are potentially useful to screen for depression in advanced disease populations. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Social support and pregnancy: II. Its relationship with depressive symptoms among Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, T; Toda, M A; Shima, S; Sugawara, K; Sugawara, M

    1998-02-01

    In a questionnaire survey among 1329 first-trimester pregnant women, both the husband support measures and unwanted pregnancy ('stressor' agent in pregnancy) showed significant effects on an elevated score of the cognitive disturbance subscale of the Zung's self-rating depression scale (SDS), while only unwanted pregnancies showed an effect on an elevated score of the dysphoric mood subscale of the SDS. However, no interaction was observed between the husband support measures and unwanted pregnancy, therefore the effect of the husband's social support on the cognitive disturbance score was not that of a buffer, but rather a main effector. Finally, multiple regression analyses showed that the dysphoric mood score was preceded by unwanted pregnancy, premenstrual irritability, public self-consciousness, and maternal overprotection; while the cognitive disturbance score was preceded by unwanted pregnancy, husband reduced 'given' and 'giving' support, maternal reduced care and overprotection, paternal reduced care, low annual income, low private self-consciousness, and smoking. These findings suggest that the husband's support for a pregnant woman is effective only in reducing cognitive symptoms, and that different symptomatic constellations have different sets of psychosocial correlates.

  5. Change of salivary stress marker concentrations during pregnancy: maternal depressive status suppress changes of those levels.

    PubMed

    Tsubouchi, Hiroaki; Nakai, Yuichiro; Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Chang, Yang Sil; Ushioda, Norichika; Kaku, Shoji; Nakamura, Takafumi; Kimura, Tadashi; Shimoya, Koichiro

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to show changes in salivary cortisol and chromogranin A/protein concentrations as stress markers during pregnancy and to clarify the effect of chronic stress on stress markers. Salivary samples were collected from 69 pregnant women during pregnancy. Salivary cortisol levels and chromogranin A/protein titers were determined. We surveyed the women's chronic stress using the Zung self-rating depression scale and General Health Questionnaire-28. Cortisol levels in the saliva of pregnant women showed biphasic change during pregnancy. Chromogranin A/protein levels in the saliva of pregnant women increased in the second and the early third trimesters and decreased to the puerperal period. Salivary cortisol concentrations of the chronic high stress group were significantly lower compared with those of the normal group. Salivary chromogranin A/protein concentrations of the chronic high stress group were also significantly lower than those of the normal group. The titration of salivary cortisol concentrations and chromogranin A/protein levels is a useful tool to determine maternal stress levels. The elevation of cortisol and chromogranin A/protein in the saliva was suppressed in the chronic high stress group during pregnancy. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Multiple Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety Scales: How Do They Perform in a Cancer Sample?

    PubMed

    Fox, Rina S; Lillis, Teresa A; Gerhart, James; Hoerger, Michael; Duberstein, Paul

    2018-06-01

    The DASS-21 is a public domain instrument that is commonly used to evaluate depression and anxiety in psychiatric and community populations; however, the factor structure of the measure has not previously been examined in oncologic settings. Given that the psychometric properties of measures of distress may be compromised in the context of symptoms related to cancer and its treatment, the present study evaluated the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scales in cancer patients ( n = 376) as compared to noncancer control participants ( n = 207). Cancer patients ranged in age from 21 to 84 years (mean = 58.3, standard deviation = 10.4) and noncancer control participants ranged in age from 18 to 81 years (mean = 45.0, standard deviation = 11.7). Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis supported the structural invariance of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scales across groups; the factor variance/covariance invariance model was the best fit to the data. Cronbach's coefficient alpha values demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability across the total sample as well as within subgroups of cancer patients and noncancer control participants. Expected relationships of DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scale scores to measures of suicidal ideation, quality of life, self-rated health, and depressed mood supported construct validity. These results support the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scales when measuring psychological distress in cancer patients.

  7. The validity and internal structure of the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale: data from a clinical trial of N-acetylcysteine as adjunctive therapy in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Dean, Olivia M; Kohlmann, Kristy; Berk, Lesley; Malhi, Gin S

    2010-10-01

    Berk M, Dodd S, Dean OM, Kohlmann K, Berk L, Malhi GS. The validity and internal structure of the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale: data from a clinical trial of N-acetylcysteine as adjunctive therapy in bipolar disorder. The phenomenology of unipolar and bipolar disorders differ in a number of ways, such as the presence of mixed states and atypical features. Conventional depression rating instruments are designed to capture the characteristics of unipolar depression and have limitations in capturing the breadth of bipolar disorder. The Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS) was administered together with the Montgomery Asberg Rating Scale (MADRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) in a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial of N-acetyl cysteine for bipolar disorder (N = 75). A factor analysis showed a two-factor solution: depression and mixed symptom clusters. The BDRS has strong internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.917), the depression cluster showed robust correlation with the MADRS (r = 0.865) and the mixed subscale correlated with the YMRS (r = 0.750). The BDRS has good internal validity and inter-rater reliability and is sensitive to change in the context of a clinical trial.

  8. Screening for postnatal depression in Chinese-speaking women using the Hong Kong translated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Chen, Helen; Bautista, Dianne; Ch'ng, Ying Chia; Li, Wenyun; Chan, Edwin; Rush, A John

    2013-06-01

    The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) may not be a uniformly valid postnatal depression (PND) screen across populations. We evaluated the performance of a Chinese translation of 10-item (HK-EPDS) and six-item (HK-EPDS-6) versions in post-partum women in Singapore. Chinese-speaking post-partum obstetric clinic patients were recruited for this study. They completed the HK-EPDS, from which we derived the six-item HK-EPDS-6. All women were clinically assessed for PND based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition-Text Revision criteria. Receiver-operator curve (ROC) analyses and likelihood ratio computations informed scale cutoff choices. Clinical fitness was judged by thresholds for internal consistency [α ≥ 0.70] and for diagnostic performance by true-positive rate (>85%), false-positive rate (≤10%), positive likelihood ratio (>1), negative likelihood ratio (<0.2), area under the ROC curve (AUC, ≥90%) and effect size (≥0.80). Based on clinical interview, prevalence of PND was 6.2% in 487 post-partum women. HK-EPDS internal consistency was 0.84. At 13 or more cutoff, the true-positive rate was 86.7%, false-positive rate 3.3%, positive likelihood ratio 26.4, negative likelihood ratio 0.14, AUC 94.4% and effect size 0.81. For the HK-EPDS-6, internal consistency was 0.76. At 8 or more cutoff, we found a true-positive rate of 86.7%, false-positive rate 6.6%, positive likelihood ratio 13.2, negative likelihood ration 0.14, AUC 92.9% and effect size 0.98. The HK-EPDS (cutoff ≥13) and HK-EPDS6 (cutoff ≥8) are fit for PND screening for general population post-partum women. The brief six-item version appears to be clinically suitable for quick screening in Chinese speaking women. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Large-Scale Network Dysfunction in Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-analysis of Resting-State Functional Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Roselinde H; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Wager, Tor D; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2015-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been linked to imbalanced communication among large-scale brain networks, as reflected by abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). However, given variable methods and results across studies, identifying consistent patterns of network dysfunction in MDD has been elusive. To investigate network dysfunction in MDD through a meta-analysis of rsFC studies. Seed-based voxelwise rsFC studies comparing individuals with MDD with healthy controls (published before June 30, 2014) were retrieved from electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE) and authors contacted for additional data. Twenty-seven seed-based voxel-wise rsFC data sets from 25 publications (556 individuals with MDD and 518 healthy controls) were included in the meta-analysis. Coordinates of seed regions of interest and between-group effects were extracted. Seeds were categorized into seed-networks by their location within a priori functional networks. Multilevel kernel density analysis of between-group effects identified brain systems in which MDD was associated with hyperconnectivity (increased positive or reduced negative connectivity) or hypoconnectivity (increased negative or reduced positive connectivity) with each seed-network. Major depressive disorder was characterized by hypoconnectivity within the frontoparietal network, a set of regions involved in cognitive control of attention and emotion regulation, and hypoconnectivity between frontoparietal systems and parietal regions of the dorsal attention network involved in attending to the external environment. Major depressive disorder was also associated with hyperconnectivity within the default network, a network believed to support internally oriented and self-referential thought, and hyperconnectivity between frontoparietal control systems and regions of the default network. Finally, the MDD groups exhibited hypoconnectivity between neural systems involved in processing emotion or

  10. Can father inclusive practice reduce paternal postnatal anxiety? A repeated measures cohort study using the hospital anxiety and depression scale

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Perinatal research on anxiety and depression has primarily focused on mothers. We have limited knowledge of fathers’ anxiety during the perinatal period yet there is evidence that the parenting capacity of a person can be compromised by anxiety and depression. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of a father inclusive intervention on perinatal anxiety and depression. The prime focus of the intervention was to provide education and support to fathers of breastfeeding partners with the aim of increasing both initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Methods A repeated measures cohort study was conducted during a RCT that was implemented across eight public maternity hospitals in Perth, Western Australia between May 2008 and June 2009. A baseline questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was administered to all participants on the first night of their hospital based antenatal education program and was repeated at six weeks postnatal. SPSS version 17 was used for reporting descriptive results. Results The mean anxiety levels at baseline for the fathers in the intervention group (n=289) and control group (n=244) were 4.58 and 4.22 respectively. At 6 weeks postnatal (only matched pairs), intervention and control group were 3.93 and 3.79. More intervention group fathers self-rated less anxiety compared to the fathers in the control group from baseline to post test (p=0.048). Depression scores for intervention fathers at baseline (mean =1.09) and at six weeks (mean=1.09) were very similar to fathers in the control group at baseline (mean=1.11) and at six weeks (mean =1.07) with no significant changes. Conclusions Both intervention and control group fathers experienced some anxiety prior to the birth of their baby, but this was rapidly reduced at six weeks. Paternal anxiety is common to new fathers and providing them with information and strategies for problem-solving can increase their knowledge and

  11. Case identification of depression in patients with chronic physical health problems: a diagnostic accuracy meta-analysis of 113 studies

    PubMed Central

    Meader, Nicholas; Mitchell, Alex J; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Goldberg, David; Rizzo, Maria; Bird, Victoria; Kessler, David; Packham, Jon; Haddad, Mark; Pilling, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression is more likely in patients with chronic physical illness, and is associated with increased rates of disability and mortality. Effective treatment of depression may reduce morbidity and mortality. The use of two stem questions for case finding in diabetes and coronary heart disease is advocated in the Quality and Outcomes Framework, and has become normalised into primary care. Aim To define the most effective tool for use in consultations to detect depression in people with chronic physical illness. Design Meta-analysis. Method The following data sources were searched: CENTRAL, CINAHL, Embase, HMIC, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, from inception to July 2009. Three authors selected studies that examined identification tools and used an interview-based ICD (International Classification of Diseases) or DSM (Diagnostic and statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) diagnosis of depression as reference standard. At least two authors independently extracted study characteristics and outcome data and assessed methodological quality. Results A total of 113 studies met the eligibility criteria, providing data on 20 826 participants. It was found that two stem questions, PHQ-9 (Patient Health Questionnaire), the Zung, and GHQ-28 (General Health Questionnaire) were the optimal measures for case identification, but no method was sufficiently accurate to recommend as a definitive case-finding tool. Limitations were the moderate-to-high heterogeneity for most scales and the facts that few studies used ICD diagnoses as the reference standard, and that a variety of methods were used to determine DSM diagnoses. Conclusion Assessing both validity and ease of use, the two stem questions are the preferred method. However, clinicians should not rely on the two-questions approach alone, but should be confident to engage in a more detailed clinical assessment of patients who score positively. PMID:22137418

  12. Factor structure of depressive symptoms using the EURO-D scale in the over-50s in Europe. Findings from the SHARE project.

    PubMed

    Portellano-Ortiz, Cristina; Garre-Olmo, Josep; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Conde-Sala, Josep Lluís

    2017-08-31

    The aims of this study are: to analyze the factor structure of the EURO-D depression scale; to explore the variables associated with depressive symptoms in the total sample and in the EURO-D factors; and to compare the presence of depressive symptoms and the factor distribution in 15 European countries. 62,182 participants in Wave 5 (2013) of the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) were included. The SHARE study and the EURO-D scale. Factor, bivariate and multilevel analyses were performed. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with a poorer self-perception of physical health (η 2 = 0.22) and economic difficulties (η 2 = 0.07). Factor analysis of the EURO-D identified two factors: Suffering and Motivation. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with female gender and younger age (≤60) in the Suffering factor, and with less activity and exercise, older age (≥71), widowhood and lower educational level in the Motivation factor. Poorer self-perception of physical health and economic difficulties were associated with higher depressive symptomatology in both factors. Poorer self-perception of physical health, female gender, economic difficulties, widowhood, lower levels of activity and exercise and lower educational level were associated with higher depressive symptomatology. In the countries of southern Europe, the Motivation factor predominated.

  13. Hyper-responsivity to losses in the anterior insula during economic choice scales with depression severity.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, J B; Berns, G S; Dunlop, B W

    2017-12-01

    Commonly observed distortions in decision-making among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) may emerge from impaired reward processing and cognitive biases toward negative events. There is substantial theoretical support for the hypothesis that MDD patients overweight potential losses compared with gains, though the neurobiological underpinnings of this bias are uncertain. Twenty-one unmedicated patients with MDD were compared with 25 healthy controls (HC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) together with an economic decision-making task over mixed lotteries involving probabilistic gains and losses. Region-of-interest analyses evaluated neural signatures of gain and loss coding within a core network of brain areas known to be involved in valuation (anterior insula, caudate nucleus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex). Usable fMRI data were available for 19 MDD and 23 HC subjects. Anterior insula signal showed negative coding of losses (gain > loss) in HC subjects consistent with previous findings, whereas MDD subjects demonstrated significant reversals in these associations (loss > gain). Moreover, depression severity further enhanced the positive coding of losses in anterior insula, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and caudate nucleus. The hyper-responsivity to losses displayed by the anterior insula of MDD patients was paralleled by a reduced influence of gain, but not loss, stake size on choice latencies. Patients with MDD demonstrate a significant shift from negative to positive coding of losses in the anterior insula, revealing the importance of this structure in value-based decision-making in the context of emotional disturbances.

  14. Accuracy of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) in a community-dwelling oldest-old sample: the Pietà Study.

    PubMed

    Dias, Filipi Leles da Costa; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Guimarães, Henrique Cerqueira; Barbosa, Maira Tonidandel; Resende, Elisa de Paula França; Beato, Rogério Gomes; Carmona, Karoline Carvalho; Caramelli, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Late-life depression (LLD) is common, but remains underdiagnosed. Validated screening tools for use with the oldest-old in clinical practice are still lacking, particularly in developing countries. To evaluate the accuracy of a screening tool for LLD in a community-dwelling oldest-old sample. We evaluated 457 community-dwelling elderly subjects, aged ≥75 years and without dementia, with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Depression diagnosis was established according to DSM-IV criteria following a structured psychiatric interview with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Fifty-two individuals (11.4%) were diagnosed with major depression. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.908 (p<0.001). Using a cut-off score of 5/6 (not depressed/depressed), 84 (18.4%) subjects were considered depressed by the GDS-15 (kappa coefficient = 53.8%, p<0.001). The 4/5 cut-off point achieved the best combination of sensitivity (86.5%) and specificity (82.7%) (Youden's index = 0.692), with robust negative (0.9802) and reasonable positive predictive values (0.3819). GDS-15 showed good accuracy as a screening tool for major depression in this community-based sample of low-educated oldest-old individuals. Our findings support the use of the 4/5 cut-off score, which showed the best diagnostic capacity.

  15. Association between the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and mortality in a community sample: An artifact of the somatic complaints factor?

    PubMed

    Pettit, Jeremy W; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Seeley, John R; Roberts, Robert E; Hibbard, Judith H; Hurtado, Arnold V

    2008-05-01

    Most previous studies of the depression-mortality association have not examined distinct depressive symptom clusters. This ex post facto study examined which aspects of depression may account for its association with mortality. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was administered to 3,867 community dwelling adults. Cox proportional hazards procedures estimated the risk of mortality as a function of depression status and each of 4 CES-D factor scores. Depressed participants (CES-D ≥ 16) had a 1.23-fold higher risk of mortality (95% CI 1.03-1.49), adjusting for sociodemographics. Somatic Complaints (SC) was the only factor to predict mortality (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.38). After excluding SC, CES-D scores no longer predicted mortality (HR .98, 95% CI .79-1.21). The association between CES-D depressive symptoms and mortality appears to be a function of the SC factor. The association between non-somatic depressive symptoms and mortality may not be as robust as past findings suggest.

  16. Association between the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and mortality in a community sample: An artifact of the somatic complaints factor?1

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.; Roberts, Robert E.; Hibbard, Judith H.; Hurtado, Arnold V.

    2009-01-01

    Most previous studies of the depression-mortality association have not examined distinct depressive symptom clusters. This ex post facto study examined which aspects of depression may account for its association with mortality. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was administered to 3,867 community dwelling adults. Cox proportional hazards procedures estimated the risk of mortality as a function of depression status and each of 4 CES-D factor scores. Depressed participants (CES-D ≥ 16) had a 1.23-fold higher risk of mortality (95% CI 1.03-1.49), adjusting for sociodemographics. Somatic Complaints (SC) was the only factor to predict mortality (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.38). After excluding SC, CES-D scores no longer predicted mortality (HR .98, 95% CI .79-1.21). The association between CES-D depressive symptoms and mortality appears to be a function of the SC factor. The association between non-somatic depressive symptoms and mortality may not be as robust as past findings suggest. PMID:19936326

  17. Problems in cross-cultural use of the hospital anxiety and depression scale: "no butterflies in the desert".

    PubMed

    Maters, Gemma A; Sanderman, Robbert; Kim, Aimee Y; Coyne, James C

    2013-01-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used to screen for anxiety and depression. A large literature is citable in support of its validity, but difficulties are increasingly being identified, such as inexplicably discrepant optimal cutpoints and inconsistent factor-structures. This article examines whether these problems could be due to the construction of the HADS that poses difficulties for translation and cross-cultural use. Authors' awareness of difficulties translating the HADS were identified by examining 20% of studies using the HADS, obtained by a systematic literature search in Pubmed and PsycINFO in May 2012. Reports of use of translations and validation studies were recorded for papers from non-English speaking countries. Narrative and systematic reviews were examined for how authors dealt with different translations. Of 417 papers from non-English speaking countries, only 45% indicated whether a translation was used. Studies validating translations were cited in 54%. Seventeen reviews, incorporating data from diverse translated versions, were examined. Only seven mentioned issues of language and culture, and none indicated insurmountable problems in integrating results from different translations. Initial decisions concerning item content and response options likely leave the HADS difficult to translate, but we failed to find an acknowledgment of problems in articles involving its translation and cross-cultural use. Investigators' lack of awareness of these issues can lead to anomalous results and difficulties in interpretation and integration of these results. Reviews tend to overlook these issues and most reviews indiscriminately integrate results from studies performed in different countries. Cross-culturally valid, but literally translated versions of the HADS may not be attainable, and specific cutpoints may not be valid across cultures and language. Claims about rates of anxiety and depression based on integrating cross

  18. Problems in Cross-Cultural Use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: “No Butterflies in the Desert”

    PubMed Central

    Maters, Gemma A.; Sanderman, Robbert; Kim, Aimee Y.; Coyne, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used to screen for anxiety and depression. A large literature is citable in support of its validity, but difficulties are increasingly being identified, such as inexplicably discrepant optimal cutpoints and inconsistent factor-structures. This article examines whether these problems could be due to the construction of the HADS that poses difficulties for translation and cross-cultural use. Methods Authors’ awareness of difficulties translating the HADS were identified by examining 20% of studies using the HADS, obtained by a systematic literature search in Pubmed and PsycINFO in May 2012. Reports of use of translations and validation studies were recorded for papers from non-English speaking countries. Narrative and systematic reviews were examined for how authors dealt with different translations. Results Of 417 papers from non-English speaking countries, only 45% indicated whether a translation was used. Studies validating translations were cited in 54%. Seventeen reviews, incorporating data from diverse translated versions, were examined. Only seven mentioned issues of language and culture, and none indicated insurmountable problems in integrating results from different translations. Conclusion Initial decisions concerning item content and response options likely leave the HADS difficult to translate, but we failed to find an acknowledgment of problems in articles involving its translation and cross-cultural use. Investigators’ lack of awareness of these issues can lead to anomalous results and difficulties in interpretation and integration of these results. Reviews tend to overlook these issues and most reviews indiscriminately integrate results from studies performed in different countries. Cross-culturally valid, but literally translated versions of the HADS may not be attainable, and specific cutpoints may not be valid across cultures and language. Claims about rates of anxiety and

  19. Measurement Properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 10): Findings from HCHS/SOL

    PubMed Central

    González, Patricia; Nuñez, Alicia; Merz, Erin; Brintz, Carrie; Weitzman, Orit; Navas, Elena; Camacho, Alvaro; Buelna, Christina; Penedo, Frank J.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Perreira, Krista; Isasi, Carmen; Choca, James; Talavera, Gregory A.; Gallo, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is a widely used self-report measure of depression symptomatology. This study evaluated the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance of the CES-D 10 in a diverse cohort of Hispanics/Latinos from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). The sample consisted of 16,415 Hispanic/Latino adults recruited from four field centers (Miami, FL; San Diego, CA; Bronx, NY; Chicago, IL). Participants completed interview administered measures in English or Spanish. The CES-D 10 was examined for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and measurement invariance. The total score for the CES-D 10 displayed acceptable internal consistencies (Cronbach α’s = .80 – .86) and test-retest reliability (r’s = .41 – .70) across the total sample, language group and ethnic background group. The total CES-D 10 scores correlated in a theoretically consistent manner with the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = .72, p < .001), the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression measure (r = .80, p < .001) the Short Form-12’s Mental Component Summary (r = −.65, p < .001) and Physical Component Summary score (r = −.25, p < .001). A confirmatory factor analysis showed that a one-factor model fit the CES-D 10 data well (CFI = .986, RMSEA = .047) after correlating one pair of item residual variances. Multiple group analyses showed the one-factor structure to be invariant across English and Spanish speaking responders and partially invariant across Hispanic/Latino background groups. The total score of the CES-D 10 can be recommended for use with Hispanics/Latinos in English and Spanish. PMID:27295022

  20. Reliability and validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) among suicide attempters and comparison residents in rural China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Jia, Cun-Xian; Qin, Ping

    2015-04-09

    Depression is an important public health problem and is closely associated with suicidal behavior in the population. Although the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is widely used for assessment of depression, the psychometric characteristics of this scale have not been explored in studies of suicide attempters and local residents in rural areas. In this study, reliability and validity of CES-D were assessed in 409 suicide attempters and 409 comparison residents from rural China and through internal consistency analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Cronbach's alpha values of the CES-D were 0.940 and 0.895 in, respectively, suicide attempters and comparison residents. CES-D scores were significantly correlated with the scores of Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI) and Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) in both the suicide attempters and the comparison residents. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that 3-factor structure (positive affect, interpersonal problems, depressive mood and somatic symptoms combined) with 14 items (excluding items 9, 10, 13, 15, 17, and 19) had the best fit in these two populations. The CES-D scale has satisfactory reliability and validity when used for assessing depression in suicide attempters and comparison residents in rural China.

  1. Associations between low back pain and depression and somatization in a Canadian emerging adult population

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, David; Kumbhare, Dinesh; Nolet, Paul; Srbely, John; Newton, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The association between depression, somatization and low back pain has been minimally investigated in a Canadian emerging adult population. Methods 1013 first year Canadian university students completed the Modified Zung Depression Index, the Modified Somatic Perception Questionnaire, and a survey about low back pain frequency and intensity. Multinomial logistic regression was used to measure associations between low back pain and depression and somatization, both independently and co-occurring. Results Over 50% of subjects reported low back pain across grades, and both depression and somatization were significantly positively associated with low back pain. Several positive associations between the cooccurrence of somatization and depression with various grades of low back pain were observed. Discussion These results suggest that low back pain, depression and somatization are relatively common at the onset of adulthood, and should be considered an important focus of public health. PMID:28928493

  2. The possible role of maternal bonding style and CHRNB2 gene polymorphisms in nicotine dependence and related depressive phenotype.

    PubMed

    Csala, Iren; Egervari, Luca; Dome, Peter; Faludi, Gabor; Dome, Balazs; Lazary, Judit

    2015-06-03

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptors (nAChR) and especially α4β2 nAChRs are the major targets for cessation medications and also for some promising antidepressant agents. Furthermore, depressive symptoms pose multifacet difficulties during cessation therapy. However, gene encoding for the β2 subunit of nAChRs has been poorly investigated in association with depression. Since both nicotine dependence (ND) and depressive phenotype are complex disorders, we investigated the effects of a significant early life experience, maternal bonding style (MB) and CHRNB2 gene SNPs on smoking-related depression. We recruited two hundred and thirty-two treatment-seeking smokers in our study. Phenotypic variants were evaluated using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Besides the total score (TS) of ZSDS, impulsivity (ZSDS-I) and suicidal ideation (ZSDS-S) were distinguished as phenotypic variable. DNAs were extracted from buccal mucosa samples and one SNP in promoter and two SNPs in 3' UTR of CHRNB2 gene were genotyped. GLM and ANOVA tests were performed for genotype associations and interaction analyses. Maternal bonding had a significant impact on depressive phenotypes. Low care, high protection and affectionless control (ALC) were associated with ZSDS-TS and all subphenotypes of ZSDS. One SNP, the rs2072660 in 3' UTR, had a significant effect on the FTND score (p=0.010). Direct association of CHRNB2 variants and depressive phenotypes were not significant. However, in interaction with ALC, rs2072660 was significantly associated with ZSDS-S (p=0.005). MB had no significant effect on smoking-related phenotype. Our results highlight the important role of 3' UTR in the CHRNB2 gene in the shared molecular background of ND and depressive phenotype. Parental bonding style can be suggested as a significant environmental factor in further GxE studies of depression. The

  3. Readability and Comprehension of the Geriatric Depression Scale and PROMIS® Physical Function Items in Older African Americans and Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Sylvia H.; Jones, Loretta; Calderón, José L.; Hays, Ron D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression and physical function are especially important health domains for the elderly. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Physical Function Item Bank are two surveys commonly used to measure these domains. It is unclear if these two instruments adequately measure these aspects of health in minority elderly. Objective To estimate the readability of the GDS and PROMIS® Physical Function items and to assess their comprehensibility by a sample of African American and Latino elderly. Methods Readability was estimated using the Flesch-Kincaid (F-K) and Flesch-Reading-Ease (FRE) formulae for English versions, and a Spanish adaptation of the FRE formula for the Spanish versions. Comprehension of the GDS and PROMIS items by minority elderly was evaluated with 30 cognitive interviews. Results Readability estimates of a number of items in English and Spanish of the GDS and PROMIS physical functioning items exceed the recommended 5th grade level, or were rated as fairly difficult, difficult, or very difficult to read. Cognitive interviews revealed that many participants felt that more than the two (yes/no) GDS response options were needed to answer the questions. Wording of several PROMIS items was considered confusing and responses potentially uninterpretable because they were based on physical aids. Conclusions Problems with item wording and response options of the GDS and PROMIS Physical Function items may negatively affect reliability and validity of measurement when used with minority elderly. PMID:27599978

  4. The Psychometric Properties of Attentional Control Scale and Its Relationship with Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression: A Study on Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Abasi, Imaneh; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Dolatshahi, Behrouz

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The attentional control scale is a self- report questionnaire that assesses individual differences in attentional control. Despite its extensive use, the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the ACS are not well understood. Thus, the present study aimed at investigating the psychometric properties of the attentional control scale and its relationship with symptoms of anxiety and depression in Iranian population. Method: Using quota sampling, we asked a community sample of 524 to respond to Attentional Control Scale, mindfulness, emotion regulation, social anxiety, depression, generalized anxiety, worry, and rumination. SPSS (Version 23) was used for data analysis. Results: Exploratory factor analysis yielded 2 factors of focusing and shifting, which accounted for 30.93% of the total variance. The results of convergent validity revealed that reappraisal, as an emotion regulation strategy and mindfulness facets, had a positive relationship with focusing, shifting, and the total score of the attentional control scale. Furthermore, worry, rumination, depression, generalized anxiety, and social anxiety symptoms all had negative relationships with focusing, rumination, and the total score of the attentional control scale. In addition, the results of incremental validity revealed that focusing, not shifting, uniquely predicted depression and generalized anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, both focusing and shifting uniquely predicted social anxiety symptoms. Test- retest reliability of focusing and shifting was 0.80 and 0. 76, respectively. Conclusion: Attentional control scale has been demonstrated to have acceptable validity and reliability in Iranian population. However, further studies are needed to evaluate other aspects of the ACS like CFA. PMID:28659983

  5. Evaluation of anhedonia with the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) in adult outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Nakonezny, Paul A; Morris, David W; Greer, Tracy L; Byerly, Matthew J; Carmody, Thomas J; Grannemann, Bruce D; Bernstein, Ira H; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2015-06-01

    Anhedonia or inability to experience pleasure not only is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), but also is identified as an important component of the positive valence system in the NIMH Research Domain Criteria. The Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) has been developed for the assessment of hedonic experience or positive valence, but has not been well-studied in depressed outpatient populations. The current study examined the reliability and validity of the SHAPS using a sample of adult outpatients with treatment resistant MDD. Data for the current study were obtained from 122 adult outpatients with a diagnosis of MDD and non-response to adequate treatment with an SSRI and who participated in Project TReatment with Exercise Augmentation for Depression (TREAD). A Principal Components Analysis was used to define the dimensionality of the SHAPS. Convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated via correlations of the SHAPS total score with "gold standard" measures of depression severity and quality of life. The SHAPS was found to have high internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α = .82). A Principal Components Analysis suggests that the SHAPS is mainly "unidimensional" and limited to hedonic experience among adult outpatients with MDD. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed by examining the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient between the SHAPS total score and the HRSD17 (rs = 0.22, p < .03), IDS-C30 (rs = 0.26, p < .01), IDS-SR30 (rs = 0.23, p < .02), QIDS-C16 (rs = 0.22, p < .03), QIDS-SR16 (rs = 0.17, p < .10), QLES-Q (rs = -0.32, p < .002), and the pleasure/enjoyment item (sub-item 21) of the IDS-C (rs = 0.44, p < .0001) and IDS-SR (rs = 0.38, p < .0002). The self-administered SHAPS showed modest sensitivity (76%) and specificity (54%) with the self-administered pleasure/enjoyment single item (sub-item 21) of IDS-SR30. The current study shows that the SHAPS is a reliable and valid

  6. Disagreement between self-reported and clinician-ascertained suicidal ideation and its correlation with depression and anxiety severity in patients with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Gao, Keming; Wu, Renrong; Wang, Zuowei; Ren, Ming; Kemp, David E; Chan, Philip K; Conroy, Carla M; Serrano, Mary Beth; Ganocy, Stephen J; Calabrese, Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    To study the disagreement between self-reported suicidal ideation (SR-SI) and clinician-ascertained suicidal ideation (CA-SI) and its correlation with depression and anxiety severity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BPD). Routine clinical outpatients were diagnosed with the MINI-STEP-BD version. SR-SI was extracted from the 16 Item Quick Inventory of Depression Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR-16) item 12. CA-SI was extracted from a modified Suicide Assessment module of the MINI. Depression and anxiety severity were measured with the QIDS-SR-16 and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Chi-square, Fisher exact, and bivariate linear logistic regression were used for analyses. Of 103 patients with MDD, 5.8% endorsed any CA-SI and 22.4% endorsed any SR-SI. Of the 147 patients with BPD, 18.4% endorsed any CA-SI and 35.9% endorsed any SR-SI. The agreement between any SR-SI and any CA-SI was 83.5% for MDD and 83.1% for BPD, with weighted Kappa of 0.30 and 0.43, respectively. QIDS-SR-16 score, female gender, and ≥4 year college education were associated with increased risk for disagreement, 15.44 ± 4.52 versus 18.39 ± 3.49 points (p = 0.0026), 67% versus 46% (p = 0.0783), and 61% versus 29% (p = 0.0096). The disagreement was positively correlated to depression severity in both MDD and BPD with a correlation coefficient R(2) = 0.40 and 0.79, respectively, but was only positively correlated to anxiety severity in BPD with a R(2) = 0.46. Self-reported questionnaire was more likely to reveal higher frequency and severity of SI than clinician-ascertained, suggesting that a combination of self-reported and clinical-ascertained suicidal risk assessment with measuring depression and anxiety severity may be necessary for suicide prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A longitudinal evaluation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) in a Rheumatoid Arthritis Population using Rasch Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Covic, Tanya; Pallant, Julie F; Conaghan, Philip G; Tennant, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to test the internal validity of the total Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale using Rasch analysis in a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population. Methods CES-D was administered to 157 patients with RA over three time points within a 12 month period. Rasch analysis was applied using RUMM2020 software to assess the overall fit of the model, the response scale used, individual item fit, differential item functioning (DIF) and person separation. Results Pooled data across three time points was shown to fit the Rasch model with removal of seven items from the original 20-item CES-D scale. It was necessary to rescore the response format from four to three categories in order to improve the scale's fit. Two items demonstrated some DIF for age and gender but were retained within the 13-item CES-D scale. A new cut point for depression score of 9 was found to correspond to the original cut point score of 16 in the full CES-D scale. Conclusion This Rasch analysis of the CES-D in a longstanding RA cohort resulted in the construction of a modified 13-item scale with good internal validity. Further validation of the modified scale is recommended particularly in relation to the new cut point for depression. PMID:17629902

  8. Psychometric properties of the Malay Version of the hospital anxiety and depression scale: a study of husbands of breast cancer patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Nasir; Low, Wah Yun; Yip, Cheng-Har

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine the psychometric properties of the Malay Version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), tested on 67 husbands of the women who were diagnosed with breast cancer. The eligible husbands were retrieved from the Clinical Oncology Clinic at three hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data was collected at three weeks and ten weeks following surgery for breast cancer of their wives. The psychometric properties of the HADS were reported based on Cronbach' alpha, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), Effect Size Index (ESI), sensitivity and discriminity of the scale. Internal consistency of the scale is excellent, with Cronbach's alpha of 0.88 for Anxiety subscale and 0.79 for Depression subscale. Test-retest Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is 0.35 and 0.42 for Anxiety and Depression Subscale, respectively. Small mean differences were observed at test-retest measurement with ESI of 0.21 for Anxiety and 0.19 for Depression. Non-significant result was revealed for the discriminant validity (mastectomy vs lumpectomy). The Malay Version of the HADS is appropriate to measure the anxiety and depression among the husbands of the women with breast cancer in Malaysia.

  9. Functional social support, psychological capital, and depressive and anxiety symptoms among people living with HIV/AIDS employed full-time.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Pang, Ran; Sun, Wei; Wu, Ming; Qu, Peng; Lu, Chunming; Wang, Lie

    2013-12-01

    Psychological distress (e.g., depression and anxiety) has been regarded as the main cause of leaving work for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in workplaces. This study aims to explore the associations of functional social support (FSS) and psychological capital (PC) with depressive and anxiety symptoms among PLWHA employed full-time. This cross-sectional study was performed in Liaoning, China, during the period of December 2010-April 2011. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire, and the Psychological Capital Questionnaire were completed by PLWHA employed full-time. Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed relationships between variables. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were performed to explore the mediating roles of PC and its components (self-efficacy, hope, optimism, resilience). Of 320 participants surveyed, 66.3% had depressive symptoms, and 45.6% had anxiety symptoms. Significant negative associations of FSS and PC with depressive and anxiety symptoms were revealed. PC (a*b = -0.209, BCa 95% CI: -0.293, -0.137, p < 0.05), hope (a*b = -0.103, BCa 95% CI: -0.192, -0.034, p < 0.05), and optimism (a*b = -0.047, BCa 95% CI: -0.106, -0.008, p < 0.05) significantly mediated the association between FSS and depressive symptoms. PC (a*b = -0.151, BCa 95% CI: -0.224, -0.095, p < 0.05) and self-efficacy (a*b = -0.080, BCa 95% CI: -0.158, -0.012, p < 0.05) significantly mediated the FSS-anxiety symptoms association. FSS and PC could help reduce depressive and anxiety symptoms among PLWHA employed full-time. PC fully mediates the associations of FSS with depressive and anxiety symptoms. In addition to enhancing FSS, PC development could be included in the prevention and treatment strategies for depressive and anxiety symptoms targeted at PLWHA employed full-time.

  10. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... American Psychiatric Association. Major depressive disorder. Diagnostic ... Psychiatric Publishing; 2013:160-168. Fava M, Ostergaard ...

  11. Assessing the relationship between quality of life and behavioral activation using the Japanese Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale-Short Form.

    PubMed

    Shudo, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is an important health-related concept. Identifying factors that affect QOL can help develop and improve health-promotion interventions. Previous studies suggest that behavioral activation fosters subjective QOL, including well-being. However, the mechanism by which behavioral activation improves QOL is not clear. Considering that QOL improves when depressive symptoms improve post-treatment and that behavioral activation is an effective treatment for depression, it is possible that behavioral activation affects QOL indirectly rather than directly. To clarify the mechanism of the influence of behavioral activation on QOL, it is necessary to examine the relationships between factors related to behavioral activation, depressive symptoms, and QOL. Therefore, we attempted to examine the relationship between these factors. Participants comprised 221 Japanese undergraduate students who completed questionnaires on behavioral activation, QOL, and depressive symptoms: the Japanese versions of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale-Short Form (BADS-SF), WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-26), and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The BADS-SF comprises two subscales, Activation and Avoidance, and the WHOQOL-26 measures overall QOL and four domains, Physical Health, Psychological Health, Social Relationships, and Environment. Mediation analyses were conducted with BADS-SF activation and avoidance as independent variables, CES-D as a mediator variable, and each WHO-QOL as an outcome variable. Results indicated that depression completely mediated the relationship between Avoidance and QOL, and partially mediated the relationship between Activation and QOL. In addition, analyses of each domain of QOL showed that Activation positively affected all aspects of QOL directly and indirectly, but Avoidance had a negative influence on only part of QOL mainly through depression. The present study provides behavioral activation strategies

  12. Increased prevalence of depression and anxiety among subjects with metabolic syndrome and known type 2 diabetes mellitus - a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Shinkov, Alexander; Borissova, Anna-Maria; Kovatcheva, Roussanka; Vlahov, Jordan; Dakovska, Lilia; Atanassova, Iliana; Petkova, Paulina

    2018-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The MetS and its elements have been linked to anxiety and depressive disorders. The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of depression and anxiety, measured by the Zung Self-Rating Scale in subjects with and without the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. A total of 2111 adults were included, 1155 female, age 47.6 (13.7) and 956 male, age 45.2 (13.5). All participants filled questionnaires covering current and past disorders and medication, smoking and family history. Zung self-rating depression and anxiety scales were completed. Body weight, height and waist circumference were measured, BMI was calculated, serum glucose and lipids were measured. Depression (SDSi) and anxiety scores (SASi) were higher in the females and increased with age (p < 0.001). SDSi was higher in the females and males with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (50.9 ± 9.8 vs. 45.9 ± 8.9, p < 0.001 and 42.7 ± 9.2 vs. 40.5 ± 7.9 p < 0.001, respectively). SASi was higher in the MetS subjects (females 50.59 ± 11.35 vs. 45.97 ± 10.58, p < 0.001; males 40.48 ± 10.1 vs. 38.04 ± 8.42, p < 0.001). Both SDSi and SASi were higher in the subjects with known diabetes than in those with normal glucose tolerance (Mann-Whitney both p < 0,001). Positive depressive scores were more prevalent in subjects with MetS than those without (females 54% vs. 31.6%, p < 0.001; males 22.7% vs. 12.3%, p < 0.001). Depression and anxiety were more prevalent in the subjects with known diabetes than in those with normal glucose tolerance but not in the newly-diagnosed diabetes. The OR for depressiveness was 2.0 (1.3; 2.6) in subjects with MetS and 4.2 (2.3; 7.8) in those with known diabetes. In conclusion, depressiveness and anxiety were associated positively with age and female gender and were more prevalent among subjects with Met

  13. Psychometric evaluation and normative data for the depression, anxiety, and stress scales-21 (DASS-21) in a nonclinical sample of U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Siefert, Caleb J; Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle M; Stein, Michelle B; Renna, Megan; Blais, Mark A

    2012-09-01

    Health care professionals are coming under increased pressure to empirically monitor patient outcomes across settings as a means of improving clinical practice. Within the psychiatric and primary care communities, many have begun utilizing brief psychometric measures of psychological functioning to accomplish these goals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21-item version (DASS-21), and contribute normative data to facilitate interpretation using a sample of U.S. adults (N = 503). Item-scale convergence was generally supported, although assumptions of item-scale divergence were not met. Only 86%, 50%, and 43% of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress items, respectively, correlated significantly greater with their hypothesized scales than other scales. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable for all scales and comparable to existing research (αs = .91, .80, and .84 for Depression, Anxiety, and Stress, respectively). Scale-level correlations were greater than what has been reported elsewhere (range of rs = .68 to .73), and principal components analysis supported the extraction of only one component accounting for 47% of the item-level variance. However, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) favored a three-factor structure when compared to a one-factor model. The implications for the health care professions are discussed.

  14. Validation of the Polish version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for anxiety disorders in patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wiglusz, Mariusz S; Landowski, Jerzy; Cubała, Wiesław J

    2018-05-24

    Anxiety disorders are frequent comorbid disorders in patients with epilepsy (PWEs). The availability of validated screening instruments to detect anxiety disorders in PWEs is limited. The aim of the present study was to validate the Polish version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in adult PWEs for the detection of anxiety disorders. A total of 96 outpatients with epilepsy completed the self-reported symptom scale, the HADS, and were diagnosed using the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) axis I disorders (SCID-I). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed to determine the optimal threshold scores for the HADS anxiety subscale (HADS-A). Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed areas under the curve at 80.8%. For diagnoses of anxiety disorder, the HADS-A demonstrated the best psychometric properties for a cutoff score ≥10 with sensitivity of 81.3%, specificity of 70.0%, PPV of 31.5%, and NPV of 94.9%. The HADS-A proved to be a valid and reliable psychometric instrument in terms of screening for anxiety disorders in our sample of PWEs. In the epilepsy setting, the HADS-A maintains adequate sensitivity, acceptable specificity, and high NPV but low PPV for diagnosing anxiety disorders with an optimum cutoff score ≥10. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical Disabilities Related to the Depressive Mental States of Japanese Patients with Subacute Myelo-optico-neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Tetsuro

    2018-05-18

    Objective The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical conditions related to the depressive mental states in Japanese patients with subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy (SMON), caused by clioquinol intoxication more than 40 years previously. Materials and methods The changes in the mental states with aging were investigated in 25 Japanese SMON patients (mean age: 77.2 years old, range: 53-90) using a Japanese version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (J-SDS) questionnaires with supportive interviews by the clinical psychotherapist and medical checkup records. These mental and medical examinations were repeated more than twice within 2 to 11 years' interval. The J-SDS questionnaires were also examined in 25 age-matched non-SMON elderly people. Results The total J-SDS scores of most of the SMON patients decreased with age without significant changes in the mean Barthel index scores during this study period. The mean J-SDS scores at the first and latest studies were significantly higher than in the age-matched healthy elderly people. The total J-SDS scores of the latest study were significantly correlated with the degree of physical disability, such as the inverse total Barthel index scores, severity of SMON or gait disturbance, but not with the age. Conclusion The total J-SDS scores of most of the SMON patients tended to decrease with age. Repeating mental supportive interviews and medical examinations by experts helped to improve the depressive mental state and revealed close relationship between the mental state and the physical disabilities of the SMON patients.

  16. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in Older Populations with and without Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ros, L.; Latorre, J. M.; Aguilar, M. J.; Serrano, J. P.; Navarro, B.; Ricarte, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The CES-D is widely used for the assessment of depressive symptoms in the adult population. However, few studies have been performed to assess the utility of this scale in an older population with cognitive impairment. The factor structure of the Spanish version of the CES-D was examined in an observational, cross sectional study in 623 older…

  17. Socioeconomic status is significantly associated with the dietary intakes of folate and depression scales in Japanese workers (J-HOPE Study).

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Taneichi, Setsuko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro

    2013-02-18

    The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrient intake attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary intake of folate and health outcomes in general Japanese workers. This Japanese occupational cohort consisted off 2266 workers. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients were assessed with a validated, brief and self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). The degree of depressive symptoms was measured by the validated Japanese version of the K6 scale. Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of intake with the confounding factors. Path analysis was conducted to describe the impacts of intake on health outcomes. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with intake of folate and depression scales (p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, years of education significantly affect the folate intake (β = 0.117, p < 0.001). The structural equation model (SEM) shows that the indirect effect of folate intake is statistically significant and strong (p < 0.05, 56% of direct effect) in the pathway of education level to depression scale. Our study shows both education and income are significantly associated with depression scales in Japanese workers, and the effort to increase the folate intake may alleviate the harms of social disparities on mental health.

  18. Feasibility, Reliability and Validity of the Dutch Translation of the Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, Heidi; Jelluma, Naftha; van der Pas, Femke H.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The informant-based Anxiety, Depression And Mood Scale was translated into Dutch and its feasibility, reliability and validity in older adults (aged greater than or equal to 50 years) with intellectual disabilities (ID) was studied. Method: Test-retest (n = 93) and interrater reliability (n = 83), and convergent (n = 202 and n = 787),…

  19. Validity of the Male Depression Risk Scale in a representative Canadian sample: sensitivity and specificity in identifying men with recent suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Rice, Simon M; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Kealy, David; Seidler, Zac E; Dhillon, Haryana M; Oliffe, John L

    2017-12-22

    Clinical practice and literature has supported the existence of a phenotypic sub-type of depression in men. While a number of self-report rating scales have been developed in order to empirically test the male depression construct, psychometric validation of these scales is limited. To confirm the psychometric properties of the multidimensional Male Depression Risk Scale (MDRS-22) and to develop clinical cut-off scores for the MDRS-22. Data were obtained from an online sample of 1000 Canadian men (median age (M) = 49.63, standard deviation (SD) = 14.60). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to replicate the established six-factor model of the MDRS-22. Psychometric values of the MDRS subscales were comparable to the widely used Patient Health Questionnaire-9. CFA model fit indices indicated adequate model fit for the six-factor MDRS-22 model. ROC curve analysis indicated the MDRS-22 was effective for identifying those with a recent (previous four-weeks) suicide attempt (area under curve (AUC) values = 0.837). The MDRS-22 cut-off identified proportionally more (84.62%) cases of recent suicide attempt relative to the PHQ-9 moderate range (53.85%). The MDRS-22 is the first male-sensitive depression scale to be psychometrically validated using CFA techniques in independent and cross-nation samples. Additional studies should identify differential item functioning and evaluate cross-cultural effects.

  20. The Chinese version of hospital anxiety and depression scale: Psychometric properties in Chinese cancer patients and their family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuping; Lin, Yi; Hu, Caiping; Xu, Yinghua; Zhou, Huiya; Yang, Liping; Xu, Yongyong

    2016-12-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) acts as one of the most frequently used self-reported measures in cancer practice. The evidence for construct validity of HADS, however, remains inconclusive. The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version HADS (C-HADS) in terms of construct validity, internal consistency reliability, and concurrent validity in dyads of Chinese cancer patients and their family caregivers. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in multiple centers: one hospital in each of the seven different administrative regions in China from October 2014 to May 2015. A total of 641 dyads, consisting of cancer patients and family caregivers, completed a survey assessing their demographic and background information, anxiety and depression using C-HADS, and quality of life (QOL) using Chinese version SF-12. Data analysis methods included descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and Pearson correlations. Both the two-factor and one-factor models offered the best and adequate fit to the data in cancer patients and family caregivers respectively. The comparison of the two-factor and single-factor models supports the basic assumption of two-factor construct of C-HADS. The overall and two subscales of C-HADS in both cancer patients and family caregivers had good internal consistency and acceptable concurrent validity. The Chinese version of the HADS may be a reliable and valid screening tool, as indicated by its original two-factor structure. The finding supports the basic assumption of two-factor construct of HADS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Readability and Comprehension of the Geriatric Depression Scale and PROMIS® Physical Function Items in Older African Americans and Latinos.

    PubMed

    Paz, Sylvia H; Jones, Loretta; Calderón, José L; Hays, Ron D

    2017-02-01

    Depression and physical function are particularly important health domains for the elderly. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS ® ) physical function item bank are two surveys commonly used to measure these domains. It is unclear if these two instruments adequately measure these aspects of health in minority elderly. The aim of this study was to estimate the readability of the GDS and PROMIS ® physical function items and to assess their comprehensibility using a sample of African American and Latino elderly. Readability was estimated using the Flesch-Kincaid and Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) formulae for English versions, and a Spanish adaptation of the FRE formula for the Spanish versions. Comprehension of the GDS and PROMIS ® items by minority elderly was evaluated with 30 cognitive interviews. Readability estimates of a number of items in English and Spanish of the GDS and PROMIS ® physical functioning items exceed the U.S. recommended 5th-grade threshold for vulnerable populations, or were rated as 'fairly difficult', 'difficult', or 'very difficult' to read. Cognitive interviews revealed that many participants felt that more than the two (yes/no) GDS response options were needed to answer the questions. Wording of several PROMIS ® items was considered confusing, and interpreting responses was problematic because they were based on using physical aids. Problems with item wording and response options of the GDS and PROMIS ® physical function items may reduce reliability and validity of measurement when used with minority elderly.

  2. Large-scale network dysfunction in Major Depressive Disorder: Meta-analysis of resting-state functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Roselinde H.; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R.; Wager, Tor D.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been linked to imbalanced communication among large-scale brain networks, as reflected by abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). However, given variable methods and results across studies, identifying consistent patterns of network dysfunction in MDD has been elusive. OBJECTIVE To investigate network dysfunction in MDD through the first meta-analysis of rsFC studies. DATA SOURCES Seed-based voxel-wise rsFC studies comparing MDD with healthy individuals (published before June 30, 2014) were retrieved from electronic databases (PubMed, Web-of-Science, EMBASE), and authors contacted for additional data. STUDY SELECTION Twenty-seven datasets from 25 publications (556 MDD adults/teens; 518 controls) were included in the meta-analysis. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Coordinates of seed regions-of-interest and between-group effects were extracted. Seeds were categorized into “seed-networks” by their location within a priori functional networks. Multilevel kernel density analysis of between-group effects identified brain systems in which MDD was associated with hyperconnectivity (increased positive, or reduced negative, connectivity) or hypoconnectivity (increased negative, or reduced positive, connectivity) with each seed-network. RESULTS MDD was characterized by hypoconnectivity within the frontoparietal network (FN), a set of regions involved in cognitive control of attention and emotion regulation, and hypoconnectivity between frontoparietal systems and parietal regions of the dorsal attention network (DAN) involved in attending to the external environment. MDD was also associated with hyperconnectivity within the default network (DN), a network believed to support internally-oriented and self-referential thought, and hyperconnectivity between FN control systems and regions of DN. Finally, MDD groups exhibited hypoconnectivity between neural systems involved in processing emotion or salience and midline

  3. Self- Perceived Stress in Relation to Anxiety, Depression and Health-related Quality of Life among Health Professions Students: A Cross-sectional Study from Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Racic, Maja; Todorovic, Radica; Ivkovic, Nedeljka; Masic, Srdjan; Joksimovic, Bojan; Kulic, Milan

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine self-perceived stress of health professions students at the Faculty of Medicine Foča, and to explore its association with anxiety, depression and health-related quality of life. The cross-sectional study enrolled 451 students at the Faculty of Medicine (medicine, dentistry, nursing and speech therapy). Survey instruments were distributed at the conclusion of the spring semester during the last required lecture for each year and study programme class. Perceived stress was assessed using the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale. The students were evaluated for symptoms of depression and anxiety, using Zung's self-assessment inventory for depression and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). European Quality of Life-5 dimensions were used for describing and evaluating health. Multivariate analyses were carried out using logistic regression to examine the relationship between the outcome variable and selected determinant factors. A high degree of stress was reported by 1.6% of students, while the majority of students had either moderate (70.6%) or low degree (27.5%) of stress. The significant independent factors associated with perceived stress were anxiety score (OR, 0.339; CI 95%, 0.276-0.403) and EQ-5D score (OR, 0.044; CI 95%, 0.033-0.085). A high degree of perceived stress (OR, 0.624; CI 95%, 0.507-0.704), the presence of depression (OR, 0.800; CI 95%, 0.513-1.087), and low quality of life were associated with anxiety (OR, 0.073; CI 95%, 0.018-0.128). Higher levels of perceived stress predispose health professions students for anxiety and lower quality of life. The study programme was not a significant determinant of perceived stress sore.

  4. Screening for depression with Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale Revised and its implication for consultation-liaison psychiatry practice among cancer subjects: a perspective from a developing country.

    PubMed

    Olagunju, Andrew T; Aina, Olatunji F; Fadipe, Babatunde

    2013-08-01

    Co-morbidity of depressive symptomatology is a common indication for use of mental health services in oncology. In this regard, screening instruments are useful for prompt identification of mental disorders in cancer. This study is set to evaluate the diagnostic validity of Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale Revised (CES-DR) for depression screening in cancer. The CES-DR and the Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) were administered by the researchers on 200 attendees of a Nigerian hospital with histological diagnoses of cancer. Subsequently, the diagnostic validity of CES-DR was compared with SCAN. Ninety-eight (49.0%) participants had significant depressive symptomatology (CES-DR scores of ≥ 16) as against the diagnosis of depression in 55 (27.5%) participants following SCAN interview. Furthermore, of these 55 (27.5%) depressed participants, two (3.6%) participants had CES-DR scores <16 (non-cases). The Cronbach's alpha reliability of CES-DR was 0.86, and sensitivity and specificity of CES-DR were 96.4% and 68.7%, respectively, whereas positive and negative predictive values of CES-DR were found to be 0.54 and 0.98, respectively, in this study. The average administration time of CES-DR was 6 (± 2) min, and an inter-rater reliability of 93.7% was observed. The CES-DR was found in this study to be a useful tool for screening for depression in cancer but with diagnostic limitation when compared with SCAN. The development as well as popularization of screening instrument(s) with improved diagnostic and administration property for prompt identification of mental disorders to improve consultation-liaison psychiatry services in cancer care is recommended. Furthermore, replication of similar research is warranted. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Configural and scalar invariance of the center for epidemiologic studies depression scale in Egypt and Canada: Differential symptom emphasis across cultures and genders.

    PubMed

    Huang, Vivian; Beshai, Shadi; Korol, Stephanie; Nicholas Carleton, R

    2017-04-01

    Depression is a significant contributor of global disease burden. Previous studies have revealed cross-cultural and gender differences in the presentation of depressive symptoms. Using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), the present study examined differences in self-reported somatic, negative affective, and anhedonia symptoms of depression among Egyptian and Canadian university students. A total of 338 university students completed study questionnaires from two major universities in Egypt (n=152) and Canada (n=186). Symptom domains were calculated based on the 14-item model of the CES-D. We found significant culture by gender interactions of total CES-D scores, wherein Egyptian females reported higher scores compared to their Canadian and Egyptian male counterparts. Limitations include using analogue student samples and using only one self-report measure to examine different depressive symptom domains. Findings of this study provided support that males and females may differentially report depressive symptoms across cultures. Implications of these results are further discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between late-life depression and life stressors: large-scale cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Japanese general population.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Tatsuhiko; Mishima, Kazuo; Kitamura, Shingo; Enomoto, Minori; Nagase, Yukihiro; Li, Lan; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Ohida, Takashi; Nishikawa, Toru; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the relationship between late-life depression and daily life stress in a representative sample of 10 969 Japanese subjects. Data on 10 969 adults aged > or =50 who participated in the Active Survey of Health and Welfare in 2000, were analyzed. The self-administered questionnaire included items on 21 reasons for life stressors and the magnitude of stress, as well as the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The relationship between the incidence of life stressors and mild-moderate (D(16)) and severe (D(26)) depressive symptoms was examined using logistic regression analysis. A total of 21.9% of subjects had D(16) symptoms, and 9.3% had D(26) symptoms. Further, increased age and being female were associated with more severe depressive state. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the strongest relationship between both the incidence of D(16) and D(26) symptoms and life stressors stemmed from 'having no one to talk to' (odds ratio = 3.3 and 5.0, respectively). Late-life depression was also associated with 'loss of purpose in life', 'separation/divorce', 'having nothing to do', 'health/illness/care of self', and 'debt'. There is a relationship between late-life depression and diminished social relationships, experiences involving loss of purpose in life or human relationships, and health problems in the Japanese general population.

  7. Validation of the Turkish version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Vicky; Makine, Ceylan; Karşıdağ, Cagatay; Kadıoğlu, Pinar; Karşıdağ, Kubilay; Pouwer, François

    2011-07-26

    Depression is a common co-morbid health problem in patients with diabetes that is underrecognised. Current international guidelines recommend screening for depression in patients with diabetes. Yet, few depression screening instruments have been validated for use in this particular group of patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in patients with type 2 diabetes. A sample of 151 Turkish outpatients with type 2 diabetes completed the CES-D, the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5), and the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID). Explanatory factor analyses, various correlations and Cronbach's alpha were investigated to test the validity and reliability of the CES-D in Turkish diabetes outpatients. The original four-factor structure proposed by Radloff was not confirmed. Explanatory factor analyses revealed a two-factor structure representing two subscales: (1) depressed mood combined with somatic symptoms of depression and (2) positive affect. However, one item showed insufficient factor loadings. Cronbach's alpha of the total score was high (0.88), as were split-half coefficients (0.77-0.90). The correlation of the CES-D with the WHO-5 was the strongest (r = -0.70), and supported concurrent validity. The CES-D appears to be a valid measure for the assessment of depression in Turkish diabetes patients. Future studies should investigate its sensitivity and specificity as well as test-retest reliability.

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Lifetime Stressor Checklist-Revised in Psychiatric Outpatients with Anxiety or Depressive Disorders.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kang Rok; Kim, Daeho; Jang, Eun Young; Bae, Hwallip; Kim, Seok Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic events and adverse stressful experiences are major etiological factors in a wide variety of physical and mental disorders. Developing psychological instruments that can be easily administered and that have good psychometric properties have become an integral part for research and practice. This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Lifetime Stressor Checklist-Revised (LSC-R) in a consecutive sample of psychiatric outpatients. The LSC-R is a 30-item self-reporting questionnaire examining lifetime traumatic and non-traumatic stressors. A final sample of 258 outpatients with anxiety or depressive disorders was recruited at the psychiatric department of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. Self-reported data included the Life Events Checklist (LEC), the Zung Self-Rating Depression and Anxiety Scales, and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, in addition to the LSC-R. A convenience sample of 50 college students completed the LSC-R on two occasions separated by a three week-interval for test-retest reliability. Mean kappa for temporal stability was high (κ=0.651) and Cronbach alpha was moderate (α=0.724). Convergent validity was excellent with corresponding items on the LEC. Concurrent validity was good for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that 11 factors explained 64.3 % of the total variance. This study demonstrated good psychometric properties of the Korean version of the LSC-R, further supporting its use in clinical research and practice with a Korean speaking population.

  9. Use of the soil and water assessment tool to scale sediment delivery from field to watershed in an agricultural landscape with topographic depressions.

    PubMed

    Almendinger, James E; Murphy, Marylee S; Ulrich, Jason S

    2014-01-01

    For two watersheds in the northern Midwest United States, we show that landscape depressions have a significant impact on watershed hydrology and sediment yields and that the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has appropriate features to simulate these depressions. In our SWAT models of the Willow River in Wisconsin and the Sunrise River in Minnesota, we used Pond and Wetland features to capture runoff from about 40% of the area in each watershed. These depressions trapped considerable sediment, yet further reductions in sediment yield were required for calibration and achieved by reducing the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) cropping-practice (P) factor to 0.40 to 0.45. We suggest terminology to describe annual sediment yields at different conceptual spatial scales and show how SWAT output can be partitioned to extract data at each of these scales. These scales range from plot-scale yields calculated with the USLE to watershed-scale yields measured at the outlet. Intermediate scales include field, upland, pre-riverine, and riverine scales, in descending order along the conceptual flow path from plot to outlet. Sediment delivery ratios, when defined as watershed-scale yields as a percentage of plot-scale yields, ranged from 1% for the Willow watershed (717 km) to 7% for the Sunrise watershed (991 km). Sediment delivery ratios calculated from published relations based on watershed area alone were about 5 to 6%, closer to pre-riverine-scale yields in our watersheds. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Validation of Malay Version of Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale: Comparison between Depressed Patients and Healthy Subjects at an Out-Patient Clinic in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chong Guan; Chin, Soo Cheng; Yee, Anne Hway Ann; Loh, Huai Seng; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Sherianne Sook Kuan, Wong; Habil, Mohamed Hussain

    2014-05-01

    The Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) is a self-assessment scale designed to evaluate anhedonia in various psychiatric disorders. In order to facilitate its use in Malaysian settings, our current study aimed to examine the validity of a Malay-translated version of the SHAPS (SHAPS-M). In this cross-sectional study, a total of 44 depressed patients and 82 healthy subjects were recruited from a university out-patient clinic. All participants were given both the Malay and English versions of the SHAPS, Fawcett-Clark Pleasure Scale (FCPS), General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to assess their hedonic state, general mental health condition and levels of depression. The results showed that the SHAPS-M has impressive internal consistency (α = 0.96), concurrent validity and good parallel-form reliability (intraclass coefficient, ICC = 0.65). In addition to demonstrating good psychometric properties, the SHAPS-M is easy to administer. Therefore, it is a valid, reliable, and suitable questionnaire for assessing anhedonia among depressed patients in Malaysia.

  11. Assessment of functional outcomes by Sheehan Disability Scale in patients with major depressive disorder treated with duloxetine versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, David V; Mancini, Michele; Wang, Jianing; Berggren, Lovisa; Cao, Haijun; Dueñas, Héctor José; Yue, Li

    2016-01-01

    We compared functional impairment outcomes assessed with Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) after treatment with duloxetine versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in patients with major depressive disorder. Data were pooled from four randomized studies comparing treatment with duloxetine and SSRIs (three double blind and one open label). Analysis of covariance, with last-observation-carried-forward approach for missing data, explored treatment differences between duloxetine and SSRIs on SDS changes during 8 to 12 weeks of acute treatment for the intent-to-treat population. Logistic regression analysis examined the predictive capacity of baseline patient characteristics for remission in functional impairment (SDS total score ≤ 6 and SDS item scores ≤ 2) at endpoint. Included were 2193 patients (duloxetine n = 1029; SSRIs n = 835; placebo n = 329). Treatment with duloxetine and SSRIs resulted in significantly (p < 0.01) greater improvements in the SDS total score versus treatment with placebo. Higher SDS (p < 0.0001) or 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale baseline scores (p < 0.01) predicted lower probability of functional improvement after treatment with duloxetine or SSRIs. Female gender (p ≤ 0.05) predicted higher probability of functional improvement after treatment with duloxetine or SSRIs. Treatment with SSRIs and duloxetine improved functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder. Higher SDS or 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale baseline scores predicted less probability of SDS improvement; female gender predicted better improvement in functional impairment at endpoint. © 2015 The Authors. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Validation of Malay Version of Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale: Comparison between Depressed Patients and Healthy Subjects at an Out-Patient Clinic in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    NG, Chong Guan; CHIN, Soo Cheng; YEE, Anne Hway Ann; LOH, Huai Seng; SULAIMAN, Ahmad Hatim; Sherianne Sook Kuan, WONG; HABIL, Mohamed Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) is a self-assessment scale designed to evaluate anhedonia in various psychiatric disorders. In order to facilitate its use in Malaysian settings, our current study aimed to examine the validity of a Malay-translated version of the SHAPS (SHAPS-M). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 44 depressed patients and 82 healthy subjects were recruited from a university out-patient clinic. All participants were given both the Malay and English versions of the SHAPS, Fawcett-Clark Pleasure Scale (FCPS), General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to assess their hedonic state, general mental health condition and levels of depression. Results: The results showed that the SHAPS-M has impressive internal consistency (α = 0.96), concurrent validity and good parallel-form reliability (intraclass coefficient, ICC = 0.65). Conclusion: In addition to demonstrating good psychometric properties, the SHAPS-M is easy to administer. Therefore, it is a valid, reliable, and suitable questionnaire for assessing anhedonia among depressed patients in Malaysia. PMID:25246837

  13. Resilience or hope? Incremental and convergent validity of the resilience scale for adults (RSA) and the Herth hope scale (HHS) in the prediction of anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Morote, Roxanna; Hjemdal, Odin; Krysinska, Karolina; Martinez Uribe, Patricia; Corveleyn, Jozef

    2017-10-27

    Hope and resilience protect against inner vulnerabilities or harsh life circumstances; they explain individual differences in physical or mental health outcomes under high stress. They have been studied in complementary or competing theoretical frameworks; therefore, the study of measures of hope and resilience should be undertaken prior to explore if they are truly value-added for research. This study investigates the convergent and incremental validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) and the Herth Hope Scale (HHS), in the prediction of anxiety and depression (HSCL-25). Participants in this community-based sample are 762 adults from 18 to 74 years old. They answered the RSA, HHS, Spanish Language Stressful Life-Events Checklist (SL-SLE), and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). Incremental validity analyses combined hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM). First, hierarchical regression models were compared based on three criteria (R 2 Diff., ΔF, and semi-partial r), then the direct effect of resilience on affective symptoms was compared with the mediated effect of resilience on affective symptoms through hope. The hierarchical models showed that (1) hope and resilience account significantly for the variance of affective symptoms above age, sex, and life-stress; (2) Resilience Total score has greater incremental validity than positive scales of HHS Hope; and (3) RSA Total score, HHS Optimism/Spiritual support, Stressful life-events and sex are unique predictors of affective symptoms. The SEM analyses verified a stronger direct effect of resilience in the prediction of affective symptoms above the significant partial mediated effect of resilience through hope. Additionally, results show that age and better educational opportunities were associated with protection (i.e. resilience and hope) and emotional well-being (i.e. affective symptoms and hopelessness). Women showed higher scores in social competences and resources (RSA

  14. A more rational, theory-driven approach to analysing the factor structure of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Kozinszky, Zoltan; Töreki, Annamária; Hompoth, Emőke A; Dudas, Robert B; Németh, Gábor

    2017-04-01

    We endeavoured to analyze the factor structure of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) during a screening programme in Hungary, using exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), testing both previously published models and newly developed theory-driven ones, after a critical analysis of the literature. Between April 2011 and January 2015, a sample of 2967 pregnant women (between 12th and 30th weeks of gestation) and 714 women 6 weeks after delivery completed the Hungarian version of the EPDS in South-East Hungary. EFAs suggested unidimensionality in both samples. 33 out of 42 previously published models showed good and 6 acceptable fit with our antepartum data in CFAs, whilst 10 of them showed good and 28 acceptable fit in our postpartum sample. Using multiple fit indices, our theory-driven anhedonia (items 1,2) - anxiety (items 4,5) - low mood (items 8,9) model provided the best fit in the antepartum sample. In the postpartum sample, our theory-driven models were again among the best performing models, including an anhedonia and an anxiety factor together with either a low mood or a suicidal risk factor (items 3,6,10). The EPDS showed moderate within- and between-culture invariability, although this would also need to be re-examined with a theory-driven approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Large-Scale Mass Spectrometry Imaging Investigation of Consequences of Cortical Spreading Depression in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Migraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreira, Ricardo J.; Shyti, Reinald; Balluff, Benjamin; Abdelmoula, Walid M.; van Heiningen, Sandra H.; van Zeijl, Rene J.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Ferrari, Michel D.; Tolner, Else A.; McDonnell, Liam A.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the electrophysiological correlate of migraine aura. Transgenic mice carrying the R192Q missense mutation in the Cacna1a gene, which in patients causes familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), exhibit increased propensity to CSD. Herein, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was applied for the first time to an animal cohort of transgenic and wild type mice to study the biomolecular changes following CSD in the brain. Ninety-six coronal brain sections from 32 mice were analyzed by MALDI-MSI. All MSI datasets were registered to the Allen Brain Atlas reference atlas of the mouse brain so that the molecular signatures of distinct brain regions could be compared. A number of metabolites and peptides showed substantial changes in the brain associated with CSD. Among those, different mass spectral features showed significant ( t-test, P < 0.05) changes in the cortex, 146 and 377 Da, and in the thalamus, 1820 and 1834 Da, of the CSD-affected hemisphere of FHM1 R192Q mice. Our findings reveal CSD- and genotype-specific molecular changes in the brain of FHM1 transgenic mice that may further our understanding about the role of CSD in migraine pathophysiology. The results also demonstrate the utility of aligning MSI datasets to a common reference atlas for large-scale MSI investigations.

  16. Measuring anxiety in depressed patients: A comparison of the Hamilton anxiety rating scale and the DSM-5 Anxious Distress Specifier Interview.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martin, Jacob; Clark, Heather; McGonigal, Patrick; Harris, Lauren; Holst, Carolina Guzman

    2017-10-01

    DSM-5 included criteria for an anxious distress specifier for major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project we examined whether a measure of the specifier, the DSM-5 Anxious Distress Specifier Interview (DADSI), was as valid as the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) as a measure of the severity of anxiety in depressed patients. Two hundred three psychiatric patients with MDD were interviewed by trained diagnostic raters who administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) supplemented with questions to rate the DADSI, HAMA, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). The patients completed self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and irritability. Sensitivity to change was examined in 30 patients. The DADSI and HAMA were significantly correlated (r = 0.60, p < 0.001). Both the DADSI and HAMA were more highly correlated with measures of anxiety than with measures of the other symptom domains. The HAMD was significantly more highly correlated with the HAMA than with the DADSI. For each anxiety disorder, patients with the disorder scored significantly higher on both the DADSI and HAMA than did patients with no current anxiety disorder. A large effect size of treatment was found for both measures (DADSI: d = 1.48; HAMA: d = 1.37). Both the DADSI and HAMA were valid measures of anxiety s