Pires, Antonio A; Ramirez, Jorge L; Galetti, Pedro M; Troy, Waldo P; Freitas, Patricia D
The genus Zungaro contains some of the largest catfish in South America. Two valid species are currently recognized: Zungaro jahu, inhabiting the Paraná and Paraguay basins, and Zungaro zungaro, occurring in the Amazonas and Orinoco basins. Analysing Zungaro specimens from the Amazonas, Orinoco, Paraguay and Paraná basins, based on the sequencing of COI and D-loop, we found at least three MOTUs, indicating the existence of hidden diversity within this fish group. Considering the ecological and economic values of this fish, our results are surely welcomed for its conservation, disclosing new findings on its diversity and pointing out the necessity for a detailed taxonomic revision.
Untangling convoluted taxonomy of Chambriella Rego, Chubb & Pavanelli, 1999 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae), with erection of Riggenbachiella n. g. and the description of a new species from pimelodid catfishes in the Neotropical Region.
Alves, Philippe Vieira; de Chambrier, Alain; Luque, José Luis; Scholz, Tomáš
As part of a complex revision of proteocephalid cestodes parasitic in freshwater bony fishes of the Neotropical Region, the genus Chambriella Rego, Chubb & Pavanelli, 1999 is redefined based on detailed examination of type-specimens and newly collected material of both nominal species of the genus. This examination revealed that the type-species C. agostinhoi (Pavanelli & Santos, 1992) from Zungaro jahu (Ihering) (type-host) and Z. zungaro (Humboldt) is indistinguishable from Lenhataenia megacephala (Woodland, 1934) from Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix & Agassiz) (all hosts Siluriformes: Pimelodidae), the type- and only species of the genus. New molecular data (partial sequences of the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene) support the conspecificity of these taxa. As a result, Lenhataenia de Chambrier & Scholz, 2008 becomes a junior synonym of Chambriella and its type-species, C. agostinhoi, a junior synonym of C. megacephala (Woodland, 1934) n. comb. The second species of Chambriella, C. paranaensis (Pavanelli & Rego, 1989) from Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes), is transferred to a new genus, Riggenbachiella n. g., as R. paranaense (Pavanelli & Rego, 1989) n. comb. Riggenbachiella amazonense n. sp. (syn. Chambriella sp. of de Chambrier & Scholz, 2008) from S. planiceps (type-host), Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Bloch & Schneider) and Z. zungaro is described and designated as the type-species of the new genus. Riggenbachiella n. g. is placed in the subfamily Monticelliinae Mola, 1929, because of the cortical position of the testes, ovary, vitelline follicles and uterus, and is mainly characterised by the possession of a sigmoid cirrus-sac with voluminous, chambered internal seminal vesicle, and bi-loculate suckers.
The new combination of Ganaspis brasiliensis (Ihering, 1905) is proposed, and the species is redescribed from historical specimens taken in the Neotropical Region as well as more recent specimens reared from Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, 1931 in South Korea. Drosophila suzukii, otherwise known as th...
Mendonça, A; Paula, M C; Fernandes, W D; Andrade, L H C; Lima, S M; Antonialli-Junior, W F
Wasps are able to synthesize toxic compounds known as venoms, which form a part of a mechanism to overcome prey and also to defend their colonies. Study of the compounds that constitute these substances is essential in order to understand how this defense mechanism evolved, since there is evidence that the venoms can vary both intra- and interspecifically. Some studies have used liquid and gas chromatography as a reliable technique to analyze these compounds. However, the use of Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) to analyze the variations in venom's chemical profile has been proposed recently. This study evaluated whether the FTIR-PAS technique is effective for assessing the role of environmental factors on intra- and interspecific differences in the venom of the wasps Polybia paulista Von Ihering and Polybia occidentalis Olivier by FTIR-PAS. The colonies were collected in three municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in different types of environments. The results showed that the venoms of P. paulista and P. occidentalis differed significantly in profile. In addition, the intraspecific differences in the venom's chemical profile of P. paulista are related to the type of environment where they nested, regardless of the geographical distance between the nests. The FTIR-PAS technique proved to be reliable and effective to evaluate the variations in the venom's chemical profile in social wasps.
Perez, Damián Eduardo; Santelli, María Belén
We present two cases of study of ontogenetic allometry in outlines of bivalves using longitudinal data, a rarity among fossils, based on the preserved post-larval record of shells. The examples are two infaunal burrowing bivalves of the southern South America, Claibornicardia paleopatagonica (Archiheterodonta: Carditidae) (early Paleocene) and Crassatella kokeni (Archiheterodonta: Crassatellidae) (late Oligocene-late Miocene). Outline analyses were conducted using a geometric morphometric approach (Elliptic Fourier Analysis), obtaining successive outlines from shells' growth lines, which were used to reconstruct ontogenetic trajectories. In both taxa, ontogenetic changes are characterized by the presence of positive allometry in the extension of posterior end, resulting in elongated adult shells. This particular allometric growth is known in others infaunal burrowing bivalves ( Claibornicardia alticostata and some Spissatella species) and the resulting adult morphology is present in representatives of several groups (e.g., Carditidae, Crassatellidae, Veneridae, Trigoniidae). Taxonomic, ecological and evolutionary implications of this allometric growth pattern are discussed.
Brown, T.M.; Ratcliffe, B.C.
The distinctive trace fossil Chubutolithes gaimanensis n. ichnosp. occurs in Casamayoran (early Eocene) and Colhuehaupian (late Oligocene) alluvial rocks of the Sarmiento Formation in eastern Chubut Province, Argentina. Though known for nearly 70 years, its origin has remained obscure. Examination of new specimens and comparisons with modern analogs demonstrate that specimens of Chubutolithes represent the fossil nests of a mud-dauber (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Virtually identical nests are constructed today by mud-daubers in areas as disparate as southern Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, and Nebraska, confirming that quite similar trace fossils can be produced by several different taxa in a higher taxonomic clade. No satisfactory ethological term exists for trace fossils that, like Chubutolithes, were constructed by organisms above, rather than within, a substrate or medium. The new term aedificichnia is proposed. Chubutolithes occurs in alluvial paleosols and is associated with a large terrestrial ichnofauna. These trace fossils include the nests of scarab beetles, compound nests of social insects, and burrows of earthworms. -Authors
Makrakis, Maristela Cavicchioli; da Silva, Patrícia S.; Makrakis, Sergio; de Lima, Ariane F.; de Assumpção, Lucileine; de Paula, Salete; Miranda, Leandro E.; Dias, João Henrique Pinheiro
This chapter provides information on ontogenetic patterns of neotropical fish species distribution in tributaries (Verde, Pardo, Anhanduí, and Aguapeí rivers) of the Porto Primavera Reservoir, in the heavily dammed Paraná River, Brazil, identifying key spawning and nursery habitats. Samplings were conducted monthly in the main channel of rivers and in marginal lagoons from October through March during three consecutive spawning seasons in 2007-2010. Most species spawn in December especially in Verde River. Main river channels are spawning habitats and marginal lagoons are nursery areas for most fish, mainly for migratory species. The tributaries have high diversity of larvae species: a total of 56 taxa representing 21 families, dominated by Characidae. Sedentary species without parental care are more abundant (45.7%), and many long-distance migratory fish species are present (17.4%). Migrators included Prochilodus lineatus, Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos, Pimelodus maculatus, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Sorubim lima, two threatened migratory species: Salminus brasiliensis and Zungaro jahu, and one endangered migratory species: Brycon orbignyanus. Most of these migratory species are vital to commercial and recreational fishing, and their stocks have decreased drastically in the last decades, attributed to habitat alteration, especially impoundments. The fish ladder at Porto Primavera Dam appears to be playing an important role in re-establishing longitudinal connectivity among critical habitats, allowing ascent to migratory fish species, and thus access to upstream reaches and tributaries. Establishment of Permanent Conservation Units in tributaries can help preserve habitats identified as essential spawning and nursery areas, and can be key to the maintenance and conservation of the fish species in the Paraná River basin.
Leão, Manuela D V; Britto, Marcelo R; Wosiacki, Wolmar B
A new species of Aspidoras is described from an unnamed stream in the Rio Xingu Basin, Castelo de Sonhos municipality, Pará State, representing the northernmost record of the genus along the edge of the Brazilian Shield in the Amazon Basin. Aspidoras marianae is easily distinguished from all congeners in having minute odontode-bearing platelets scattered over the surface of the snout region, minute platelets between the parieto-supraoccipital process and the nuchal plate, and other shared features related to color pattern, morphometrics, meristics and morphological data. Comments about exclusive and shared features are presented.
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Alves, Anderson Luis; de Borba, Rafael Splendore; Oliveira, Claudio; Mauro Nirchio; Granado, Angel; Foresti, Fausto
Abstract The family Loricariidae with 813 nominal species is one of the largest fish families of the world. Hypostominae, its more complex subfamily, was recently divided into five tribes. The tribe Hypostomini is composed of a single genus, Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, which exhibits the largest karyotypic diversity in the family Loricariidae. With the main objective of contributing to a better understanding of the relationship and the patterns of evolution among the karyotypes of Hypostomus species, cytogenetic studies were conducted in six species of the genus from Brazil and Venezuela. The results show a great chromosome variety with diploid numbers ranging from 2n=68 to 2n=76, with a clear predominance of acrocentric chromosomes. The Ag-NORs are located in terminal position in all species analyzed. Three species have single Ag-NORs (Hypostomus albopunctatus (Regan, 1908), Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758), and Hypostomus prope paulinus (Ihering, 1905)) and three have multiple Ag-NORs (Hypostomus ancistroides (Ihering, 1911), Hypostomus prope iheringi (Regan, 1908), and Hypostomus strigaticeps (Regan, 1908)). In the process of karyotype evolution of the group, the main type of chromosome rearrangements was possibly centric fissions, which may have been facilitated by the putative tetraploid origin of Hypostomus species. The relationship between the karyotype changes and the evolution in the genus is discussed. PMID:24260683
Nishida, Jun; Tamimi, Amr; Fei, Honghan; ...
One key property of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are their structural elasticity. IHere we show that 2D IR spectroscopy with pulse-shaping techniques can probe the ultrafast structural fluctuations of MOFs. 2D IR data, obtained from a vibrational probe attached to the linkers of UiO-66 MOF in low concentration, revealed that the structural fluctuations have time constants of 7 and 670 ps with no solvent. Filling the MOF pores with dimethylformamide (DMF) slows the structural fluctuations by reducing the ability of the MOF to undergo deformations, and the dynamics of the DMF molecules are also greatly restricted. Finally, methodology advances were requiredmore » to remove the severe light scattering caused by the macroscopic-sized MOF particles, eliminate interfering oscillatory components from the 2D IR data, and address Förster vibrational excitation transfer.« less
Kondo, T; Gullan, P J; Cook, L G
The eriococcid genus Capulinia Signoret currently comprises four Neotropical species (the type species C. sallei Signoret, C. crateraformis Hempel, C. jaboticabae Ihering and an undescribed species recognised in the literature) and one species from New Zealand (C. orbiculata Hoy). All species feed on plants in the family Myrtaceae and the undescribed species is a pest of guava, Psidium guajava, in Venezuela and Colombia. Here we describe the pest species based on the adult female and first-instar nymph and name it Capulinia linarosae Kondo & Gullan sp. n. We provide a summary of published information on the biology and pest status of C. linarosae by translating the Spanish literature. We also describe the adult female and first-instar nymph of a new Argentine species that we name as C. luma Kondo & Gullan sp. n. after its host Luma apiculata. In addition, we redescribe the adult female of C. jaboticabae and include notes on C. crateraformis, C. orbiculata and C. sallei. We provide a revised generic diagnosis and keys to all Capulinia species based on adult females and, where available, first-instar nymphs, as well as a revised key to South American eriococcid genera. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA place Capulinia within the "Gondwanan" clade of eriococcids, mostly likely within the Myrtaceae-feeding group.