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Sample records for zur radioiodtherapie rit

  1. Radiation predictions and shielding calculations for RITS-6

    SciT

    Maenchen, John Eric; O'Malley, John; Kensek, Ronald Patrick

    2005-06-01

    The mission of Radiographic Integrated Test Stand-6 (RITS-6) facility is to provide the underlying science and technology for pulsed-power-driven flash radiographic X-ray sources for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Flash X-ray radiography is a penetrating diagnostic to discern the internal structure in dynamic experiments. Short (~50 nanosecond (ns) duration) bursts of very high intensity Xrays from mm-scale source sizes are required at a variety of voltages to address this mission. RITS-6 was designed and is used to both develop the accelerator technology needed for these experiments and serves as the principal test stand to develop the high intensity electronmore » beam diodes that generate the required X-ray sources. RITS is currently in operation with three induction cavities (RITS-3) with a maximum voltage output of 5.5 MV and is classified as a low hazard non-nuclear facility in accordance with CPR 400.1.1, Chapter 13, Hazards Identification/Analysis and Risk Management. The facility will be expanded from three to six cavities (RITS-6) effectively doubling the operating voltage. The increase in the operating voltage to above 10 MV has resulted in RITS-6 being classified as an accelerator facility. RITS-6 will come under DOE Order 420.2B, Safety of Accelerator Facilities. The hazards of RITS are detailed in the "Safety Assessment Document for the Radiographic Integrated Test Stand Facility." The principal non-industrial hazard is prompt x-ray radiation. As the operating voltage is increased, both the penetration power and the total amount (dose) of x-rays are increased, thereby increasing the risk to local personnel. Fixed site shielding (predominantly concrete walls and a steel/lead skyshine shield) is used to attenuate these x-rays and mitigate this risk. This SAND Report details the anticipated x-ray doses, the shielding design, and the anticipated x-ray doses external to this shielding structure both in areas where administrative

  2. RIT1 controls actin dynamics via complex formation with RAC1/CDC42 and PAK1.

    PubMed

    Meyer Zum Büschenfelde, Uta; Brandenstein, Laura Isabel; von Elsner, Leonie; Flato, Kristina; Holling, Tess; Zenker, Martin; Rosenberger, Georg; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2018-05-01

    RIT1 belongs to the RAS family of small GTPases. Germline and somatic RIT1 mutations have been identified in Noonan syndrome (NS) and cancer, respectively. By using heterologous expression systems and purified recombinant proteins, we identified the p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) as novel direct effector of RIT1. We found RIT1 also to directly interact with the RHO GTPases CDC42 and RAC1, both of which are crucial regulators of actin dynamics upstream of PAK1. These interactions are independent of the guanine nucleotide bound to RIT1. Disease-causing RIT1 mutations enhance protein-protein interaction between RIT1 and PAK1, CDC42 or RAC1 and uncouple complex formation from serum and growth factors. We show that the RIT1-PAK1 complex regulates cytoskeletal rearrangements as expression of wild-type RIT1 and its mutant forms resulted in dissolution of stress fibers and reduction of mature paxillin-containing focal adhesions in COS7 cells. This effect was prevented by co-expression of RIT1 with dominant-negative CDC42 or RAC1 and kinase-dead PAK1. By using a transwell migration assay, we show that RIT1 wildtype and the disease-associated variants enhance cell motility. Our work demonstrates a new function for RIT1 in controlling actin dynamics via acting in a signaling module containing PAK1 and RAC1/CDC42, and highlights defects in cell adhesion and migration as possible disease mechanism underlying NS.

  3. [RIT1: a novel gene associated with Noonan syndrome].

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Carrera, I; Solo de Zaldivar-Tristancho, M; Martin-Fernandez, R; Vera-Torres, M; Gonzalez de Buitrago-Amigo, J F; Botet-Rodriguez, J

    2016-10-16

    Noonan syndrome is the most frequent of the congenital group of malformation syndromes caused by germline mutations that encode components of the RAS/MAPK pathway, termed RASopathies, one of the most frequent congenital genetic disorders in the clinical practice. Recently RIT1 mutations have been reported in patients with Noonan syndrome. A 7 years-old girl with a clinical diagnosis of Noonan syndrome, and with a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy included in her clinical manifestations, where a de novo heterozygous, probably pathogenic, novel mutation in RIT1, c.295T>C (p.Phe99Leu), has been identified. RIT1 shares homology with other RAS proteins and the expression of mutant alleles demonstrates a gain-of-function effect supporting a causative role in Noonan syndrome pathogenesis. Data suggest that the frequency of RIT1 mutations can be estimated as 3-5% in Noonan syndrome patients. These cases compared with Noonan patients harboring mutations in other genes are characterized by high frequency of prenatal abnormalities and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and lower frequencies of short stature and pectus abnormalities. We emphasize the importance of the novel identified genes in order to be included in the diagnostic panels.

  4. [Inappropriate ICD therapies: All problems solved with MADIT-RIT?].

    PubMed

    Kolb, Christof

    2015-06-01

    The MADIT-RIT study represents a major trial in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy that was recently published. It highlights that different programming strategies (high rate cut-off or delayed therapy versus conventional) reduce inappropriate ICD therapies, leave syncope rates unaltered and can improve patient's survival. The study should motivate cardiologist and electrophysiologists to reconsider their individual programming strategies. However, as the study represents largely patients with ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death supplied with a dual chamber or cardiac resynchronisation therapy ICD, the results may not easily be transferable to other entities or other device types. Despite the success of the MADIT-RIT study efforts still need to be taken to further optimise device algorithms to avert inappropriate therapies. Optimised ICD therapy also includes the avoidance of unnecessary ICD shocks as well as the treatment of all aspects of the underlying cardiac disease.

  5. Induction of neurite extension and survival in pheochromocytoma cells by the Rit GTPase.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Michael L; Shao, Haipeng; Andres, Douglas A

    2002-06-07

    The Rit, Rin, and Ric proteins comprise a distinct and evolutionarily conserved subfamily of the Ras-like small G-proteins. Although these proteins share the majority of core effector domain residues with Ras, recent studies suggest that Rit uses novel effector pathways to regulate NIH3T3 cell proliferation and transformation, while the functions of Rin and Ric remain largely unknown. Since we demonstrate that Rit is expressed in neurons, we investigated the role of Rit signaling in promoting the differentiation and survival of pheochromocytoma cells. In this study, we show that expression of constitutively active Rit (RitL79) in PC6 cells results in neuronal differentiation, characterized by the elaboration of an extensive network of neurite-like processes that are morphologically distinct from those mediated by the expression of oncogenic Ras. Although activated Rit fails to stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathways in COS cells, RitL79 induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in PC6 cells. We also find that Rit-mediated effects on neurite outgrowth can be blocked by co-expression of dominant-negative mutants of C-Raf1 or mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1). Moreover, expression of dominant-negative Rit is sufficient to inhibit NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Expression of active Rit inhibits growth factor-withdrawal mediated apoptosis of PC6 cells, but does not induce phosphorylation of Akt/protein kinase B, suggesting that survival does not utilize the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Instead, pharmacological inhibitors of MEK block Rit-stimulated cell survival. Taken together, these studies suggest that Rit represents a distinct regulatory protein, capable of mediating differentiation and cell survival in PC6 cells using a MEK-dependent signaling pathway to achieve its effects.

  6. RIT1 controls actin dynamics via complex formation with RAC1/CDC42 and PAK1

    PubMed Central

    von Elsner, Leonie; Flato, Kristina; Holling, Tess; Zenker, Martin; Rosenberger, Georg

    2018-01-01

    RIT1 belongs to the RAS family of small GTPases. Germline and somatic RIT1 mutations have been identified in Noonan syndrome (NS) and cancer, respectively. By using heterologous expression systems and purified recombinant proteins, we identified the p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) as novel direct effector of RIT1. We found RIT1 also to directly interact with the RHO GTPases CDC42 and RAC1, both of which are crucial regulators of actin dynamics upstream of PAK1. These interactions are independent of the guanine nucleotide bound to RIT1. Disease-causing RIT1 mutations enhance protein-protein interaction between RIT1 and PAK1, CDC42 or RAC1 and uncouple complex formation from serum and growth factors. We show that the RIT1-PAK1 complex regulates cytoskeletal rearrangements as expression of wild-type RIT1 and its mutant forms resulted in dissolution of stress fibers and reduction of mature paxillin-containing focal adhesions in COS7 cells. This effect was prevented by co-expression of RIT1 with dominant-negative CDC42 or RAC1 and kinase-dead PAK1. By using a transwell migration assay, we show that RIT1 wildtype and the disease-associated variants enhance cell motility. Our work demonstrates a new function for RIT1 in controlling actin dynamics via acting in a signaling module containing PAK1 and RAC1/CDC42, and highlights defects in cell adhesion and migration as possible disease mechanism underlying NS. PMID:29734338

  7. RIT-CIA Case Study: Classified Research in a University Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, W. John, III

    A controversy at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) in New York State over that institution's involvement with classified research for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) raised issues regarding classified research and institutional leadership. In 1991 M. Richard Rose, then president of RIT, took a 4-month sabbatical to work for the…

  8. Modeling near-road air quality using a computational fluid dynamics model, CFD-VIT-RIT.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Jason; Zhang, K Max

    2009-10-15

    It is well recognized that dilution is an important mechanism governing the near-road air pollutant concentrations. In this paper, we aim to advance our understanding of turbulent mixing mechanisms on and near roadways using computation fluid dynamics. Turbulent mixing mechanisms can be classified into three categories according to their origins: vehicle-induced turbulence (VIT), road-induced turbulence (RIT), and atmospheric boundary layer turbulence. RIT includes the turbulence generated by road embankment, road surface thermal effects, and roadside structures. Both VIT and RIT are affected by the roadway designs. We incorporate the detailed treatment of VIT and RIT into the CFD (namely CFD-VIT-RIT) and apply the model in simulating the spatial gradients of carbon monoxide near two major highways with different traffic mix and roadway configurations. The modeling results are compared to the field measurements and those from CALINE4 and CFD without considering VIT and RIT. We demonstrate that the incorporation of VIT and RIT considerably improves the modeling predictions, especially on vertical gradients and seasonal variations of carbon monoxide. Our study implies that roadway design can significantly influence the near-road air pollution. Thus we recommend that mitigating near-road air pollution through roadway designs be considered in the air quality and transportation management In addition, thanks to the rigorous representation of turbulent mixing mechanisms, CFD-VIT-RIT can become valuable tools in the roadway designs process.

  9. RIT2: responsible and susceptible gene for neurological and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Daneshmandpour, Yousef; Darvish, Hossein; Emamalizadeh, Babak

    2018-06-02

    RIT2 gene was recently introduced as a susceptibility gene in neurological disorders, a group of major problems in human society affecting millions of people worldwide. Several variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and CNVs, have been identified and studied in different populations. In this review, we have summarized the studies relevant to the RIT2 gene and its related disorders, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and autism. The protein product of RIT2 is a member of the Ras superfamily that plays important roles in many vital cellular functions, such as differentiation and survival. We have also investigated the protein network of the RIT2 protein and the diseases related to members of this network so as to obtain some clues for future studies by identifying the molecular pathophysiology of neurological disorders and revealing new possible disorders related to RIT2.

  10. Astronomical Polarimetry with the RIT Polarization Imaging Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobiev, Dmitry V.; Ninkov, Zoran; Brock, Neal

    2018-06-01

    In the last decade, imaging polarimeters based on micropolarizer arrays have been developed for use in terrestrial remote sensing and metrology applications. Micropolarizer-based sensors are dramatically smaller and more mechanically robust than other polarimeters with similar spectral response and snapshot capability. To determine the suitability of these new polarimeters for astronomical applications, we developed the RIT Polarization Imaging Camera to investigate the performance of these devices, with a special attention to the low signal-to-noise regime. We characterized the device performance in the lab, by determining the relative throughput, efficiency, and orientation of every pixel, as a function of wavelength. Using the resulting pixel response model, we developed demodulation procedures for aperture photometry and imaging polarimetry observing modes. We found that, using the current calibration, RITPIC is capable of detecting polarization signals as small as ∼0.3%. The relative ease of data collection, calibration, and analysis provided by these sensors suggest than they may become an important tool for a number of astronomical targets.

  11. Mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome - additional functional evidence and expanding the clinical phenotype.

    PubMed

    Koenighofer, M; Hung, C Y; McCauley, J L; Dallman, J; Back, E J; Mihalek, I; Gripp, K W; Sol-Church, K; Rusconi, P; Zhang, Z; Shi, G-X; Andres, D A; Bodamer, O A

    2016-03-01

    RASopathies are a clinically heterogeneous group of conditions caused by mutations in 1 of 16 proteins in the RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (RAS-MAPK) pathway. Recently, mutations in RIT1 were identified as a novel cause for Noonan syndrome. Here we provide additional functional evidence for a causal role of RIT1 mutations and expand the associated phenotypic spectrum. We identified two de novo missense variants p.Met90Ile and p.Ala57Gly. Both variants resulted in increased MEK-ERK signaling compared to wild-type, underscoring gain-of-function as the primary functional mechanism. Introduction of p.Met90Ile and p.Ala57Gly into zebrafish embryos reproduced not only aspects of the human phenotype but also revealed abnormalities of eye development, emphasizing the importance of RIT1 for spatial and temporal organization of the growing organism. In addition, we observed severe lymphedema of the lower extremity and genitalia in one patient. We provide additional evidence for a causal relationship between pathogenic mutations in RIT1, increased RAS-MAPK/MEK-ERK signaling and the clinical phenotype. The mutant RIT1 protein may possess reduced GTPase activity or a diminished ability to interact with cellular GTPase activating proteins; however the precise mechanism remains unknown. The phenotypic spectrum is likely to expand and includes lymphedema of the lower extremities in addition to nuchal hygroma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Two cases of RIT1 associated Noonan syndrome: Further delineation of the clinical phenotype and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Milosavljević, Doris; Overwater, Eline; Tamminga, Saskia; de Boer, Karin; Elting, Mariet W; van Hoorn, Marion E; Rinne, Tuula; Houweling, Arjan C

    2016-07-01

    Mutations in RIT1, involved in the RAS-MAPK pathway, have recently been identified as a cause for Noonan syndrome. We present two patients with Noonan syndrome caused by a RIT1 mutation with novel phenotypic manifestations, severe bilateral lower limb lymphedema starting during puberty, and fetal hydrops resulting in intrauterine fetal death, respectively. Including our patients, a total of 52 patients have been reported with Noonan syndrome caused by a RIT1 mutation. Our report contributes to the delineation of the phenotype associated with RIT1 mutations and underlines that lymphatic involvement is part of this spectrum. In addition, we provide an overview of the currently described Noonan syndrome patients with RIT1 mutations in literature. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Wireless Technology in the Library: The RIT Experience: Overview of the Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitkin, Pat

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of a project at RIT (Rochester Institute of Technology) that experimented with wireless technology, including laptop computers that circulate within the library building. Discusses project requirements, including ease of use, low maintenance, and low cost; motivation, including mobility; implementation; and benefits to the…

  14. 78 FR 26637 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance-Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable Tables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Notice-FTR 2013-02; Docket 2013-0002; Sequence 14] Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance--Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable Tables AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy (OGP), General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of bulletin 13-05. SUMMARY...

  15. Geodetic component of the monitoring of tectonic and hydrogeological activities in Kopacki Rit Nature Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapo, Almin; Pribicevic, Bosko

    2013-04-01

    Based on the European and global experience, the amplitude change in the structural arrangement caused by recent tectonic movements, can be most accurately determined by repeated precise GPS measurements on specially stabilized geodetic and geodynamic points. Because of these reasons, the GPS method to determine the movements on specially stabilized points in the Nature park Kopacki rit is also applied in this project. Kopacki rit Nature Park is the biggest preserved natural flooded area on the Danube. It is spread over 23 000 hectares between the rivers Danube and Drava and is one of the biggest fluvial wetland valleys in Europe. In 1993 it was listed as one of internationally valuable wetlands according to the Ramsar Convention. By now in Kopacki rit there have been sights of about 295 bird species, more than 400 species of invertebrates and 44 types of fish. Many of them are globally endangered species like, white tailed eagle, black stork and prairie hawk. It's not rare to come across some deer herds, wild boars or others. Today's geological and geomorphological relations in the Nature park Kopacki rit are largely the result of climate, sedimentary, tectonic and anthropogenic activity in the last 10,000 years. Unfortunately the phenomenon of the Kopacki rit Nature park is in danger to be over in the near future due to those and of course man made activities on the Danube river. It is trough scientific investigations of tectonic and hydrogeological activities that scientist from University of Zagreb are trying to contribute to wider knowledge and possible solutions to this problem. In the year 2009 the first GPS campaign was conducted, and the first set of coordinates of stabilized points was determined which can be considered zero-series measurements. In 2010 a second GPS campaign was conducted and the first set of movements on the Geodynamic Network of Kopacki Rit Nature Park was determined. Processing GPS measurements from 2009 and 2010 was carried out in a

  16. Further Improvement of the RITS Code for Pulsed Neutron Bragg-edge Transmission Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Watanabe, K.; Kiyokawa, K.; Kiyanagi, R.; Hara, K. Y.; Kamiyama, T.; Furusaka, M.; Shinohara, T.; Kiyanagi, Y.

    The RITS code is a unique and powerful tool for a whole Bragg-edge transmission spectrum fitting analysis. However, it has had two major problems. Therefore, we have proposed methods to overcome these problems. The first issue is the difference in the crystallite size values between the diffraction and the Bragg-edge analyses. We found the reason was a different definition of the crystal structure factor. It affects the crystallite size because the crystallite size is deduced from the primary extinction effect which depends on the crystal structure factor. As a result of algorithm change, crystallite sizes obtained by RITS drastically approached to crystallite sizes obtained by Rietveld analyses of diffraction data; from 155% to 110%. The second issue is correction of the effect of background neutrons scattered from a specimen. Through neutron transport simulation studies, we found that the background components consist of forward Bragg scattering, double backward Bragg scattering, and thermal diffuse scattering. RITS with the background correction function which was developed through the simulation studies could well reconstruct various simulated and experimental transmission spectra, but refined crystalline microstructural parameters were often distorted. Finally, it was recommended to reduce the background by improving experimental conditions.

  17. Mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome with possible juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia but are not involved in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cavé, Hélène; Caye, Aurélie; Ghedira, Nehla; Capri, Yline; Pouvreau, Nathalie; Fillot, Natacha; Trimouille, Aurélien; Vignal, Cédric; Fenneteau, Odile; Alembik, Yves; Alessandri, Jean-Luc; Blanchet, Patricia; Boute, Odile; Bouvagnet, Patrice; David, Albert; Dieux Coeslier, Anne; Doray, Bérénice; Dulac, Olivier; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Gérard, Marion; Héron, Delphine; Isidor, Bertrand; Lacombe, Didier; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Perrin, Laurence; Rio, Marlène; Roume, Joëlle; Sauvion, Sylvie; Toutain, Annick; Vincent-Delorme, Catherine; Willems, Marjorie; Baumann, Clarisse; Verloes, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Noonan syndrome is a heterogeneous autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in at least eight genes involved in the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. Recently, RIT1 (Ras-like without CAAX 1) has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of some patients. We report a series of 44 patients from 30 pedigrees (including nine multiplex families) with mutations in RIT1. These patients display a typical Noonan gestalt and facial phenotype. Among the probands, 8.7% showed postnatal growth retardation, 90% had congenital heart defects, 36% had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (a lower incidence compared with previous report), 50% displayed speech delay and 52% had learning difficulties, but only 22% required special education. None had major skin anomalies. One child died perinatally of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Compared with the canonical Noonan phenotype linked to PTPN11 mutations, patients with RIT1 mutations appear to be less severely growth retarded and more frequently affected by cardiomyopathy. Based on our experience, we estimate that RIT1 could be the cause of 5% of Noonan syndrome patients. Because mutations found constitutionally in Noonan syndrome are also found in several tumors in adulthood, we evaluated the potential contribution of RIT1 to leukemogenesis in Noonan syndrome. We screened 192 pediatric cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemias (96 B-ALL and 96 T-ALL) and 110 cases of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemias (JMML), but detected no variation in these tumoral samples, suggesting that Noonan patients with germline RIT1 mutations are not at high risk to developing JMML or ALL, and that RIT1 has at most a marginal role in these sporadic malignancies.

  18. Expanding the cardiac spectrum of Noonan syndrome with RIT1 variant: Left main coronary artery atresia causing sudden death.

    PubMed

    Ramond, Francis; Duband, Sébastien; Croisille, Pierre; Cavé, Hélène; Teyssier, Georges; Adouard, Véronique; Touraine, Renaud

    2017-06-01

    Noonan syndrome is a well-known genetic condition associating congenital heart defects, short stature, and distinctive facial features. Pulmonary valve stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are the most frequent cardiac abnormalities, the latter being associated with a higher mortality. Here we report for the first time, a case of congenital left main coronary artery atresia in a Noonan syndrome associated with RIT1 variant, leading to unrescued sudden death. This case-report supports the already-suspected severity of the RIT1-related Noonan syndrome compared to average Noonan syndrome, and should encourage clinicians to be very cautious with these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. RIT Stability through the Transition to Common Core-Aligned MAP® Tests. How Using MAP to Measure Student Learning Growth is Reliable Now and in 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2013

    2013-01-01

    While many educators expect the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) to be more rigorous than previous state standards, some wonder if the transition to CCSS and to a Common Core aligned MAP test will have an impact on their students' RIT scores or the NWEA norms. MAP assessments use a proprietary scale known as the RIT (Rasch unit) scale to measure…

  20. Gain-of-function mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome, a RAS/MAPK pathway syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yoko; Niihori, Tetsuya; Banjo, Toshihiro; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Mizuno, Seiji; Kurosawa, Kenji; Ogata, Tsutomu; Takada, Fumio; Yano, Michihiro; Ando, Toru; Hoshika, Tadataka; Barnett, Christopher; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Kawame, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Okutani, Takahiro; Nagashima, Tatsuo; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Funayama, Ryo; Nagashima, Takeshi; Nakayama, Keiko; Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Watanabe, Yusuke; Ogura, Toshihiko; Matsubara, Yoichi

    2013-07-11

    RAS GTPases mediate a wide variety of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Recent studies have revealed that germline mutations and mosaicism for classical RAS mutations, including those in HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS, cause a wide spectrum of genetic disorders. These include Noonan syndrome and related disorders (RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase [RAS/MAPK] pathway syndromes, or RASopathies), nevus sebaceous, and Schimmelpenning syndrome. In the present study, we identified a total of nine missense, nonsynonymous mutations in RIT1, encoding a member of the RAS subfamily, in 17 of 180 individuals (9%) with Noonan syndrome or a related condition but with no detectable mutations in known Noonan-related genes. Clinical manifestations in the RIT1-mutation-positive individuals are consistent with those of Noonan syndrome, which is characterized by distinctive facial features, short stature, and congenital heart defects. Seventy percent of mutation-positive individuals presented with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; this frequency is high relative to the overall 20% incidence in individuals with Noonan syndrome. Luciferase assays in NIH 3T3 cells showed that five RIT1 alterations identified in children with Noonan syndrome enhanced ELK1 transactivation. The introduction of mRNAs of mutant RIT1 into 1-cell-stage zebrafish embryos was found to result in a significant increase of embryos with craniofacial abnormalities, incomplete looping, a hypoplastic chamber in the heart, and an elongated yolk sac. These results demonstrate that gain-of-function mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome and show a similar biological effect to mutations in other RASopathy-related genes. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gain-of-Function Mutations in RIT1 Cause Noonan Syndrome, a RAS/MAPK Pathway Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Yoko; Niihori, Tetsuya; Banjo, Toshihiro; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Mizuno, Seiji; Kurosawa, Kenji; Ogata, Tsutomu; Takada, Fumio; Yano, Michihiro; Ando, Toru; Hoshika, Tadataka; Barnett, Christopher; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Kawame, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Okutani, Takahiro; Nagashima, Tatsuo; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Funayama, Ryo; Nagashima, Takeshi; Nakayama, Keiko; Inoue, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Yusuke; Ogura, Toshihiko; Matsubara, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    RAS GTPases mediate a wide variety of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Recent studies have revealed that germline mutations and mosaicism for classical RAS mutations, including those in HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS, cause a wide spectrum of genetic disorders. These include Noonan syndrome and related disorders (RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase [RAS/MAPK] pathway syndromes, or RASopathies), nevus sebaceous, and Schimmelpenning syndrome. In the present study, we identified a total of nine missense, nonsynonymous mutations in RIT1, encoding a member of the RAS subfamily, in 17 of 180 individuals (9%) with Noonan syndrome or a related condition but with no detectable mutations in known Noonan-related genes. Clinical manifestations in the RIT1-mutation-positive individuals are consistent with those of Noonan syndrome, which is characterized by distinctive facial features, short stature, and congenital heart defects. Seventy percent of mutation-positive individuals presented with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; this frequency is high relative to the overall 20% incidence in individuals with Noonan syndrome. Luciferase assays in NIH 3T3 cells showed that five RIT1 alterations identified in children with Noonan syndrome enhanced ELK1 transactivation. The introduction of mRNAs of mutant RIT1 into 1-cell-stage zebrafish embryos was found to result in a significant increase of embryos with craniofacial abnormalities, incomplete looping, a hypoplastic chamber in the heart, and an elongated yolk sac. These results demonstrate that gain-of-function mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome and show a similar biological effect to mutations in other RASopathy-related genes. PMID:23791108

  2. Meta-analysis of Parkinson's disease: identification of a novel locus, RIT2.

    PubMed

    Pankratz, Nathan; Beecham, Gary W; DeStefano, Anita L; Dawson, Ted M; Doheny, Kimberly F; Factor, Stewart A; Hamza, Taye H; Hung, Albert Y; Hyman, Bradley T; Ivinson, Adrian J; Krainc, Dmitri; Latourelle, Jeanne C; Clark, Lorraine N; Marder, Karen; Martin, Eden R; Mayeux, Richard; Ross, Owen A; Scherzer, Clemens R; Simon, David K; Tanner, Caroline; Vance, Jeffery M; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Zabetian, Cyrus P; Myers, Richard H; Payami, Haydeh; Scott, William K; Foroud, Tatiana

    2012-03-01

    Genome-wide association (GWAS) methods have identified genes contributing to Parkinson's disease (PD); we sought to identify additional genes associated with PD susceptibility. A 2-stage design was used. First, individual level genotypic data from 5 recent PD GWAS (Discovery Sample: 4,238 PD cases and 4,239 controls) were combined. Following imputation, a logistic regression model was employed in each dataset to test for association with PD susceptibility and results from each dataset were meta-analyzed. Second, 768 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in an independent Replication Sample (3,738 cases and 2,111 controls). Genome-wide significance was reached for SNPs in SNCA (rs356165; G: odds ratio [OR]=1.37; p=9.3×10(-21)), MAPT (rs242559; C: OR=0.78; p=1.5×10(-10)), GAK/DGKQ (rs11248051; T: OR=1.35; p=8.2×10(-9)/rs11248060; T: OR=1.35; p=2.0×10(-9)), and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region (rs3129882; A: OR=0.83; p=1.2×10(-8)), which were previously reported. The Replication Sample confirmed the associations with SNCA, MAPT, and the HLA region and also with GBA (E326K; OR=1.71; p=5×10(-8) Combined Sample) (N370; OR=3.08; p=7×10(-5) Replication sample). A novel PD susceptibility locus, RIT2, on chromosome 18 (rs12456492; p=5×10(-5) Discovery Sample; p=1.52×10(-7) Replication sample; p=2×10(-10) Combined Sample) was replicated. Conditional analyses within each of the replicated regions identified distinct SNP associations within GBA and SNCA, suggesting that there may be multiple risk alleles within these genes. We identified a novel PD susceptibility locus, RIT2, replicated several previously identified loci, and identified more than 1 risk allele within SNCA and GBA. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.

  3. Heart failure severity, inappropriate ICD therapy, and novel ICD programming: a MADIT-RIT substudy.

    PubMed

    Daimee, Usama A; Vermilye, Katherine; Rosero, Spencer; Schuger, Claudio D; Daubert, James P; Zareba, Wojciech; McNitt, Scott; Polonsky, Bronislava; Moss, Arthur J; Kutyifa, Valentina

    2017-12-01

    The effects of heart failure (HF) severity on risk of inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy have not been thoroughly investigated. We aimed to study the association between HF severity and inappropriate ICD therapy in MADIT-RIT. MADIT-RIT randomized 1,500 patients to three ICD programming arms: conventional (Arm A), high-rate cut-off (Arm B: ≥200 beats/min), and delayed therapy (Arm C: 60-second delay for ≥170 beats/min). We evaluated the association between New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III (n = 256) versus class I-II (n = 251) and inappropriate ICD therapy in Arm A patients with ICD-only and cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D). We additionally assessed benefit of novel ICD programming in Arms B and C versus Arm A by NYHA classification. In Arm A, the risk of inappropriate therapy was significantly higher in those with NYHA III versus NYHA I-II for both ICD (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.55, confidence interval [CI]: 1.51-4.30, P < 0.001) and CRT-D patients (HR = 3.73, CI: 1.14-12.23, P = 0.030). This was consistent for inappropriate ATP and inappropriate ICD therapy < 200 beats/min, but not for inappropriate shocks. Novel ICD programming significantly reduced inappropriate therapy in patients with both NYHA III (Arm B vs Arm A: HR = 0.08, P < 0.001; Arm C vs Arm A: HR = 0.17, P < 0.001) and NYHA I-II (Arm B vs Arm A: HR = 0.25, P < 0.001; Arm C vs Arm A: HR = 0.28, P < 0.001). Patients with more severe HF are at increased risk for inappropriate ICD therapy, particularly ATP due to arrhythmias < 200 beats/min. Novel programming with high-rate cut-off or delayed detection reduces inappropriate ICD therapies in both mild and moderate HF. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Meta-analysis of Parkinson disease: Identification of a novel locus, RIT2

    PubMed Central

    Pankratz, Nathan; Beecham, Gary W.; DeStefano, Anita L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Factor, Stewart A.; Hamza, Taye H.; Hung, Albert Y.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Ivinson, Adrian J.; Krainc, Dmitri; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Clark, Lorraine N.; Marder, Karen; Martin, Eden R.; Mayeux, Richard; Ross, Owen A.; Scherzer, Clemens R.; Simon, David K.; Tanner, Caroline; Vance, Jeffery M.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Myers, Richard H.; Payami, Haydeh; Scott, William K.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Objective Genome-wide association (GWAS) methods have identified genes contributing to Parkinson disease (PD); we sought to identify additional genes associated with PD susceptibility. Methods A two stage design was used. First, individual level genotypic data from five recent PD GWAS (Discovery Sample: 4,238 PD cases and 4,239 controls) were combined. Following imputation, a logistic regression model was employed in each dataset to test for association with PD susceptibility and results from each dataset were meta-analyzed. Second, 768 SNPs were genotyped in an independent Replication Sample (3,738 cases and 2,111 controls). Results Genome-wide significance was reached for SNPs in SNCA (rs356165, G: odds ratio (OR)=1.37; p=9.3 × 10−21), MAPT (rs242559, C: OR=0.78; p=1.5 × 10−10), GAK/DGKQ (rs11248051, T:OR=1.35; p=8.2 × 10−9/ rs11248060, T: OR=1.35; p=2.0×10−9), and the HLA region (rs3129882, A: OR=0.83; p=1.2 × 10−8), which were previously reported. The Replication Sample confirmed the associations with SNCA, MAPT, and the HLA region and also with GBA (E326K OR=1.71; p=5 × 10−8 Combined Sample) (N370 OR=3.08; p=7 × 10−5 Replication sample). A novel PD susceptibility locus, RIT2, on chromosome 18 (rs12456492; p=5 × 10−5 Discovery Sample; p=1.52 × 10−7 Replication sample; p=2 × 10−10 Combined Sample) was replicated. Conditional analyses within each of the replicated regions identified distinct SNP associations within GBA and SNCA, suggesting that there may be multiple risk alleles within these genes. Interpretation We identified a novel PD susceptibility locus, RIT2, replicated several previously identified loci, and identified more than one risk allele within SNCA and GBA. PMID:22451204

  5. Impedance Dynamics in the Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) Diode on the RITS-6 Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renk, Timothy; Johnston, Mark; Leckbee, Joshua; Webb, Timothy; Mazarakis, Michael; Kiefer, Mark; Bennett, Nichelle

    2014-10-01

    The RITS-6 inductive voltage adder (IVA) accelerator (3.5-8.5 MeV) at Sandia National Laboratories produces high-power (TW) focused electron beams (<3 mm diameter) for flash x-ray radiography applications. The Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) diode utilizes a hollowed metal cathode to produce a pinched focus onto a high Z metal converter. The electron flow from the IVA driver into the load region complicates understanding of diode evolution. There is growing evidence that reducing cathode size below some ``optimum'' value in order to achieve desired spot size reduction results in pinch instabilities leading to either reduced dose-rate, early radiation power termination, or both. We are studying evolving pinch dynamics with current and x-ray monitors, optical diagnostics, and spectroscopy, as well as with LSP [1] code simulations. We are also planning changes to anode-cathode materials as well as changes to the diode aspect ratio in an attempt to mitigate the above trends and improve pinch stability while achieving simultaneous spot size reduction. Experiments are ongoing, and latest results will be reported [1]. LSP is a software product of ATK Mission Research, Albuquerque, NM. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Adminis-tration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. A novel heterozygous RIT1 mutation in a patient with Noonan syndrome, leukopenia, and transient myeloproliferation-a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nemcikova, Michaela; Vejvalkova, Sarka; Fencl, Filip; Sukova, Martina; Krepelova, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a genetic condition presenting with typical facies, cardiac defects, short stature, variable developmental deficit, cryptorchidism, skeletal, and other abnormalities. Germline mutations in genes involved in the RAS/MAPK signaling have been discovered to underlie NS. Recently, missense mutations in RIT1 have been reported as causative for individuals with clinical signs of NS. We report on a 2.5-year-old boy with NS phenotype with a novel heterozygous change in the RIT1 gene. The patient was born prematurely from pregnancy monitored for polyhydramnios. At 7 months of age, non-immune neutropenia and splenomegaly have been observed. During the severe pneumonia at 10 months, significant progression of hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia with monocytosis (15-29 %), and thrombocytopenia occurred. Bone marrow evaluation showed myeloid hyperplasia and monocytosis, suggestive of myeloproliferative syndrome. Clinical phenotype (facial dysmorphism, soft hair, short neck, broad chest, widely spaced nipples, mild pectus carinatum, deep palmar creases, unilateral cryptorchidism), and moderate pulmonary valve stenosis with mild psychomotor delay were indicative of NS. DNA analysis identified a de novo heterozygous variant c.69A >T, p.(Lys23Asn) in exon 2 of the RIT1 gene, presumed to be causative. We present a patient with a clinical suspicion of NS carrying a novel substitution in RIT1 and hematologic findings not being observed in RIT1 positive patients to date. Thus, the case broadens variability of hematologic symptoms in RIT1 positive NS individuals. • Noonan syndrome is a common genetically heterogeneous disorder of autosomal dominant inheritance characterized by craniofacial dysmorphism, short stature, congenital heart defects, variable cognitive deficit, and other anomalies. What is new: • We report on a 2.5-year-old male patient with clinical signs of NS and hematologic abnormalities, in whom a novel heterozygous substitution in RIT1 with probable

  7. Therapeutic Efficacy of Alpha-RIT Using a (213)Bi-Anti-hCD138 Antibody in a Mouse Model of Ovarian Peritoneal Carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Derrien, Aurélie; Gouard, Sébastien; Maurel, Catherine; Gaugler, Marie-Hélène; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Classe, Jean-Marc; Chérel, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian peritoneal carcinomatosis is a pathology for which effective cures are currently lacking. New research protocols seek to eradicate residual micrometastases following cytoreductive surgery by using hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) or radioimmunotherapy (RIT). This study aims to first develop alpha-RIT using an anti-CD138 mAb radiolabeled with an alpha-emitter, bismuth-213 ((213)Bi-B-B4) and HIPEC in a nude mouse model and second to compare and combine these techniques. A murine model of postoperative ovarian peritoneal carcinomatosis was established. A pilot group of six mice received an intraperitoneal injection of luciferase-tagged SHIN-3 cells and bioluminescence was measured every day. Cytoreductive surgery was performed at day 14 (n = 4) and 29 (n = 2). Because the residual bioluminescence signal measured after surgery was equivalent to that obtained 3 days after the graft, HIPEC or alpha-RIT treatments were applied 3 days after the graft. Ten mice were treated by HIPEC with cisplatine (37.5 mg/mL), 11 with 7.4 MBq of (213)Bi-B-B4, seven with 11.1 MBq of (213)Bi-B-B4, and 10 mice were treated with the combined therapy (HIPEC + 7.4 MBq of (213)Bi-B-B4). Eleven mice received no treatment. Bioluminescence imaging and survival were assessed. Alpha-RIT 7.4 MBq and 11.1 MBq significantly improved survival (p = 0.0303 and p = 0.0070, respectively), whereas HIPEC and HIPEC + alpha-RIT treatments did not significantly ameliorate survival as compared to the control group. Survival was significantly increased by alpha-RIT treatment in mice with peritoneal carcinomatosis of ovarian origin; however, HIPEC alone or in combination with alpha-RIT had no significant effect.

  8. FPGA-based Upgrade to RITS-6 Control System, Designed with EMP Considerations

    SciT

    Harold D. Anderson, John T. Williams

    2009-07-01

    The existing control system for the RITS-6, a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator located at Sandia National Laboratories, was built as a system of analog switches because the operators needed to be close enough to the machine to hear pulsed-power breakdowns, yet the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) emitted would disable any processor-based solutions. The resulting system requires operators to activate and deactivate a series of 110-V relays manually in a complex order. The machine is sensitive to both the order of operation and the time taken between steps. A mistake in either case would cause a misfire and possible machine damage. Basedmore » on these constraints, a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) was chosen as the core of a proposed upgrade to the control system. An FPGA is a series of logic elements connected during programming. Based on their connections, the elements can mimic primitive logic elements, a process called synthesis. The circuit is static; all paths exist simultaneously and do not depend on a processor. This should make it less sensitive to EMP. By shielding it and using good electromagnetic interference-reduction practices, it should continue to operate well in the electrically noisy environment. The FPGA has two advantages over the existing system. In manual operation mode, the synthesized logic gates keep the operators in sequence. In addition, a clock signal and synthesized countdown circuit provides an automated sequence, with adjustable delays, for quickly executing the time-critical portions of charging and firing. The FPGA is modeled as a set of states, each state being a unique set of values for the output signals. The state is determined by the input signals, and in the automated segment by the value of the synthesized countdown timer, with the default mode placing the system in a safe configuration. Unlike a processor-based system, any system stimulus that results in an abort situation immediately executes a shutdown, with only a

  9. Evaluation of a gamma camera system for the RITS-6 accelerator using the self-magnetic pinch diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Timothy J.; Kiefer, Mark L.; Gignac, Raymond; Baker, Stuart A.

    2015-08-01

    The self-magnetic pinch (SMP) diode is an intense radiographic source fielded on the Radiographic Integrated Test Stand (RITS-6) accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. The accelerator is an inductive voltage adder (IVA) that can operate from 2-10 MV with currents up to 160 kA (at 7 MV). The SMP diode consists of an annular cathode separated from a flat anode, holding the bremsstrahlung conversion target, by a vacuum gap. Until recently the primary imaging diagnostic utilized image plates (storage phosphors) which has generally low DQE at these photon energies along with other problems. The benefits of using image plates include a high-dynamic range, good spatial resolution, and ease of use. A scintillator-based X-ray imaging system or "gamma camera" has been fielded in front of RITS and the SMP diode which has been able to provide vastly superior images in terms of signal-to-noise with similar resolution and acceptable dynamic range.

  10. Probing the Symetry Energy at supra-saturation density with the S πRIT Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barney, Jonathan; S πRIT Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The S πRIT Time Projection Chamber (TPC) was designed and constructed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Texas A&M University, RIKEN and Kyoto University. It was used in a campaign of experiments at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory at RIKEN, intended to constrain the symmetry term of the Nuclear Equation of State at around twice saturation density. The commissioning of the S πRIT TPC was completed in spring 2016, with the experimental campaign also performed in 2016. The experiment is designed especially to compare the ratio of negative and positive pions produced in asymmetric collisions. Four separate Sn beams (132Sn, 124Sn, 112Sn, 108Sn) are impinged on isotopically enriched fixed Sn (124Sn, 112Sn) targets, with an energy at about 270 AMeV. Most pions are produced in the central region of the collision and provide an effective probe for the high density region of the collision. I will present preliminary results from the experiments and the on-going efforts to analyze the pion spectra. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE under Grant Nos. DE-SC0014530, DENA0002923, US NSF Grant No. PHY-1565546, and the Japanese MEXT KAKENHI Grant No. 24105004.

  11. 41 CFR 302-17.14 - Where can I find the tax tables used for calculating the relocation income tax (RIT) allowances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where can I find the tax... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES..., State, and Puerto Rico needed for calculating RIT allowance are published annually as an FTR Bulletin...

  12. North Carolina Linking Study: A Study of the Alignment of the NWEA RIT Scale with the North Carolina State End of Grade (EOG) Testing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) completed a study to connect the scale of the North Carolina State End of Grade (EOG) Testing Program used for North Carolina's mathematics and reading assessments with NWEA's Rausch Interval Unit (RIT) scale. Information from the state assessments was used in a study to establish…

  13. Parental dreams, dilemmas, and decision-making in cinéma vérité.

    PubMed

    Little, G A; Kahn, R; Green, R M

    1999-01-01

    Our film Dreams and Dilemmas: Parents and the Practice of Neonatal Care is on its way to meeting its goal of furthering the "Principles for Family Centered Neonatal Care" (Harrison H. Pediatrics 1993;92:643-50) through cinéma vérité depiction of parental involvement in decision-making. Reality-based filmmaking can provide valuable and successful educational material that advances care and understanding. However, there are real practical and ethical concerns such as privacy, consent, and uncertain or unknown future impact on participants. Successful reality-based filmmaking in a complex medical environment such as a neonatal intensive care unit requires careful attention to ways of ensuring full communication between all those involved and efforts to allay participants' anxiety about being portrayed unfavorably. The most important ingredient, however, is the skill and ability of the filmmaker to engender trust.

  14. The Zur regulon of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Zinc is considered as an essential element for all living organisms, but it can be toxic at large concentrations. Bacteria therefore tightly regulate zinc metabolism. The Cg2502 protein of Corynebacterium glutamicum was a candidate to control zinc metabolism in this species, since it was classified as metalloregulator of the zinc uptake regulator (Zur) subgroup of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family of DNA-binding transcription regulators. Results The cg2502 (zur) gene was deleted in the chromosome of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 by an allelic exchange procedure to generate the zur-deficient mutant C. glutamicum JS2502. Whole-genome DNA microarray hybridizations and real-time RT-PCR assays comparing the gene expression in C. glutamicum JS2502 with that of the wild-type strain detected 18 genes with enhanced expression in the zur mutant. The expression data were combined with results from cross-genome comparisons of shared regulatory sites, revealing the presence of candidate Zur-binding sites in the mapped promoter regions of five transcription units encoding components of potential zinc ABC-type transporters (cg0041-cg0042/cg0043; cg2911-cg2912-cg2913), a putative secreted protein (cg0040), a putative oxidoreductase (cg0795), and a putative P-loop GTPase of the COG0523 protein family (cg0794). Enhanced transcript levels of the respective genes in C. glutamicum JS2502 were verified by real-time RT-PCR, and complementation of the mutant with a wild-type zur gene reversed the effect of differential gene expression. The zinc-dependent expression of the putative cg0042 and cg2911 operons was detected in vivo with a gfp reporter system. Moreover, the zinc-dependent binding of purified Zur protein to double-stranded 40-mer oligonucleotides containing candidate Zur-binding sites was demonstrated in vitro by DNA band shift assays. Conclusion Whole-genome expression profiling and DNA band shift assays demonstrated that Zur directly represses in a zinc

  15. SPiRIT-TPC with GET readout electronics for the study of density dependent symmetry energy of high dense matter with Heavy RI collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, Tadaaki; SPiRIT Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The nuclear Equation of State (EoS) is a fundamental property of nuclear matter that describes the relationships between the parameters for a nuclear system, such as energy, density and temperature. An international collaboration, named SPiRIT, to study the nuclear EoS has been formed recently. One of the main devices of experimental setup is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) which will be installed into the SAMURAI dipole magnet at RIKEN-RIBF. The TPC can measure charged pions, protons and light ions simultaneously in heavy RI collisions, and those will be used as probes to study the asymmetric dense nuclear matter. In addition to the status of the SPiRIT project, testing of SPiRIT-TPC with GET electronics will be presented in this talk. GET, general electronics for TPC, is a project for the development of novel electronics for TPC supported by NSF and ANR. This work is supported in part by the Japan Grant-in-Aide award and the US DOE grant DE-SC0004835 and JUSEIPEN.

  16. Structural and Mechanistic Basis of Zinc Regulation Across the E. coli Zur Regulon

    PubMed Central

    Gilston, Benjamin A.; Wang, Suning; Marcus, Mason D.; Canalizo-Hernández, Mónica A.; Swindell, Elden P.; Xue, Yi; Mondragón, Alfonso; O'Halloran, Thomas V.

    2014-01-01

    Commensal microbes, whether they are beneficial or pathogenic, are sensitive to host processes that starve or swamp the prokaryote with large fluctuations in local zinc concentration. To understand how microorganisms coordinate a dynamic response to changes in zinc availability at the molecular level, we evaluated the molecular mechanism of the zinc-sensing zinc uptake regulator (Zur) protein at each of the known Zur-regulated genes in Escherichia coli. We solved the structure of zinc-loaded Zur bound to the PznuABC promoter and show that this metalloregulatory protein represses gene expression by a highly cooperative binding of two adjacent dimers to essentially encircle the core element of each of the Zur-regulated promoters. Cooperativity in these protein-DNA interactions requires a pair of asymmetric salt bridges between Arg52 and Asp49′ that connect otherwise independent dimers. Analysis of the protein-DNA interface led to the discovery of a new member of the Zur-regulon: pliG. We demonstrate this gene is directly regulated by Zur in a zinc responsive manner. The pliG promoter forms stable complexes with either one or two Zur dimers with significantly less protein-DNA cooperativity than observed at other Zur regulon promoters. Comparison of the in vitro Zur-DNA binding affinity at each of four Zur-regulon promoters reveals ca. 10,000-fold variation Zur-DNA binding constants. The degree of Zur repression observed in vivo by comparison of transcript copy number in wild-type and Δzur strains parallels this trend spanning a 100-fold difference. We conclude that the number of ferric uptake regulator (Fur)-family dimers that bind within any given promoter varies significantly and that the thermodynamic profile of the Zur-DNA interactions directly correlates with the physiological response at different promoters. PMID:25369000

  17. Genetic association of RIT2 rs12456492 polymorphism and Parkinson's disease susceptibility in Asian populations: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanjun; Liu, Wei; Tan, Kun; Peng, Jing; Zhu, Yaowu; Wang, Xiong

    2015-09-03

    Recent studies investigating the association of the Ras-like without CAAX 2 (RIT2) polymorphism, rs12456492, with Parkinson's disease (PD) are controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to study the association between rs12456492 and PD susceptibility in Asian populations. Literature searches of PubMed and Embase were performed up to June 3, 2015, and the strength of the association between rs12456492 and PD was evaluated by odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Four studies conducted between 2013 and 2015, comprising 2017 PD cases and 2010 controls, were included in the meta-analysis. Significant association of rs12456492 with PD was found in the dominant (GG + AG vs. AA: OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.20-1.44, P = 0.00) and additive models (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.03-1.83, P = 0.030). Although sensitivity analysis found that the overall result was stable only in the dominant genetic model, a publication bias was also detected. Therefore, the results should be treated with caution. The current meta-analysis suggested that rs12456492 might be associated with increased PD risk in Asian populations, but studies using larger sample sizes and different ethnic populations will be needed to further confirm this association.

  18. Improvement of the Power Control Unit for Ion Thruster to Cope with Milli-Newton Range RIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceruti, Luca; Polli, Aldo; Galantini, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    The recent development and testing activities of a miniaturized Radio-Frequency Ion Thruster, with relevant ancillary elements, in the range of 10 to 100 micro-Newtons, joined with past flight heritage in the milli-Newton range (RIT-10 for Artemis), shows an appealing capability of such an electrical propulsion technology to support thrust in a wide range of space applications from very fine attitude control up to deorbiting of small-medium satellites. As expectable, this implies that the mentioned ancillary elements (mainly Radio-Frequency Generator and Power Control Unit) require adaptation to the different requirements imposed to different missions and thrust ranges. Regarding the Power Control Unit different power levels, both the controllability requirements and the spacecraft interfaces impose non negligible adaptation leading to significant increase of development activities and associated cost (nonrecurring) increase. From that and with the main purpose to minimize such impacts and provide reliable equipments, Selex ES since a few years is devoting maximum attention in the incremental innovation of the existing design in order to maximize their reuse.

  19. Digitale Transformation, aber wie? - Von der Spielwiese zur Umsetzungsplanung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Thomas

    Es besteht wohl kaum Anlass zur Annahme, dass die seit Jahrzehnten etablierten Markt- und Technologiestrukturen der Energiewirtschaft sich nicht in einem radikalen Ablöseprozess mit Gewinnern und Verlierern befinden. Aber Vorsicht - vordergründig bereits verloren erscheinende Geschäftsmodelle erfahren im Zuge der Digitalisierung einerseits noch intensiveren Wettbewerbsdruck, können aber andererseits von diesem "technologischen Jungbrunnen" profitieren, um verlorenes Terrain zurückzugewinnen. Im folgenden Kapitel wird ein Managementzyklus aufgezeigt, der in Anlehnung an die bereits erfolgreiche Implementierung digitaler R/Evolutionen anderer Branchen aufzeigt, wie die Geschäftsleitung systematisch kostenbewusst und zielorientiert die Digitalisierung umsetzen kann.

  20. Effects of implantable cardioverter/defibrillator shock and antitachycardia pacing on anxiety and quality of life: A MADIT-RIT substudy.

    PubMed

    Perini, Alessandro Paoletti; Kutyifa, Valentina; Veazie, Peter; Daubert, James P; Schuger, Claudio; Zareba, Wojciech; McNitt, Scott; Rosero, Spencer; Tompkins, Christine; Padeletti, Luigi; Moss, Arthur J

    2017-07-01

    Effects of implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD) shocks and antitachycardia pacing (ATP) on anxiety and quality of life (QoL) in ICD patients are poorly understood. We evaluated changes in QoL from baseline to 9-month follow-up using the EQ-5D questionnaire in patients enrolled in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Reduce Inappropriate Therapy (MADIT-RIT) (n=1,268). We assessed anxiety levels using the Florida Shock Anxiety Scale (1-10 score) in patients with appropriate or inappropriate shocks or ATP compared to those with no ICD therapy during the first 9 months postimplant. The analysis was stratified by number of ATP or shocks (0-1 vs ≥2) and adjusted for covariates. In MADIT-RIT, 15 patients (1%) had ≥2 appropriate shocks, 38 (3%) had ≥2 appropriate ATPs. Two or more inappropriate shocks were delivered in 16 patients (1%); ≥2 inappropriate ATPs, in 70. In multivariable analysis, patients with ≥2 appropriate shocks had higher levels of shock-related anxiety than those with ≤1 appropriate shock (P<.01). Furthermore, ≥2 inappropriate shocks produced more anxiety than ≤1 inappropriate shock (P=.005). Consistently, ≥2 appropriate ATPs resulted in more anxiety than ≤1 (P=.028), whereas the number of inappropriate ATPs showed no association with anxiety levels (P=.997). However, there was no association between QoL and appropriate or inappropriate ATP/shock (all P values > .05). In MADIT-RIT, ≥2 appropriate or inappropriate ICD shocks and ≥2 appropriate ATPs are associated with more anxiety at 9-month follow-up despite no significant changes in the assessment of global QoL by the EQ-5D questionnaire. Innovative ICD programming reducing inappropriate therapies may help deal with patient concerns about the device. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of ICD programming on inappropriate and appropriate ICD Therapies in ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy: the MADIT-RIT trial.

    PubMed

    Sedláček, Kamil; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Kutyifa, Valentina; McNitt, Scott; Thomsen, Poul Erik Bloch; Klein, Helmut; Stockburger, Martin; Wichterle, Dan; Merkely, Bela; DE LA Concha, Joaquin Fernandez; Swissa, Moshe; Zareba, Wojciech; Moss, Arthur J; Kautzner, Josef; Ruwald, Martin H

    2015-04-01

    The MADIT-RIT trial demonstrated reduction of inappropriate and appropriate ICD therapies and mortality by high-rate cut-off and 60-second-delayed VT therapy ICD programming in patients with a primary prophylactic ICD indication. The aim of this analysis was to study effects of MADIT-RIT ICD programming in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. First and total occurrences of both inappropriate and appropriate ICD therapies were analyzed by multivariate Cox models in 791 (53%) patients with ischemic and 707 (47%) patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy had similar incidence of first inappropriate (9% and 11%, P = 0.21) and first appropriate ICD therapy (11.6% and 14.1%, P = 0.15). Patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy had higher mortality rate (6.1% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.01). MADIT-RIT high-rate cut-off (arm B) and delayed VT therapy ICD programming (arm C) compared with conventional (arm A) ICD programming were associated with a significant risk reduction of first inappropriate and appropriate ICD therapy in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy (HR range 0.11-0.34, P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Occurrence of total inappropriate and appropriate ICD therapies was significantly reduced by high-rate cut-off ICD programming and delayed VT therapy ICD programming in both ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy patients. High-rate cut-off and delayed VT therapy ICD programming are associated with significant reduction in first and total inappropriate and appropriate ICD therapy in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Mortality reduction in relation to implantable cardioverter defibrillator programming in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Reduce Inappropriate Therapy (MADIT-RIT).

    PubMed

    Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Schuger, Claudio; Moss, Arthur J; Kutyifa, Valentina; Olshansky, Brian; Greenberg, Henry; Cannom, David S; Estes, N A Mark; Ruwald, Martin H; Huang, David T; Klein, Helmut; McNitt, Scott; Beck, Christopher A; Goldstein, Robert; Brown, Mary W; Kautzner, Josef; Shoda, Morio; Wilber, David; Zareba, Wojciech; Daubert, James P

    2014-10-01

    The benefit of novel implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) programming in reducing inappropriate ICD therapy and mortality was demonstrated in Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Reduce Inappropriate Therapy (MADIT-RIT). However, the cause of mortality reduction remains incompletely evaluated. We aimed to identify factors associated with mortality, with focus on ICD therapy and programming in the MADIT-RIT population. In MADIT-RIT, 1500 patients with a primary prophylactic indication for ICD or cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator were randomized to 1 of 3 different ICD programming arms: conventional programming (ventricular tachycardia zone ≥170 beats per minute), high-rate programming (ventricular tachycardia zone ≥200 beats per minute), and delayed programming (60-second delay before therapy ≥170 beats per minute). Multivariate Cox models were used to assess the influence of time-dependent appropriate and inappropriate ICD therapy (shock and antitachycardia pacing) and randomized programming arm on all-cause mortality. During an average follow-up of 1.4±0.6 years, 71 of 1500 (5%) patients died: cardiac in 40 patients (56.3%), noncardiac in 23 patients (32.4%), and unknown in 8 patients (11.3%). Appropriate shocks (hazard ratio, 6.32; 95% confidence interval, 3.13-12.75; P<0.001) and inappropriate therapy (hazard ratio, 2.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-5.31; P=0.01) were significantly associated with an increased mortality risk. There was no evidence of increased mortality risk in patients who experienced appropriate antitachycardia pacing only (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-2.88; P=0.98). Randomization to conventional programming was identified as an independent predictor of death when compared with patients randomized to high-rate programming (hazard ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-3.71; P=0.03). In MADIT-RIT, appropriate shocks, inappropriate ICD therapy, and randomization to

  3. RitR is an archetype for a novel family of redox sensors in the streptococci that has evolved from two-component response regulators and is required for pneumococcal colonization

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lanlan; Morrissey, Julie A.; Clarke, Thomas B.; Yesilkaya, Hasan; Silvaggi, Nicholas R.

    2018-01-01

    To survive diverse host environments, the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae must prevent its self-produced, extremely high levels of peroxide from reacting with intracellular iron. However, the regulatory mechanism(s) by which the pneumococcus accomplishes this balance remains largely enigmatic, as this pathogen and other related streptococci lack all known redox-sensing transcription factors. Here we describe a two-component-derived response regulator, RitR, as the archetype for a novel family of redox sensors in a subset of streptococcal species. We show that RitR works to both repress iron transport and enable nasopharyngeal colonization through a mechanism that exploits a single cysteine (Cys128) redox switch located within its linker domain. Biochemical experiments and phylogenetics reveal that RitR has diverged from the canonical two-component virulence regulator CovR to instead dimerize and bind DNA only upon Cys128 oxidation in air-rich environments. Atomic structures show that Cys128 oxidation initiates a “helical unravelling” of the RitR linker region, suggesting a mechanism by which the DNA-binding domain is then released to interact with its cognate regulatory DNA. Expanded computational studies indicate this mechanism could be shared by many microbial species outside the streptococcus genus. PMID:29750817

  4. Design of a Radiographic Integrated Test Stand (RITS) Based on a Voltage Adder, To Drive a Diode Immersed in a High Magnetic Field

    SciT

    Bailey, V.L.; Corcoran, P.; Droemer, D.

    Recent experiments (1) have adapted existing magne-tically insulated induction voltage adders (Sabre, Hermes III) to drive a 10 MV diode immersed in magnetic fields as high as 50 T. In such a diode, an electron beam of tens of kA can be confined by the magnetic field to a diameter of about 1 mm, and when it strikes a high-Z anode it can create a bremsstrahlung x-ray source intense enough to radiograph massive objects with high resolution. RITS is an adder system designed specially to drive such diodes, and it will be used to develop and exploit them. As inmore » other adder-based pulsers such as Sabre, Hermes III, and Kalif-Heliq the induction cells have amorphous- iron cores, and the pulse-forming system consists of water dielectric pulse lines and self-closing water switches that are pulse-charged from Marx-charged intermediate water capacitors through laser-triggered Rimfire switches. An oil prepulse switch in series with each pulse line is designed to reduce cathode prepulse to less than ± 5 kV, and a means is provided to bias the cathode and avoid negative prepulse entirely. The RITS pulse-forming system consists of two modules. Each module has one Marx that charges two 3 MV intermediate stores, each of which charges three 7.8 ohm pulselines, making six pulselines per module. The two modules in concert can supply 1.35 MV, 50 ns pulses to a twelve-cell adder and thus drive a 16 MV diode with a single pulse. The 1.35 MV induction cells each have a single-point feed, from which a single, slotted azimuthal oil transmission line distributes energy uniformly around the cell. The modules can also be pulsed separately at different times, either to power two 8 MV adders that each drive one of two closely-spaced cathodes immersed in a common magnetic field, or to provide two separate pulses to a common six- cell adder and a single 8 NIV diode; in these two-pulse modes, the spacing of the two 50 ns pulses may be chosen to be anything from a few hundred ns upward. The

  5. Liquid Biopsy zur Überwachung von Melanompatienten.

    PubMed

    Gaiser, Maria Rita; von Bubnoff, Nikolas; Gebhardt, Christoffer; Utikal, Jochen Sven

    2018-04-01

    In den letzten sechs Jahren wurden verschiedene innovative systemische Therapien zur Behandlung des metastasierten malignen Melanoms (MM) entwickelt. Die konventionelle Chemotherapie wurde durch neuartige Primärtherapien abgelöst, darunter systemische Immuntherapien (Anti-CTLA4- und Anti-PD1-Antikörper; Zulassung von Anti-PDL1-Antikörpern erwartet) und Therapien, die gegen bestimmte Mutationen gerichtet sind (BRAF, NRAS und c-KIT). Daher stehen die behandelnden Ärzte neuen Herausforderungen gegenüber, beispielsweise der Stratifizierung von Patienten für geeignete Behandlungen und der Überwachung von Langzeit-Respondern auf Progression. Folglich werden zuverlässige Methoden zur Überwachung von Krankheitsprogression oder Behandlungsresistenz benötigt. Lokalisierte und fortgeschrittene Krebserkrankungen können zur Bildung zirkulierender Tumorzellen und Tumor-DNA (ctDNA) führen, die sich in Proben von peripherem Blut nachweisen und quantifizieren lassen (Liquid Biopsy). Im Fall von Melanompatienten können die Ergebnisse von Liquid Biopsy als neuartige prädiktive Biomarker bei therapeutischen Entscheidungen hilfreich sein, insbesondere im Zusammenhang mit mutationsbasierten zielgerichteten Therapien. Die Herausforderungen bei der Anwendung der Liquid Biopsy beinhalten strikte Kriterien für den Phänotyp der zirkulierenden MM-Zellen oder ihrer Fragmente und die Instabilität von ctDNA im Blut. In diesem Übersichtsartikel diskutieren wir die Beschränkungen der Liquid Biopsy hinsichtlich ihrer Anwendung in der Routinediagnostik. © 2018 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Components of the Unique Zur Regulon of Cupriavidus metallidurans Mediate Cytoplasmic Zinc Handling

    PubMed Central

    Bütof, Lucy; Schmidt-Vogler, Christopher; Herzberg, Martin; Große, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zinc is an essential trace element, yet it is toxic at high concentrations. In the betaproteobacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans, the highly efficient removal of surplus zinc from the periplasm is responsible for the outstanding metal resistance of the organism. Rather than having a typical Zur-dependent, high-affinity ATP-binding cassette transporter of the ABC protein superfamily for zinc uptake at low concentrations, C. metallidurans has the secondary zinc importer ZupT of the zinc-regulated transporter, iron-regulated transporter (ZRT/IRT)-like protein (ZIP) family. It is important to understand, therefore, how this zinc-resistant bacterium copes with exposure to low zinc concentrations. Members of the Zur regulon in C. metallidurans were identified by comparing the transcriptomes of a Δzur mutant and its parent strain. The consensus sequence of the Zur-binding box was derived for the zupTp promoter-regulatory region by use of a truncation assay. The motif was used to predict possible Zur boxes upstream of Zur regulon members. The binding of Zur to these boxes was confirmed. Two Zur boxes upstream of the cobW1 gene, encoding a putative zinc chaperone, proved to be required for complete repression of cobW1 and its downstream genes in cells cultivated in mineral salts medium. A Zur box upstream of each of zur-cobW2, cobW3, and zupT permitted both low expression levels of these genes and their upregulation under conditions of zinc starvation. This demonstrates a compartmentalization of zinc homeostasis in C. metallidurans, where the periplasm is responsible for the removal of surplus zinc, cytoplasmic components are responsible for the management of zinc as an essential cofactor, and the two compartments are connected by ZupT. IMPORTANCE Elucidating zinc homeostasis is necessary for understanding both host-pathogen interactions and the performance of free-living bacteria in their natural environments. Escherichia coli acquires zinc under conditions of

  7. The components of the unique Zur regulon of Cupriavidus metallidurans mediate cytoplasmic zinc handling.

    PubMed

    Bütof, Lucy; Schmidt-Vogler, Christopher; Herzberg, Martin; Große, Cornelia; Nies, Dietrich H

    2017-08-14

    Zinc is an essential trace element and at the same time it is toxic at high concentrations. In the beta-proteobacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans the highly efficient removal of surplus zinc from the periplasm is responsible for its outstanding metal resistance. Rather than having a typical Zur-dependent, high-affinity ATP-binding cassette transporter of the ABC protein superfamily for zinc uptake at low concentrations, C. metallidurans instead has the secondary zinc importer ZupT of the ZRT/IRT (ZIP) family. It is important to understand, therefore, how this zinc-resistant bacterium copes when it is exposed to low zinc concentrations. Members of the Zur regulon in C. metallidurans were identified by comparing the transcriptomes of a Δ zur mutant and its parent strain. The consensus sequence of the Zur-binding box was derived for the zupTp promoter-regulatory region using a truncation assay. The motif was used to predict possible Zur-boxes upstream of Zur regulon members. Binding of Zur to these boxes was confirmed. Two Zur-boxes upstream of the cobW 1 gene, encoding a putative zinc chaperone, proved to be required for complete repression of cobW 1 and its downstream genes in cells cultivated in mineral salts medium. A Zur box upstream of each of zur-cobW 2 , cobW 3 and zupT permitted low-expression level of these genes plus their up-regulation under zinc starvation conditions. This demonstrates a compartmentalization of zinc homeostasis in C. metallidurans with the periplasm being responsible for removal of surplus zinc and cytoplasmic components for management of zinc as an essential co-factor, with both compartments connected by ZupT. Importance Elucidating zinc homeostasis is necessary to understand both host-pathogen interactions and performance of free-living bacteria in their natural environment. Escherichia coli acquires zinc under low zinc concentrations by the Zur-controlled ZnuABC importer of the ABC superfamily, and this was also the paradigm for other

  8. Novel ICD Programming and Inappropriate ICD Therapy in CRT-D Versus ICD Patients: A MADIT-RIT Sub-Study.

    PubMed

    Kutyifa, Valentina; Daubert, James P; Schuger, Claudio; Goldenberg, Ilan; Klein, Helmut; Aktas, Mehmet K; McNitt, Scott; Stockburger, Martin; Merkely, Bela; Zareba, Wojciech; Moss, Arthur J

    2016-01-01

    The Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Reduce Inappropriate therapy (MADIT-RIT) trial showed a significant reduction in inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy in patients programmed to high-rate cut-off (Arm B) or delayed ventricular tachycardia therapy (Arm C), compared with conventional programming (Arm A). There is limited data on the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy with a cardioverter defibrillator (CRT-D) on the effect of ICD programming. We aimed to elucidate the effect of CRT-D on ICD programming to reduce inappropriate ICD therapy in patients implanted with CRT-D or an ICD, enrolled in MADIT-RIT. The primary end point of this study was the first inappropriate ICD therapy. Secondary end points were inappropriate anti-tachycardia pacing and inappropriate ICD shock. The study enrolled 742 (49%) patients with an ICD and 757 (51%) patients with a CRT-D. Patients implanted with a CRT-D had 62% lower risk of inappropriate ICD therapy than those with an ICD only (hazard ratio [HR] =0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.57; P<0.001). High-rate cut-off or delayed ventricular tachycardia therapy programming significantly reduced the risk of inappropriate ICD therapy compared with conventional ICD programming in ICD (HR=0.14 [B versus A]; HR=0.21 [C versus A]) and CRT-D patients (HR=0.15 [B versus A]; HR=0.23 [C versus A]; P<0.001 for all). There was a significant reduction in inappropriate anti-tachycardia pacings in both group and a significant reduction in inappropriate ICD shock in CRT-D patients. Patients implanted with a CRT-D have lower risk of inappropriate ICD therapy than those with an ICD. Innovative ICD programming significantly reduces the risk of inappropriate ICD therapy in both ICD and CRT-D patients. http://clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00947310. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Characterization and predictors of first and subsequent inappropriate ICD therapy by heart rate ranges: Result of the MADIT-RIT efficacy analysis.

    PubMed

    Kutyifa, Valentina; Daubert, James P; Olshansky, Brian; Huang, David T; Zhang, Claire; Ruwald, Anne-Christine H; McNitt, Scott; Zareba, Wojciech; Moss, Arthur J; Schuger, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    Data on inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy and effects of programming by heart rate are lacking. We aimed to characterize inappropriate ICD therapy and assess the effects of novel programming by heart rate. Incidence and causes of inappropriate therapy by heart rate range (below or above 200 bpm) were assessed. Predictors of inappropriate therapy and effects of programming by heart rate were evaluated with multivariate Cox regression models. Crossovers were excluded. Inappropriate therapy occurred in 9.2% of the total patient population, with 19% of patients randomized to study arm A, 3.6% in arm B, and 4.7% in arm C. Inappropriate therapies <200 bpm were attributable to supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)/sinus tachycardia (78%) or atrial fibrillation/flutter (20%). Inappropriate therapy ≥200 bpm occurred because of SVT (47%), atrial fibrillation/flutter (41%), or electromagnetic interference (13%). Conventional ICD programming was associated with more inappropriate therapy <200 bpm than high-rate or delayed therapy, as were younger age, history of atrial arrhythmia, advanced New York Heart Association functional class, ICD versus cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator, and absence of diabetes. High-rate and long-delay therapy significantly reduced the risk of inappropriate therapy in the <200 bpm range. Long delay was associated with further reduction of fast (≥200 bpm) inappropriate therapy (P = .032) and a reduction in subsequent inappropriate episodes (P = .006). In MADIT-RIT, inappropriate ICD therapy is most frequent at rates below 200 bpm and can be predicted, and effectively prevented, with high-rate cutoff programming. Long-delay therapy effectively reduces fast inappropriate therapy ≥200 bpm and subsequent events. [ http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00947310]. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between age and inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in MADIT-RIT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Reduce Inappropriate Therapy).

    PubMed

    Biton, Yitschak; Huang, David T; Goldenberg, Ilan; Rosero, Spencer; Moss, Arthur J; Kutyifa, Valentina; McNitt, Scott; Strasberg, Boris; Zareba, Wojciech; Barsheshet, Alon

    2016-04-01

    There is limited data regarding the relationship between age and inappropriate therapy among patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and resynchronization therapy. We aimed to investigate this relationship and the effect of ICD programming on inappropriate therapy by age. In the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Reduce Inappropriate Therapy (MADIT-RIT) 1500 patients were randomized to 3 ICD programming arms: (A) conventional with ventricular tachycardia (VT) therapy ≥170; (B) high-rate cutoff with VT therapy ≥200, and (C) prolonged 60-second delay for VT therapy ≥170. We investigated the relationship between age, the risk of inappropriate ICD therapy (including antitachycardia pacing [ATP] or shock), and ICD programming. Cumulative incidence function Kaplan-Meier graphs showed an inverse relationship between increasing quartiles of age (Q1: ≤55, Q2: 56-64, Q3: 65-71, and Q4: ≥72 years) and the risk for inappropriate therapy. Multivariate analyses showed that each increasing decade of life was associated with 34% (P < .001), 27% (P < .001), and 26% (P < .001) reduction in the risk of inappropriate shock, inappropriate ATP, and any inappropriate therapy, respectively. Treatment arms B and C as compared with arm A were associated with a significant reduction in the risk of inappropriate therapies across all age quartiles (P < .001 for all). Among patients with a primary prevention indication for an ICD, there is an inverse relationship between age and inappropriate ICD therapy. Innovative ICD programming of high-rate cutoff or prolonged delay for VT therapy is associated with significant reductions in inappropriate therapy among all age groups. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Verbesserte Visualisierung der Koronararterien in MSCT-Daten mit direkter Vergleichbarkeit zur Angiographie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacalli, Christina; Jähne, Marion; Wesarg, Stefan

    In diesem Beitrag stellen wir neue, automatisierte Verfahren zur Visualisierung der Koronararterien einerseits und für eine direkte Vergleichbarkeit mit konventionellen Angiogrammen andererseits vor. Unser Ansatz umfasst Methoden für die automatische Extraktion des Herzens aus kontrastverstärkten CT-Daten, sowie für die Maskierung grosser kontrastmittelgefüllter Kavitäten des Herzens, um die Sichtbarkeit der Koronararterien bei der Darstellung mittels Volumenrendering zu verbessern. Zum direkten Vergleich mit konventionellen Angiographien wurde ein Verfahren zur automatischen Generierung von Projektionsansichten aus den CT-Daten entwickelt.

  12. Zur (FurB) is a key factor in the control of the oxidative stress response in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Sein-Echaluce, Violeta C; González, Andrés; Napolitano, Mauro; Luque, Ignacio; Barja, Francisco; Peleato, M Luisa; Fillat, María F

    2015-06-01

    Iron and zinc are necessary nutrients whose homeostasis is tightly controlled by members of the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) superfamily in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120. Although the link between iron metabolism and oxidative stress management is well documented, little is known about the connection between zinc homeostasis and the oxidative stress response in cyanobacteria. Zinc homeostasis in Anabaena is controlled by Zur, also named FurB. When overexpressed in Escherichia coli, Zur (FurB) improved cell survival during oxidative stress. In order to investigate the possible correlation between Zur and the oxidative stress response in Anabaena, zur deletion and zur-overexpressing strains have been constructed, and the consequences of Zur imbalance evaluated. The lack of Zur increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), whereas an excess of Zur enhanced oxidative stress resistance. Both mutants displayed pleiotropic phenotypes, including alterations on the filament surfaces observable by scanning electron microscopy, reduced content of endogenous H2 O2 and altered expression of sodA, catalases and several peroxiredoxins. Transcriptional and biochemical analyses unveiled that the appropriate level of Zur is required for proper control of the oxidative stress response and allowed us to identify major antioxidant enzymes as novel members of the Zur regulon. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Eine selbstkonsistente Carleman Linearisierung zur Analyse von Oszillatoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Harry; Mathis, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    Die Analyse nichtlinearer dynamischer Schaltungen ist bis heute eine herausfordernde Aufgabe, da nur selten analytische Lösungen angegeben werden können. Daher wurden eine Vielzahl von Methoden entwickelt, um eine qualitative oder quantitative Näherung für die Lösungen der Netzwerkgleichung zu erhalten. Oftmals wird beispielsweise eine Kleinsignalanalyse mit Hilfe einer Taylorreihe in einem Arbeitspunkt durchgeführt, die nach den Gliedern erster Ordnung abgebrochen wird. Allerdings ist diese Linearisierung nur in der Nähe des stabilen Arbeitspunktes für hyperbolische Systeme gültig. Besonders für die Analyse des dynamischen Verhaltens von Oszillatoren treten jedoch nicht-hyperbolische Systeme auf, sodass diese Methode nicht angewendet werden kann Mathis (2000). Carleman hat gezeigt, dass nichtlineare Differentialgleichungen mit polynomiellen Nichtlinearitäten in ein unendliches System von linearen Differentialgleichungen transformiert werden können Carleman (1932). Wird das unendlichdimensionale Gleichungssystem für numerische Zwecke abgebrochen, kann bei Oszillatoren der Übergang in eine stationäre Schwingung (Grenzzyklus) nicht wiedergegeben werden. In diesem Beitrag wird eine selbstkonsistente Carleman Linearisierung zur Untersuchung von Oszillatoren vorgestellt, die auch dann anwendbar ist, wenn die Nichtlinearitäten keinen Polynomen entsprechen. Anstelle einer linearen Näherung um einen Arbeitspunkt, erfolgt mit Hilfe der Carleman Linearisierung eine Approximation auf einem vorgegebenen Gebiet. Da es jedoch mit der selbstkonsistenten Technik nicht möglich ist, das stationäre Verhalten von Oszillatoren zu beschreiben, wird die Berechnung einer Poincaré-Abbildung durchgeführt. Mit dieser ist eine anschließende Analyse des Oszillators möglich.

  14. NWEA FAQ: RIT Scale Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Northwest Evaluation Association™ (NWEA™) conducts norming studies every several years to provide the best and most up-to-date information we can about student achievement and growth to better support educational decision-making. It is an important part of our commitment to our partners. The most recent NWEA norms were released in July 2015. Just…

  15. Assessing the radiological load on the environment in the middle Danube river basin on the basis of a study of the Kopački Rit Nature Park, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Petrinec, Branko; Sovilj, Marina Poje; Babić, Dinko; Meštrović, Tomislav; Miklavčić, Igor; Radolić, Vanja; Stanić, Denis; Vuković, Branko; Šoštarić, Marko

    2018-06-05

    A study of the environmental radioactivity in the Kopački Rit Nature Park, Croatia, is presented. This wildlife reserve is part of the Middle Danube River Basin, and it is exposed to various pollutants due to a number of human activities in the surroundings, where there is a nuclear power plant and also urban centres and areas of intense agricultural production. Results for the activity concentrations of soil and surface water samples do not indicate any elevated radioactivity level, which is confirmed by on-site measurements of ambient dose rate equivalent. An assessment of the radiological load on the local biota, carried out using the ERICA tool, implies an overall low radiological risk even if conservative values of the risk quotient are used. Therefore, human activities do not have a significant effect on the radiological load on the Kopački Rit area. A similar conclusion might be made with regard to numerous similar environments in the Middle Danube River Basin.

  16. Robuste Verzweigungserkennung von Gefäßen in CTA-Datensätzen zur modellbasierten Extraktion der Centerline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Thomas; Fritz, Dominik; Biermann, Christina; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    Bei der Befundung und Visualisierung von Blutgefäßen ist deren Centerline von zentraler Bedeutung. Die Unterscheidung zwischen unverzweigten Abschnitten des Gefäßes und Verzweigungsbereichen ermöglicht den Einsatz spezialisierter und sehr effizienter Algorithmen zur modellbasierten Extraktion der Centerline. In diesem Artikel wird ein robustes Verfahren zur Verzweigungserkennung vorgestellt. Das Verfahren beruht auf einem Front-Propagation-Ansatz mit dynamisch angepassten Schwellwerten und einer anschließenden Clusteranalyse. Die vorgestellte Methode zur Verzweigungserkennung wurde als Komponente einer Architektur zur Extraktion der Centerline auf handannotierten Datensätzen getestet. Erste Ergebnisse sind sehr vielversprechend und ermöglichen auch bei pathologischen Gefäßen eine robuste Detektion von Gefäßverzweigungen.

  17. Bacillus licheniformis Contains Two More PerR-Like Proteins in Addition to PerR, Fur, and Zur Orthologues

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Shin-Yeong; Yang, Yoon-Mo; Ryu, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Yumi; Won, Young-Bin; Lee, Yeh-Eun; Youn, Hwan; Lee, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family proteins include sensors of Fe (Fur), Zn (Zur), and peroxide (PerR). Among Fur family proteins, Fur and Zur are ubiquitous in most prokaryotic organisms, whereas PerR exists mainly in Gram positive bacteria as a functional homologue of OxyR. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus encode three Fur family proteins: Fur, Zur, and PerR. In this study, we identified five Fur family proteins from B. licheniformis: two novel PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) in addition to Fur (BL05249), Zur (BL03703), and PerR (BL00075) homologues. Our data indicate that all of the five B. licheniformis Fur homologues contain a structural Zn2+ site composed of four cysteine residues like many other Fur family proteins. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) as well as PerRBL (BL00075), but not FurBL (BL05249) and ZurBL (BL03703), can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation with different sensitivity. We also show that PerR2 (BL00690) has a PerR-like repressor activity for PerR-regulated genes in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that B. licheniformis contains three PerR subfamily proteins which can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation not by cysteine oxidation, in addition to Fur and Zur. PMID:27176811

  18. Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 18)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2003-01-01

    The 18th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the sixth collection of essays on the history of astronomy ("Beitræge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 6"), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains eight major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 19th centuries. The first article by Michael Weichenhan (Berlin) deals with "the invention of the disk-shaped earth: a chapter of Copernican apologetics". The author shows that the concept of a "disc-shaped Earth" was by no means widespread in the middle ages, but restricted to the father of the church Lactantius and some adherents. Nevertheless, it was used by adherents of Copernicus to show the absurd consequences of a strictly literal biblical interpretation -- here concerning the Earth's shape, disc versus sphere, there the geocentric versus the heliocentric system. This thorough philosophical study is followed by two very short articles. "The measuring accuracy of Tycho's large sextant" by Johann Wünsch investigates O-C values of planet-star distances, as based on Tycho's observations as published in the Historia Coelestis (a compilation, which is also based on Tycho's manuscripts, and published in Regensburg in 1672). The result is that standard deviations are 80 arcseconds for Saturn and 89 arcseconds for Jupiter and Mars, an unexpectedly poor result in view of the general opinion that Tycho was famous for his precision work. "The astronomer Christoph Grienberger and the Galilei trial" by Franz Daxecker deals with a Jesuit astronomer who was both the disciple and successor of the mathematician-astronomer Christopher Clavius at the Collegium Romanum. While he was inclined to Galilei early on, he was forced to propagate Aristotelian doctrine. The brief article is very concise, but extremely tiresome to read (3 pages of pure text are embellished by

  19. S2k-Leitlinie zum Gebrauch von Präparationen zur lokalen Anwendung auf der Haut (Topika).

    PubMed

    Wohlrab, Johannes; Staubach, Petra; Augustin, Matthias; Eisert, Lisa; Hünerbein, Andreas; Nast, Alexander; Reimann, Holger; Strömer, Klaus; Mahler, Vera

    2018-03-01

    Diese Leitlinie richtet sich an Assistenz- und Fachärzte der Dermatologie sowie an Kostenträger und politische Entscheidungsgremien. Die Leitlinie wurde im formellen Konsensusverfahren (S2k) von Dermatologen unter Einbindung von Apothekern erstellt. Die Leitlinie stellt allgemeine Aspekte der Pharmakokinetik sowie der regulatorischen Begrifflichkeiten dar. Es werden Empfehlungen zur Indikation von Magistralrezepturen sowie deren Qualitätssicherung gegeben. Die Bedeutung der galenischen Grundlagen und die Problematik bei einer Substitution gegeneinander verschiedener Grundlagen werden dargestellt. Die Leitlinie umfasst Kriterien zur Auswahl einer adäquaten Grundlage sowie spezifische Aspekte zur Therapieplanung. Die Leitlinie gibt Empfehlungen zum Management bei Unverträglichkeiten gegenüber Bestandteilen der Grundlagen oder Hilfsstoffe. © 2018 The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  20. The Zinc-Responsive Regulator Zur Controls a Zinc Uptake System and Some Ribosomal Proteins in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)▿

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Ho; Oh, So-Young; Kim, Soon-Jong; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2007-01-01

    In various bacteria, Zur, a zinc-specific regulator of the Fur family, regulates genes for zinc transport systems to maintain zinc homeostasis. It has also been suggested that Zur controls zinc mobilization by regulating some ribosomal proteins. The antibiotic-producing soil bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor contains four genes for Fur family regulators, and one (named zur) is located downstream of the znuACB operon encoding a putative zinc uptake transporter. We found that zinc specifically repressed the level of znuA transcripts and that this level was derepressed in a Δzur mutant. Purified Zur existing as homodimers bound to the znuA promoter region in the presence of zinc, confirming the role of Zur as a zinc-responsive repressor. We analyzed transcripts for paralogous forms of ribosomal proteins L31 (RpmE1 and RpmE2) and L33 (RpmG2 and RpmG3) for their dependence on Zur and found that RpmE2 and RpmG2 with no zinc-binding motif of conserved cysteines (C's) were negatively regulated by Zur. C-negative RpmG3 and C-positive RpmE1 were not regulated by Zur. Instead, they were regulated by the sigma factor σR as predicted from their promoter sequences. The rpmE1 and rpmG3 genes were partially induced by EDTA in a manner dependent on σR, suggesting that zinc depletion may stimulate the σR regulatory system. This finding reflects a link between thiol-oxidizing stress and zinc depletion. We determined the Zur-binding sites within znuA and rpmG2 promoter regions by footprinting analyses and identified a consensus inverted repeat sequence (TGaaAatgatTttCA, where uppercase letters represent the nucleotides common to all sites analyzed). This sequence closely matches that for mycobacterial Zur and allows the prediction of more genes in the Zur regulon. PMID:17416659

  1. Von neuen Geschäftsideen zur gelebten Digitalisierung in Utility 4.0 - das Integrierte Geschäftsmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doleski, Oliver D.

    Die Energiewirtschaft benötigt neue, digitale Geschäftsmodelle. Gegenwärtig folgt auf Liberalisierung und Energiewende die nächste Stufe einer weitreichenden Bereinigung des Versorgungsmarktes. Digitalisierung und Dezentralisierung sind heute in aller Munde und verlangen nach neuen Produkten und Dienstleistungen. Dabei wirken die immensen Herausforderungen einer digitalen Energiewelt wie Beschleuniger für die Transformation im Versorgungssektor und tragen damit zur breiten Etablierung von Utilities 4.0 bei. Dieser Entwicklungsprozess vollzieht sich mithilfe unterschiedlicher Methoden zur Realisierung neuer Geschäftsideen. Allerdings greifen die gängigen Konzepte zur Entwicklung von Geschäftsmodellen gerade im Hinblick auf die Berücksichtigung komplexer, unbeständiger Rahmenbedingungen und spezifischer Anforderungen der digitalen Energiewelt mitunter zu kurz. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird das auf dem ganzheitlichen St. Galler Management-Konzept beruhende Integrierte Geschäftsmodell iOcTen als geeignetes Instrumentarium zur Geschäftsmodellentwicklung vorgestellt. Neben der Modellbeschreibung unterstützt ein intuitiv verständlicher Leitfaden den Praktiker bei der Transformation vom klassischen Versorgungsunternehmen zum digitalen Energiedienstleistungsunternehmen.

  2. Identifikationsverfahren zur Analyse von EEG-Signalen bei Epilepsie mit Reaktions-Diffusions Netzwerken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollas, F.; Tetzlaff, R.

    2007-06-01

    Partielle Differentialgleichungen des Reaktions-Diffusions-Typs beschreiben Phänomene wie Musterbildung, nichtlineare Wellenausbreitung und deterministisches Chaos und werden oft zur Untersuchung komplexer Vorgänge auf den Gebieten der Biologie, Chemie und Physik herangezogen. Zellulare Nichtlineare Netzwerke (CNN) sind eine räumliche Anordnung vergleichsweise einfacher dynamischer Systeme, die eine lokale Kopplung untereinander aufweisen. Durch eine Diskretisierung der Ortsvariablen können Reaktions-Diffusions-Gleichungen häufig auf CNN mit nichtlinearen Gewichtsfunktionen abgebildet werden. Die resultierenden Reaktions-Diffusions-CNN (RD-CNN) weisen dann in ihrer Dynamik näherungsweise gleiches Verhalten wie die zugrunde gelegten Reaktions-Diffusions-Systeme auf. Werden RD-CNN zur Identifikation neuronaler Strukturen anhand von EEG-Signalen herangezogen, so besteht die Möglichkeit festzustellen, ob das gefundene Netzwerk lokale Aktivität aufweist. Die von Chua eingeführte Theorie der lokalen Aktivität Chua (1998); Dogaru und Chua (1998) liefert eine notwendige Bedingung für das Auftreten von emergentem Verhalten in zellularen Netzwerken. Änderungen in den Parametern bestimmter RD-CNN könnten auf bevorstehende epileptische Anfälle hinweisen. In diesem Beitrag steht die Identifikation neuronaler Strukturen anhand von EEG-Signalen durch Reaktions-Diffusions-Netzwerke im Vordergrund der dargestellten Untersuchungen. In der Ergebnisdiskussion wird insbesondere auch die Frage nach einer geeigneten Netzwerkstruktur mit minimaler Komplexität behandelt.

  3. Versuche zur Gewinnung von katalytischen Antikörpern zur Hydrolyse von Arylcarbamaten und Arylharnstoffen. (English Title: Attempts to produce catalytic antibodies for hydrolysis of arylcarbamates and arylureas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Deljana

    2002-05-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit gelang es, katalytische Antikörper zur Hydrolyse von Benzylphenylcarbamaten sowie zahlreiche monoklonale Antikörper gegen Haptene herzustellen. Es wurden verschiedene Hapten-Protein-Konjugate unter Verwendung unterschiedlicher Kopplungsmethoden hergestellt und charakterisiert. Zur Generierung der hydrolytisch aktiven Antikörper wurden Inzuchtmäuse mit KLH-Konjugaten von 4 Übergangszustandsanaloga (ÜZA) immunisiert. Mit Hilfe der Hybridomtechnik wurden verschiedene monoklonale Antikörper gegen diese ÜZA gewonnen. Dabei wurden sowohl verschiedene Immunisierungsschemata als auch verschiedene Inzuchtmausstämme und Fusionstechniken verwendet. Insgesamt wurden 32 monoklonale Antikörper gegen die verwendeten ÜZA selektiert. Diese Antikörper wurden in groen Mengen hergestellt und gereinigt. Zum Nachweis der Antikörper-vermittelten Katalyse wurden verschiedene Methoden entwickelt und eingesetzt, darunter immunologische Nachweismethoden mit Anti-Substrat- und Anti-Produkt-Antikörpern und eine photometrische Methode mit Dimethylaminozimtaldehyd. Der Nachweis der hydrolytischen Aktivität gelang mit Hilfe eines Enzymsensors, basierend auf immobilisierter Tyrosinase. Die Antikörper N1-BC1-D11, N1-FA7-C4, N1-FA7-D12 und R3-LG2-F9 hydrolysierten die Benzylphenylcarbamate POCc18, POCc19 und Substanz 27. Der Nachweis der hydrolytischen Aktivität dieser Antikörper gelang auch mit Hilfe der HPLC. Der katalytische Antikörper N1-BC1-D11 wurde kinetisch und thermodynamisch untersucht. Es wurde eine Michaelis-Menten-Kinetik mit Km von 210 µM, vmax von 3 mM/min und kcat von 222 min-1 beobachtet. Diese Werte korrelieren mit den Werten der wenigen bekannten Diphenylcarbamat-spaltenden Abzyme. Die Beschleunigungsrate des Antikörpers N1-BC1-D11 betrug 10. Das ÜZA Hei3 hemmte die hydrolytische Aktivität. Dies beweist, dass die Hydrolyse in der Antigenbindungsstelle stattfindet. Weiter wurde zwischen der Antikörperkonzentration und der

  4. Paediatric Virology as a new educational initiative: An interview with Nobelist Professor of Virology Harald zur Hausen.

    PubMed

    Mammas, Ioannis N; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2017-10-01

    Born in Gelsenkirchen-Buer in Germany on March 11th, 1936, Professor Harald zur Hausen, Emeritus Professor of Virology at the University of Freiburg and 2008 Nobel Prize Laureate in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV), which causes cervical cancer, believes that good knowledge of virological methods and diagnostic possibilities are an asset for all young paediatricians. Professor zur Hausen considers that the creation of an educational platform on Paediatric Virology is definitely very beneficial for young paediatricians, as this will greatly enhance their knowledge in the field of Virology. He very actively advocates the vaccination of boys for the eradication of HPV infection and emphasises that male HPV vaccination should be included into the current vaccination programmes. He would have certainly considered Dr George N. Papanicolaou (Kyme, Island of Euboea, Greece, 1883 - Miami, Florida, USA, 1962) as an excellent candidate for the Nobel Prize, stating that the contribution of Dr Papanicolaou did not find sufficient recognition in the past. In the context of the 3rd Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which will be held in Athens, Greece, on October 7th, 2017, Professor zur Hausen will give his plenary lecture on 'Paediatric Virology and Oncology: Virus persistence and the important first years of life'.

  5. Paediatric Virology as a new educational initiative: An interview with Nobelist Professor of Virology Harald zur Hausen

    PubMed Central

    Mammas, Ioannis N.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2017-01-01

    Born in Gelsenkirchen-Buer in Germany on March 11th, 1936, Professor Harald zur Hausen, Emeritus Professor of Virology at the University of Freiburg and 2008 Nobel Prize Laureate in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV), which causes cervical cancer, believes that good knowledge of virological methods and diagnostic possibilities are an asset for all young paediatricians. Professor zur Hausen considers that the creation of an educational platform on Paediatric Virology is definitely very beneficial for young paediatricians, as this will greatly enhance their knowledge in the field of Virology. He very actively advocates the vaccination of boys for the eradication of HPV infection and emphasises that male HPV vaccination should be included into the current vaccination programmes. He would have certainly considered Dr George N. Papanicolaou (Kyme, Island of Euboea, Greece, 1883 - Miami, Florida, USA, 1962) as an excellent candidate for the Nobel Prize, stating that the contribution of Dr Papanicolaou did not find sufficient recognition in the past. In the context of the 3rd Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which will be held in Athens, Greece, on October 7th, 2017, Professor zur Hausen will give his plenary lecture on ‘Paediatric Virology and Oncology: Virus persistence and the important first years of life’. PMID:29042913

  6. Vergleich von rekombinanten Vaccinia- und DNA-Vektoren zur Tumorimmuntherapie im C57BL/6-Mausmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnen, Heiko

    2002-10-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Tumorimpfstoffe auf der Basis des Plasmid-Vektors pCI, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) und MVA-infizierten dendritischen Zellen entwickelt und durch Sequenzierung, Western blotting und durchflußzytometrische Analyse überprüft. Die in vivo Wirksamkeit der Vakzinen wurde in verschiedenen Tumormodellen in C57BL/6 Mäusen verglichen. Die auf dem eukaryotischen Expressionsvektor pCI basierende DNA-Vakzinierung induzierte einen sehr wirksamen, antigenspezifischen und langfristigen Schutz vor Muzin, CEA oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Eine MVA-Vakzinierung bietet in den in dieser Arbeit durchgeführten Tumormodellen keinen signifikanten Schutz vor Muzin oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Sowohl humane, als auch murine in vitro generierte dendritische Zellen lassen sich mit MVA – im Vergleich zu anderen viralen Vektoren – sehr gut infizieren. Die Expressionsrate der eingefügten Gene ist aber gering im Vergleich zur Expression in permissiven Wirtszellen des Virus (embryonale Hühnerfibroblasten). Es konnte gezeigt werden, daß eine MVA-Infektion dendritischer Zellen ähnliche Auswirkungen auf den Reifezustand humaner und muriner dendritischer Zellen hat, wie eine Infektion mit replikationskompetenten Vakzinia-Stämmen, und außerdem die Hochregulation von CD40 während der terminalen Reifung von murinen dendritischen Zellen inhibiert wird. Die während der langfristigen in vitro Kultur auf CEF-Zellen entstandenen Deletionen im MVA Genom führten zu einer starken Attenuierung und dem Verlust einiger Gene, die immunmodulatorische Proteine kodieren, jedoch nicht zu einer Verminderung des zytopathischen Effekts in dendritischen Zellen. Die geringe Expressionsrate und die beobachtete Inhibition der Expression kostimulatorischer Moleküle auf dendritischen Zellen kann für eine wenig effektive Induktion einer Immunantwort in MVA vakzinierten Tieren durch cross priming oder die direkte Infektion

  7. Ganzheitliche Digitalisierungsansätze im Stadtwerk: Von der Strategie bis zur Umsetzung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudenhausen, Roman; Hahn, Heike

    Digitalisierung muss im Stadtwerk dazu führen, Kundenerwartungen, die heutzutage schon vielfach durch digitales Know-how und Erfahrungen geprägt sind, in einzigartiger Weise zu entsprechen - in Form digitaler Kundenkontaktpunkte, automatisierter Prozesse oder plattformbasierter Geschäftsmodelle. Eine große Rolle spielen dabei unternehmensweit nutzbare Informationen, die eine 360-Grad-Sicht auf den Kunden ermöglichen. Nur in dieser Kombination werden sich nachhaltig Wettbewerbsvorteile generieren lassen. Manch ein Kunde wird die Lust, einen Prozess zu Ende zu gehen, schon vor dem Abschluss verlieren, wenn er nicht unmittelbar und ohne die digitale Welt zu verlassen zum Ziel kommt. Eine nur "halb digitale Kundenerfahrung" wird weder zu Neugeschäft noch zur positiven emotionalen Bindung zwischen Kunden und Stadtwerk führen. Nicht zu unterschätzen sind zudem Erwartungen hinsichtlich zukünftiger Geschäftsmodelle, aus denen sich disruptive Bedrohungen für die herkömmlichen Strom- und Gasangebote ergeben werden. Erste innovative Ansätze finden sich bereits im Markt, die erahnen lassen, dass zurzeit viel diskutierte Technologien wie die Blockchain nicht mehr nur hypothetischer Natur sind. Die Auseinandersetzung mit der Digitalisierung erfolgt dabei sinnvollerweise in einem unternehmensweit abgestimmten Rahmen, der eine zielgerichtete und ganzheitliche Vorgehensweise ermöglicht.

  8. [COPD und Klangtherapie: Pilotstudie zur Wirksamkeit einer Behandlung mit Körpertambura bei COPD-Patienten].

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Bernhard; Schmidt, Stefan; Hartwig, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Hintergrund: Erkrankungen der Atemorgane treten mit steigendem Alter öfter auf, nehmen weltweit zu und sind häufige Ursachen für Morbidität und Mortalität. In dieser Pilotstudie wurde der Frage nachgegangen, ob eine einmalige 10-minütige Behandlung mit einer Körpertambura eine signifikante und effektive Verbesserung der Lungenfunktion von Patienten mit chronisch-obstruktiver Lungenerkrankung (COPD; GOLD-Stadium A oder B) erbringen kann. Patienten und Methoden: 54 Probanden konnten je zur Hälfte in eine Behandlungsgruppe (Körpertambura) und eine aktive Kontrollgruppe (Atemtherapie) randomisiert werden. Eine Bestimmung der Lungenfunktionsmessparameter «Einsekundenkapazität» (FEV1) und «inspiratorische Vitalkapazität» (IVC) zu den Zeitpunkten T1 (Baseline), T2 (direkt nach Behandlung) und als Follow-up etwa 3 Wochen nach T1 (T3). Ergebnisse: Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte sich der Kontrollgruppe in beiden Werten signifikant überlegen. Die Zeit-×-Gruppe-Interaktion (Varianzanalyse) ergab p = 0,001 (FEV1) bzw. p = 0,04 (IVC). Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte bei beiden Werten eine Verbesserung von klinischer Relevanz. Schlussfolgerung: Diese Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Klangbehandlung mittels einer Körpertambura - neben den schulmedizinischen, leitliniengerechten Therapien - eine zusätzliche, nebenwirkungsarme, aber durchaus klinisch wirksame Option für die Behandlung von COPD-Patienten darstellen kann, um deren Lebensqualität zu stabilisieren und zu verbessern. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  9. Einstellung und Wissen von Lehramtsstudierenden zur Evolution - ein Vergleich zwischen Deutschland und der Türkei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Dittmar; Soran, Haluk

    Es wird eine Untersuchung vorgestellt, in der Wissen und Überzeugungen von Lehramtsstudierenden aller Fächer zum Thema Evolution an zwei Universitäten in Deutschland und der Türkei erhoben worden sind. Die Befragung wurde in Dortmund und in Ankara durchgeführt. Es stellte sich heraus, dass ausgeprägte Defizite im Verständnis der Evolutionsmechanismen herrschen. Viele Studierende, insbesondere aus der Türkei, sind nicht von der Faktizität der Evolution überzeugt. Dies gilt sowohl für Studierende mit Fach Biologie als auch für Studierende mit anderen Fächern. Näher untersucht worden sind die Faktoren, die die Überzeugungen zur Evolution beeinflussen können, was ja in Anbetracht der hohen Ablehnungsrate der Evolution von besonderem Interesse ist. Das Vertrauen in die Wissenschaft spielt hierbei eine besondere Rolle: Wer der Wissenschaft vertraut, ist auch eher von der Evolution überzeugt, als diejenigen, die skeptisch gegenüber der Wissenschaft sind.

  10. Hardware-Abbildung eines videobasierten Verfahrens zur echtzeitfähigen Auswertung von Winkelhistogrammen auf eine modulare Coprozessor-Architektur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatt, H.; Tarnowsky, A.; Blume, H.; Pirsch, P.

    2010-10-01

    Dieser Beitrag behandelt die Abbildung eines videobasierten Verfahrens zur echtzeitfähigen Auswertung von Winkelhistogrammen auf eine modulare Coprozessor-Architektur. Die Architektur besteht aus mehreren dedizierten Recheneinheiten zur parallelen Verarbeitung rechenintensiver Bildverarbeitungsverfahren und ist mit einem RISC-Prozessor verbunden. Eine konfigurierbare Architekturerweiterung um eine Recheneinheit zur Auswertung von Winkelhistogrammen von Objekten ermöglicht in Verbindung mit dem RISC eine echtzeitfähige Klassifikation. Je nach Konfiguration sind für die Architekturerweiterung auf einem Xilinx Virtex-5-FPGA zwischen 3300 und 12 000 Lookup-Tables erforderlich. Bei einer Taktfrequenz von 100 MHz können unabhängig von der Bildauflösung pro Einzelbild in einem 25-Hz-Videodatenstrom bis zu 100 Objekte der Größe 256×256 Pixel analysiert werden. This paper presents the mapping of a video-based approach for real-time evaluation of angular histograms on a modular coprocessor architecture. The architecture comprises several dedicated processing elements for parallel processing of computation-intensive image processing tasks and is coupled with a RISC processor. A configurable architecture extension, especially a processing element for evaluating angular histograms of objects in conjunction with a RISC processor, provides a real-time classification. Depending on the configuration of the architecture extension, 3 300 to 12 000 look-up tables are required for a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA implementation. Running at a clock frequency of 100 MHz and independently of the image resolution per frame, 100 objects of size 256×256 pixels are analyzed in a 25 Hz video stream by the architecture.

  11. Re-Imagining "Bildung Zur Humanität": How I Developed the Dialogos Approach to Practical Philosophy through Action Inquiry Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helskog, Guro Hansen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an account of how I developed the Dialogos approach to practical philosophy through action inquiry research. The process of development is understood as a contribution to the reconstruction of the notion "Bildung zur Humanität" as an ideal in education. Core perspectives, traditions and purposes involved in the action…

  12. Zinc-Responsive Regulation of Alternative Ribosomal Protein Genes in Streptomyces coelicolor Involves Zur and σR▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Gillian A.; Pascoe, Ben; Kallifidas, Dimitris; Paget, Mark S. B.

    2007-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor contains paralogous versions of seven ribosomal proteins (S14, S18, L28, L31, L32, L33, and L36), which differ in their potential to bind structural zinc. The paralogues are termed C+ or C− on the basis of the presence or absence of putative cysteine ligands. Here, mutational studies suggest that the C− version of L31 can functionally replace its C+ paralogue only when expressed at an artificially elevated level. We show that the level of expression of four transcriptional units encoding C− proteins is elevated under conditions of zinc deprivation. Zur controls the expression of three transcriptional units (including rpmG2, rpmE2, rpmB2, rpsN2, rpmF2, and possibly rpsR2). Zur also controls the expression of the znuACB operon, which is predicted to encode a high-affinity zinc transport system. Surprisingly, the zinc-responsive control of the rpmG3-rpmJ2 operon is dictated by σR, a sigma factor that was previously shown to control the response to disulfide stress in S. coelicolor. The induction of σR activity during zinc limitation establishes an important link between thiol-disulfide metabolism and zinc homeostasis. PMID:17400736

  13. Zinc-responsive regulation of alternative ribosomal protein genes in Streptomyces coelicolor involves zur and sigmaR.

    PubMed

    Owen, Gillian A; Pascoe, Ben; Kallifidas, Dimitris; Paget, Mark S B

    2007-06-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor contains paralogous versions of seven ribosomal proteins (S14, S18, L28, L31, L32, L33, and L36), which differ in their potential to bind structural zinc. The paralogues are termed C(+) or C(-) on the basis of the presence or absence of putative cysteine ligands. Here, mutational studies suggest that the C(-) version of L31 can functionally replace its C(+) paralogue only when expressed at an artificially elevated level. We show that the level of expression of four transcriptional units encoding C(-) proteins is elevated under conditions of zinc deprivation. Zur controls the expression of three transcriptional units (including rpmG2, rpmE2, rpmB2, rpsN2, rpmF2, and possibly rpsR2). Zur also controls the expression of the znuACB operon, which is predicted to encode a high-affinity zinc transport system. Surprisingly, the zinc-responsive control of the rpmG3-rpmJ2 operon is dictated by sigma(R), a sigma factor that was previously shown to control the response to disulfide stress in S. coelicolor. The induction of sigma(R) activity during zinc limitation establishes an important link between thiol-disulfide metabolism and zinc homeostasis.

  14. Discordance gradient-surface dans le rétrécissement mitral: le gradient moyen transmitral est-il un critère de sévérité ou un indice de tolérance du rétrécissement mitral serré?

    PubMed Central

    Najih, Hayat; Arous, Salim; Laarje, Aziza; Baghdadi, Dalila; Benouna, Mohamed Ghali; Azzouzi, Leila; Habbal, Rachida

    2016-01-01

    Le rétrécissement mitral (RM) rhumatismal demeure une valvulopathie fréquente dans les pays en voie de développement. Cependant, les pays industrialisés ont vu l'émergence ces dernières années de nouvelles étiologies de RM; notamment l'origine médicamenteuse et/ou toxique responsable de valvulopathies restrictives aussi bien sténosantes que régurgitantes. Pour cette raison, l'évaluation échocardiographique du RM et surtout, la définition de critères objectifs pour conclure au caractère serré du RM reste toujours d'actualité. Les objectifs du travail sont: évaluer l'existence ou non d'une corrélation directe entre le gradient moyen transmitral (GMT) et la sévérité du RM chez les patients porteurs d'un RM serré ou très serré (critère primaire) et analyser les différents paramètres qui conditionnent le gradient moyen transmitral (GMT) (Critère secondaire). Il s'agit d'une étude transversale monocentrique incluant tous les patients admis au service de Cardiologie du CHU Ibn Rochd de Casablanca pour un RM serré ou très serré, sur une période d'une année (Janvier 2014 à Décembre 2014). Nous avons analysés séparément deux groupes de patients : ceux avec un gradient moyen transmitral<10 mmHg (groupe 1) et ceux avec un gradient>10mmHg (groupe2). 50 patients porteurs d'un RM serré ou très serré ont été inclus. L'âge moyen de nos patients est de 41,7 ans avec prédominance féminine (sex ratio: 0,25). 64% de nos patients avaient un RM serré et 36% avaient un RM très serré. 52% (26 patients) avaient un GMT <10mmHg et 48% (24 patients) avaient un gradient moyen >10mmHg, ce qui suggère l'absence de corrélation directe entre la sévérité du RM et le GMT (coefficient de Pearson R: -0,137). Pour la dyspnée, 80% des patients du groupe 1 étaient dyspnéiques stade II de la NYHA et 70% des patients du groupe 2 étaient dyspnéiques stade III (41%) ou IV (29%) de la NYHA, ce qui signifie l'existence d'une corr

  15. La santé des Premières nations, des Inuits et des Métis: les facteurs que doivent envisager les leaders en santé canadiens dans la foulée du rapport de la Commission de vérité et réconciliation du Canada.

    PubMed

    McNally, Mary; Martin, Debbie

    2017-03-01

    Les peuples des Premières nations, inuits et métis qui habitent au Canada sont aux prises avec de profondes disparités en matière de santé par rapport aux Canadiens non autochtones, et ce, dans presque toutes les mesures liées à la santé et au bien-être. Pour faire progresser les services de santé auprès des peuples autochtones, il faut passer à l'action dans tous les ordres de prestation des soins et des politiques en santé. Il est donc essentiel que les leaders et les prestataires des établissements, des systèmes et des installations de santé du Canada comprennent et prennent en main les déterminants de la santé propres aux peuples autochtones, y compris l'héritage du colonialisme et le racisme ancien et actuel. La Commission de vérité et réconciliation du Canada est le point de départ pour réagir de manière positive aux injustices.

  16. Modulare und durchgängige Produktmodelle als Erfolgsfaktor zur Bedienung einer Omni-Channel-Architektur - PLM 4.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovatchev, Julius; Felsmann, Marcus

    Mit der Transformation der Wertschöpfungsstrukturen von Utility 1.0 zu Utility 4.0 erfolgt offensichtlich auch eine Veränderung des Produkts. Vor dem Hintergrund disruptiver Technologien (IoT, Big Data, Cloud, Robotics etc.) und auch gesellschaftlicher Veränderungen entstehen ständig neue Geschäftsmodelle und Produkte, die über die reine Versorgungsdienstleistung (z. B. Strom) hinausgehen. Dabei muss der wertvolle Rohstoff Produktdaten für smarte Produkte durchgängiger und schneller nutzbar gemacht werden. Die modularen und durchgängigen Produktstrukturen leisten einen Beitrag zur Beherrschung von Komplexität und stellen somit einen wesentlichen Hebel für erfolgreiche Produktentwicklung und -management dar. In diesem Beitrag werden Ansätze beschrieben, wie es den vor der Herausforderung Utility 4.0 stehenden Unternehmen gelingen kann, Smart-Energy-Produkte so zu modellieren, dass sie die Interoperabilität der einzelnen Produktionsmodule sicherstellt und ein Ende-zu-Ende-Management ermöglicht.

  17. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 15th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the fifth collection of essays on the history of astronomy (Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains 11 major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 20th centuries. The first article, on the analysis and interpretation of historical horoscopes as a source of the history of science, is based on the inaugural lecture of its author, Guenther Oestmann. After a general introduction, which deals with the principles of horoscope making, the author discusses the horoscope of Count Heinrich Ranzau (1526-1598), the Danish governor of Schleswig-Holstein, who was a friend of Tycho Brahe. Oestmann shows that the astronomical-mathematical basis of such a horoscope can be reconstructed and interpreted. However, it is hardly possible to gain an insight in the process how the interpretation of a horoscope was done in detail. The second and third articles, by Franz Daxecker, deal with Athanasius Kircher and Christoph Scheiner, two catholic astronomers of the 17th century. Kircher's Organum Mathematicum is a calculating device that can be used in the fields of arithmetic, geometry, chronology, astronomy, astrology and others. The author provides extracts of the description of the Organum taken from a book by Caspar Schott, which deal with chronology and astronomy. A photograph of the Organum indicates that this tool consists of a set of tables glued on wooden or cardboard, but details of its contents and applications remain pretty obscure for the reader - a few elaborated examples would have been helpful. The second paper deals with the life of Christoph Scheiner SJ, the co-discoverer of sunspots (next to Galileo), after leaving Rome in 1633 - the year of the Galileo trial. Scheiner spent his later years in the Austrian and

  18. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) Dose-Escalation Studies in Prostate Cancer Using Anti-PSMA Antibody 177Lu-J591: RIT Alone and RIT in Combination with Docetaxel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    product consists of DOTA-HuJ591 antibody in 0.3 M ammonium acetate, pH 7.2, in 2 mL thermoplastic vials with gray butyl rubber stoppers and blue flip-off...crimp seal closures . The nominal concentration is 8.0 mg/mL and the nominal fill volume is 1.3 mL. There are no other excipients added. 177Lu

  19. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) Dose-Escalation Studies in Prostate Cancer Using Anti-PSMA Antibody 177Lu-J591: RIT Alone and RIT in Combination with Docetaxel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    drug product consists of DOTA-HuJ591 antibody in 0.3 M ammonium acetate, pH 7.2, in 2 mL thermoplastic vials with gray butyl rubber stoppers and blue...flip-off crimp seal closures . The nominal concentration is 8.0 mg/mL and the nominal fill volume is 1.3 mL. There are no other excipients added

  20. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) Dose-Escalation Studies in Prostate Cancer Using Anti-PSMA Antibody 177Lu-J591: RIT Alone and RIT in Combination with Docetaxel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    for > 3 platelet transfusion in 30 days • Gr 4 neutropenia • Febrile neutropenia • Attributable Gr > 3 non-hematologic toxicity (excluding infusion...0% No febrile neutropenia (no growth factor use) • Transaminitis (n=12 evaluable) Transient Gr 1 17% (no Gr > 1) Figure-1...therapies and 36% progressed on 1-4 lines of chemotherapy including docetaxel. No DLT’s have been seen. 2 pts experienced reversible Gr 3 neutropenia

  1. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) Dose-Escalation Studies in Prostate Cancer Using Anti-PSMA Antibody 177Lu-J591: RIT Alone and RIT in Combination with Docetaxel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    count < 15,000 > 7 days or need for > 3 plt transfusions in 30 days • Gr 4 neutropenia > 7 days • Febrile neutropenia • Attributable Gr > 3...11% No febrile neutropenia (no growth factor use) • Transaminitis Transient Gr 1 AST 29% (1 Gr 2) Need for transfusions 6 pts...No pts had significant bleeding; 2 received plt transfusions (cohort 6) • Neutropenia Gr 0 = 40%; Gr 1-2 = 32%; Gr 3 = 29%; Gr 4

  2. [Kombinierte Anwendung von Strahlentherapie und adjuvanter Therapie mit einem Mistelextrakt (Viscum album L.) zur Behandlung des oralen malignen Melanoms beim Hund: Eine retrospektive Studie].

    PubMed

    von Bodungen, Uta; Ruess, Katja; Reif, Marcus; Biegel, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Hintergrund: Orale maligne Melanome (OMM) des Hundes zeichnen sich durch schnelles Wachstum, lokale Invasion und hohe Metastasierungsraten aus. Extrakte auf Basis von Viscum album L. (VAE) werden zunehmend in der Krebstherapie sowohl in der Human- als auch in der Veterinärmedizin eingesetzt. Ziel unserer Studie war es zu untersuchen, inwieweit die adjuvante Therapie mit VAE eine therapeutische Option zur Behandlung von OMM ist. Besonderes Augenmerk galt dabei der Überlebenszeit und möglichen Nebenwirkungen. Tiere und Methoden: 26 Hunde mit OMM, die in einem der größten veterinäronkologischen Zentren der Schweiz allesamt eine Strahlentherapie erhielten (teilweise nach operativer Tumorresektion) wurden in die retrospektive Studie eingeschlossen: 18 Hunde wurden mit VAE behandelt (1 ml VAE (Iscador®) in ansteigenden Konzentrationen von 0,1 bis 20 mg/ml subkutan 3-mal pro Woche (VAE-Gruppe), 8 erhielten keine adjuvante Behandlung (Vergleichsgruppe). Wir verglichen die Größenentwicklung der OMM sowie die Überlebenszeit. Ergebnisse: Patienten mit Bestrahlung und adjuvanter VAE-Therapie zeigten mit 236 Tagen eine signifikant längere mediane Überlebenszeit im Vergleich zu Patienten mit Bestrahlung, aber ohne adjuvante VAE-Therapie (49 Tage; Log-Rank-Test: p = 0,0047). Die VAE-Therapie verlängerte die Überlebenszeit um mehr als zwei Drittel (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0,30, 95%-Konfidenzintervall (KI) 0,11-0,86; p = 0,024), während ein höheres Tumorstadium gemäß UICC (Union internationale contre le cancer) einen statistischen Trend zur Verdopplung des Sterberisikos zeigte (UICC-Stadium III/IV vs. I/II: HR = 2,12, 95%-KI 0,88-5,12; p = 0,095). Zwei Patienten zeigten milde Nebenwirkungen während der VAE-Behandlung. Einer der beiden zeigte 1 Tag lang ein selbstlimitiertes Fieber, bei dem anderen Patienten reduzierten wir die Dosis von einem konzentrierteren zu einem weniger konzentrierten VAE (Serie 0) aufgrund von Müdigkeit, die daraufhin verschwand

  3. RItA: The Italian severe/uncontrolled asthma registry.

    PubMed

    Maio, S; Baldacci, S; Bresciani, M; Simoni, M; Latorre, M; Murgia, N; Spinozzi, F; Braschi, M; Antonicelli, L; Brunetto, B; Iacovacci, P; Roazzi, P; Pini, C; Pata, M; La Grasta, L; Paggiaro, P; Viegi, G

    2018-03-01

    The Italian severe/uncontrolled asthma (SUA) web-based registry encompasses demographic, clinical, functional, and inflammatory data; it aims to raise SUA awareness, identifying specific phenotypes and promoting optimal care. Four hundred and ninety three adult patients from 27 Italian centers (recruited in 2011-2014) were analyzed. Mean age was 53.8 years. SUA patients were more frequently female (60.6%), with allergic asthma (83.1%). About 30% showed late onset of asthma diagnosis/symptoms (>40 years); the mean age for asthma symptoms onset was 30.2 years and for asthma diagnosis 34.4 years. 97.1% used ICS (dose 2000 BDP), 93.6% LABA in association with ICS, 53.3% LTRAs, 64.1% anti-IgE, 10.7% theophylline, and 16.0% oral corticosteroids. Mean FEV 1 % pred of 75.1%, median values of 300/mm 3 of blood eosinophil count, 323 kU/L of serum total IgE, and 24 ppb of FENO were shown. Most common comorbidities were allergic rhinitis (62.4%), gastroesophageal reflux (42.1%), sinusitis (37.9%), nasal polyposis (30.2%), and allergic conjunctivitis (30.2%). 55.7% of SUA patients had exacerbations in the last 12 months, 9.7% emergency department visits, and 7.3% hospitalizations. Factors associated with exacerbation risk were obesity (OR, 95% CI 2.46, 1.11-5.41), psychic disorders (2.87, 0.89-9.30-borderline), nasal polyps (1.86, 0.88-3.89-borderline), partial/poor asthma treatment adherence (2.54, 0.97-6.67-borderline), and anti-IgE use in a protective way (0.26, 0.12-0.53). Comparisons to severe asthma multicenter studies and available registries showed data consistency across European and American populations. An international effort in the implementation of SUA patients' registries could help to better understand the clinical features and to manage severe asthma, representing a non-negligible socioeconomic burden for health services. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  4. [Assessment of parental stress using the "Eltern-Belastungs-Screening zur Kindeswohlgefährdung" (EBSK) - association with emotional and behavioral problems in children].

    PubMed

    Eichler, Anna K; Glaubitz, Katharina A; Hartmann, Luisa C; Spangler, Gottfried

    2014-07-01

    Parental stress is increased in clinical contexts (e.g., child psychiatry) and correlates with behavioral and emotional problems of children. In addition, parental stress can result in a biased parental perception of child's behavior and emotions. These interrelations were examined in a normal (N = 320) and a clinical (N = 75) sample. The "Eltern-Belastungs-Screening zur Kindeswohlgefährdung" (EBSK; Deegener, Spangler, Körner & Becker, 2009) was used for the assessment of parental stress. As expected, increased EBSK scores were overrepresented in the clinical sample. In both samples stressed parents reported having children with more behavioral and emotional problems. Children of stressed parents in turn reported significantly less problems than their parents did. The rating of independent third persons, e.g. teachers, was not available and should be added in future research. Restrictions in methodology and conclusions for practice are discussed.

  5. Auf dem Weg zur digitalen Fakultät - moderne IT Infrastruktur am Beispiel des Physik-Departments der TU München

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homolka, Josef

    Der Geschäftsbetrieb einer Universität ist durch zunehmende Digitalisierung und Nutzung elektronischer Medien gekennzeichnet. Die Einführung immer leistungsfähigerer zentraler IT-Systeme führt zu einer komplexen Vielfalt heterogener Benutzer- und Administrationsschnittstellen. Zur Schaffung einer umfassenden benutzerfreundlichen und nahtlosen IT-Infrastruktur ist die Beteiligung aller organisatorischen Einheiten und Ebenen erforderlich. Am Physik-Departement der Technischen Universität München wurden unter Integration eigener Ressourcen mit zentralen Ressourcen, die im Rahmen des IntegraTUM Projektes entwickelt und bereitgestellt wurden, existierende Dienste weiterentwickelt und neue Angebote aufgebaut. Das System, bestehend aus den Komponenten Netzwerk, Arbeitsplatzrechner, Serverinfrastruktur, E-Mail-Service, WWWDienst, Datenhaltung und Software wurde für die Nutzerkreise Studenten und Mitarbeiter im Hinblick auf Anwenderfreundlichkeit und nahtlosen Zugriff optimiert.

  6. Variabilität des Reviergesangs des Buchfinken (Fringilla coelebs) zur Raum-Zeit-Beschreibung von Metapopulationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, Björn

    2003-10-01

    Der Buchfinkengesang wurde in Potsdam in zwei Hauptpopulationen über drei Jahre aufgenommen. Jedes Individuum wurde eindeutig am individuellen Strophentypenrepertoire identifiziert. Ein weiterer Punkt der die individuelle Wiedererkennung bestätigt ist die hohe Standorttreue der adulten Männchen. Die beschriebene Methode eignet sich für die Untersuchung von gesamten Populationen, um den Wandel des Gesangs von Populationen in Raum und Zeit zu beschreiben. Die Haupterkenntnisse der Arbeit sind: - Die Gesamtanzahl der Grundstrophentypen innerhalb einer Population bleibt über Jahre konstant. - Die relative Häufigkeit jedes einzelnen Strophentyps variiert von Jahr zu Jahr und von Population zu Population. - Gesangslernen erfolgt exakt mit einem Korrektheitsgrad von mindestens 96%. - Das Song-Sharing ist innerhalb der Population hoch. Die diskutierten Mechanismen für das Song-Sharing sind: Die Lebenserwartung, das Zugverhalten, das Lernverhalten, die Etabliertheit von Strophentypen, Weibchenpräferenzen und die Reaktionen der territorialen Männchen. - Weiterhin wurde ein Modell zur kulturellen Evolution des Buchfinkengesangs programmiert, um die Rolle der Einflussfaktoren, wie Fehlerquote, Abwanderungsrate und Laufzeit zu ermitteln. Der Wandel des Dialektes erfolgt graduell in Raum und Zeit. Daher sind keine scharfen Dialektgrenzen anzutreffen. Trotz dieser Tatsache markieren die etablierten Strophentypen die Population. 50 % der Juvenilen siedeln am Geburtsort, auf diese Weise bleibt der Dialekt erhalten und Inzest wird vermieden. -Analysiert man das Repertoire benachbarten Männchen bei isolierten Alleen, so entspricht die Gesangsangleichung in etwa dem Zufall. -Intraindividuelle Vergleiche der quantitativen Parameter des jeweiligen Strophentyps wurden saisonal und annuell durchgeführt. Saisonal konnten für einen Strophentyp ein Trend ermittelt werden. Bei jährlichen Vergleichen konnten intraindividuell ausschließlich nicht signifikante Ergebnisse ermittelt

  7. Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung von Satellitengalaxien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Björn

    2002-01-01

    Gleichgewichtsmodelle ein- und zweikomponentiger Satellitengalaxien werden erzeugt und die Gezeiteneinwirkungen der als starres äußeres Potential angenommenen Milchstraße auf sie betrachtet. Eine erste Reihe von Simulationen mit anfänglich kugelsymmetrischen einkomponentigen Satelliten zeigt, daß sich nach elliptischer Deformation ein Balken und Schweife ungleicher Länge ausbilden, deren Aussehen sich periodisch ändert. Mithilfe von Vergleichssimulationen wurden folgende Phänomene am Satelliten entdeckt: (1) Hochdichtebereiche in den Schweifen, (2) Niedrigdichtebereiche um den Kern bzw. Balken und (3) ein oft verdeckter Balken. Analysiert wird das Erscheinungsbild in Zeitabhängigkeit. Die Teilchen gehen dem Kern über den Balken verloren und bewegen sich entlang gewisser stets gleich aussehender charakteristischer Strukturen in die Schweife. Nach einer Herleitung allgemeiner Größen des mehrkomponentigen Kingprofils werden drei stabile Standardmodelle zweikomponentiger Satellitengalaxien mit Massenverhältnis 1:10 (baryonische zu dunkle Materie) und unterschiedlicher Verteilung der dunklen und sichtbaren Materie gefunden. Ohne die Allgemeinheit der Ergebnisse zu beeinträchtigen, wurde dabei die Große Magellanische Wolke als Grundlage der Modelle genommen. Nach geeigneter Wahl der Bahn, zu der der Gezeitenradius des verwendeten dreikomponentigen Milchstraßenpotentials sowohl analytisch als auch numerisch berechnet wird, werden Simulationen der Modelle analysiert. Hauptaugenmerk ist das unterschiedliche Verhalten der Komponenten. Hauptergebnisse: (1) Es ist möglich, große Anteile dunkler, jedoch nur geringe sichtbarer Materie abzulösen. Dunkle und sichtbare Materie können unterschiedliche morphologische Strukturen bilden. (2) Je nach Konzentration der Komponenten ist die Eigengravitation der Teilchen mehr oder weniger für das Aussehen bestimmend. (3) Die Kernauflösung des Satelliten findet im Perigalaktikum (PG), sein Zerfall aber erst im Apogalaktikum statt. (4) Die Geschwindigkeitsdispersionen der Komponenten im Kern sind im PG entlang der Sichtlinie kurzzeitig stark erhöht, sie fallen ebenso wie die Dichten und deren Verhältnis mit jedem PG stufenförmig ab; einiges davon sind nur Projektionseffekte. (5) Der radiale Verlauf der Geschwindigkeitsdispersion ist vom Bahnort abhängig er wurde genau untersucht. (6) Der Satellit zerfällt über einen Kreislauf aus Massenverlust, flacher werdendem Potential und kleiner werdendem Gezeitenradius. Equilibrium models of one- and two-component satellite galaxies are created. The tidal influence of the Milky Way, which is modeled as a rigid external potential, is examined. A first set of simulations adopting originally spherically-symmetric, one-component satellites show that after elliptical deformation, a bar and tails of unequal length arise which change their morphology cyclically. By considering comparative simulations, the following phenomena are discovered: (1) High-density regions in the tails, (2) low-density zones around the core or bar, (3) an often concealed bar. The overall morphology as function of time is analysed. The particles are lost from the core via the bar and move along certain morphologically characteristic structures into the tails. After deducing general quantities of the multi-component King model, three stable standard models of two-component satellite galaxies with different distributions of dark and visible matter are found. These models have a mass ratio of 1:10 for baryonic to dark matter. Without restriction to the universality of the results, the Large Magellanic Cloud was taken as basic prototype for these models. To choose the proper orbits, the tidal radius of the three-component model of the potential of the Galaxy is calculated both analytically and numerically. Then the simulations are analysed with the different behaviour of the components being the main focus of interest. Main results: (1) It is possible to detach a large fraction of dark matter but only a small amount of visible matter. Dark and visible matter may form different morphological structures. (2) Depending on the concentrations of the components, self-gravity may be the decisive factor for determining the morphology. (3) The dissolution of the core of the satellite occurs at perigalacticon (PG), but it does not decay before apogalacticon. (4) At PG the core densities of the components, their ratio and the velocity dispersions fall off in steps, the velocity dispersions along the line of sight show a high narrow peak. Some of these effects are just projection effects. (5) The radial dependence of the velocity dispersion is dependent on the orbital position; it is analysed in detail. (6) The satellite decays through a cycle of mass loss, an increasingly shallow potential and decreasing tidal radius.

  8. Zur chemie der marsoberfläche

    Keil, Klaus; Clark, Benton C.; Baird, A.K.; Toulmin, Priestley; Rose, Harry J.

    1978-01-01

    Analyses of 13 samples of Martian surface materials with the Viking X-ray fluorescence spectrometers show SiO2 similar to that of terrestrial mafic rocks, whereas Fe2O3, Cl, and S are higher and Al2O3, K2O, Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr are lower. Low totals suggest presence of CO2, H2O, and Na2O. Duricrust fragments are higher in S than fines, but samples from both landing sites are surprisingly similar. We suggest that Martian surface materials are aeolian deposits of complex mixtures of weathering products of maficultramafic rocks, possibly consisting of iron-rich clays, sulfates, iron oxides, carbonates, and chlorides.

  9. Zur Biologie des marinen Heterotardigraden Tetrakentron synaptae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, R. M.

    1980-06-01

    The life cycle of Tetrakentron synaptae Cuénot, 1892, a tardigrade closely associated with the sea cucumber Leptosynapta galliennei Herapath, was investigated in the littoral zone at Roscoff (France). Eggs and juveniles were found only in June and July, adults only from May to October. There are vagile males and stationary dwarf males. The dorsoventrally flattened body, an enlarged slimy epicuticle in females and dwarf males, the full set of claws also in juveniles, and the anus, which is in a dorsocaudal position, are indicative for an epizoic, sessile life. There is strong evidence that T. synaptae punctures the cells of L. galliennei and sucks out their content, which is indicative of parasitism.

  10. Zur Biologie von Paramphiascella fulvofasciata (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahms, Hans-Uwe

    1986-09-01

    The benthic harpacticoid copepod Paramphiascella fulvofasciata Rosenfield & Coull was collected from holdfasts of Laminaria hyperborea from a subtidal area of Helgoland (North Sea). All developmental stages of P. fulvofasciata are raptorial feeders. The feeding of the nauplii is advanced by a marginal setule-crest of the labrum which prevents food-particles from being swept away. The oral appendages of the copepodites circumscribe a frustal space ventral to the mouth which facilitates uptake of food-particles. The nauplii are not able to swim and perform stalking movements with their antennal endopodites. Good swimming ability as well as digging-in-behaviour and negative phototaxis of the copepodites indicate epi- as well as inbenthic mode of life. Several life-cycle characters are described. Precopula lasts ca. one day. The mean egg-number is 27, and mean egg-diameter is 87 × 75 µm. The number of nauplii per egg (double)-sac amounts to 25 30. Developmental time at 19°C is 6 9 days (nauplii) and 20 24 days (copepodites). The whole developmental period lasts 28 days. The maximal lifespan in the laboratory is 193 days. Sex-ratio is almost balanced. Females produce egg-sacs more than 3.5 times during their life period. Seasonal effects on reproductive activity have not been detected in laboratory cultures.

  11. Zur Biosynthese von Phenylalanin und Tyrosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingens, F.; Keller, E.

    1983-03-01

    With the discovery of arogenic acid two new pathways for the biosynthesis of phenylalanine and tyrosine have been revealed. The occurrence of two, three, or four pathways for the biosynthesis of phenylalanine and tyrosine in microorganisms and plants may be a useful tool for taxonomic classifications. Investigations on enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonads, flavobacteria, streptomycetes, archaebacteria, and on Sphaerotilus, Trichococcus and Leptothrix species from bulking sludge are described. The possible role of arogenate in the evolution of the pathways for tyrosine and phenylalanine biosynthesis is discussed.

  12. Aligning the NWEA RIT Scale with the Nevada Criterion Referenced Assessment and the Iowa Test of Basic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, John; Bowe, Branin

    2004-01-01

    Each year, Nevada students in grades 3, 4, 5, and 7 participate in testing as part of the Nevada assessment program. Students in grades 3 and 5 take the Nevada Criterion Referenced Assessment (Nevada CRT) while students in grades 4 and 7 take the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS). These tests serve as an important measure of student achievement for…

  13. 41 CFR 302-17.8 - Rules and procedures for determining the RIT allowance in Year 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES MISCELLANEOUS ALLOWANCES 17-RELOCATION INCOME TAX... calculations are provided in paragraphs (b) through (g) of this section, and in an annual Federal Travel... of en route travel for the employee and family (see § 302-17.3(a)) and transportation (including up...

  14. 41 CFR 302-17.8 - Rules and procedures for determining the RIT allowance in Year 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CMTR's cannot be calculated by merely adding the Federal, State, and local marginal tax rates together... income taxes but none for local income tax, the value of “L” is zero and the CMTR formula may be solved... Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES MISCELLANEOUS ALLOWANCES 17-RELOCATION INCOME TAX...

  15. 41 CFR 302-17.8 - Rules and procedures for determining the RIT allowance in Year 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CMTR's cannot be calculated by merely adding the Federal, State, and local marginal tax rates together... income taxes but none for local income tax, the value of “L” is zero and the CMTR formula may be solved... Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES MISCELLANEOUS ALLOWANCES 17-RELOCATION INCOME TAX...

  16. 41 CFR 302-17.8 - Rules and procedures for determining the RIT allowance in Year 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CMTR's cannot be calculated by merely adding the Federal, State, and local marginal tax rates together... income taxes but none for local income tax, the value of “L” is zero and the CMTR formula may be solved... Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES MISCELLANEOUS ALLOWANCES 17-RELOCATION INCOME TAX...

  17. 41 CFR 302-17.8 - Rules and procedures for determining the RIT allowance in Year 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CMTR's cannot be calculated by merely adding the Federal, State, and local marginal tax rates together... income taxes but none for local income tax, the value of “L” is zero and the CMTR formula may be solved... Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES MISCELLANEOUS ALLOWANCES 17-RELOCATION INCOME TAX...

  18. Ultrastrukturelle Untersuchungen zur Morphologie und Genese der Spermien von Archaeogastropoda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohnert, R.; Storch, V.

    1983-03-01

    The sperm cells of Patella coerulea (Patellacea), Monodonta turbinata, and Gibbula tumida (Trochacea) were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. They belong to the primitive type (sensu Franzén) and have more features in common with primitive Bivalvia sperms than with Neritacea. Their head contains an apical acrosome and a roundish nucleus followed by 4 or 5 mitochondria and a centriolar apparatus which consists of two centrioles, one of which bears a flagellum. The sperm cells of Monodonta and Gibbula are very similar to each other and differ mainly in size; Patella exhibits more differences (very small acrosome, subacrosomal space, variable number of spherical mitochondria (origin of spermic dimorphism ?). The development of the sperm cells shows no peculiarities.

  19. Planungsmodelle und Planungsmethoden. Anhaltspunkte zur Strukturierung und Gestaltung von Planungsprozessen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diller, Christian; Karic, Sarah; Oberding, Sarah

    2017-06-01

    The topic of this article ist the question, in which phases oft he political planning process planners apply their methodological set of tools. That for the results of a research-project are presented, which were gained by an examination of planning-cases in learned journals. Firstly it is argued, which model oft he planning-process is most suitable to reflect the regarded cases and how it is positioned to models oft he political process. Thereafter it is analyzed, which types of planning methods are applied in the several stages oft he planning process. The central findings: Although complex, many planning processes can be thouroughly pictured by a linear modell with predominantly simple feedback loops. Even in times of he communicative turn, concerning their set of tools, planners should pay attention to apply not only communicative methods but as well the classical analytical-rational methods. They are helpful especially for the understanding of the political process before and after the actual planning phase.

  20. Zeitspiel ist keine Alternative - Warum der Wandel zur Pflicht wird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieper, Stephan

    "Wege entstehen dadurch, dass man sie geht." (Franz Kafka) Die Welt der Digitalisierung ist voll von Wegen, die jemand gegangen ist, bevor dort ein Weg war. Manche dieser Wege stellten sich als Sackgasse heraus, manche als Abkürzung und aus anderen wurden ganze Wegenetze und Städte. Die Energiewelt wird durch den digitalen Wandel nicht verschont bleiben. Durch die intelligenten Messsysteme und die zugehörigen, neuen Strukturen werden energiefremden Wettbewerbern Chancen zum Markteintritt eröffnet. EVUs müssen sich darauf einstellen, dass der permanente Wandel nicht mehr enden wird. Doch auch den EVUs eröffnen sich Optionen. Um erfolgreich zu sein, müssen sie lernen loszugehen, ohne das genaue Ziel zu kennen.

  1. Experimentelles FMCW-Radar zur hochfrequenten Charakterisierung von Windenergieanlagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Karsten; Werner, Jens; Schwartau, Fabian

    2017-09-01

    During the increasing dissemination of renewable energy sources the potential and actual interference effects of wind turbine plants became obvious. Turbines reflect the signals of weather radar and other radar systems. In addition to the static radar echoes, in particular the Doppler echoes are to be mentioned as an undesirable impairment Keränen (2014). As a result, building permit is refused for numerous new wind turbines, as the potential interference can not be reliably predicted. As a contribution to the improvement of this predictability, measurements are planned which aim at the high-frequency characterisation of wind energy installations. In this paper, a cost-effective FMCW radar is presented, which is operated in the same frequency band (C-band) as the weather radars of the German weather service. Here, the focus is on the description of the hardware design including the considerations used for its dimensioning.

  2. Zur Wortbildung in wissenschaftlichen Texten (Word Formation in Scientific Texts)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogalla, Hanna; Rogalla, Willy

    1976-01-01

    Discusses a German frequency list of 1,500 to 2,000 scientific words, which is being developed, and the importance of learning word-building principles. Substantive and adjective suffixes are listed according to frequency, followed by remarks on copulative compounds, with examples and frequency ranking, and, finally, prefixes. (Text is in German.)…

  3. Interkulturelles Lernen — Zur Grundlegung eines didaktischen Prinzips interkultureller Begegnungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhaas, Bernd

    1988-12-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany there have in recent years been many varied encounters between Germans and representatives of other cultures, particularly those from Third World countries. These have increasingly been organized with an awareness of global interdependence and have as a result opened the door to the influence of foreign cultures and to an unmistakeable movement in the direction of a multicultural society. An intercultural pedagogical approach and didactic theory are faced with the task of resolving the consequent problems related to education and training. The author firstly attempts to systematize as a typology the practice of learning as it occurs in intercultural encounters in so far as this relates to the Federal Republic of Germany. He suggests that `intercultural learning' should be seen as the didactic principle underlying the organization of learning in such encounters. Through a detailed discussion of his central concepts of `culture' and `learning' and of the issue of `interculturalism', and by sketching a theoretical model of the stages and goals of the learning taking place, he then makes plain the necessary enlargement of the German concept of `Kultur' and the process of differentiation which the concept of learning will have to engage in if it is to be applicable to educational activity in international or intercultural contexts.

  4. Grundvoraussetzungen herzchirurgischer Einheiten zur Behandlung von Patienten mit angeborenen Herzfehlern.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    This document defines fundamental structures of congenital cardiac surgery departments in Germany. It has been developed by the executive boards of the German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (GSTCVS) and the German Society of Pediatric Cardiology (GSPC) in collaboration with the working group for Congenital and Pediatric Heart Surgery of the GSTCVS.This updated consensus paper is based on a previous publication of the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery (EACTS) and is a refinement and adaptation of its initial version published by the GSTCVS in 2005. In Germany, pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery facilities caring for patients with congenital cardiac defects are subject to certain regulations. For example, in 2010 the Federal Joint Committee implemented the resolution on Quality Assurance Measures in the Provision of Cardiac Surgical Care for Children and Adolescents (directive congenital cardiac surgery) which regulates structural and process quality compulsorily. To date, fundamental and considerable differences of the respective departments persist.Congenital cardiac surgery departments have to provide the whole spectrum of the cardiac surgical therapy from the neonate to the adult with congenital cardiac defects (with the exception of heart transplantation) continuously and with the appropriate experience. Furthermore, the departments have to prove their constant scientific activity and ensure that they facilitate education and training for the specialty certification in cardiac surgery. The responsible surgeons of all congenital cardiac surgery departments commit to participate in the currently voluntary national quality assurance for congenital cardiac defects of the GSTCVS and the GSPC and perform an individual surgical outcome assessment and risk stratification. This is supplemented by the willingness for external certification specific to the individual and the facilitation of peer review procedures for quality assurance purposes. Additional measures, such as collaboration in clinical research and ongoing interdisciplinary education and training, are preferable. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. [Leben im Eismeer - Tauchuntersuchungen zur Biologie arktischer Meerespflanzen und Meerestiere

    PubMed

    Lippert; Karsten; Wiencke

    2000-01-01

    Die Maske wird nochmals auf Dichtigkeit überprüft, der Knoten der Sicherungsleine mit zwei halben Schlägen fixiert, dann rutscht die Taucherin von der Eiskante in das kalte Wasser. Eine halbe Stunde vergeht, bevor ihr Kopf wieder aus dem Eisloch auftaucht und sie ein großes Sammelnetz nach oben reicht, gefüllt mit verschiedenen Arten von Makroalgen. Obwohl noch große Flächen des Kongsfjordes im arktischen Spitzbergen zugefroren sind und das Festland von einer dicken Schneedecke bedeckt ist, hat unter Wasser in den Algenwäldern bereits der Sommer und damit die Saison der Meeresbiologen begonnen.

  6. Zur Biologie des Planktons des Königshafens (Nordsylter Wattenmeer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, P.

    1982-06-01

    From May 1979 on, the following parameters were measured at a station in the inlet of Königshafen near List (Island of Sylt): temperature, salinity, mesozooplankton (>76 µm), chlorophyll-a, seston dry weight, oxygen and phytoplankton-nutrients (NH4-N, NO2-N, NO3-N, PO4-P, SiO3-Si). A multiple regression analysis showed the interrelationships between the parameters measured. Tidal influences on zooplankton and seston dry weight could be observed. At low tide, the amount of zooplankton (not counting the harpacticoid copepods) declines and the number of harpacticoid copepods rises as does the seston dry weight too. The chlorophyll-a content is a function of the phytoplankton-nutrients. An increase in chlorophyll-a leads to a decrease in nitrogen and silicate concentrations. Phosphate, due possibly to a sewage inlet into the Königshafen, is not a limiting factor. The availability of nutrients is influenced by temperature, salinity and the tidal cycle. The amount of oxygen is dependent on water temperature and seston dry weight. High water temperatures and a high seston content lead to a decrease in oxygen concentrations.

  7. Zur Problematik der Plansprachen (Issues Concerning Artificial World Languages)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayrhofer, Manfred

    1972-01-01

    The reasons for creating international auxiliary languages, such as Esperanto, are examined. The study of the synthesis of such languages is considered useful for linguistic theory. (Text is in German.) Available from Humanities Press, Inc., Atlantic Highlands, N.J. 07716. (TL)

  8. Integrierter Ansatz zur Beurteilung eines Aufsuchungsantrages auf Schiefergas in Hessen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsche, Johann-Gerhard; Brodsky, Jan; Heggemann, Heiner; Hoffmann, Michaela; Hottenrott, Martin; Kracht, Matthias; Reischmann, Thomas; Rosenberg, Fred; Schlösser-Kluger, Inga

    2016-06-01

    In the context of an application for a shale gas exploration license including hydraulic fracturing, the Geological Survey of Hessen (HLNUG) has grouped and ranked structural geological regions in terms of their shale gas potential and the function of overlying rocks as barriers. Tectonic and structural features as well as the type of reservoir have been examined. Rock units overlying the shale gas layers have been classified as hydrogeological units and divided into aquifers and hydraulic barriers. Possible effects on drinking water abstraction facilities, mineral springs and water for industrial use have also been estimated, followed by an analysis of competing requirements for land use. A potential for shale gas can only be identified in a region north of Kassel, covering about 16 % of the claim area. Approximately 65 % of this region is overlapped by protection areas for drinking water and mineral springs, nature reserves and many other areas of public interest.

  9. Tokamak und Stellarator - zwei Wege zur Fusionsenergie: Fusionsforschung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milch, Isabella

    2006-07-01

    Im Laufe der Fusionsforschung haben sich zwei Bautypen für ein zukünftiges Kraftwerk als besonders aussichtsreich erwiesen: Tokamak und Stellarator. Mit dem geplanten Tokamak-Experimentalreaktor ITER steht die internationale Fusionsforschung vor der Demonstration eines Energie liefernden Plasmas. Parallel soll die in Greifswald entstehende Forschungsanlage Wendelstein 7-X die Kraftwerkstauglichkeit des alternativen Bauprinzips der Stellaratoren zeigen.

  10. Methodenvergleich zur Bestimmung der hydraulischen Durchlässigkeit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storz, Katharina; Steger, Hagen; Wagner, Valentin; Bayer, Peter; Blum, Philipp

    2017-06-01

    Knowing the hydraulic conductivity (K) is a precondition for understanding groundwater flow processes in the subsurface. Numerous laboratory and field methods for the determination of hydraulic conductivity exist, which can lead to significantly different results. In order to quantify the variability of these various methods, the hydraulic conductivity was examined for an industrial silica sand (Dorsilit) using four different methods: (1) grain-size analysis, (2) Kozeny-Carman approach, (3) permeameter tests and (4) flow rate experiments in large-scale tank experiments. Due to the large volume of the artificially built aquifer, the tank experiment results are assumed to be the most representative. Hydraulic conductivity values derived from permeameter tests show only minor deviation, while results of the empirically evaluated grain-size analysis are about one magnitude higher and show great variances. The latter was confirmed by the analysis of several methods for the determination of K-values found in the literature, thus we generally question the suitability of grain-size analyses and strongly recommend the use of permeameter tests.

  11. Untersuchungen zur Regeneration des Hinterendes bei Anaitides mucosa (Polychaeta, Phyllodocidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhrkasten, A.

    1983-06-01

    Caudal regeneration was investigated in decerebrate Anaitides mucosa and in brain-intact individuals. Both groups show an identical capacity to regenerate lost caudal segments. Furthermore there is no difference in males and females. Low temperature (5 °C) inhibits the regeneration of caudal segments, but it is necessary for normal oogenesis. Under conditions of high temperature (15 °C), caudal regeneration is very extensive. At the same time degeneration of most oocytes occurs.

  12. Mikrobielle Kurzzeitteste zur Bestimmung der mutagenen Potenz chemischer Substanzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gericke, Dietmar

    1983-04-01

    During the last 20 years it became much more interesting to test new chemicals as fast as possible for their carcinogenic potency. Therefore new test models were developed. Mutagenicity seems to be one sign for carcinogenicity. Therefore test systems using microorganisms were studied which are influenced by mutagenic substances. These systems are described, first of all the Ames-Test, using revertants of Salmonella typhimurium, secondly the Escherichia coli system deficient of DNA-polymerase A (DNA-Pol A-). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was introduced some years ago and finally the Neurospora crassa system serves as an additional test to define exactly the localisation of mutations. The tests and their problems are discussed.

  13. NAFLA - Ein Simulationswerkzeug zur analytischen Abschätzung von Schadstofffahnenlängen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Yadav, Prabhas; Händel, Falk; Müller, Christian; Liedl, Rudolf; Dietrich, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Groundwater pollution with organic contaminants remains a world-wide problem. Before selection of any remediation technique, it is important to pre-assess contaminated sites with respect to their hazard. For this, several analytical and numerical approaches have been used and an initial assessment of contaminated sites the MS-Excel© tool "NAFLA" was developed. "NAFLA" allows a quick and straightforward calculation and comparison of some analytical approaches for the estimation of maximum plume length under steady-state conditions. These approaches differ from each other in source geometry, model domain orientation, and in the consideration of (bio)chemical reaction within the domain. In this communication, we provide details about the development of "NAFLA", its possible usage and information for users. The tool is especially designed for application in student education, by authorities and consultants.

  14. Von den Flitterwochen zur distanzierten Partnerschaft. Deutsche Manager in internationalen M&A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Martina; Schalljo, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) require considerable intercultural openness on the part of the managers involved. A recent wave of takeovers by private equity investors and foreign investors from emerging economies has challenged German executives. In cases of friendly takeovers, as described in this study, managers at first appear to extend a cosmopolitan welcome to the new owners. However, further analysis of structural hermeneutics reveals latent normative professional ethics of managers which lead to practices of distancing, in particular from young investors from China, India, and Russia.

  15. Zur Soziolinguistik in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Sociolinguistics in the Federal Republic of Germany)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jachnow, Helmut

    1975-01-01

    Traces the history of sociolinguistic studies in West Germany from the early nineteenth century with Humboldt and reports on the state and purposes of sociolinguistic studies in present-day Federal Republic of Germany. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden (Text is in German.) (TL)

  16. Ein Entscheidungsmodell zur Weitergabe persönlicher Daten im Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiblmaier, Horst

    In den vergangenen zwei Jahrzehnten wandelte sich das Internet von einer Spielwiese für technikbegeisterte Computerspezialisten zu einem vielseitig einsetzbaren weltweiten Netzwerk für Privatpersonen und Unternehmen. Maßgeblichen Anteil daran besaß die rasante Entwicklung des World Wide Web (WWW), das, durch die Möglichkeit multimediale Inhalte zu vermitteln, für einen großen Teil der Bevölkerung industrialisierter Länder zu einem wesentlichen Bestandteil des täglichen Lebens wurde. Dass diese Entwicklung noch lange nicht abgeschlossen ist, zeigt die derzeitige Diskussion zum Thema Web 2.0 bzw. 3.0. Waren es in den letzten Jahren die hohen Umsatzzuwächse im E-Commerce und multimedial gestaltete Webseiten in Kombination mit aufwändigen Applikationen, die für ständig steigende Nutzerzahlen im World Wide Web sorgten, so wird dieser Innovationsschub nunmehr durch eine Vielzahl von Anwendungen fortgesetzt, die sich durch die zunehmende Vernetzung der Nutzer untereinander auszeichnen.

  17. Isotopenhydrologische Methoden (2H, 18O) zur Bestimmung der Grundwasserneubildung in Trockengebieten: Potenzial und Grenzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Matthias; Gaj, Marcel; Königer, Paul; Tulimeveva Hamutoko, Josefina; Wanke, Heike; Wallner, Markus; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    The estimation of groundwater recharge in water-limited environments is challenging due to climatic conditions, the occurrence of deep unsaturated zones, and specialized vegetation. We critically examined two methods based on stable isotopes of soil water: (i) the interpretation of natural isotope depth-profiles and subsequent approximation of recharge using empirical relationships and (ii) the use of deuterium-enriched water (2H2O) as tracer. Numerous depth-profiles were measured directly in the field in semiarid Namibia using a novel in-situ technique. Additionally, 2H2O was injected into the soil and its displacement over a complete rainy season monitored. Estimated recharge ranges between 0 and 29 mm/y for three rainy seasons experiencing seasonal rainfall of 660 mm (2013/14), 313 mm (2014/15) and 535 mm (2015/16). The results of this study fortify the suitability of water stable isotope-based approaches for recharge estimation and highlight enormous potential for future studies of water vapor transport and ecohydrological processes.

  18. Schnellverfahren zur flammenlosen AAS-Bestimmung von Spurenelementen in geologischen Proben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrön, W.; Bombach, G.; Beuge, P.

    This paper reports experience with direct quantitative trace element determinations in powdered geological samples by nameless atomic absorption spectroscopy. Two methods were explored. The first one is based on the production of a sample aerosol by laser radiation in a specifically designed sample chamber and the subsequent transport of the aerosol into a graphite tube, which has been preheated to a stable temperature. This technique is suited for a large range of concentration and is relatively free from matrix interferences. The technique was tested for the elements Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr and Tl. The described sample chamber can be also used in combination with other spcctroscopic techniques. The second method explored permits the quantitative determination of trace elements at very low concentrations. Essentially an accurately weighed amount of sample is placed on a graphite rod and introduced into a graphite furnace by inserting the rod through the sample injection port. Atomization takes place also under stable temperature conditions. Using this technique detection limits were found to be 10 -11 g for Ag, 2 × 10 -11 g for Cd and 10 -10 g for Sb in silicate materials.

  19. Mikrosensor-gesteuerte Rückkopplungs- Bioaktuatoren auf Halbleiterbasis zur biophysikalischen Krebsbehandlung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Bernhard; Kraus, Michael

    Acidic microenvironmental conditions combined with large hypoxic areas are ubiquitous hallmarks of most solid tumors. They result from a poorly organized vascularization and a deviant energy metabolism. There is convincing evidence supporting the hypothesis that such physico-chemical conditions promote the microevolution of malignant cells, inhibit the cellular immune response, and favor tumor cell invasion. In agreement with published data, our cell biological analyses and computer simulations indicate that treatment schemes which restore a tumor microenvironment reflecting that one found in normal tissues might improve the efficiency of immunotherapies and classical methods for cancer treatment. We suggest that the tumor microenvironment could be effectively monitored and manipulated by means of silicon-based feedback bioactuators which are controlled by integrated microsensors. In principle, miniaturized bioactuators can be implanted directly at the sites of inoperable tumors and metastases where they function as a "pH clamp" and thereby can reconstitute normal physico-chemical conditions. Drug application could be precisely controlled by an integrated microprocessor. Our paper summarizes the current state of development of microsensor-based feedback bioactuators and outlines possible applications in biophysical cancer treatment.

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Einsteins Kosmos. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Kosmologie Relativitatstheorie und zu Einsteins Wirken und Nachwirken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.

    2006-12-01

    This book collects about 15 papers (most of them by one single author) on Einstein and the history of general relativity (GR) and the foundations of relativistic cosmology. The matter not only deals with Einstein and his times, but also with pre-GR ideas, and with the interplay of Einstein and his colleagues (opposing as well as supporting personalities). As the title indicates, all papers are written in German, but they include comprehensive Abstracts both in German and English. The book is illustrated with quite a number classical - but also some far more original though not less beautiful - photographs and facsimiles of documents. The book is edited very well, though the style of references is not quite homogeneous. There is no Index. K. Hentschel covers Einstein's argumentation for the existence of graviational redshift, and the initial search for empirical support. The error analysis of observational evidence supporting relativistic light deflection is discussed in a paper by P. Brosche. In particular, H. Duerbeck and P. Flin - in their description of the life and work of Silberstein, who was quite sceptic on the significance of the observational verifications a la Eddington - include the transcription of two most revealing letters by Silberstein to Sommerfeld (1919) and to Einstein (1934). In the first letter, Silberstein clearly shows his scientific maturity and integrity by scrutinising the observational evidence supporting light deflection, presented at a joint meeting of the Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society. The second letter, which is more a personal letter, includes lots of political references and connotations. Some of Einstein's political views are also revealed by D.B. Herrmann on the basis of his own correspondence with E.G. Straus, a collaborator of Einstein's. In a consequent paper, S. Grundmann gives remarks on Herrmann's contribution and illustrates Einstein's attitude towards Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin. M. Schemmel discusses Schwarzschild's cosmological speculations, and wonders why some people do immediately grasp the meaning and consequence of newly proposed doctrines, whereas the bulk of the contemporaneous scientists respond in a rather low profile. T. Jung reviews Einstein's contribution to cosmology, leading to the Friedmann-Einstein and Einstein-de Sitter universes (with a detailed Appendix on the Friedmann-Lemaitre cosmology), and also presents the cosmological work of Selety, and his correspondence with Einstein. In a subsequent paper, H.-J. Schmidt comments on Einstein's criticism on de Sitter's solution of the Einstein field equations. Controversies with Einstein are elaborated by G. Singer (on Friedmann) and by K. Roessler (on Lemaitre). J. Renn and T. Sauer discuss Mandl's role in the publication history of Einstein's papers, notably Einstein's short paper on gravitational lensing. Finally, the book concludes with a contribution by D.B. Herrmann about the relationship between Einstein and Archenhold Observatory (where Einstein gave his first Berlin popular lecture in 1915), the transcription of H.-J. Treder's 1979 public address at the Einstein memorial plaque, and an inventory list of about 50 Einstein memorabilia - monuments, busts, plaques - compiled by W.R. Dick. This book is based on ideas approached in a historical context from the individual perspective of the authors. It is a real treasure trove of information and basic references on the history of GR, and it also covers quite some grounds with mathematical equations.

  1. Batch-Versuche zur Bestimmung der Sorption und Reaktionskinetik von fluoreszierenden Tracern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitl, Tobias; Wohnlich, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    For many tracer experiments, prior determination of interaction between solid medium and used tracers is of major interest in order to achieve efficient, economic and successful field experiments. In the present study, three different types of batch experiments were performed with three fluorescent dyes (Na-Fluorescein, Amidorhodamin G and Tinopal CBS-X) and three different rock types (sandstone, claystone and limestone), to determine distribution coefficients and reaction kinetics. All three rock types were analysed for organic carbon content, specific surface area and mineralogical composition to identify the main sorption mechanisms. For all tracers, different sorption properties were found depending on the type of rock. The strongest sorption was observed for Tinopal CBS-X in contact with claystone. Only Na-Fluorescein showed sorption (albeit limited) in contact with the sandstones. The investigated limestones indicated a high sorption for the tracer Tinopal CBS-X. Regarding reaction kinetics, in most cases, thermodynamic equilibrium conditions were reached after two weeks.

  2. Reforms and Innovations in Estonian Education. Baltische Studien zur Erziehungs- und Sozialwissenschaft. Volume 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Veisson, Marika, Ed.; Luik, Piret, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This collection of papers provides a small overview of educational research in Estonia. The papers in the collection treat school reforms since the renewal of independence in 1991, new approaches to teacher training, the implementation of a child-centred approach in school, the achieving of educational aims and other actual topics in education.…

  3. Erste Erkenntnisse zur Prospektion und Charakterisierung des Aquifers der Aroser Dolomiten, Schweiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regli, Christian; Kleboth, Peter; Eichenberger, Urs; Schmassmann, Silvia; Nyfeler, Peter; Bolay, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    In urban areas of the Swiss Alps the use of geothermal energy from several hundred meters depth becomes increasingly important. For this mainly open systems have priority. This work presents the first insights in the prospection and characterisation of the so far unexplored, utilizable, and abundant Aquifer of the Arosa Dolomites. Besides the use of established methods and techniques, such as seismic measurements, an exploration drilling, borehole geophysical measurements, and pumping tests, the application of the KARSYS-approach for geological and conceptual hydrogeological 3D-modelling of the aquifer is illustrated. In addition, the development of a viewer for 3D-visualization of drillings is documented. The hydrogeological and metrological approaches allow a lithological facies differentiation of the Arosa Dolomites, and a differentiation of the fractured and karstified areas within the aquifer. The results represent the basis for advanced findings optimizing and risks minimising exploration and drilling planning, and for sustainable utilization planning.

  4. Lifelong Learning: One Focus, Different Systems. Studien zur Erwachsenenbildung, Band 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, Klaus, Ed.; Heikkinen, Anja, Ed.; Rahn, Sylvia, Ed.; Schemmann, Michael, Ed.

    These 17 articles on different subjects of the broader theme "lifelong learning" represent the latest results of the discussions of the Vocational Education and Culture Research Network. An introduction (Klaus Harney et al.) provides summaries of the contents. The articles are "The Global and International Discourse of Lifelong…

  5. German-American Workshop on Adult Education with Target Groups = Deutsch-amerikanisches Doppelseminar zur Zielgruppenarbeit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerner, Claus, Ed.; Odenbrett, Glenn, Ed.

    This collection includes eight papers (authored by Germans) on adult education programs in Cleveland, Ohio, and eight papers (authored by Americans) about adult education programs in the Federal Republic of Germany as well as German and English introductions to the collection. The following papers are included: "Neue Wege in der…

  6. Ueber das Mannheimer Woerterbuch zur Verbvalenz (About the Mannheim Dictionary of Verb Valence)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Helmut

    1976-01-01

    Describes the purpose, structure and application of this monolingual verb lexicon, which indicates the morphosyntactic environments of the most common German verbs. Mention is made of the forthcoming valence lexicon. The book is for teachers and textbook writers. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  7. Wege zur Festigung der Fachlexik (Ways of Building a Technical Vocabulary)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmykowa, Elena

    1974-01-01

    Learning to read foreign technical texts requires (a) a minimum vocabulary and (b) effective drill. The following are suggested: translation, question-answer method, definition exercises, exercises to develop skill in the use of reference works, schematic presentations and tables, annotating and making reports and summaries. (Text is in German.)…

  8. Numerische Szenariosimulationen zur Ausbreitung von hochmineralisiertem Wasser in oberflächennahen Süßwasseraquiferen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegers, Carla Elisabeth; Schäfer, Dirk

    2015-06-01

    In areas where the geological subsurface is used for storage of gases or fracking, there is a risk of saline formation water entering protected aquifers. The impact of such potential leakage therefore needs to be evaluated at relevant sites to develop practical monitoring concepts. Three-dimensional numerical simulations and a sensitivity analysis are performed to determine the influence of aquifer parameters, ground water flow, aquifer morphology, leakage rate and NaCl-concentration of the intruding water on the propagation behaviour of saline water. Two example scenarios were simulated based on a realistic site-scale conceptual model, one with water from the lower Braunkohlensande, (NaCl = 7.61 g/l) the other with saline water from the Bunter sandstone formation (NaCl = 280.3 g/l). The simulations show that saltwater migrates along the bottom of the aquifer, and that groundwater flow can dominate the transport of chloride. In this case the spreading of denser water is not influenced by the aquifer's morphology.

  9. SURFACTANT-ENHANCED EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION VERSUCHSEININCHTUNG ZUR GRUNDWASSER-UND ALTLASTENSANIERUNG (VEGAS) FACILITY, STUTTGART, GERMANY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) summarized the results of an evaluation of a surfactant-enhanced extraction technology. This evaluation was conducted under a bilateral agreement between the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund ...

  10. A Parent-Implemented Intervention to Improve Imitation Skills by Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaghlawan, Hasan Y.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effects of a modified reciprocal imitation training (RIT) on the imitation skills of children with autism. Two parents were trained and coached to use the modified RIT with their young children with autism in home settings. The modified RIT was composed of contingent imitation, descriptive…

  11. Radioimmunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies. A new horizon in nuclear medicine therapy?

    PubMed

    Sautter-Bihl, M L; Bihl, H

    1994-08-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with labeled tumor-associated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is a promising concept in oncology, which essentially consists of biological targeting of ionising radiation to tumors. Some encouraging clinical results have been achieved with RIT. However, there are severe problems associated with both understanding the mechanisms and predicting the effectiveness of RIT. This paper reviews the results of some major clinical trials, especially in malignant lymphomas and in some solid tumors. Furthermore, problems with RIT are described such as the significance of dose inhomogeneity and dose-rate effects, the appropriate dose calculation method, the toxicity of RIT and the development of HAMAs. It is suggested that newer technologies including chimeric antibodies, multiple-step targeting protocols, bone marrow transplantation, parallel application of external radiation, heat or bioreductive drugs will enable RIT to make an essential contribution to strategies for combating cancer.

  12. New insights into the biography of Gottfried Kirch. (German Title: Neue Erkenntnisse zur Biographie von Gottfried Kirch)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Klaus-Dieter

    New biographical results of Gottfried Kirch, the most outstanding astronomer around 1700 in German lands, are outlined on the basis of newly found sources and the first-time inclusion of additional letters from his correspondence, which comprises 600 letters. Special attention is drwawn to his stay in Langgrün and Lobenstein in the Vogtland, in Leipzig, Coburg, Guben and Berlin. In addition, new details about his family are revealed, especially about the older children Gottlieb, Heilmann and Theodora, the offspring from his first marriage. A third section deals with the possibilities which are to be expected from a systematic evaluation of Kirch's correspondence. Only about 100 out of 600 letters have been used for historical publications until now.

  13. Zur Ökophysiologie, Sexualität und Populationsgenetik litoraler Gammaridea — ein Überblick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulnheim, H.-P.

    1991-09-01

    Comparative investigations on the physiological capacities in the euryhaline amphipods Gammarus locusta, G. oceanicus, G. salinus, G. zaddachi and G. duebeni were reviewed. In order to assess the adaptations of these species to the abiotic conditions of their environment, the following criteria were examined: oxygen consumption in relation to ambient salinity and temperature levels, respiratory responses following osmotic stress, resistance capacities to oxygen deficiency, resistance to aerial exposure and the simultaneous presence of hydrogen sulphide. Covering the range from marine to typically brackish-water inhabitants, the 5 species show adaptive responses in the above-mentioned order. Respiration is less intensely modified by external factors, and oxygen consumption decreases. Accompanied by faster rates of acclimation to new steady states of performance, resistance capacities increase. The significance of the findings obtained is discussed in relation to the environmental requirements of the amphipods considered. Based on breeding experiments, the sex-determining systems reported thus far in Gammarus species are outlined. As demonstrated in G. duebeni, a more or less pronounced influence of external factors such as photoperiod may become effective. A preponderance of males was noted when offspring were raised under long-day photoperiods, whereas females prevailed under short-day conditions. In terms of the critical daylength, the light per day was estimated as being between 13 and 14 h (Elbe estuary population). Feminizing microporidians ( Octosporea effeminans, Thelohania herediteria), which are transovarially transmitted, can interfere with the system of sex determination and sex differentiation of the host. As reflected in various G. duebeni populations, they cause a maternally transferred sex-ratio condition by the production of all-female broods, thereby mimicking extrachromosomal inheritance. An increase of the salinity level to 25 30‰ results in a disappearance of O. effeminans. In both microsporidians, long exposure to low temperatures (≤4°C) produces eggs which are not all parasitized. Furthermore, intersexuality can be induced by changing environmental factors. Microsporidian species have no influence on sex differentiation in G. duebeni celticus, G. salinus, G. locusta and G. pulex. Patterns of relative electrophoretic mobilities of proteins and the distribution of allele frequencies at polymorphic gene loci can be utilized for species diagnosis and for the evaluation of the relationships between different taxa, particularly at and below the species level. As exemplified by studies on several gammarids from marine, brackish and freshwater environments, inter- and infraspecific gene-enzyme variation is described. Electrophoretic investigations on natural populations of the euryhaline amphipods G. zaddachi, G. salinus, G. tigrinus and others from different geographic areas provided evidence of considerable biochemical genetic variation. In Talitrus saltator- and Talorchestia deshayesii-populations the extent of variability based on micro-and macrogeographic aspects is illustrated. The large-scale genetic divergence is demonstrated by comparison of samples obtained from the Baltic, North, Atlantic and northern Mediterranean Seas.

  14. Die physikalischen Umweltwissenschaften und das Militär Zur Erforschung Grönlands im Kalten Krieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heymann, Matthias

    Die modernen Umweltwissenschaften stehen heute im Mittelpunkt von Forschungsförderung und öffentlicher Aufmerksamkeit. Im Zuge des seit den 1970er Jahren erwachten Interesses am globalen Wandel der Umwelt und den damit verknüpften Problemen, ist ihre Bedeutung rasch gestiegen. Viele Wurzeln der modernen Umweltwissenschaften liegen jedoch im Kalten Krieg.

  15. Ueben-Pruefen. Zur Klaerung zweier zentraler Begriffe (Drilling-Testing. On the Clarifications of Two Central Concepts)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendt, Manfred

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that drilling tends to become contaminated with elements of testing. The two activities are defined, and suggestions are given for designing drills free of testing. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  16. Eine 200-μm-Kamera zur unvollständigen Himmelsdurchmusterung mit dem ISO-Satelliten.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgdorf, M.

    The C200 camera designed for the wavelength range >160 μm is composed of the detector elements and their preamplifiers. The limiting sensitivity to be reached is estimated. In building the infrared satellite experiment ISOPHOT the detector arrays and selecting electronics are of key importance.

  17. Learning, Adjustment and Stress Disorders: With Special Reference to Tsunami Affected Regions. Beitrage zur Padagogischen und Rehabilitationspsychologie. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witruk, Evelin, Ed.; Riha, David, Ed.; Teichert, Alexandra, Ed.; Haase, Norman, Ed.; Stueck, Marcus, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book contains selected contributions from the international workshop Learning, "Adjustment and Stress Disorders--with special reference to Tsunami affected Regions" organised by Evelin Witruk and the team of Educational and Rehabilitative Psychology at the University of Leipzig in January 2006. The book contains new results and the…

  18. An der Schwelle zur Zweisprachigkeit: Fremdsprachenunterricht fur Fortgeschrittene (On the Threshold of Bilingualism: Foreign Language Learning for Advanced Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubler, Silvia, Ed.; Portmann, Paul R., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This collection of articles on Bilingualism includes: "Fremdsprachenunterricht fur Fortgeschrittene: ein Uberblick" (Foreign Language Learning for Advanced Students: An Overview) (Paul R. Portmann); "Never Mind the Width, Feel the Quality: From Quantity to Quality in Language Teaching at Advanced Levels" (Mike Makosch); "Irren ist menschlich: Ein…

  19. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 11. (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    The contributions deal with astronomical concepts, historical observatories and biographical studies. Newly found copies of Copernicus' principal work are described, the development of the concepts "sphaera" and "orbis coelestis" from ancient times via Copernicus to Kepler is investigated. The concept of harmonical cosmology of Kepler and A. Kircher is analyzed in a major paper. A rediscovered letter by Kepler is interpreted. Other papers deal with the university observatory of Bützow (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), the observatories installed in Strasbourg in the 17th and early 19th centuries, and the Jesuit observatory which existed in Graz (Styria) in the 18th century, as well as the unrealized plans for an observing station of Vienna University Observatory in the 1940s. Einstein's thoughts about Friedmann's cosmological papers are presented. Biographical sketches on Philipp Feselius (1565-1610), Ferdinand Adolph Freiherr von Ende (1760-1816), Wilhelm Ebert (1871-1916) and Karl Julius Lohnert (1885-1944) are supplemented by an analysis of the social background of the important Astronomers of the 20th century. The claim that Jupiter's moons were described already 105 years before Galilei is contradicted in a discussion. The book concludes by short communications, obituaries and book reviews.

  20. Grundwasserökosysteme im Recht? - Eine kritische Betrachtung zur rechtlichen Stellung von Grundwasserökosystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Hans Jürgen; Schweer, Christian; Griebler, Christian

    2018-05-01

    Groundwater is the largest and oldest continental biome. However, in the German and EU legislation, groundwater is still considered an abiotic resource rather than an ecosystem. On the other hand, the German Water Act (WHG, Wasserhaushaltsgesetz) mentions groundwaters along with other water bodies that carry the status of ecosystems. Its ecosystem status is also referred to in the preamble of the European Groundwater Directive (EC-GWD). The implementation of groundwater protection measures should be geared to the ecosystemic approach for surface waters contained in the European Water Framework Directive (EC-WFD) and to the German National Biodiversity Strategy (BMU 2007). Addition of the terms "good ecological status" and "groundwater ecosystems" into the German and EU environmental water laws is recommended. Groundwater habitats and species should be subject to impact assessment and included into the FFH directive and German nature conservation laws. There is no technical or legal argument for the discrimination of groundwater ecosystems and species in environmental legislation. The authors argue for the legal equality of ground and surface water, and propose the adaption of the existing legislation according to ecological requirements.

  1. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 3. (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The main papers of this issue deal with previously unknown details of the foundation of the astronomical observatories in Gotha and in Königsberg (with numerous original documents by F.W. Bessel), with the Mecklenburg ordnance survey (1853-1873, with previously unknown letters by C.F. Gauss), with the merits of the Leipzig astronomer G.A. Jahn, with the internationality of the Astronomische Gesellschaft, and with early, previously little noted works on the expansion of the Universe. The issue contains a description of the important collection of sundials in the Kassel museum, discussions about the Medieval ``Phantom Period'', about Goethe's description of the zodiacal light, as well as obituaries and book reviews. Most papers in German, one in English.

  2. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 5 (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen

    This book contains articles on 16th century horoscopes, on Athanasius Kircher's ``Organum Mathematicum'', on Gottfried Kirch's idea of an astronomical society, on a stellar photometer dating from 1786, on Bessel's review of Gauss' ``Theoria Motus'', on letters by F.X. von Zach, on the discovery of the minor planet Eros, as well as on the astronomers Christoph Scheiner, Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau, Georg Koch and Felix Linke. Short contributions and book reviews conclude this volume. Most papers are written in German. Main papers have English abstracts.

  3. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 8 (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The contributions span a time interval of more than 450 years. There are biographical investigations on Georg Joachim Rheticus, C.W.A. von Wahl and K.F. Heym, investigation on a reprint of a chapter of the principal work of Nicolaus Copernicus, on Christoph Scheiner and the "camera obscura", and, with respect to the history of timekeeping, on the "big Nuremberg clock". 19th century topics are: a contribution on the honorary doctorate of Joseph Fraunhofer, and on the construction of a lunar globe by Wilhelmine Witte, while the report on Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and the cholera pandemia in Königsberg in the year 1831 gives a view into everyday life of scientists. 20th century topics are: the contributions on Bruno Thüring in Vienna and his relations with national socialism, as well as on Arthur Beer, Albert Einstein and the Warburg library. The book concludes by short communications, obituaries and book reviews.

  4. GIS-MODFLOW: Ein kleines OpenSource-Werkzeug zur Anbindung von GIS-Daten an MODFLOW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossel, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    The numerical model MODFLOW (Harbaugh 2005) is an efficient and up-to-date tool for groundwater flow modelling. On the other hand, Geo-Information-Systems (GIS) provide useful tools for data preparation and visualization that can also be incorporated in numerical groundwater modelling. An interface between both would therefore be useful for many hydrogeological investigations. To date, several integrated stand-alone tools have been developed that rely on MODFLOW, MODPATH and transport modelling tools. Simultaneously, several open source-GIS codes were developed to improve functionality and ease of use. These GIS tools can be used as pre- and post-processors of the numerical model MODFLOW via a suitable interface. Here we present GIS-MODFLOW as an open-source tool that provides a new universal interface by using the ESRI ASCII GRID data format that can be converted into MODFLOW input data. This tool can also treat MODFLOW results. Such a combination of MODFLOW and open-source GIS opens new possibilities to render groundwater flow modelling, and simulation results, available to larger circles of hydrogeologists.

  5. Investitionen aus den BRIC-Staaten. Grund zur Sorge für Unternehmen, Beschäftigte und Kommunen?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Martin; Henn, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    Investments from BRIC countries - Brazil, Russia, India and China - are playing an increasingly important role in Germany. However, both the public and the potentially affected labour force often adopt sceptical, and sometimes even hostile attitudes towards investors from these countries. This article shows that apart from a few exceptions investors from the BRIC countries are generally better than their reputation precedes. An important conclusion drawn in this paper is that investors should not be received with stereotypes. Rather, it is necessary to perform deeper investigations into their strategies and the specific investment goals in each case. This is all the more necessary to ensure that investments from BRIC countries do not conflict with the domestic firms' interests or of their personnel. In fact, they can assist to increase the competitiveness of German firms, and as such not only prove beneficial for the workforce but also for Germany as a business destination.

  6. Outreach to International Campuses: Removing Barriers and Building Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mee, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), located in western New York, strives to deliver the same quality library services to its students and faculty located across the globe as those living in the Rochester area. In addition to an array of distance courses and online programs, RIT also has international campuses located in Kosovo, Croatia,…

  7. Audio Adapted Assessment Data: Does the Addition of Audio to Written Items Modify the Item Calibration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, James

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation research examined the changes in item RIT calibration that occurred when adding audio to a set of currently calibrated RIT items and then placing these new items as field test items in the modified assessments on the NWEA MAP test platform. The researcher used test results from over 600 students in the Poway School District in…

  8. The Impact of Object and Gesture Imitation Training on Language Use in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Lalonde, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: "Reciprocal imitation training" (RIT) is a naturalistic behavioral intervention that teaches imitation to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) within a social-communicative context. RIT has been shown to be effective at teaching spontaneous, generalized object and gesture imitation. In addition, improvements in imitation are…

  9. Brief Report: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Reciprocal Imitation Training for Teaching Elicited and Spontaneous Imitation to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in imitation skills. Reciprocal Imitation Training (RIT), a naturalistic imitation intervention, was developed to teach young children with autism to imitate during play. This study used a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of RIT on elicited and spontaneous imitation skills in 21…

  10. Radioimmunotherapy as the first line of treatment in non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Eskian, Mahsa; Khorasanizadeh, MirHojjat; Zinzani, Pier L; Rezaei, Nima

    2018-06-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common hematologic malignancy. The estimated deaths and new cases of NHL in the USA in 2018 have reached 19,910 and 74,680, respectively, with 5-year survival rate of 71%. Therapeutic interventions for NHL consist of chemotherapy, radiation therapy and immunotherapy. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a potential alternative treatment for NHL that is currently used in different lines of treatment. Studies show that nuclear medicine physicians and radiation oncologists are not yet certain about the proper line for administration of RIT. Herein, we have reviewed the efficiency and toxicity of RIT as the first line of treatment, and discussed potential novel indications, and strategies such as modifying induction therapy and using rituximab maintenance to optimize the efficiency of RIT as the first line of treatment. Our review indicates that it is more logical to postpone conventional therapies to the second or third lines of treatment instead of RIT.

  11. Deep and Structured Robust Information Theoretic Learning for Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yue; Bao, Feng; Deng, Xuesong; Wang, Ruiping; Kong, Youyong; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-07-07

    This paper presents a robust information theoretic (RIT) model to reduce the uncertainties, i.e. missing and noisy labels, in general discriminative data representation tasks. The fundamental pursuit of our model is to simultaneously learn a transformation function and a discriminative classifier that maximize the mutual information of data and their labels in the latent space. In this general paradigm, we respectively discuss three types of the RIT implementations with linear subspace embedding, deep transformation and structured sparse learning. In practice, the RIT and deep RIT are exploited to solve the image categorization task whose performances will be verified on various benchmark datasets. The structured sparse RIT is further applied to a medical image analysis task for brain MRI segmentation that allows group-level feature selections on the brain tissues.

  12. Novel control modes to improve the performance of rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer with dual pressure chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Xinming; Tang, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Yan; Guo, Cheng'an; Wang, Xiaohao

    2016-10-01

    The rectilinear ion trap (RIT) has gradually become one of the preferred mass analyzers for portable mass spectrometers because of its simple configuration. In order to enhance the performance, including sensitivity, quantitation capability, throughput, and resolution, a novel RIT mass spectrometer with dual pressure chambers was designed and characterized. The studied system constituted a quadrupole linear ion trap (QLIT) in the first chamber and a RIT in the second chamber. Two control modes are hereby proposed: Storage Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap-Rectilinear Ion Trap (SQLIT-RIT) mode, in which the QLIT was used at high pressure for ion storage and isolation, and the RIT was used for analysis; and Analysis Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap-Rectilinear Ion Trap (AQLIT-RIT) mode, in which the QLIT was used for ion storage and cooling. Subsequently, synchronous scanning and analysis were carried out by QLIT and RIT. In SQLIT-RIT mode, signal intensity was improved by a factor of 30; the limit of quantitation was reduced more than tenfold to 50 ng mL-1, and an optimal duty cycle of 96.4% was achieved. In AQLIT-RIT mode, the number of ions coexisting in the RIT was reduced, which weakened the space-charge effect and reduced the mass shift. Furthermore, the mass resolution was enhanced by a factor of 3. The results indicate that the novel control modes achieve satisfactory performance without adding any system complexity, which provides a viable pathway to guarantee good analytical performance in miniaturization of the mass spectrometer.

  13. Nonimmunogenic hyperthyroidism: Cumulative hypothyroidism incidence after radioiodine and surgical treatment

    SciT

    Kinser, J.A.; Roesler, H.; Furrer, T.

    1989-12-01

    During 1977, 246 hyperthyroid patients were seen in our departments, 140 (57%) with nonimmunogenic hyperthyroidism (NIH)--101 with a toxic adenoma (TA) and 39 with multifocal functional autonomy (MFA). All patients but one could be followed over 9 yr, 101 after 131I treatment (RIT), another 29 after surgery (S). Ten patients were left untreated. Thirty-four treated (24%) patients died, none as a result of thyroid or post-treatment complications. There was no hyperthyroidism later than 9 mo after therapy. Only 1% (RIT) and 24% (S) were hypothyroid 1 yr after treatment. But 19% of all treated NIH patients were hypothyroid after 9more » yr or at the time of their death, 12% after RIT and 41% after S. The cumulative hypothyroidism incidences 1.4%/yr for RIT and 2.2%/yr for S, were not significantly different. Out of the five survivers without RIT or S, two TA patients were hypothyroid. The effect of RIT on goiter related loco-regional complications was not worse than after S. We conclude that RIT is the treatment for NIH, leaving surgery for exceptional cases.« less

  14. [Procedure guidelines for radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer (version 2)].

    PubMed

    Dietlein, M; Dressler, J; Farahati, J; Grünwald, F; Leisner, B; Moser, E; Reiners, C; Schicha, H; Schober, O

    2004-08-01

    The procedure guidelines for radioiodine therapy (RIT) of differentiated thyroid cancer (version 2) are the counter-part to the procedure guidelines for (131)I whole-body scintigraphy (version 2) and specify the interdisciplinary guidelines for thyroid cancer of the Deutsche Krebsgesellschaft and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Chirurgie concerning the nuclear medicine part. Compared with version 1 facultative options for RIT can be chosen in special cases: ablative RIT for papillary microcarcinoma RIT for mixed forms of anaplastic and differentiated thyroid cancer, and RIT in patients with a measurable or increasing thyroglobulin concentration but without detectable metastases by imaging. The description of the pretherapeutic dosimetry now includes the isotopes (123)I and (124)I as well as a broader range of the activity of (131)I. Activities of 2-5 GBq (131)I are recommended for the first ablative RIT. If high accumulative activities of (131)I are expected, men who have not yet finished their family planning should be advised to the option of sperm cryoconservation. An interdisciplinary consensus is necessary whether the new TNM-classification (UICC, 6(th) edition, 2002) will lead to modified recommendations for surgical or nuclear medicine therapy, especially for the surgical completeness and for the ablative RIT of pT1 papillary cancer.

  15. Empirische Verfahren zur Ableitung verschiedener Porositätsarten aus Durchlässigkeitsbeiwert und Ungleichkörnigkeitszahl - ein Überblick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Ziesche, Michael; Nillert, Peter

    2017-06-01

    This paper comprises a review of the 13 studies that have been proposed for the derivation of porosity, effective porosity and/or specific yield from grain size distributions (Lejbenson 1947; Istomina 1957; Beyer 1964; Hennig 1966; Golf 1966; Marotz 1968; Beyer und Schweiger 1969; Seiler 1973; Bureau of Reclamation 1984; Helmbold 1988; Beims und Luckner 1999; Balke et al. 2000; Helmbold 2002). Experimental design, limitations and application boundaries are discussed and methods are compared against each other. The quality of the predictive methods strongly depends on the experimental design and the sample type.

  16. Innenstädte im ländlichen Raum - Wirksame Maßnahmen zur Revitalisierung zentraler Einzelhandelslagen im ruralen Umfeld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilpert, Markus; Völkening, Niklas; Beck, Christin

    2018-06-01

    In contrast to the retail sector in metropolises and medium-sized towns, its counterpart in rural regions is far less examined and described in scientific geographic literature. As many rural communities face similar challenges (e. g. growing vacancy rates, insufficient accessibility and unresolved succession in businesses), this article expounds fundamental mechanisms for strengthening or at least stabilizing their attractiveness as environments for living and for economy. Next to "hard" facts, as for example accessibility and parking spaces, less tangible themes like quality of stay, multicontextuality or service as well as comprehensive concepts like city marketing or place branding take on greater significance.

  17. Pragma- und textilinguistische Untersuchungsmethoden zur indirekten Rede im Englischen (Pragmatic and Text-Linguistic Research Methods on Indirect Discourse in English)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegesar, Detlef von

    1976-01-01

    Examines the mechanisms involved in changing from direct to indirect discourse, taking as a starting point research findings in linguistic pragmatics, which involve the practical application of speech symbol use between speaker and hearer. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  18. Wissensstrukturierung im Unterricht: Neuere Forschung zur Wissensreprasentation und ihre Anwendung in der Didaktik (Knowledge Structuring in Instruction: Recent Research on Knowledge Representation and Its Application in the Classroom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einsiedler, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    Asks whether theories of knowledge representation provide a basis for the development of theories of knowledge structuring in instruction. Discusses codes of knowledge, surface versus deep structures, semantic networks, and multiple memory systems. Reviews research on teaching, external representation of cognitive structures, hierarchical…

  19. Zur Frage der Textauswahl in einem Lesekurs fuer die Sozialwissenschaften (On the Question of the Choice of Textbooks in a Course in the Social Sciences)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apelt, Hans-Peter

    1974-01-01

    Passages from three selected samples of textbooks are used to show what requirements are made of textbooks in the social sciences. Some hints are given to the teacher for converting reading suggestions into instructional material. Short texts from Karl Marx are also suggested. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  20. Grüne Infrastruktur -. Konzepte und Strategien zur Förderung eines Bewusstseins für den Wert von Stadtgrün

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menke, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Due to climate change, but also because of the demographic change and financial constraints in many municipalities, the future of cities is a currently much-discussed topic. Conflicts over land-use are inevitable: As densification is an essential principle in growing cities, the pressure on open (green) spaces rises. Climate Change and water-management as well as mobility-issues and air-quality confront municipalities with new challenges, in terms of open space planning and greenery in the city. It is necessary to save the existing green in these days of budget-shortage and other priorities in communities. Municipalities have to raise new strategies to strengthen the awareness of the value of green in public and in the local business.

  1. Urbanisierung und Ökologische Stadtentwicklung. Zur Integration urbaner Biodiversität und Ökosystemleistungen in Deutschland und China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kümper-Schlake, Lennart

    2016-06-01

    Urbanisation processes increase land-use conflicts and ecosystem destruction globally. Especially in China, a country with an outstanding urbanization rate, city governments are challenged by environmental and health problems. Urban green spaces - subsequently defined as urban biodiversity and ecosystem services - can minimize numerous environmental risks and at the same time contribute to the citizens' well-being and quality of life. In this highly relevant field of nature conservation, geographical perspectives are required - in science, politics, policy, planning and practice.

  2. Briefkasten oder Brieftaube? Zur Auswahl der Lexik in amerikanischen Deutschlehrwerken fuer die Grundstufe. ("Mailbox" or "Carrier Pigeon"? Selecting Vocabulary for American College-Level Elementary German Textbooks).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Sibylle

    A comparison of four college-level elementary German textbooks reveals significant differences in the numbers of vocabulary entries in each textbook. Further comparison of three of the textbooks with the basic German vocabulary lists provided in "Kontaktschwelle Deutsch als Fremdsprache" and in "Das Zertificat Deutsch als Fremdsprache" reveal in…

  3. Bildung und bildungstheoretische Ueberlegungen zur Grundung der Republik (Education and the Republic--Educational Theorists Reflections on the Foundation of the Republic).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellekamps, Stephanie

    1996-01-01

    Draws on Wilhelm von Humboldt's typology of the active human being to debate the questions whether and how individuals can produce their social and political world. Discusses, with reference to Marie Condorcet and Immanuel Kant, procedures of the public that are necessary prerequisites for actions aimed at forming the world. (DSK)

  4. Zur Rolle von Plansprachen im terminologiewissenschaftlichen Werk von Eugen Wuster (The Role of Planned Languages in Eugen Wuster's Work on Terminology Science).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanke, Detlev

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between planned languages and specialized technical languages, with particular reference to Esperanto, and analyzes its significance for several aspects of Eugen Wuster's (the founder of terminology science) work. (Author/VWL)

  5. Kooperatives Lernen lernen? Zur Diskussion uber das Bildungswesen in Japan (Learning Cooperative Learning? On the Discussion of the Japanese Educational System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Volker

    1998-01-01

    Suggests a reconsideration of the criticism of Japanese competition against the background of the Japanese educational system's highly developed learning culture. Considers some of the basic aspects of group-oriented communal learning in school, while also cautioning against a "monocausal" culturalism. (Author/CMK)

  6. "Columns and Columnists": Zur Verwendung des "personenlichen Journalismus" im Unterricht (Columns and Columnists: On the Use of "Personal Journalism" in Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redling, Julius

    1977-01-01

    Discusses American journalism--specifically the syndicated columns. To show their usefulness for English teaching, Art Buchwald's "Unqualifications" is described and the text interpreted. It is suggested that for humorous aspects and language deviations be stressed; for Grades 11-13 irony, American technology and education. (Text is in…

  7. Automatisierung des Verfahrens nach Beyer & Schweiger (1969) zur Bestimmung von Durchlässigkeit und Porosität aus Kornverteilungskurven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, Georg J.; Blümel, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Porosity is a fundamental parameter in hydrogeology. The empirical method of Beyer and Schweiger (1969) allows the calculation of hydraulic conductivity and both the total and effective porosity from granulometric data. However, due to its graphical nature with type curves, it is tedious to apply and prone to reading errors. In this work, the type curves were digitized and emulated by mathematical functions. The latter were implemented into a spreadsheet and a visual basic program, allowing the fast automated application of the method for any number of samples.

  8. Zur Afuwertung der Kultur- und Landeskunde. Ein Literaturbericht (Toward an Evaluation of Culture Studies and Other Area Studies. A Survey of the Literature)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartig, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Eight recent monographs and collections on area and culture study in foreign language teaching are discussed and compared. The focus is on the various authors' definitions of the topic (culture, civilization, realia, etc.). Mentioned also is the function of area study in the course. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  9. The effect of short-term treatment with lithium carbonate on the outcome of radioiodine therapy in patients with long-lasting Graves' hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Sekulić, Vladan; Rajić, Milena; Vlajković, Marina; Ilić, Slobodan; Stević, Miloš; Kojić, Marko

    2017-12-01

    The outcome of radioiodine therapy (RIT) in Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH) mainly depends on radioiodine ( 131 I) uptake and the effective half-life of 131 I in the gland. Studies have shown that lithium carbonate (LiCO 3 ) enhances the 131 I half-life and increases the applied thyroid radiation dose without affecting the thyroid 131 I uptake. We investigated the effect of short-term treatment with LiCO 3 on the outcome of RIT in patients with long-lasting GH, its influence on the thyroid hormones levels 7 days after RIT, and possible side effects. Study prospectively included 30 patients treated with LiCO 3 and 131 I (RI-Li group) and 30 patients only with 131 I (RI group). Treatment with LiCO 3 (900 mg/day) started 1 day before RIT and continued 6 days after. Anti-thyroid drugs withdrawal was 7 days before RIT. Patients were followed up for 12 months. We defined a success of RIT as euthyroidism or hypothyroidism, and a failure as persistent hyperthyroidism. In RI-Li group, a serum level of Li was 0.571 ± 0.156 mmol/l before RIT. Serum levels of TT 4 and FT 4 increased while TSH decreased only in RI group 7 days after RIT. No toxic effects were noticed during LiCO 3 treatment. After 12 months, a success of RIT was 73.3% in RI and 90.0% in RI-Li group (P < 0.01). Hypothyroidism was achieved faster in RI-Li (1st month) than in RI group (3rd month). Euthyroidism slowly decreased in RI-Li group, and not all patients became hypothyroid for 12 months. In contrast, euthyroidism rapidly declined in RI group, and all cured patients became hypothyroid after 6 months. The short-term treatment with LiCO 3 as an adjunct to 131 I improves efficacy of RIT in patients with long-lasting GH. A success of RIT achieves faster in lithium-treated than in RI group. Treatment with LiCO 3 for 7 days prevents transient worsening of hyperthyroidism after RIT. Short-term use of LiCO 3 shows no toxic side effects.

  10. Measurement of EPF for detection of cow pregnancy using rosette inhibition test.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari Laleh, V; Ghaffari Laleh, R; Pirany, N; Moghadaszadeh Ahrabi, M

    2008-07-01

    Early embryonic death of calves due to sub-fertility in cows is of great economic concern to dairy industry. Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is a secretory protein with pregnancy associated immunosuppressive properties. Rosette inhibition test (RIT) was used to detect EPF in inseminated dairy cows. Blood samples were collected at two intervals, 1-3 and 5-7 days after insemination from 23 inseminated and 18 non-inseminated control cows for RIT and pregnancy diagnosis performed between 42 and 45 days on palpation. The study indicates that RIT (P<0.05) has the potential to distinguish pregnant from non-pregnant dairy cows in the first week of pregnancy.

  11. Radioimmunotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... be involved in RIT. top of page What equipment is used? In addition to equipment needed to ... dimensional images. top of page Who operates the equipment? A radiologist who has specialized training in nuclear ...

  12. Comparing the cost-effectiveness of rituximab maintenance and radioimmunotherapy consolidation versus observation following first-line therapy in patients with follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Nastoupil, Loretta J; Rose, Adam C; Flowers, Christopher R

    2015-03-01

    Phase 3 randomized trials have shown that maintenance rituximab (MR) therapy or radioimmunotherapy (RIT) consolidation following frontline therapy can improve progression-free survival for patients with follicular lymphoma (FL), but the cost-effectiveness of these approaches with respect to observation has not been examined using a common modeling framework. To evaluate and compare the economic impact of MR and RIT consolidation versus observation, respectively, following the first-line induction therapy for patients with advanced-stage FL. We developed Markov models to estimate patients' lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and life-years (LYs) after MR, RIT, and observation following frontline FL treatment from the US payer's perspective. Progression risks, adverse event probabilities, costs, and utilities were estimated from clinical data of Primary RItuximab and MAintenance (PRIMA) trial, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) trial (for MR), and First-line Indolent Trial (for RIT) and the published literature. We evaluated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for direct comparisons between MR/RIT and observation. Model robustness was addressed by one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Compared with observation, MR provided an additional 1.089 QALYs (1.099 LYs) and 1.399 QALYs (1.391 LYs) on the basis of the PRIMA trial and the ECOG trial, respectively, and RIT provided an additional 1.026 QALYs (1.034 LYs). The incremental cost per QALY gained was $40,335 (PRIMA) or $37,412 (ECOG) for MR and $40,851 for RIT. MR and RIT had comparable incremental QALYs before first progression, whereas RIT had higher incremental costs of adverse events due to higher incidences of cytopenias. MR and RIT following frontline FL therapy demonstrated favorable and similar cost-effectiveness profiles. The model results should be interpreted within the specific clinical settings of each trial. Selection of MR, RIT, or observation should be based on

  13. LEEDS Decision Tools for E-Craft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-15

    currently valid 0MB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 15-Feb-2011 2. REPORT TYPE Final... RIT has received no feedback regarding which system monitoring would be most beneficial to MSB. TASKS 1. Decision support research Data/analysis...project, a Project Initiation Document (PID) was written by RIT and submitted to MSB for its approval. This document is attached in Appendix A. It

  14. Comparison of Biotinylated Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies in an Evaluation of a Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test for the Routine Diagnosis of Rabies in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Coetzer, Andre; Sabeta, Claude T.; Markotter, Wanda; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Nel, Louis H.

    2014-01-01

    The major etiological agent of rabies, rabies virus (RABV), accounts for tens of thousands of human deaths per annum. The majority of these deaths are associated with rabies cycles in dogs in resource-limited countries of Africa and Asia. Although routine rabies diagnosis plays an integral role in disease surveillance and management, the application of the currently recommended direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test in countries on the African and Asian continents remains quite limited. A novel diagnostic assay, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT), has been reported to have a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity equal to that of the DFA test while offering advantages in cost, time and interpretation. Prior studies used the dRIT utilized monoclonal antibody (MAb) cocktails. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a biotinylated polyclonal antibody (PAb) preparation, applied in the dRIT protocol, would yield equal or improved results compared to the use of dRIT with MAbs. We also wanted to compare the PAb dRIT with the DFA test, utilizing the same PAb preparation with a fluorescent label. The PAb dRIT had a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%, which was shown to be marginally higher than the diagnostic efficacy observed for the PAb DFA test. The classical dRIT, relying on two-biotinylated MAbs, was applied to the same panel of samples and a reduced diagnostic sensitivity (83.50% and 90.78% respectively) was observed. Antigenic typing of the false negative samples indicated all of these to be mongoose RABV variants. Our results provided evidence that a dRIT with alternative antibody preparations, conjugated to a biotin moiety, has a diagnostic efficacy equal to that of a DFA relying on the same antibody and that the antibody preparation should be optimized for virus variants specific to the geographical area of focus. PMID:25254652

  15. Comparison of biotinylated monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies in an evaluation of a direct rapid immunohistochemical test for the routine diagnosis of rabies in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Coetzer, Andre; Sabeta, Claude T; Markotter, Wanda; Rupprecht, Charles E; Nel, Louis H

    2014-09-01

    The major etiological agent of rabies, rabies virus (RABV), accounts for tens of thousands of human deaths per annum. The majority of these deaths are associated with rabies cycles in dogs in resource-limited countries of Africa and Asia. Although routine rabies diagnosis plays an integral role in disease surveillance and management, the application of the currently recommended direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test in countries on the African and Asian continents remains quite limited. A novel diagnostic assay, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT), has been reported to have a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity equal to that of the DFA test while offering advantages in cost, time and interpretation. Prior studies used the dRIT utilized monoclonal antibody (MAb) cocktails. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a biotinylated polyclonal antibody (PAb) preparation, applied in the dRIT protocol, would yield equal or improved results compared to the use of dRIT with MAbs. We also wanted to compare the PAb dRIT with the DFA test, utilizing the same PAb preparation with a fluorescent label. The PAb dRIT had a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%, which was shown to be marginally higher than the diagnostic efficacy observed for the PAb DFA test. The classical dRIT, relying on two-biotinylated MAbs, was applied to the same panel of samples and a reduced diagnostic sensitivity (83.50% and 90.78% respectively) was observed. Antigenic typing of the false negative samples indicated all of these to be mongoose RABV variants. Our results provided evidence that a dRIT with alternative antibody preparations, conjugated to a biotin moiety, has a diagnostic efficacy equal to that of a DFA relying on the same antibody and that the antibody preparation should be optimized for virus variants specific to the geographical area of focus.

  16. Defense Systems Modernization and Sustainment Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-18

    approach provides the dual benefits of a source of research direction and requirements from military equipment operators, maintainers, and life-cycle...world. RIT is coeducational and the 11h largest private university in the nation. RIT offers 350 programs of study in eight colleges including the...objective of the Asset Health Management research is to assess cost benefit of the deployment of health monitoring technologies to U.S. Marine Corps ground

  17. Defense Systems Modernization and Sustainment Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-20

    RIT is coeducational , and the 1 1 th largest privately * held university in the nation. RIT offers 350 programs of study in eight colleges including...sensors and will give warfighters a tremendous advantage in operational/logistical tempo. The full benefits of an Asset Health Management system are...Picture (COP) and Data Analysis Support Project Goal Provide a COP for use by the Marine Corps School of Infantry and analyze the Asset Health Monitoring

  18. Hydraulische Optimierung des Reaktionsraumes um einen Infiltrationsbrunnen zur unterirdischen Enteisenung. Feldversuche und numerische Simulation zur Planung der optimalen Verfahrensergiebigkeit (Teil 1/2) Hydraulic optimization of the reaction zone around an injection well during subsurface iron removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrns, Johannes; Bartak, Rico; Grischek, Thomas; Pörschke, Richard

    2017-11-01

    In subsurface iron removal (SIR), oxygen-enriched water is injected into an aquifer to create a reaction zone. Aside from the hydraulic properties of the aquifer, groundwater quality often varies with depth so that in vertical wells the dissolved oxygen distribution (reaction zone) may not correspond to the dissolved iron concentration which may result in a lower efficiency coefficient. Therefore, measures to hydraulically optimize the formation of the reaction zone through a non-conventional injection were investigated. A high-resolution groundwater flow model was calibrated based on tracer and pump tests and used to plan the optimized injection for a SIR-pilot well with two screen segments. An optimized injection appears to be possible through the inactivation of well screen sections using packers. A doubling of the efficiency coefficient in comparison to a conventional injection was predicted when a packer, which remains evacuated inside the well while pumping, was used to seal 4/5 of the upper well screen length during injection. This scenario was used to plan the operating regime for a SIR field test, which is presented in Part 2.

  19. Predictive factors of outcomes in personalized radioactive iodine ((131)I) treatment for Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Jing, Danqing; Hu, Jingsheng; Yin, Shinan

    2014-10-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in iodine-sufficient areas. Radioactive iodine I treatment (RIT), as the 1st therapeutic option, is widely accepted by doctors and patients. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the success rate of calculated RIT in GD. Thyroid function outcome (hyperthyroidism or euthyroidism/hypothyroidism) was verified retrospectively at least 1 year after RIT and was compared with presenting clinical characteristics and pre-RIT parameters in 167 patients with GD treated with I-iodide in the authors' institute. After RIT, 83 patients (49.7%) became euthyroid, 64 patients (38.3%) became hypothyroid and 20 (12.0%) remained hyperthyroid. Multiple logistic regression analyses demonstrated that there was no statistically significant association between RIT outcomes and sex, age, history of GD, previous antithyroid drug treatment, thyroid hormone levels, thyroid gland mass or radioactive iodine I dosage. The only variables associated with the success rate were the course of disease over 6 months (odds ratio, 3.70; confidence interval, 1.75-7.17; P = 0.014) and 2-hour radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) >58.5% (odds ratio, 4.08; confidence interval, 2.03-7.83; P = 0.005). Our study has shown that a calculated approach for the treatment of GD was effective, but high failure rates were observed in patients presenting higher 2-hour RAIU, particularly those with 2-hour RAIU of more than 58.5%.

  20. Women in science, engineering, and math mentors pilot program

    SciT

    O`Leary, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    The Women in Science, Engineering, and Math Mentors Program is a partnership program conducted by New York State Education and Research Network (NYSERNet), Rochester Institutes of Technology (RIT) and the Pittsford and Rochester City School districts. The goal of this project is to introduce high school girls to professional women from both educational and industrial scientific fields. The pilot program began in the fall of 1993 with the girls coming to RIT`s campus, via the video interactive network or in person, for a careers assessment seminar. Then they carried on {open_quotes}e-pal{close_quotes} relationships via electronic conferencing on the data network tomore » pursue many mentors and a myriad of different career avenues. The questions ranged from simple information requests regarding the requirements for a job to in-depth pursuit of emotional and personal characteristics needed for different professions. The luncheon finale brought us together on RIT`s campus to get to know each other face to face. We then toured the Micro-electronics lab and manufacturing facility at RIT. A 1993-94 school year program now involves over 140 mentors and students. We have partnered with other projects in the Rochester area to extend the sharing of the vast resources of our community.« less

  1. Determination of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter

    SciT

    Tsang, Manyee Betty

    A new Time Projection Chamber (TPC), called the SπRIT (SAMURAI pion Reconstruction Ion Tracker) TPC was constructed and used successfully in two experiments with the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIKEN, Japan to study the equation of state of neutron rich matter. As a result of the project, the SπRIT collaboration, an international collaboration consisting of groups from US, Japan, Korea, Poland, China and Germany, has been formed to pursue the science opportunities provided by the SπRIT TPC. After completion of the TPC and the two experiments, the collaboration continues to develop the software to analyze the SπRIT experiments and extract constraintsmore » of symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities. Over 250 TB of data have been obtained in the last SπRIT TPC experimental campaign. Construction of the TPC provided opportunities for the scientists to develop new designs for the light-weight and thin-walled field cage for the large pad plane and for the gating grid. Two PhD students (1 US and 1 Korea) graduated in 2016 based on their research on the TPC. At least four more doctoral theses (2 US, 1 Japan and 1 Korea) based on physics from the SπRIT experiments are expected.« less

  2. Joint Ordnance Test Procedure (JOTP)-010 Safety and Suitability for Service Assessment Testing for Shoulder Launched Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-08

    Richtlinien zur Registrierung und Auswertung von Waffen -und Detonationsknallen 31 Motor Case Burst Probability ARO Report 75-2, SMC-S-001 Def Stan...des bruits de détonation Vorschriften und Richtlinien zur Registrierung und Auswertung von Waffen und Detonationsknallen and STANAG 4569 with...à l’exploitation des bruits d’armes et des bruits de détonation Vorschriften und Richtlinien zur Registrierung und Auswertung von Waffen und

  3. Improved survival of mice bearing liver metastases of colon cancer cells treated with a combination of radioimmunotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kinuya, Seigo; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Koshida, Kiyoshi; Mori, Hirofumi; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Naoto; Shuke, Noriyuki; Bai, Jingming; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa

    2004-07-01

    We attempted to determine whether the combined regimen of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and antiangiogenic therapy would favorably affect the survival of animals bearing liver metastases of colon cancer cells. Daily antiangiogenic therapy with 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), 75 mg/kg, was initiated at 3 days following intrasplenic cell inoculation of LS180 colon cancer cells. RIT with 7 MBq of (131)I-A7, an IgG1 anti-colorectal monoclonal antibody, or (131)I-HPMS-1, an irrelevant IgG1, was conducted at 7 days. Production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by LS180 cells was assessed in vitro. All nontreated mice died by 31 days following cell inoculation ( n=5). Monotherapy comprising 2-ME treatment resulted in slightly better survival of mice ( n=8) ( P<0.05). (131)I-A7 RIT displayed a marked therapeutic effect ( n=8) ( P<0.001); however, all animals eventually died due to metastases by 99 days. The combined regimen of (131)I-A7 RIT and antiangiogenic therapy demonstrated a superior therapeutic effect in comparison to monotherapy consisting of either RIT or antiangiogenic therapy ( n=10) ( P<0.05); three mice survived the entire 160-day observation period. The combination of antiangiogenic therapy and (131)I-HPMS-1 RIT failed to provide an appreciable benefit ( n=5). Treatment with 2-ME decreased VEGF production by LS180 cells in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, a combination regimen comprising RIT and antiangiogenic therapy initiated at the early stage of metastasis would be of great benefit in terms of improvement of the therapeutic efficacy with respect to liver metastases.

  4. The number of 131I therapy courses needed to achieve complete remission is an indicator of prognosis in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Thies, Elena-Daphne; Tanase, Karina; Maeder, Uwe; Luster, Markus; Buck, Andreas K; Hänscheid, Heribert; Reiners, Christoph; Verburg, Frederik A

    2014-12-01

    To assess the risk of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) recurrence, DTC-related mortality and life expectancy in relation to the number of courses of (131)I therapy (RIT) and cumulative (131)I activities required to achieve complete remission (CR). The study was a database review of 1,229 patients with DTC, 333 without and 896 with CR (negative TSH-stimulated thyroglobulin and negative (131)I diagnostic whole-body scintigraphy) after one or more courses of RIT. The median follow-up was 9.0 years (range 0.1 - 31.8 years) after CR. Recurrence rates at 5 years, 10 years and the end of follow-up were 1.0 ± 0.3%, 4.0 ± 0.7 % and 6.2 ± 1.1 %, and DTC-related mortality was 0.1 ± 0.1%, 0.5 ± 0.3% and 3.4 ± 1.1%, respectively. Recurrence rates also increased with an increasing number of RIT courses required (p = 0.001). DTC-related mortality increased from four RIT courses. In patients with CR after one RIT course, there were no differences in recurrence or DTC-related mortality rates between low-risk and high-risk patients. In patients requiring two RIT courses these rates remain elevated in high-risk patients. Recurrence and DTC-related mortality rates were only significantly elevated in those requiring a cumulative activity over 22.2 GBq (600 mCi) from multiple RIT courses for CR. Regardless of the number of RIT courses or activity needed, life expectancy was not significantly lowered. If more than one RIT course is needed to achieve CR, higher recurrence and DTC-related mortality rates are observed, especially in high-risk patients. Patients requiring >22.2 GBq (131)I for CR should be followed in the same way as patients in whom CR is never reached as long-term mortality rates are similar.

  5. Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy Using Anti-CD45 Monoclonal Antibodies to Deliver Radiation to Murine Hematolymphoid Tissues and Human Myeloid Leukemia

    SciT

    Pagel, John M.; Matthews, Dana C.; Kenoyer, Aimee L.

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for treatment of patients with hematological malignancies frequently fails because of disease recurrence. We therefore conducted pretargeted RIT studies to augment the efficacy in mice of therapy using a pretargeted anti-human (h)CD45 antibody (Ab)-streptavidin (SA) conjugate followed by delivery of a biotinylated clearing agent and radiolabeled-DOTA-biotin. Tumor-to-blood ratios at 24 hours were 20:1 using pretargeted anti-hCD45 RIT and <1:1 with conventional RIT. In vivo imaging studies confirmed that the pretargeted RIT approach provided high-contrast tumor images with minimal blood-pool activity, whereas directly-labeled anti-hCD45 Ab produced distinct tumor images but the blood pool retained a largemore » amount of labeled antibody for a prolonged time. Therapy experiments demonstrated that 90Y-DOTA-biotin significantly prolonged survival of mice treated pretargeted with anti-hCD45 Ab-SA compared to mice treated with conventional RIT using 90Y-labeled anti-hCD45 Ab at the maximally tolerated dose (400 µCi). Since human CD45 antigens are confined to xenograft tumor cells in this model, and all murine tissues are devoid of hCD45 and will not bind anti-hCD45 Ab, we also compared one-step and pretargeted RIT using an anti-murine (m)CD45 Ab (A20 ) in a model where the target antigen is present on normal hematopoietic tissues. After 24 hours, 27.3 ± 2.8% of the injected dose of radionuclide was delivered per gram (% ID/g) of lymph node using 131I-A20-Ab compared with 40.0 ± 5.4% ID/g for pretargeted 111In-DOTA-biotin (p value). These data suggest that multi-step pretargeted methods for delivering RIT are superior to conventional RIT when targeting CD45 for the treatment of leukemia and may allow for the intensification of therapy, while minimizing toxicities.« less

  6. Constructive alignment of a research-informed teaching activity within an undergraduate diagnostic radiography curriculum: A reflection.

    PubMed

    Higgins, R; Hogg, P; Robinson, L

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the learning experience of a level 5 (year 2) student cohort within a research-informed teaching (RiT) activity and to map findings against learning outcomes and level descriptors using constructive alignment. An online questionnaire was used to explore the level 5 student experience of a Research-informed Teaching (RiT) activity. Responses were retrospectively mapped against Framework for Higher Education Qualifications (FHEQ) level descriptors for level 5 using constructive alignment. Thirty one out of 46 level 5 students completed the questionnaire (67% response rate). Analysis of the questionnaire supported the integration of this RiT activity within the curriculum in terms of learning and research skill development by students. However, it was identified that this activity could be revised further to better align with level 5 descriptors and incorporate additional higher level cognitive processes. Learning outcomes for this RiT activity were constructively aligned with FHEQ level 5 descriptors. Recommendations are provided on how these could be further refined to ensure students undertake a more critical approach to the application of theory into practice. Discussion also considers how this process could be used to develop a similar RiT activity at level 6 (year 3). Copyright © 2016 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Imagine Astronomy at the Rochester Institute of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapson, Valerie; Almeyda, T.; Freeman, M.; Lena, D.; Principe, D.; Punzi, K.; Sargent, B. A.; Vaddi, S.; Vazquez, B.; Vorobiev, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Imagine RIT Innovation and Creativity Festival is an annual free event held each year on the campus of the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT). The purpose of the festival is to showcase the work and research conducted by students and faculty at RIT, and get the public excited about science and technology. For the past three years, graduate students, post-docs and faculty in the Astrophysical Sciences and Technology graduate program at RIT have participated in the festival by showcasing their astronomy research in a fun, interactive and hands on way. We have presented work conducted with various telescopes in the fields of star formation and galaxy evolution. Here, we present our three unique exhibits and the public’s reception to each exhibit. We found that interactive games such as astro-trivia, and hands on activities such as building a scale model of the Hubble Space Telescope were the most exciting for visitors. Interactive pieces of the exhibit in general acquired the most attention, whereas posters and videos, despite their pictorial nature, were not as well received. The most successful piece of our exhibit each year has been solar observing through eclipse glasses and telescopes. Most people who observed the sun at our exhibit were left awe-struck because this was their first experience viewing an astronomical object through a telescope. We plan to improve upon our exhibit by introducing more hands-on activities that will engage the public in current astronomy research at RIT.

  8. A phase II study of intraperitoneal radioimmunotherapy with iodine-131-labeled monoclonal antibody OC-125 in patients with residual ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mahé, M A; Fumoleau, P; Fabbro, M; Guastalla, J P; Faurous, P; Chauvot, P; Chetanoud, L; Classe, J M; Rouanet, P; Chatal, J F

    1999-10-01

    Standard treatment of advanced ovarian cancer is a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. Additional therapies using the i.p. route are considered as a potential means of improving the locoregional control rate. This Phase II study evaluated the efficacy of i.p. radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in patients with minimal residual ovarian adenocarcinoma after primary treatment with surgery and chemotherapy. Between February 1995 and March 1996, six patients with residual macroscopic (<5 mm) or microscopic disease as demonstrated by laparotomy and multiple biopsies received i.p. RIT. All had initial stage III epithelial carcinoma and were treated with debulking surgery and one line (four patients) or two lines (two patients) of chemotherapy. RIT was performed with 60 mg of OC 125 F(ab')2 monoclonal antibody labeled with 4.44 GBq (120 mCi) of 131I injected 5-10 days after the surgical procedure. Systematic laparoscopy or laparotomy with multiple biopsies performed 3 months after RIT in five patients (clinical progression was seen in one patient) showed no change in three patients and progression in two patients. Toxicity was mainly hematological, with grade III neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in two patients. Human antimouse antibody production was demonstrated in all six patients. This study showed little therapeutic benefit from i.p. RIT in patients with residual ovarian carcinoma.

  9. Is Efficacy of the Anti-Cd20 Antibody Rituximab Preventing Hemolysis Due to Passenger Lymphocyte Syndrome?

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Kazuma; Ishida, Hideki; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2017-02-01

    Passenger lymphocyte syndrome (PLS) often occurs after ABO-mismatched solid organ and/or bone marrow transplantation between a donor and recipient. Viable donor B-lymphocytes transferred during organ transplantation produce antibodies against recipient red cell antigens, leading to hemolysis. The incidence of PLS has been reported to be around 9% after renal transplantation. A previous report showed that rituximab (Rit) was useful for treatment of PLS in allogeneic stem cell transplantation, bowel transplant and severe cases of hemolysis. However, the effectiveness of Rit in preventing PLS after renal transplantation has not yet been evaluated. The participants in this study were 85 patients who had undergone ABO-mismatched renal transplantation from January 2005 to April 2013. Rit was administered to these patients before transplantation. None of the patients that received Rit treatment developed PLS. Thus administration of Rit before transplantation effectively controlled the production of antibodies by B-lymphocytes, which probably prevented the development of PLS. © 2016 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  10. Numerical research of a 2D axial symmetry hybrid model for the radio-frequency ion thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenchen, WU; Xinfeng, SUN; Zuo, GU; Yanhui, JIA

    2018-04-01

    Since the high efficiency discharge is critical to the radio-frequency ion thruster (RIT), a 2D axial symmetry hybrid model has been developed to study the plasma evolution of RIT. The fluid method and the drift energy correction of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) are applied to the analysis of the RIT discharge. In the meantime, the PIC-MCC method is used to investigate the ion beam current extraction character for the plasma plume region. The beam current simulation results, with the hybrid model, agree well with the experimental results, and the error is lower than 11%, which shows the validity of the model. The further study shows there is an optimal ratio for the radio-frequency (RF) power and the beam current extraction power under the fixed RIT configuration. And the beam extraction efficiency will decrease when the discharge efficiency beyond a certain threshold (about 87 W). As the input parameters of the hybrid model are all the design values, it can be directly used to the optimum design for other kinds of RITs and radio-frequency ion sources.

  11. A comparative analysis of conventional and pretargeted radioimmunotherapy of B-cell lymphomas by targeting CD20, CD22, and HLA-DR singly and in combinations

    PubMed Central

    Orgun, Nural; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Gooley, Theodore A.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Park, Steven I.; Green, Damian J.; Lin, Yukang; Press, Oliver W.

    2009-01-01

    Relapsed B-cell lymphomas are currently incurable with conventional chemotherapy and radiation treatments. Radiolabeled antibodies directed against B-cell surface antigens have emerged as effective and safe therapies for relapsed lymphomas. We therefore investigated the potential utility of both directly radiolabeled 1F5 (anti-CD20), HD39 (anti-CD22), and Lym-1 (anti-DR) antibodies (Abs) and of pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using Ab-streptavidin (SA) conjugates, followed by an N-acetylgalactosamine dendrimeric clearing agent and radiometal-labeled DOTA-biotin, for treatment of lymphomas in mouse models using Ramos, Raji, and FL-18 human lymphoma xenografts. This study demonstrates the marked superiority of pretargeted RIT for each of the antigenic targets with more complete tumor regressions and longer mouse survival compared with conventional one-step RIT. The Ab-SA conjugate yielding the best tumor regression and progression-free survival after pretargeted RIT varied depending upon the lymphoma cell line used, with 1F5 Ab-SA and Lym-1 Ab-SA conjugates yielding the most promising results overall. Contrary to expectations, the best rates of mouse survival were obtained using optimal single Ab-SA conjugates rather than combinations of conjugates targeting different antigens. We hypothesize that clinical implementation of pretargeted RIT methods will provide a meaningful prolongation of survival for patients with relapsed lymphomas compared with currently available treatment strategies. PMID:19124831

  12. RadioImmunotherapy for adenoid cystic carcinoma: a single-institution series of combined treatment with cetuximab

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Local control in adjuvant/definitive RT of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is largely dose-dependent. However, some clinical situations do not allow application of tumouricidal doses (i.e. re-irradiation) hence radiation sensitization by exploitation of high endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR)-expression in ACC seems beneficial. This is a single-institution experience of combined radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with the EGFR-inhibitor cetuximab. Methods Between 2006 and 2010, 9 pts received RIT for advanced/recurrent ACC, 5/9 pts as re-irradiation. Baseline characteristics as well as treatment parameters were retrieved to evaluate efficacy and toxicity of the combination regimen were evaluated. Control rates (local/distant) and overall survival were calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimation. Results Median dose was 65 Gy, pts received a median of 6 cycles cetuximab. RIT was tolerated well with only one °III mucositis/dysphagia. Overall response/remission rates were high (77,8%); 2-year estimate of local control was 80% hence reaching local control levels comparable to high-dose RT. Progression-free survival (PFS) at 2 years and median overall survival were only 62,5% and 22,2 mo respectively. Conclusion While local control and treatment response in RIT seems promising, PFS and overall survival are still hampered by distant failure. The potential benefit of RIT with cetuximab warrants exploration in a prospective controlled clinical trial. PMID:21047402

  13. Incremental cost of implementing residual insecticide treatment with delthametrine on top of intensive routine Aedes aegypti control.

    PubMed

    Baly, Alberto; Gonzalez, Karelia; Cabrera, Pedro; Popa, Julio C; Toledo, Maria E; Hernandez, Claudia; Montada, Domingo; Vanlerberghe, Veerle; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Information on the cost of implementing residual insecticide treatment (RIT) for Aedes control is scarce. We evaluated the incremental cost on top of intensive conventional routine activities of the Aedes control programme (ACP) in the city of Santiago de Cuba, Cuba. We conducted the cost analysis study in 2011-2012, from the perspective of the ACP. Data sources were bookkeeping records, activity registers of the Provincial ACP Centre and the accounts of an RIT implementation study in 21 clusters of on average four house blocks comprising 5180 premises. The annual cost of the routine ACP activities was 19.66 US$ per household. RIT applications in rounds at 4-month intervals covering, on average, 97.2% and using 8.5 g of delthametrine annually per household, cost 3.06 US$ per household per year. Delthametrine comprised 66.5% of this cost; the additional cost for deploying RIT comprised 15.6% of the total ACP routine cost and 27% of the cost related to routine adult stage Aedes control. The incremental cost of implementing RIT is high. It should be weighed against the incremental effect on the burden caused by the array of pathogens transmitted by Aedes. The cost could be reduced if the insecticide became cheaper, by limiting the number of yearly applications or by targeting transmission hot spots. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Validation of the Italian version of the HSE Indicator Tool.

    PubMed

    Magnavita, N

    2012-06-01

    An Italian version of the Health & Safety Executive's (HSE) Management Standards Revised Indicator Tool (MS-RIT) has been used to monitor the working conditions that may lead to stress. To initially examine the factor structure of the Italian version of the MS-RIT, in comparison with the original UK tool, and to investigate its validity and reliability; second, to study the association between occupational stress and psychological distress. Workers from 17 companies self-completed the MS-RIT and the General Health Questionnaire used to measure the psychological distress while they waited for their periodic examination at the workplace. Factor analysis was employed to ascertain whether the Italian version maintained the original subdivision into seven scales. Odds ratios were calculated to estimate the risk of impairment associated with exposure to stress at the workplace. In total, 748 workers participated; the response rate was 91%. The factor structure of the Italian MS-RIT corresponded partially to the original UK version. The 'demand', 'control', 'role', ' relationship' and 'colleague-support' scales were equivalent to the UK ones. A principal factor, termed ' elasticity', incorporated the UK 'management-support' and 'change' scales. Reliability analysis of the sub-scales revealed Cronbach's alpha values ranging from 0.75 to 0.86. Our findings confirmed the usefulness of the Italian version of the HSE MS-RIT in stress control.

  15. Zur Funktion von Weiterbildung fur Frauen in den neuen Landern im Kontext des Transformationsprozesses (On the Function of Further Education for Women in the New Laender in the Context of the Process of Transformation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiersmann, Christiane; Ambos, Ingrid

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on motives leading women in the new German Laender to participate in further education and on gender-related barriers to further education. Shows that women accept the need for further education, hoping to improve their job situation but knowing that their efforts will have a limited effect on employment chances. (DSK)

  16. Über den Beitrag von Heinrich Bruns zur theoretischen geometrischen Optik - unter Berücksichtigung seines Briefwechsels mit Wissenschaftlern der Zeiss-Werke in Jena 1888 - 1893.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgauds, H.-J.; Münzel, G.

    Heinrich Bruns, director of the Leipzig University Observatory, was working on theoretical geometrical optics, and applied this to practical questions. His correspondence with opticians of the Zeiss Company in Jena gives evidence of their mutual regard and inspiration.

  17. Konzeption, Entwicklung und Evaluierung eines Messsystems zur sortenreinen Klassifikation von fluoreszenzcodierten Kunststoffen im Rahmen des Kunststoff-Recyclings(Conception, development and evaluation of a measuring system for the classification of fluorescence coded plastics within the framework of plastic recycling)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 1 Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0 188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1...PRI CE CODE 19, SECURITY CLASSI FI CATI ON 20. LIM ITATION OF ABSTRACT OF ABSTRACT UNCLASSIFIED UL Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by...Trennung komplexer Kunststoffmixturen in Form von typi- schem Kunststoffmahlgut ("Flakes") und insbesondere dunkler bzw. schwarzer Kunst- stoffe beseitigt

  18. orbis (sphaera), circulus, via, iter, orbita -- on the terminological identification of the essential paradigm change in astronomy by Johannes Kepler. (German Title: orbis (sphaera), circulus, via, iter, orbita} -- zur terminologischen Kennzeichnung des wesentlichsten Paradigmawechsels in der Astronomie durch Johannes Kepler)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, Fritz

    2011-08-01

    The use of modern terminology hinders to understand historical astronomical texts and often misleads the reader. Therefore, this study tries to reconstruct the ideas of the way the planets seem to move against the sphere of fixed stars in a non-teleological manner, that means in the original view and with original terms. The study proceeds historically and explains: (1) Aristotle's system of homocentric spheres being hollow spheres of ether turning equally round the earth in the centre of the world, a number of which makes the apparatus of the movement of a planet which produces its apparently unequal motion. (2) Ptolemy's reductionistic system of geometric circles (eccentric deferents, epicycles etc.), which are indeed great circles on non-concentric hollow spheres, whereupon they turn around equally. The space which they take up in all is surrounded by an inner and an outer concentric spherical surface and makes the sphere of the planet. (3) John's of Sacrobosco transferring of the geometric astronomy to the Latin of Middle Ages and the commentators' precision of the Greek-Latin terms. (4) The tradition of the "Theorica planetarum" which makes this geometry physics by allotting every partial moving to a partial material hollow sphere (with spherical surfaces of different centricity) or full sphere of an epicycle (orbes particulares or partialis), a number of which makes the entire sphere of each planet (orbis totalis or totus). - Copernicus also stood within this tradition, except that his entire spheres differ from the earlier ones in size or thickness (because he eliminated the partly very big synodic epicycles and allocated their effect as a mere parallactic one to the yearly moving of the earth) and in the great intervening spaces between each other (a result of measuring the true distances of the planets on the basis of these parallactic effects). (5) Tycho Brahe's refutation of the unchangingness and unpermeableness and therefore solidity of all etherial spheres, what had been the fundamental condition for creating the indirect ways of the planets in all astronomical systems with partial or entire spheres engaging one another. It was particularly Kepler who recognizes that as a result celestial physics requires a complete change. (6) Kepler's replacement of celestial physics. He did not think any more that the apparent (unequal) way of a planet indirectly results from the combination of several equal movements of etherial partial and entire spheres. His planets move their true and real way caused directly by the joint effect of two corporal forces moving the planets both around the sun and to and from it, which latter makes the planet's speed indeed naturally unequal. For this "real way" he coins in late 1604 the specific term "orbita" (the modern "orbit", the German "Bahn". This term then little by little replaced the former non-specific, general description of the apparent or real way (as "via, iter, ambitus, circulus, circuitus" etc.), and Kepler used it increasingly from its introduction (initially frequently joined to a describing definition of this "way") up to the exclusive use in the fifth book of the "Epitome", after this "orbita" had changed its shape from a perfect eccentric circle to an oval and finally an elliptic form. This way Kepler marks the paradigm change of astronomy caused by himself also terminologically.

  19. Video: einige Bemerkungen zum medien-spezifischen Ort und zur didaktischen Basis (Video: Some Notes on Its Place among Teaching Media and on Its Theoretical Basis in FL Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Hans-Ludwig

    1976-01-01

    Reports on the introduction of video recorders at various branches of the Goethe Institute. The characteristics of video are compared with those of films, tapes and printed matter. Video's advantage is that through it authentic, unprepared material can be presented, and it provides strong motivation. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  20. On the Situation in the Near East: Fleet Activities in the Indian Ocean: Summary from July 1980 to August 1982 (Zur Lage im Mittleren Osten: Flottenaktivataeten in Indischen Ozean: Ueberblick vom Juli 1980 bis August 1982).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-16

    KRIVAK and KOTLIN Classes, but now and then1Q KASHIN-Class destroyers were also employed. With the end of the Iranian-American hostage crisis in late...Beira and Port Louis. The cruiser and one KOTLIN destroyer entered Aden In May 1981, and then An late July the cruiser with one KRIVAK frigate redeployed

  1. Literaturunterricht als Erziehung zum "rationalen Handeln." Zur Theorie und Operationalisierung einer literaturdidaktischen Kategorie (The Teaching of Literature as "Education for Rational Behavior." On the Theory and Implementation of a Category in Teaching Literature)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Gerhard

    1975-01-01

    Using Richard Wright's novel "Black Boy" as a model to work on, the author illustrates a 4-dimensional approach to the teaching of foreign literature: (1) scientific definition of the goals, (2) making a teaching plan, (3) defining methods, and (4) actual use on a teaching model. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  2. Die nuklearen Anlagen von Hanford (1943-1987) Eine Fallstudie über die Schnittstellen von Physik, Biologie und die US-amerikanische Gesellschaft zur Zeit des Kalten Krieges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macuglia, Daniele

    Die Geschichte des Kalten Krieges eröffnet viele Möglichkeiten, sich näher mit den Schnittstellen von Physik und Biologie während des 20. Jahrhunderts zu befassen. Nicht nur das Unglück in Tschernobyl aus dem Jahr 1986, auch das Beispiel der nuklearen Anlagen in Hanford in den Vereinigten Staaten zeigt die biologischen Folgen von nuklearer Physik.

  3. Report on the 5‘th scientific meeting of the “Verein zur Förderung des Wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses in der Neurologie” (NEUROWIND e.V.) held in Motzen, Germany, Oct. 25th – Oct. 27th, 2013

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    From october 25th - 27th 2013, the 5th NEUROWIND e.V. meeting was held in Motzen, Brandenburg, Germany. This year more than 60 doctoral students and postdocs from over 25 different groups working in German university hospitals or research institutes attended the meeting to discuss their latest findings in the fields of neuroimmunology, neurodegeneration and neurovascular research. All participants appreciated the stimulating environment in Motzen, Brandenburg, and people took the opportunity for scientific exchange, discussion about ongoing projects and already started further collaborations. Like in the previous years, the symposium was regarded as a very well organized platform to support research of young investigators in Germany. According to the major aim of NEUROWIND e.V. to support younger researchers in Germany the 3rd NEUROWIND YOUNG SCIENTIST AWARD for experimental neurology was awarded to Ruth Stassart working in the group of Klaus Armin Nave and Wolfgang Brück (MPI Göttingen and Department of Neuropathology, Göttingen Germany). The successful work was published in Nature Neuroscience entitled “A role for Swann cell-derived neuregulin-1 in remyelination”. This outstanding paper deals with the function of Schwann cell neuregulin as an endogenous factor for myelin repair. The award is endowed with 20.000 Euro sponsored by Merck Serono GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany (unrestricted educational grant). This year’s keynote lecture was given by Albert Ludolph, Head of the Department of Neurology at the University Clinic of Ulm. Dr. Ludolph highlighted the particular role of individual scientists for the development of research concepts in Alzheimer´s disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). PMID:24330587

  4. Stress-induced molecules MICA as potential target for radioimmunotherapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakushina, E. V.; Anokhin, Yu N.; Abakushin, D. N.; Kaprin, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Improving the treatment of cancer, increasing their effectiveness and safety is the main objective in the medicine. Molecular nuclear medicine plays an important role in the therapy of cancer. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) involves the use of antibodies conjugated with therapeutic radionuclides. More often for RIT use the radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies against tumor-associated antigens. Encouraging results have been achieved with this technology in the management of hematologic malignancies. On the contrary, solid tumors have been less responsive. Despite these encouraging results, new potential target for radioimmunodetection and RIT should be found. It was found to increase the level of tumor-associated molecules MICA in the serum of cancer patients. Use of anti-MICA monoclonal antibodies capable a specifically attach to cancer cell via NKG2D ligands and destroy it, is a very promising direction, both therapeutic and diagnostic standpoint.

  5. Characterization of the response to zinc deficiency in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Mauro; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Santamaría-Gómez, Javier; Olmedo-Verd, Elvira; Robinson, Nigel J; Luque, Ignacio

    2012-05-01

    Zur regulators control zinc homeostasis by repressing target genes under zinc-sufficient conditions in a wide variety of bacteria. This paper describes how part of a survey of duplicated genes led to the identification of the open reading frame all2473 as the gene encoding the Zur regulator of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. All2473 binds to DNA in a zinc-dependent manner, and its DNA-binding sequence was characterized, which allowed us to determine the relative contribution of particular nucleotides to Zur binding. A zur mutant was found to be impaired in the regulation of zinc homeostasis, showing sensitivity to elevated concentrations of zinc but not other metals. In an effort to characterize the Zur regulon in Anabaena, 23 genes containing upstream putative Zur-binding sequences were identified and found to be regulated by Zur. These genes are organized in six single transcriptional units and six operons, some of them containing multiple Zur-regulated promoters. The identities of genes of the Zur regulon indicate that Anabaena adapts to conditions of zinc deficiency by replacing zinc metalloproteins with paralogues that fulfill the same function but presumably with a lower zinc demand, and with inducing putative metallochaperones and membrane transport systems likely being involved in the scavenging of extracellular zinc, including plasma membrane ABC transport systems and outer membrane TonB-dependent receptors. Among the Zur-regulated genes, the ones showing the highest induction level encode proteins of the outer membrane, suggesting a primary role for components of this cell compartment in the capture of zinc cations from the extracellular medium.

  6. Mechanisms of Cell Killing Response from Low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Radiation Originating from 177Lu Radioimmunotherapy Targeting Disseminated Intraperitoneal Tumor Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Kwon Joong; Milenic, Diane E.; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2016-01-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies (mAbs) provide efficient tools for cancer therapy. The combination of low energy β−-emissions (500 keVmax; 130 keVave) along with a γ-emission for imaging makes 177Lu (T1/2 = 6.7 day) a suitable radionuclide for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of tumor burdens possibly too large to treat with α-particle radiation. RIT with 177Lu-trastuzumab has proven to be effective for treatment of disseminated HER2 positive peritoneal disease in a pre-clinical model. To elucidate mechanisms originating from this RIT therapy at the molecular level, tumor bearing mice (LS-174T intraperitoneal xenografts) were treated with 177Lu-trastuzumab comparatively to animals treated with a non-specific control, 177Lu-HuIgG, and then to prior published results obtained using 212Pb-trastuzumab, an α-particle RIT agent. 177Lu-trastuzumab induced cell death via DNA double strand breaks (DSB), caspase-3 apoptosis, and interfered with DNA-PK expression, which is associated with the repair of DNA non-homologous end joining damage. This contrasts to prior results, wherein 212Pb-trastuzumab was found to down-regulate RAD51, which is involved with homologous recombination DNA damage repair. 177Lu-trastuzumab therapy was associated with significant chromosomal disruption and up-regulation of genes in the apoptotic process. These results suggest an inhibition of the repair mechanism specific to the type of radiation damage being inflicted by either high or low linear energy transfer radiation. Understanding the mechanisms of action of β−- and α-particle RIT comparatively through an in vivo tumor environment offers real information suitable to enhance combination therapy regimens involving α- and β−-particle RIT for the management of intraperitoneal disease. PMID:27196891

  7. A preclinical model of CD38-pretargeted radioimmunotherapy for plasma cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Green, Damian J; Orgun, Nural N; Jones, Jon C; Hylarides, Mark D; Pagel, John M; Hamlin, Donald K; Wilbur, D S; Lin, Yukang; Fisher, Darrell R; Kenoyer, Aimee L; Frayo, Shani L; Gopal, Ajay K; Orozco, Johnnie J; Gooley, Theodore A; Wood, Brent L; Bensinger, William I; Press, Oliver W

    2014-02-15

    The vast majority of patients with plasma cell neoplasms die of progressive disease despite high response rates to novel agents. Malignant plasma cells are very radiosensitive, but the potential role of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in the management of plasmacytomas and multiple myeloma has undergone only limited evaluation. Furthermore, CD38 has not been explored as a RIT target despite its uniform high expression on malignant plasma cells. In this report, both conventional RIT (directly radiolabeled antibody) and streptavidin-biotin pretargeted RIT (PRIT) directed against the CD38 antigen were assessed as approaches to deliver radiation doses sufficient for multiple myeloma cell eradication. PRIT demonstrated biodistributions that were markedly superior to conventional RIT. Tumor-to-blood ratios as high as 638:1 were seen 24 hours after PRIT, whereas ratios never exceeded 1:1 with conventional RIT. (90)Yttrium absorbed dose estimates demonstrated excellent target-to-normal organ ratios (6:1 for the kidney, lung, liver; 10:1 for the whole body). Objective remissions were observed within 7 days in 100% of the mice treated with doses ranging from 800 to 1,200 μCi of anti-CD38 pretargeted (90)Y-DOTA-biotin, including 100% complete remissions (no detectable tumor in treated mice compared with tumors that were 2,982% ± 2,834% of initial tumor volume in control animals) by day 23. Furthermore, 100% of animals bearing NCI-H929 multiple myeloma tumor xenografts treated with 800 μCi of anti-CD38 pretargeted (90)Y-DOTA-biotin achieved long-term myeloma-free survival (>70 days) compared with none (0%) of the control animals. ©2013 AACR.

  8. 131I-tositumomab myeloablative radioimmunotherapy for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: radiation dose to the testes

    SciT

    Hattori, Naoya; Gopal, Ajay K.; Shields, Andrew T.

    Purpose: To investigate radiation doses to the testes delivered by a radiolabeled anti-CD20 antibody and its effects on male sex hormone levels. Materials and methods: Testicular uptake and retention of 131I-tositumomab were measured, and testicular absorbed doses were calculated for 67 male patients (54+/-11 years of age) with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who had undergone myeloablative radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I-tositumomab. Time-activity curves for the major organs, testes, and whole body were generated from planar imaging studies. In a subset of patients, male sex hormones were measured before and 1 year after the therapy. Results: The absorbed dose to the testes showed considerablemore » variability (range=4.4-70.2 Gy). Pretherapy levels of total testosterone were below the lower limit of the reference range, and post-therapy evaluation demonstrated further reduction [4.6+/-1.8 nmol/l (pre-RIT) vs. 3.8+/-2.9 nmol/l (post-RIT), P<0.05]. Patients receiving higher radiation doses to the testes (>=25 Gy) showed a greater reduction [4.7+/-1.6 nmol/l (pre-RIT) vs. 3.3+/-2.7 nmol/l (post-RIT), P<0.05] compared with patients receiving lower doses (<25 Gy), who showed no significant change in total testosterone levels. Conclusion: The testicular radiation absorbed dose varied highly among individual patients. Finally, patients receiving higher doses to the testes were more likely to show post-RIT suppression of testosterone levels.« less

  9. EMC tests on the RITA Ion Propulsion Assembly for the ARTEMIS satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, H.; Kukies, R.; Bassner, H.

    1992-07-01

    Objectives and results of EMC tests performed on the RITA Ion Propulsion Assembly to demonstrate its compatibility with the requirements of ARTEMIS are discussed. The tested configuration included the RIT 10 thruster, neutralizer, RF generator, power supply and control unit, and electrical ground support equipment. Test results show that the RIT 10 thruster fulfils the EMC requirements for radiated emission in the critical frequency ranges (L/S/KU bands). The emitted E- and H-fields are not expected to disturb the satellite electronics, and no special shielding or other measures to protect the antennas are needed.

  10. Probleme aus der Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Helmut

    Das beliebte Arbeitsbuch "Probleme aus der Physik" bietet nun auch zur 17. Auflage von Gerthsen Vogel "Physik" (ISBN 3-540-56638-4) mit über 1150 gelösten Aufgaben aus der Physik und ihren Anwendungen in Technik, Astrophysik, Geound Biowissenschaften eine Fülle an Material zum Üben und Weiterlernen, zur Prüfungsvorbereitung und zum Selbststudium. Neu hinzugekommen ist ein Kapitel zur nichtlinearen Dynamik. Aufgaben aller Schwierigkeitsgrade machen "Probleme aus der Physik" unentbehrlich für Studenten der Physik im Haupt- und Nebenfach; Schüler der Leistungskurse Physik finden hier eine hervorragende Ergänzung.

  11. Geschichtlicher Überblick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bölke, Klaus-Peter

    Die Nachweise einer schadlosen Ableitung von Abwässern lassen sich bis weit in die Vergangenheit zurückverfolgen. Sie waren bereits zur damaligen Zeit eine Forderung zur Pflege der öffentlichen Reinlichkeit. Der Kanalisationsbau ist auch immer ein Ausdruck der Kultur eines Volkes gewesen. So kann festgestellt werden, dass im Zusammenhang mit der Hochkultur eines Volkes auch der Kanalbau ein vorherrschendes Thema war. Der Kanalbau steht auch in einem engen Zusammenhang mit dem Wasserleitungsbau. Es ist nur logisch, dass dort wo Wasser teilweise aus großer Entfernung herangeführt worden ist, dieses dann nach Gebrauch auch wieder schadlos beseitigt werden musste.

  12. 2-O, 3-O desulfated heparin mitigates murine chemotherapy- and radiation-induced thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Tkaczynski, Elizabeth; Arulselvan, Abinaya; Tkaczynski, John; Avery, Stephen; Xiao, Liqing; Torok-Storb, Beverly; Abrams, Kraig; Rao, Narayanam V.; Johnson, Gregory; Poncz, Mortimer

    2018-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a significant complication of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Platelet factor 4 (PF4; CXCL4) is a negative paracrine of megakaryopoiesis. We have shown that PF4 levels are inversely related to steady-state platelet counts, and to the duration and severity of chemotherapy- and radiation-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT and RIT, respectively). Murine studies suggest that blocking the effect of PF4 improves megakaryopoiesis, raising nadir platelet counts and shortening the time to platelet count recovery. We examined the ability of 2-O, 3-O desulfated heparin (ODSH), a heparin variant with little anticoagulant effects, to neutralize PF4’s effects on megakaryopoiesis. Using megakaryocyte colony assays and liquid cultures, we show that ODSH restored megakaryocyte proliferation in PF4-treated Cxcl4−/− murine and human CD34+-derived megakaryocyte cultures (17.4% megakaryocyte colonies, P < .01 compared with PF4). In murine CIT and RIT models, ODSH, started 24 hours after injury, was examined for the effect on hematopoietic recovery demonstrating higher platelet count nadirs (9% ± 5% treated vs 4% ± 4% control) and significantly improved survival in treated animals (73% treated vs 36% control survival). Treatment with ODSH was able to reduce intramedullary free PF4 concentrations by immunohistochemical analysis. In summary, ODSH mitigated CIT and RIT in mice by neutralizing the intramedullary negative paracrine PF4. ODSH, already in clinical trials in humans as an adjuvant to chemotherapy, may be an important, clinically relevant therapeutic for CIT and RIT. PMID:29599195

  13. Electrical characteristic fluctuation of 16-nm-gate high-κ/metal gate bulk FinFET devices in the presence of random interface traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Sheng-Chia; Li, Yiming

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we study the impact of random interface traps (RITs) at the interface of SiO x /Si on the electrical characteristic of 16-nm-gate high-κ/metal gate (HKMG) bulk fin-type field effect transistor (FinFET) devices. Under the same threshold voltage, the effects of RIT position and number on the degradation of electrical characteristics are clarified with respect to different levels of RIT density of state ( D it). The variability of the off-state current ( I off) and drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) will be severely affected by RITs with high D it varying from 5 × 1012 to 5 × 1013 eV-1 cm-2 owing to significant threshold voltage ( V th) fluctuation. The results of this study indicate that if the level of D it is lower than 1 × 1012 eV-1 cm-2, the normalized variability of the on-state current, I off, V th, DIBL, and subthreshold swing is within 5%.

  14. 41 CFR 302-17.10 - Claims for payment and supporting documentation and verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... supporting documentation and verification. 302-17.10 Section 302-17.10 Public Contracts and Property... INCOME TAX (RIT) ALLOWANCE § 302-17.10 Claims for payment and supporting documentation and verification..., net earnings (or loss) from self-employment income shown on attached Schedule SE (Form 1040): Form(s)W...

  15. Does (131)I Radioactivity Interfere with Thyroglobulin Measurement in Patients Undergoing Radioactive Iodine Therapy with Recombinant Human TSH?

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Bang, Ji-In; Lee, Ho-Young; Kim, Sang-Eun

    2015-06-01

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) is widely used in radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) to avoid side effects caused by hypothyroidism during the therapy. Owing to RIT with rhTSH, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is measured with high (131)I concentrations. It is of concern that the relatively high energy of (131)I could interfere with Tg measurement using the immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). We investigated the effect of (131)I administration on Tg measurement with IRMA after RIT. A total of 67 patients with thyroid cancer were analysed retrospectively. All patients had undergone rhTSH stimulation for RIT. The patients' sera were sampled 2 days after (131)I administration and divided into two portions: for Tg measurements on days 2 and 32 after (131)I administration. The count per minute (CPM) of whole serum (200 μl) was also measured at each time point. Student's paired t-test and Pearson's correlation analyses were performed for statistical analysis. Serum Tg levels were significantly concordant between days 2 and 32, irrespective of the serum CPM. Subgroup analysis was performed by classification based on the (131)I dose. No difference was noted between the results of the two groups. IRMA using (125)I did not show interference from (131)I in the serum of patients stimulated by rhTSH.

  16. Modelling particles moving in a potential field with pairwise interactions and an application

    D. R. Brillinger; Haiganoush Preisler; M. J. Wisdom

    2011-01-01

    Motions of particles in fields characterized by real-valued potential functions, are considered. Three particular expressions for potential functions are studied. One, U, depends on the ith particle’s location, ri(t) at times t

  17. Anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy using 211At with bone marrow transplantation prolongs survival in a disseminated murine leukemia model

    SciT

    Orozco, Johnnie J.; Back, Tom; Kenoyer, Aimee L.

    2013-05-15

    Anti-CD45 Radioimmunotherapy using an Alpha-Emitting Radionuclide 211At Combined with Bone Marrow Transplantation Prolongs Survival in a Disseminated Murine Leukemia Model ABSTRACT Despite aggressive chemotherapy combined with hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using antibodies (Ab) labeled primarily with beta-emitting radionuclides has been explored to reduce relapse.

  18. Summary of Research Academic Departments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    I.C ROBERT F. SMITH ADVISER: LIEUTENANT JOSEPH P. GILIO , USN - Heart Rate Treadmill MIDSHIPMAN 2, C JOHN M. SNIEFEN ADVISER: LIEUTENANT COMMANDER...I B t’ V" R S SGe’.chke, Miark 1., 131 Lander.. Rit, P, 218 Gibb, Arthur. fr., 100, 207, 2 10, 2 13 Langan, ’Thomas 1., 38 Gilio , Joseph P, 58 Lanzer

  19. A Study of Management Concerns in Human Services Organizations: Their Implications for Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fram, Eugene H.

    Opportunities for Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) to offer new academic offerings for human services managers were assessed. A questionnaire was completed by 174 top-level human services executives located in six upstate New York cities. Additional data were obtained from 12 group interviews that were held with 66 management and line…

  20. Enhanced response inhibition during intensive meditation training predicts improvements in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning.

    PubMed

    Sahdra, Baljinder K; MacLean, Katherine A; Ferrer, Emilio; Shaver, Phillip R; Rosenberg, Erika L; Jacobs, Tonya L; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Aichele, Stephen R; Bridwell, David A; Mangun, George R; Lavy, Shiri; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D

    2011-04-01

    We examined the impact of training-induced improvements in self-regulation, operationalized in terms of response inhibition, on longitudinal changes in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning. Data were collected from participants undergoing 3 months of intensive meditation training in an isolated retreat setting (Retreat 1) and a wait-list control group that later underwent identical training (Retreat 2). A 32-min response inhibition task (RIT) was designed to assess sustained self-regulatory control. Adaptive functioning (AF) was operationalized as a single latent factor underlying self-report measures of anxious and avoidant attachment, mindfulness, ego resilience, empathy, the five major personality traits (extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience), difficulties in emotion regulation, depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being. Participants in Retreat 1 improved in RIT performance and AF over time whereas the controls did not. The control participants later also improved on both dimensions during their own retreat (Retreat 2). These improved levels of RIT performance and AF were sustained in follow-up assessments conducted approximately 5 months after the training. Longitudinal dynamic models with combined data from both retreats showed that improvement in RIT performance during training influenced the change in AF over time, which is consistent with a key claim in the Buddhist literature that enhanced capacity for self-regulation is an important precursor of changes in emotional well-being. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. New Bedford Environmental Investigation -- Ambient Monitoring Program: Final Report: April 1984: Appendices B-D

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2012-04-22

    ... j. J i \\ | 1 BCI Hi-Volume Air Si:. plrr Cnl !*>r.it !» r. It.-.' i Sh(-v Hl-Vol S/N J'ro), ,L ::.-. ... I T" 187 ; - '' of /« n r ! BCI I'i-V >hirt- All '..n p 1 • ii ) il iti hi-Xol S/N ...

  2. 76 FR 16629 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... other FTR Bulletins can be found at http://www.gsa.gov/ftrbulletin . The RIT allowance tables are located at http://www.gsa.gov/relocationpolicy . DATES: This notice is effective March 24, 2011. FOR... CFR part 301-17 Appendices A through D. The tables will be published at http://www.gsa.gov...

  3. The Effects of National Board Certification on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Shawn Berry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between National Board Certification and student achievement in mathematics and reading as measured by an achievement test used in South Carolina. Using the Northwest Evaluation Association's Measures of Academic Progress (MAP), the study examined the RIT (Rasch Unit) scores of third…

  4. Teaching Physics to Deaf College Students in a 3-D Virtual Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Virtual worlds are used in many educational and business applications. At the National Technical Institute for the Deaf at Rochester Institute of Technology (NTID/RIT), deaf college students are introduced to the virtual world of Second Life, which is a 3-D immersive, interactive environment, accessed through computer software. NTID students use…

  5. Paclitaxel synergizes with exposure time adjusted CD22-targeting immunotoxins against B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Müller, Fabian; Stookey, Stephanie; Cunningham, Tyler; Pastan, Ira

    2017-05-09

    CD22-targeted recombinant immunotoxins (rIT) are active in hairy cell leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but not in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients. The goal was to enhance rIT efficacy in vivo and to define a strong combination treatment. Activity of Moxetumomab pasudotox (Moxe) and LR combined with paclitaxel was tested against MCL cell lines in vitro and as bolus doses or continuous infusion in xenograft models. In the KOPN-8 ALL xenograft, Moxe or paclitaxel alone was active, but all mice died from leukemia; when combined, 60% of the mice achieved a sustained complete remission. Against MCL cells in vitro, LR was more active than Moxe and the cells had to be exposed to rIT for more than 24 hours for them to die. To maintain high blood levels in vivo, LR was administered continuously by 7-day pumps achieving a well-tolerated steady plasma concentration of 45 ng/ml. In JeKo-1 xenografts, continuously administered LR was 14-fold more active than bolus doses and the combination with paclitaxel additionally improved responses by 135-fold. Maintaining high rIT-plasma levels greatly improves responses in the JeKo-1 model and paclitaxel substantially enhances bolus and continuously infused rIT, supporting a clinical evaluation against B-cell malignancies.

  6. Application of Research-Informed Teaching in the Taught-Postgraduate Education of Maritime Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Ling; Pan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Despite numerous studies of the research-teaching nexus, applying research-informed teaching (RiT) to taught-postgraduate education has been largely overlooked. This knowledge gap is particularly significant in the maritime law discipline given the fast-growing business of international shipping and logistics. This paper aims to examine the impact…

  7. Pretargeting CD45 enhances the selective delivery of radiation to hematolymphoid tissues in nonhuman primates

    SciT

    Green, Damian J.; Pagel, John M.; Nemecek, Eneida R.

    2009-08-06

    Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) is designed to enhance the directed delivery of radionuclides to malignant cells. Through a series of studies in nineteen nonhuman primates (M. fascicularis) the potential therapeutic advantage of anti-CD45 PRIT was evaluated. Anti-CD45 PRIT demonstrated a significant improvement in target-to-normal organ ratios of absorbed radiation when compared to directly radiolabeled bivalent antibody (conventional radioimmunotherapy [RIT]). Radio-DOTA-biotin administered 48 hours after anti-CD45 streptavidin fusion protein (FP) [BC8 (scFv)4SA] produced markedly lower concentrations of radiation in non-target tissues when compared to conventional RIT. PRIT generated superior target:normal organ ratios in the blood, lung and liver (10.3:1, 18.9:1 and 9.9:1more » respectively) when compared to the conventional RIT controls (2.6:1, 6.4:1 and 2.9:1 respectively). The FP demonstrated superior retention in target tissues relative to comparable directly radiolabeled bivalent anti-CD45 RIT. The time-point of administration of the second step radiolabeled ligand (radio-DOTA-biotin) significantly impacted the biodistribution of radioactivity in target tissues. Rapid clearance of the FP from the circulation rendered unnecessary the addition of a synthetic clearing agent in this model. These results support proceeding to anti-CD45 PRIT clinical trials for patients with both leukemia and lymphoma.« less

  8. Social Intervention for Adolescents with Autism and Significant Intellectual Disability: Initial Efficacyof Reciprocal Imitation Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Walton, Katherine; Carlsen, Danielle; Hamlin, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism have difficulty with social skills across the lifespan. Few social interventions have been examined for older individuals with autism who also have significant intellectual disabilities (ID). Previous research suggests that reciprocal imitation training (RIT) improves imitation and social engagement in young children with…

  9. Teaching the Imitation and Spontaneous Use of Descriptive Gestures in Young Children with Autism Using a Naturalistic Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Lewis, Elizabeth; Kroman, Emily

    2007-01-01

    Children with autism exhibit deficits in the imitation and spontaneous use of descriptive gestures. Reciprocal Imitation Training (RIT), a naturalistic imitation intervention, has been shown to increase object imitation skills in young children with autism. A single-subject, multiple-baseline design across five young children with autism was used…

  10. 41 CFR 302-17.3 - Types of moving expenses or allowances covered and general limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-RELOCATION INCOME TAX (RIT) ALLOWANCE § 302-17.3 Types of moving expenses or allowances covered and general... law authorizes reimbursement of additional income taxes resulting from certain moving expenses... actually paid or incurred, and are not allowable as a moving expense deduction for tax purposes. The types...

  11. 41 CFR 302-17.2 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coverage. 302-17.2 Section 302-17.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES MISCELLANEOUS ALLOWANCES 17-RELOCATION INCOME TAX (RIT) ALLOWANCE § 302-17.2 Coverage. (a...

  12. 41 CFR 302-17.2 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coverage. 302-17.2 Section 302-17.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES MISCELLANEOUS ALLOWANCES 17-RELOCATION INCOME TAX (RIT) ALLOWANCE § 302-17.2 Coverage. (a...

  13. 41 CFR 302-17.2 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coverage. 302-17.2 Section 302-17.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES MISCELLANEOUS ALLOWANCES 17-RELOCATION INCOME TAX (RIT) ALLOWANCE § 302-17.2 Coverage. (a...

  14. 41 CFR 302-17.2 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coverage. 302-17.2 Section 302-17.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES MISCELLANEOUS ALLOWANCES 17-RELOCATION INCOME TAX (RIT) ALLOWANCE § 302-17.2 Coverage. (a...

  15. 41 CFR 302-17.2 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Coverage. 302-17.2 Section 302-17.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES MISCELLANEOUS ALLOWANCES 17-RELOCATION INCOME TAX (RIT) ALLOWANCE § 302-17.2 Coverage. (a...

  16. Flavonoid Accumulation Plays an Important Role in the Rust Resistance of Malus Plant Leaves.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanfen; Chen, Qi; Bu, Yufen; Luo, Rui; Hao, Suxiao; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Ji; Yao, Yuncong

    2017-01-01

    Cedar-apple rust ( Gymnosporangium yamadai Miyabe) is a fungal disease that causes substantial injury to apple trees and results in fruit with reduced size and quality and a lower commercial value. The molecular mechanisms underlying the primary and secondary metabolic effects of rust spots on the leaves of Malus apple cultivars are poorly understood. Using HPLC, we found that the contents of flavonoid compounds, especially anthocyanin and catechin, were significantly increased in rust-infected symptomatic tissue (RIT). The expression levels of structural genes and MYB transcription factors related to flavonoid biosynthesis were one- to seven-fold higher in the RIT. Among these genes, CHS, DFR, ANS, FLS and MYB10 showed more than a 10-fold increase, suggesting that these genes were expressed at significantly higher levels in the RIT. Hormone concentration assays showed that the levels of abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ETH), jasmonate (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) were higher in the RIT and were consistent with the expression levels of McNCED, McACS, McLOX and McNPR1 , respectively. Our study explored the complicated crosstalk of the signal transduction pathways of ABA, ETH, JA and SA; the primary metabolism of glucose, sucrose, fructose and sorbitol; and the secondary metabolism of flavonoids involved in the rust resistance of Malus crabapple leaves.

  17. Writing Assessment in the Department of Mathematics at Rochester Institute of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birken, Marcia

    The goal of writing assessment in the Department of Mathematics at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) is to assure that students can communicate about mathematics or statistics in a manner appropriate to their future careers. A five-member writing committee, composed of mathematics faculty, assess students at three different times during…

  18. Application and Comparative Evaluation of Fluorescent Antibody, Immunohistochemistry and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Tests for the Detection of Rabies Virus Antigen or Nucleic Acid in Brain Samples of Animals Suspected of Rabies in India.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, K Nithin; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Veeresh, B Hanchinal; Rathnamma, Doddamane; Sharada, R; Das, Lekshmi J; Satyanarayana, M L; Hegde, Nagendra R; Rahman, Sira Abdul

    2018-02-28

    Accurate and early diagnosis of animal rabies is critical for undertaking public health measures. Whereas the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) technique is the recommended test, the more convenient, direct rapid immunochemistry test (dRIT), as well as the more sensitive, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), have recently been employed for the laboratory diagnosis of rabies. We compared the three methods on brain samples from domestic (dog, cat, cattle, buffalo, horse, pig and goat) and wild (leopard, wolf and jackal) animals from various parts of India. Of the 257 samples tested, 167 were positive by all the three tests; in addition, 35 of the 36 decomposed samples were positive by RT-PCR. This is the first study in which such large number of animal samples have been subjected to the three tests simultaneously. The results confirm 100% corroboration between DFA and dRIT, buttress the applicability of dRIT in the simple and rapid diagnosis of rabies in animals, and reaffirm the suitability of RT-PCR for samples unfit for testing either by DFA or dRIT.

  19. Radioimmunotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: A review for radiation oncologists

    SciT

    Macklis, Roger M.; Pohlman, Brad

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to review advances in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and to discuss the role of Radiation oncologist in administering this important new form of biologically targeted radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A review of articles and abstracts on the clinical efficacy, safety, and radiation safety of yttrium Y 90 ({sup 9}Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) and iodine I 131 tositumomab (Bexxar) was performed. Results: The clinical efficacy of RIT in NHL has been shown in numerous clinical trials of {sup 9}Y ibritumomab tiuxetan and {sup 131}I tositumomab. Both agents have produced significant responses inmore » patients with low-grade, follicular, or transformed NHL, including patients with disease that had not responded or had responded poorly to previous chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Reversible toxicities such as neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia are the most common adverse events with both agents. Conclusions: Radioimmunotherapy is safe and effective in many patients with B-cell NHL. {sup 9}Y ibritumomab tiuxetan and {sup 131}I tositumomab can produce clinically meaningful and durable responses even in patients in whom chemotherapy has failed. Treatment with RIT requires a multispecialty approach and close communication between Radiation oncologist and other members of the treatment team. Radiation oncologist plays an important role in treating patients with RIT and monitoring them for responses and adverse events after treatment.« less

  20. Decreased Visual Function Scores on a Low Luminance Questionnaire Is Associated with Impaired Dark Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Yazdanie, Mohammad; Alvarez, Jason; Agrón, Elvira; Wong, Wai T; Wiley, Henry E; Ferris, Frederick L; Chew, Emily Y; Cukras, Catherine

    2017-09-01

    We investigate whether responses on a Low Luminance Questionnaire (LLQ) in patients with a range of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) severity are associated with their performance on focal dark adaptation (DA) testing and with choroidal thickness. Cross-sectional, single-center, observational study. A total of 113 participants older than 50 years of age with a range of AMD severity. Participants answered the LLQ on the same day they underwent DA testing using a focal dark adaptometer measuring rod intercept time (RIT). We performed univariable and multivariable analyses of the LLQ scores and age, RIT, AMD severity, subfoveal choroidal thickness [SFCT], phakic status, and best-corrected visual acuity. The primary outcome of this study was the score on the 32-question LLQ. Each item in the LLQ is designated to 1 of 6 subscales describing functional problems in low luminance: driving, emotional distress, mobility, extreme lighting, peripheral vision, and general dim lighting. Scores were computed for each subscale, in addition to a weighted total mean score. Responses from 113 participants (mean age, 76.2±9.3 years; 58.4% were female) and 113 study eyes were analyzed. Univariable analysis demonstrated that lower scores on all LLQ subscales were correlated with prolonged DA testing (longer RIT) and decreased choroidal thickness. All associations were statistically significant except for the association of choroidal thickness and "peripheral vision." The strongest association was the LLQ subscale of driving with RIT (r =-0.97, P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis for each of the LLQ subscale outcomes, adjusted for age, included RIT, with total LLQ score, "driving," "extreme lighting," and "mobility" also including choroidal thickness. In all multivariable analyses, RIT had a stronger association than choroidal thickness. This cross-sectional analysis demonstrates associations of patient-reported functional deficits, as assessed on the LLQ, with both reduced DA and

  1. Insecticide treated curtains and residual insecticide treatment to control Aedes aegypti: An acceptability study in Santiago de Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Toledo, María Eugenia; Ceballos, Enrique; Fabré, Francisco; Lefèvre, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Background Within the context of a field trial conducted by the Cuban vector control program (AaCP), we assessed acceptability of insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs) and residual insecticide treatment (RIT) with deltamethrin by the community. We also assessed the potential influence of interviewees’ risk perceptions for getting dengue and disease severity. Methodology/principal findings We embedded a qualitative study using in-depth interviews in a cluster randomized trial (CRT) testing the effectiveness of ITCs and RIT in Santiago de Cuba. In-depth interviews (N = 38) were conducted four and twelve months after deployment of the tools with people who accepted the tools, who stopped using them and who did not accept the tools. Data analysis was deductive. Main reasons for accepting ITCs at the start of the trial were perceived efficacy and not being harmful to health. Constraints linked to manufacturer instructions were the main reason for not using ITCs. People stopped using the ITCs due to perceived allergy, toxicity and low efficacy. Few heads of households refused RIT despite the noting reasons for rejection, such as allergy, health hazard and toxicity. Positive opinions of the vector control program influenced acceptability of both tools. However, frequent insecticide fogging as part of routine AaCP vector control actions diminished perceived efficacy of both tools and, therefore, acceptability. Fifty percent of interviewees did feel at risk for getting dengue and considered dengue a severe disease. However, this did not appear to influence acceptability of ITCs or RIT. Conclusion/significance Acceptability of ITCs and RIT was linked to acceptability of AaCP routine vector control activities. However, uptake and use were not always an indication of acceptability. Factors leading to acceptability may be best identified using qualitative methods, but more research is needed on the concept of acceptability and its measurement. PMID:29293501

  2. Persistent in vivo cytogenetic effects of radioiodine therapy: a 21-year follow-up study using multicolor FISH.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Gordon K; Escalona, Maria; Foster, Alvis; Balajee, Adayabalam S

    2018-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated the cytogenetic effects in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a 34-year-old male patient who received ablative radioactive 131iodine therapy (RIT) on two different occasions in 1992 and 1994. Assessment of RIT-induced chromosomal damage by the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN) showed the persistence of elevated micronucleus frequency in this patient for more than two decades since the first RIT. Subsequent cytogenetic analysis performed in 2012 revealed both stable and unstable aberrations, whose frequencies were higher than the baseline reported in the literature. Here, we report the findings of our recent cytogenetic analysis peformed in 2015 on this patient using the multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) technique. Our results showed that both reciprocal and non-reciprocal translocations persisted at higher frequencies in the patient than those reported in 2012. Persistence of structural aberrations for more than two decades indicate that these aberrations might have originated from long-lived T-lymphocytes or hematopoietic stem cells. Our study suggests that the long-term persistence of chromosome translocations in circulating lymphocytes can be useful for monitoring the extent of RIT-induced chromosomal instability several years after exposure and for estimating the cumulative absorbed dose after multiple RITs for retrospective biodosimetry purposes. This is perhaps the first and longest follow-up study documenting the persistence of cytogenetic damage for 21 years after internal radiation exposure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  3. Case series on chronic whiplash related neck pain treated with intraarticular zygapophysial joint regeneration injection therapy.

    PubMed

    Hooper, R Allen; Frizzell, J Bevan; Faris, Peter

    2007-03-01

    Although in clinical use, there is only 1 published case report on the efficacy of intraarticular regeneration injection therapy (RIT) (a.k.a. prolotheraphy). This report supports a rationale for future clinical trials of this technique. To assess the efficacy of intraarticular zygapophysial joint RIT in patients with chronic whiplash related neck pain that failed other conservative and interventional procedures. Patients were treated with intraarticular RIT and reassessed over 1 year. Retrospective case review of prospective data. Eighteen consecutive patients were treated with intraarticular prolotherapy by placing 0.5 - 1mL of 20% dextrose solution into each zygapophysial joint, after confirmation of intraarticular location with radiographic contrast, using 25-gauge spinal needles and fluoroscopic guidance. Solution was prepared by diluting D50W with 1% lidocaine. Fifteen patients completed treatment. Three patients had bilateral treatment, leaving 18 sides for analysis. Mean Neck Disability Index (NDI) pre-treatment was 24.71 and decreased post-treatment to 14.21 (2 months), 13.45 (6 months), 10.94 (12 months). Average change NDI=13.77 (p<0.0001) baseline versus 12 months. Symptoms for 14 patients were from motor vehicle accident, of which 13 were in litigation. Patients attending physiotherapy over the course of treatment had better outcomes than those without physiotherapy. Women needed more injections (5.4) than men (3.2) p=0.0003. Intraarticular RIT improved pain and function in this case series. The procedure appears safe, more effective than periarticular RIT, and lasted as long, or longer, than those patients with previous radiofrequency neurotomy. Concurrent physiotherapy helped reduce post-procedure neck stiffness. Future trials should consider gender when deciding how many treatments to administer. Litigation was not a barrier to recovery.

  4. Insecticide treated curtains and residual insecticide treatment to control Aedes aegypti: An acceptability study in Santiago de Cuba.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Dennis; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Toledo, María Eugenia; Ceballos, Enrique; Fabré, Francisco; Lefèvre, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Within the context of a field trial conducted by the Cuban vector control program (AaCP), we assessed acceptability of insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs) and residual insecticide treatment (RIT) with deltamethrin by the community. We also assessed the potential influence of interviewees' risk perceptions for getting dengue and disease severity. We embedded a qualitative study using in-depth interviews in a cluster randomized trial (CRT) testing the effectiveness of ITCs and RIT in Santiago de Cuba. In-depth interviews (N = 38) were conducted four and twelve months after deployment of the tools with people who accepted the tools, who stopped using them and who did not accept the tools. Data analysis was deductive. Main reasons for accepting ITCs at the start of the trial were perceived efficacy and not being harmful to health. Constraints linked to manufacturer instructions were the main reason for not using ITCs. People stopped using the ITCs due to perceived allergy, toxicity and low efficacy. Few heads of households refused RIT despite the noting reasons for rejection, such as allergy, health hazard and toxicity. Positive opinions of the vector control program influenced acceptability of both tools. However, frequent insecticide fogging as part of routine AaCP vector control actions diminished perceived efficacy of both tools and, therefore, acceptability. Fifty percent of interviewees did feel at risk for getting dengue and considered dengue a severe disease. However, this did not appear to influence acceptability of ITCs or RIT. Acceptability of ITCs and RIT was linked to acceptability of AaCP routine vector control activities. However, uptake and use were not always an indication of acceptability. Factors leading to acceptability may be best identified using qualitative methods, but more research is needed on the concept of acceptability and its measurement.

  5. A comparative analysis of prognostic factor models for follicular lymphoma based on a phase III trial of CHOP-rituximab versus CHOP + 131iodine--tositumomab.

    PubMed

    Press, Oliver W; Unger, Joseph M; Rimsza, Lisa M; Friedberg, Jonathan W; LeBlanc, Michael; Czuczman, Myron S; Kaminski, Mark; Braziel, Rita M; Spier, Catherine; Gopal, Ajay K; Maloney, David G; Cheson, Bruce D; Dakhil, Shaker R; Miller, Thomas P; Fisher, Richard I

    2013-12-01

    There is currently no consensus on optimal frontline therapy for patients with follicular lymphoma. We analyzed a phase III randomized intergroup trial comparing six cycles of CHOP-R (cyclophosphamide-Adriamycin-vincristine-prednisone (Oncovin)-rituximab) with six cycles of CHOP followed by iodine-131 tositumomab radioimmunotherapy (RIT) to assess whether any subsets benefited more from one treatment or the other, and to compare three prognostic models. We conducted univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses of 532 patients enrolled on this trial and compared the prognostic value of the FLIPI (follicular lymphoma international prognostic index), FLIPI2, and LDH + β2M (lactate dehydrogenase + β2-microglobulin) models. Outcomes were excellent, but not statistically different between the two study arms [5-year progression-free survival (PFS) of 60% with CHOP-R and 66% with CHOP-RIT (P = 0.11); 5-year overall survival (OS) of 92% with CHOP-R and 86% with CHOP-RIT (P = 0.08); overall response rate of 84% for both arms]. The only factor found to potentially predict the impact of treatment was serum β2M; among patients with normal β2M, CHOP-RIT patients had better PFS compared with CHOP-R patients, whereas among patients with high serum β2M, PFS by arm was similar (interaction P value = 0.02). All three prognostic models (FLIPI, FLIPI2, and LDH + β2M) predicted both PFS and OS well, though the LDH + β2M model is easiest to apply and identified an especially poor risk subset. In an exploratory analysis using the latter model, there was a statistically significant trend suggesting that low-risk patients had superior observed PFS if treated with CHOP-RIT, whereas high-risk patients had a better PFS with CHOP-R. ©2013 AACR.

  6. Rhenium-188 Labeled Tungsten Disulfide Nanoflakes for Self-Sensitized, Near-Infrared Enhanced Radioisotope Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yu; Wang, Guanglin; Liang, Chao; Yi, Xuan; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jingjing; Gao, Min; Yang, Kai; Cheng, Liang; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-08-01

    Radioisotope therapy (RIT), in which radioactive agents are administered or implanted into the body to irradiate tumors from the inside, is a clinically adopted cancer treatment method but still needs improvement to enhance its performances. Herein, it is found that polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified tungsten disulfide (WS2 ) nanoflakes can be easily labeled by (188) Re, a widely used radioisotope for RIT, upon simple mixing. Like other high-Z elements acting as radiosensitizers, tungsten in the obtained (188) Re-WS2 -PEG would be able to absorb ionization radiation generated from (188) Re, enabling ''self-sensitization'' to enhance the efficacy of RIT as demonstrated in carefully designed in vitro experiments of this study. In the meanwhile, the strong NIR absorbance of WS2 -PEG could be utilized for NIR light-induced photothermal therapy (PTT), which if applied on tumors would be able to greatly relieve their hypoxia state and help to overcome hypoxia-associated radioresistance of tumors. Therefore, with (188) Re-WS2 -PEG as a multifunctional agent, which shows efficient passive tumor homing after intravenous injection, in vivo self-sensitized, NIR-enhanced RIT cancer treatment is realized, achieving excellent tumor killing efficacy in a mouse tumor model. This work presents a new concept of applying nanotechnology in RIT, by delivering radioisotopes into tumors, self-sensitizing the irradiation-induced cell damage, and modulating the tumor hypoxia state to further enhance the therapeutic outcomes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Comparative quantitative analysis of cluster of differentiation 45 antigen expression on lymphocyte subsets.

    PubMed

    Im, Mijeong; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Taehoon; Park, Hun-Hee; Lim, Jihyang; Oh, Eun-Jee; Kim, Yonggoo; Park, Yeon-Joon; Han, Kyungja

    2011-07-01

    Since the recent introduction of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using antibodies against cluster of differentiation (CD) 45 for the treatment of lymphoma, the clinical significance of the CD45 antigen has been increasing steadily. Here, we analyzed CD45 expression on lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometry in order to predict the susceptibility of normal lymphocytes to RIT. Peripheral blood specimens were collected from 14 healthy individuals aged 25-54 yr. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the cell surface antigens was measured using a FACSCanto II system (Becton Dickinson Bioscience, USA). MFI values were converted into antibody binding capacity values using a Quantum Simply Cellular microbead kit (Bangs Laboratories, Inc., USA). Among the lymphocyte subsets, the expression of CD45 was the highest (725,368±42,763) on natural killer T (NKT) cells, 674,030±48,187 on cytotoxic/suppressor T cells, 588,750±48,090 on natural killer (NK) cells, 580,211±29,168 on helper T (Th) cells, and 499,436±21,737 on B cells. The Th cells and NK cells expressed a similar level of CD45 (P=0.502). Forward scatter was the highest in NKT cells (P<0.05), whereas side scatter differed significantly between each of the lymphocyte subsets (P<0.05). CD3 expression was highest in the Th and NKT cells. NKT cells express the highest levels of CD45 antigen. Therefore, this lymphocyte subset would be most profoundly affected by RIT or pretargeted RIT. The monitoring of this lymphocyte subset during and after RIT should prove helpful.

  8. Werner Heisenberg zum 100. Geburtstag: Pionier der Quantenmechanik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2001-11-01

    Werner Heisenberg war eine der prägendsten Gestalten der Physik des 20. Jahrhunderts. Zu seinen wichtigsten Verdiensten gehören die Grundlegung der Quantenmechanik, die Formulierung der Unschärferelationen sowie die Beteiligung an der Ausarbeitung der Kopenhagener Deutung der Quantenmechanik. Darüber hinaus lieferte er Arbeiten von fundamentalem Charakter zur Theorie des Atomkerns, zur kosmischen Strahlung und zur Quantenfeldtheorie. Während des Krieges war er an den Arbeiten des Uranvereins beteiligt, der die Möglichkeit einer Entwicklung von Kernwaffen untersuchte, jedoch über Vorarbeiten zur Reaktorphysik nicht hinauskam. Wegen dieser Tätigkeit wurde er bei Kriegsende für einige Monate in England interniert. Nach seiner Rückkehr widmete er sich vor allem dem Aufbau der Physik in Deutschland, die während der NS-Zeit nahezu ihrer gesamten Substanz beraubt worden war.

  9. Zwischen Commonsense und Wissenschaft Mathematik in der Erziehungsphilosophie A. N. Whiteheads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sölch, Dennis

    Obwohl Whitehead heute wie selbstverständlich als Philosoph rezipiert wird, so hat er seine wissenschaftliche Laufbahn doch als Mathematiker begonnen. Lange Zeit war er gemeinsam mit Bertrand Russell als Autor der Principia Mathematica unter Mathematikern und mathematischen Logikern deutlich besser bekannt als unter Philosophen. Doch selbst von denjenigen, die sich mit Whiteheads Überlegungen zur Metaphysik, zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte und zur Theologie befassen, werden seine Schriften zur Philosophie von Erziehung und Bildung häufig kaum beachtet. So entgeht es leicht, dass Whitehead nicht nur ein auf theoretischem Gebiet brillanter Mathematiker war, sondern sein theoretisches Fachwissen im Hinblick auf pädagogische und didaktische Relevanz fortwährend reflektiert hat.

  10. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Interactions in the Euro Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    Balassa - Samuelson -Effekt, Nr. 3/2002, erschienen in: Stefan Reitz (Hg.): Theoretische und wirtschaftspolitische Aspekte der internatio- nalen Integration...156, 2000, S. 646-660. Friihere Diskussionsbeitriige zur Finanzwissenschaft Josten, Stefan, Crime, Inequality, and Economic Growth. A Classical Argument

  11. The East-German Research Landscape in Transition. Part C. Research at East-German Universities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-10

    Software-Systemlosungen fUr Aufgaben der Qualit ~ tssicherung und Pr~zisionsmeBtechnik. Beratung zur automatisierten ProzeBsteuerung und rechnergestUtzten... Qualit ~ tssicherung Beratung zu Schnittstellenproblemen und zur Lichtzeichentechnik Beratung zu Auswahl und Einsatz von metrischen Bi...49 (351) 463-2786 with seventeen institutes. C45.wp-09 05 MAR 93 #4350 DEPARTMENT FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING. WATER- AND FOREST TECHNOLOGY Fakult~t fUr Bau

  12. Atmosphärisches Plasma in der Medizintechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Thomas; Knospe, Alexander; Buske, Christian

    Bei der Fertigung komplexer Bauteile werden immer häufiger unterschiedlichste Materialien zur Erfüllung der Funktion kombiniert. Kunststoff, Metall, Glas oder Keramik müssen miteinander verbunden werden. Dies gilt für die unterschiedlichsten Industriebereiche; von der Halbleiter-/Elektronikindustrie [1, 2] über die Automobilindustrie [3, 4] bis hin zur Medizintechnik werden für Verklebungs- [5], Bedruckungs-, Lackier- [6] und Anspritzprozesse optimal vorbehandelte Oberflächen benötigt.

  13. Safety and Suitability for Service Assessment Testing for Shoulder Launched Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-07

    Registrierung und Auswertung von Waffen -und Detonationsknallen 31 Motor Case Burst Probability ARO Report 75-2, SMC-S-001 Def Stan 07-85 32...détonation Vorschriften und Richtlinien zur Registrierung und Auswertung von Waffen und Detonationsknallen and STANAG 4569 with references...l’exploitation des bruits d’armes et des bruits de détonation Vorschriften und Richtlinien zur Registrierung und Auswertung von Waffen und

  14. Konrad Adenauer’s Military Advisors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-13

    Ausgabe. Hans-Peter Schwarz and 45 Rudolf Morsey, Hg. Vol. 1, Briefe 1945-1947 hg. v. Hans Peter Mensing. Berlin: Siedler Verlag, 1983. Vol. 2, Briefe 1949...Dietrich, Rudolf Morsey and Hans-Peter Schwarz, ed. Quellen zur Geschichte des Parlarnentarismus und der politischen Partein. Bd. 3, Auftakt zur Ara...New York: Penguin, 1982. Steiner , Jirg. European Democracies. New York: Longman, 1986. Taylor, A.J.P. The Origens of the Second World War. 2d. ed. New

  15. 25 Jahre - Institut fuer Geodaesie, Teil 3: Aus dem Leben des Instituts (25 Years - Institute of Geodesy, Part 3: The Life of the Institute)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Kraftwerk Qinshan, VR China 0 1984 bis 1987 Studiumn des Markscheidewesens am Shandong Institute of Mining and Technology, VR China * 1984 bis 1993...die zur Wasserversorgung eines Kraftwerkes der ALCAN dienen sollte. Verbunden mit dem Tunnelprojekt war auch der Bau einer 80 km langen Hoch...spannungsleitung durch unverdorbene Wildnis vom Kraftwerk zur Aluminium-Schmelze in Ki- timat. Zu dieser Zeit war es das gr66Bte hydro-elektrische Projekt, das

  16. Addition of Rituximab to Involved-Field Radiation Therapy Prolongs Progression-free Survival in Stage I-II Follicular Lymphoma: Results of a Multicenter Study

    SciT

    Ruella, Marco; Center for Cellular Immunotherapies, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo

    Purpose: Rituximab (Rit) therapy added to involved-field radiation therapy (RT) has been proposed as an effective treatment for stage I-II follicular lymphoma (FL). The results of an observational multicenter study on the Rit-RT combination in limited-stage FL are here reported. Methods and Materials: Data have been collected from 2 consecutive cohorts of 94 patients with stage I-II FL treated between 1985 and 2011 at 5 Italian institutions. All patients had grade 1-3a FL, a median age of 54 years (range: 25-82). The first 51 patients received RT alone (control group), while the subsequent series of 43 patients received 4 rituximab coursesmore » (375 mg/m{sup 2}, days 1, 8, 15, 22) before RT (Rit-RT). Molecular disease was evaluated by nested bcl-2/IgH PCR or clonal IgH rearrangement was available in 33 Rit-RT patients. Results: At a median follow-up of 10.9 years (range: 1.8-22.9), the 10-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) projections for the whole cohort were 57% and 87.5%, respectively. The 10-year PFS was significantly longer (P<.05) in the Rit-RT group (64.6%) compared to RT alone (50.7%), whereas the 10-year OS projections were not significantly different. On bivariate analysis controlling for stage, there was only a trend toward improved PFS for Rit-RT (HR, 0.55; P=.081). Follicular lymphoma international prognostic index and age were associated with OS but not with PFS on Cox regression analysis. Bone marrow molecular analysis showing PCR positivity at diagnosis was strongly associated with relapse risk upon univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusions: This multicenter observational study suggests a potential benefit of adding rituximab to radiation therapy for stage I-II FL. The results of the currently ongoing randomized studies are required to confirm these results. The study underlines the importance of molecular disease monitoring also for patient with limited-stage disease.« less

  17. Optimising the therapeutic ratio of radioimmunotherapy; an investigation of the roles of chimerisation, fractionation and radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violet, John Albert

    2007-12-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a targeted form of treatment for cancer which uses tumour-associated antibodies to selectively deliver a therapeutic radionuclide to sites of disease. In lymphoma, radioimmunotherapy has proved a remarkably effective agent due to the high radiosensitivity of the tumour and its propensity to undergo apoptosis following irradiation. However, success in the treatment of the more radioresistant common solid tumours has been less successful, and for these patients RIT remains investigative. The effectiveness of RIT is limited by non-specific irradiation of normal tissues whilst antibody remains in the circulation, in particular bone marrow, and also by immunogenicity of antibody which does not allow for repeated therapy. In the first chapter I have hypothesised that lymphomas expressing the interleukin-2 receptor might be effectively treated using a radiolabeled antibody to this receptor. In a phase I/II clinical study, 131I labelled CHT-25, a chimeric antibody against the IL-2Ra chain, has shown encouraging evidence of efficacy in the 9 patients with multiply- relapsed lymphomas treated so far. In addition, use of this antibody has been associated with low immunogenicity allowing for repeated therapies to be given. In the second chapter I have hypothesised that dosimetry led, individual patient therapy, might further optimise 1311 CHT-25 treatment. To investigate this I have used marrow toxicity as a biological assay of absorbed dose and shown that simple, but individual, patient biodistribution indices correlate better with observed toxicity than the population-based dose estimates currently employed. I have proposed that adoption of individual patient dosimetry using tracer studies is worthy of further investigation for the future development of 131I- CHT-25. In the third chapter I have hypothesised that dose fractionation might improve the therapeutic ratio of RIT. This has been investigated in a pre-clinical human colorectal xenograft

  18. Method of treating tumors

    DOEpatents

    DeNardo, Sally J.; Burke, Patricia A.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Goodman, Simon; Matzku, legal representative, Kerstin; Matzku, Siegfried

    2006-04-18

    A method of treating tumors, such as prostate tumors, breast tumors, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the like, includes the sequential steps of administering to the patient at least one dose of an antiangiogenic cyclo-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing pentapeptide (cRGD pentapeptide); administering to the patient an anti-tumor effective amount of a radioimmunotherapeutic agent (RIT); and then administering to the patient at least one additional dose of cRGD pentapeptide. The cRGD pentapeptide is preferably cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-[N-Me]-Val), and the RIT is preferably a radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complex in which chelating agent is chemically bonded to a tumor-targeting molecule, such as a monoclonal antibody.

  19. Cooled High-temperature Radial Turbine Program 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Philip H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was the design and fabrication of a air-cooled high-temperature radial turbine (HTRT) intended for experimental evaluation in a warm turbine test facility at the LeRC. The rotor and vane were designed to be tested as a scaled version (rotor diameter of 14.4 inches diameter) of a 8.021 inch diameter rotor designed to be capable of operating with a rotor inlet temperature (RIT) of 2300 F, a nominal mass flow of 4.56 lbm/sec, a work level of equal or greater than 187 Btu/lbm, and efficiency of 86 percent or greater. The rotor was also evaluated to determine it's feasibility to operate at 2500 F RIT. The rotor design conformed to the rotor blade flow path specified by NASA for compatibility with their test equipment. Fabrication was accomplished on three rotors, a bladeless rotor, a solid rotor, and an air-cooled rotor.

  20. Factors Influencing Manual Performance in Cold Water Diving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    montrent que « l’engourdissement » n’avait pas d’incidence sur la dextérité à une profondeur de 40 m (p > 0,05). Dans l’eau à 25 ºC, les gants en ...sensibilité tactile et la dextérité proprement dite. Le rendement ( en anglais performance ou p) a été évalué à des profondeurs de 0,4 m et de 40 m, avec...communication et d’affichage fait en sorte que l’aptitude des plongeurs à utiliser des systèmes de commande complexes constitue un facteur important de la

  1. Medical and Scientific Illustration in the United States (US).

    PubMed

    Peres, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The field of Medical and Scientific Illustration in the United States is large and constantly changing. In 1974, when the author began his studies, everything about the field was different. At the time, a student in the U.S. could go to a number of Universities (4 year) or Colleges (2 year) to study this subject. More than forty years later, only a few programs still offer similar programs of study. The Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), where the author is a professor and Randolph Community College in North Carolina are all that remain from the more than ten that had operated. These two programs are very different from one another and there is not adequate space in this article to expand on these differences. Program details can be found online at: http://cias.rit.edu/schools/photographic-arts-sciences/undergraduate-biomedical-photographic-communications.

  2. Study of Laser Created Metal Vapor Plasmas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-16

    Leventhal(1 indicate a value closer to 10-1 cm. might be expected. In the case of’ laser induced penniinf, ionization., wec -,;4-,rit LIP 32 LIP L J where...modified Kramer’s formulae.(25) In figure 11 we demonstrate the impact of associative ionization and laser induced penning ionization upon the temporal...34Laser Induced Fluorescence and Environmental Sensing", Invited paper for Optical Society of America, Topical Mcetixg on "Applications of Laser

  3. Whole Neuraxis Irradiation to Address Central Nervous System Relapse in High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    SciT

    Croog, Victoria J., E-mail: vcroog@sibley.or; Kramer, Kim; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    Background: As systemic control of high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) has improved, relapse in the central nervous system (CNS) is an increasingly recognized entity that carries a grim prognosis. This study describes the use of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for CNS relapse and compares outcomes to patients who received focal radiotherapy (RT). Methods: A retrospective query identified 29 children with NB treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center since 1987 who received RT for CNS relapse. At CNS relapse, 16 patients received CSI (median dose, 2160cGy), and 13 received focal RT. Of those who underwent CSI, 14 (88%) received intra-Ommaya (IO) radioimmunotherapy (RIT); onemore » patient in the non-CSI cohort received IO-RIT. Results: Patient characteristics were similar between the groups. Time to CNS relapse was 20 and 17 months for the CSI and non-CSI cohorts, respectively. At a median follow-up of 28 months, 12 patients (75%) in the CSI group are alive without CNS disease, including two patients with isolated skeletal relapse. Another patient is alive without disease after a brain relapse was retreated with RT. Three patients died-one with no NB at autopsy, one of CNS disease, and one of systemic disease. The two patients who died of NB did not receive IO-RIT. All 13 patients in the non-CSI cohort died at a median of 8.8 months. Conclusions: Low-dose CSI together with IO-RIT provides durable CNS remissions and improved survival compared with focal RT and conventional therapies. Further evaluation of long-term NB survivors after CSI is warranted to determine the treatment consequences for this cohort.« less

  4. Evaluation of 177Lu[Lu]-CHX-A″-DTPA-6A10 Fab as a radioimmunotherapy agent targeting carbonic anhydrase XII.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, L; Kellner, M; Gosewisch, A; Oos, R; Böning, G; Lindner, S; Albert, N; Bartenstein, P; Reulen, H-J; Zeidler, R; Gildehaus, F J

    2018-05-01

    Due to their infiltrative growth behavior, gliomas have, even after surgical resection, a high recurrence tendency. The approach of intracavitary radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is aimed at inhibiting tumor re-growth by directly administering drugs into the resection cavity (RC). Direct application of the radioconjugate into the RC has the advantage of bypassing the blood-brain barrier, which allows the administration of higher radiation doses than systemic application. Carbonic anhydrase XII (CA XII) is highly expressed on glioma cells while being absent from normal brain and thus an attractive target molecule for RIT. We evaluated a CA XII-specific 6A10 Fab (fragment antigen binding) labelled with 177 Lu as an agent for RIT. 6A10 Fab fragment was modified and radiolabelled with 177 Lu and characterized by MALDI-TOF, flow cytometry and radio-TLC. In vitro stability was determined under physiological conditions. Biodistribution studies, autoradiography tumor examinations and planar scintigraphy imaging were performed on SCID-mice bearing human glioma xenografts. The in vitro CA XII binding capacity of the modified Fab was confirmed. Radiochemical purity was determined to be >90% after 72 h of incubation under physiological conditions. Autoradiography experiments proved the specific binding of the Fab to CA XII on tumor cells. Biodistribution studies revealed a tumor uptake of 3.0%ID/g after 6 h and no detectable brain uptake. The tumor-to-contralateral ratio of 10/1 was confirmed by quantitative planar scintigraphy. The radiochemical stability in combination with a successful in vivo tumor uptake shows the potential suitability for future RIT applications with the 6A10 Fab. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Malware Memory Analysis for Non-specialists: Investigating Publicly Available Memory Image for the Tigger Trojan Horse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Malware memory analysis for non-specialists Investigating publicly available memory image for the Tigger Trojan horse R...It examines a memory image infected with the Tigger/Syzor Trojan horse . Significance to defence and security Canadian Armed Forces (CAF...additional guidance. The first report written by the author in this series examined the Zeus Trojan horse , found in DRDC Valcartier TM 2013-018 308H[1

  6. Radiometals as payloads for radioimmunotherapy for lymphoma.

    PubMed

    DeNardo, Gerald L; Kennel, Stephen J; Siegel, Jeffry A; Denardo, Sally J

    2004-10-01

    Because of their remarkable effectiveness in radioimmunotherapy (RIT), 2 anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (MAb) drugs, one labeled with indium 111 for imaging or yttrium 90 for therapy, and another labeled with iodine I 131 for imaging and therapy, have been approved for use in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Successful RIT for lymphomas is due in large part to the rapid and efficient binding of the targeted MAb to lymphoma cells. Carcinomas are more difficult to access, necessitating novel strategies matched with radionuclides with specific physical properties. Because there are many radionuclides from which to choose, a systematic approach is required to select those preferred for a specific application. Thus far, radionuclides with g emissions for imaging and particulate emissions for therapy have been investigated. Radionuclides of iodine were the first to be used for RIT. Many conventionally radioiodinated MAbs are degraded after endocytosis by target cells, releasing radioiodinated peptides and amino acids. In contrast, radiometals have been shown to have residualizing properties, advantageous when the MAb is localized in malignant tissue. b-emitting lanthanides like those of 90Y, lutetium 177, etc. have attractive combinations of biologic, physical, radiochemical, production, economic, and radiation safety characteristics. Other radiometals, such as copper-67 and copper-64, are also of interest. a-emitters, including actinium-225 and bismuth-213, have been used for therapy in selected applications. Evidence for the impact of the radionuclide is provided by data from the randomized pivotal phase III trial of 90Y ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) in patients with NHL; responses were about 2 times greater in the 90Y ibritumomab tiuxetan arm than in the rituximab arm. It is clear that RIT has emerged as a safe and efficient method for treatment of NHL, especially in specific settings.

  7. Remote C-Print Captioning in the Educational Environment. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riehl, Bambi

    2006-01-01

    C-Print captioning is a computer-aided speech-to-text service for people who are deaf/hard of hearing and prefer printed text rather than sign language as an accommodation. C-Print often is used in educational settings (see C-Print Tipsheet http://www.netac.rit.edu/publication/tipsheet for further information or visit the C-Print Web site at…

  8. A Primer for the Act-1 Language.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    Case Study. 7th Symposiumn on Operating Systems Principles, December, 1979. [Kerns 80] Kerns, B.S, Towards a Better Definition of Transactions ...1. ,X, aJ ablc as MITH Al ITI \\lFllumber 625. 1,)’lr;H fi. H. i 1,1110h)jO Abc rit I ots Of Iigs At Once W\\N OI tn Getting Con fuseCd: ! ;I’l 1,21 IIl

  9. Whole genome sequencing of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa isolated from the chewing stick (Distemonanthus benthamianus): insights into Rhodotorula phylogeny, mitogenome dynamics and carotenoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Thomas, Bolaji N; Cavanaugh, Nicole T; Morales, Grace H; Mayers, Ashley N; Savka, Michael A; Hudson, André O

    2017-01-01

    In industry, the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa is commonly used for the production of carotenoids. The production of carotenoids is important because they are used as natural colorants in food and some carotenoids are precursors of retinol (vitamin A). However, the identification and molecular characterization of the carotenoid pathway/s in species belonging to the genus Rhodotorula is scarce due to the lack of genomic information thus potentially impeding effective metabolic engineering of these yeast strains for improved carotenoid production. In this study, we report the isolation, identification, characterization and the whole nuclear genome and mitogenome sequence of the endophyte R. mucilaginosa RIT389 isolated from Distemonanthus benthamianus, a plant known for its anti-fungal and antibacterial properties and commonly used as chewing sticks. The assembled genome of R. mucilaginosa RIT389 is 19 Mbp in length with an estimated genomic heterozygosity of 9.29%. Whole genome phylogeny supports the species designation of strain RIT389 within the genus in addition to supporting the monophyly of the currently sequenced Rhodotorula species. Further, we report for the first time, the recovery of the complete mitochondrial genome of R. mucilaginosa using the genome skimming approach. The assembled mitogenome is at least 7,000 bases larger than that of Rhodotorula taiwanensis which is largely attributed to the presence of large intronic regions containing open reading frames coding for homing endonuclease from the LAGLIDADG and GIY-YIG families. Furthermore, genomic regions containing the key genes for carotenoid production were identified in R. mucilaginosa RIT389, revealing differences in gene synteny that may play a role in the regulation of the biotechnologically important carotenoid synthesis pathways in yeasts.

  10. The Ambulatory Care Workload Management System for Nursing Reference Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-31

    MEDICAL DATA SERVICES CENTER BETHESDA, MARYLAND 2088Q-506. 91-03029 SECuRItY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGEr REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Ia. REPORT SECURITY...ORGANIZATION 6b OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Naval Medical Data Servics (If applicable) Center 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIPCode) 7b...staffing methodology developed for emergency and ambulatory care departments in naval medical treatment facilities . The staffing model translates varying

  11. Military Jet Engine Acquisition: Technology Basics and Cost-Estimating Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    aircraft , rather than by these forms of jet engines . Like the turbofan or turbojet , these engines have a nozzle down- stream of the low-pressure...2.5 illustrates the process of turbine blade cooling. Figure 2.6 illustrates the steady and rapid increase in RIT for turbo - jets , turbofans , and...87 B. AN OVERVIEW OF MILITARY JET ENGINE HISTORY ... 97 C. AIRCRAFT TURBINE ENGINE DEVELOPMENT ...... 121 D.

  12. Optimizing molecular properties using a relative index of thermodynamic stability and global optimization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, René; Mohareb, Amir

    2016-01-01

    We devised a global optimization (GO) strategy for optimizing molecular properties with respect to both geometry and chemical composition. A relative index of thermodynamic stability (RITS) is introduced to allow meaningful energy comparisons between different chemical species. We use the RITS by itself, or in combination with another calculated property, to create an objective function F to be minimized. Including the RITS in the definition of F ensures that the solutions have some degree of thermodynamic stability. We illustrate how the GO strategy works with three test applications, with F calculated in the framework of Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory (KS-DFT) with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof exchange-correlation. First, we searched the composition and configuration space of CmHnNpOq (m = 0-4, n = 0-10, p = 0-2, q = 0-2, and 2 ≤ m + n + p + q ≤ 12) for stable molecules. The GO discovered familiar molecules like N2, CO2, acetic acid, acetonitrile, ethane, and many others, after a small number (5000) of KS-DFT energy evaluations. Second, we carried out a GO of the geometry of Cu m Snn + (m = 1, 2 and n = 9-12). A single GO run produced the same low-energy structures found in an earlier study where each Cu m S nn + species had been optimized separately. Finally, we searched bimetallic clusters AmBn (3 ≤ m + n ≤ 6, A,B= Li, Na, Al, Cu, Ag, In, Sn, Pb) for species and configurations having a low RITS and large highest occupied Molecular Orbital (MO) to lowest unoccupied MO energy gap (Eg). We found seven bimetallic clusters with Eg > 1.5 eV.

  13. Study to Determine the Impact of Aircrew Anthropometry on Airframe Configuration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-31

    Fie t0) PILO PEDAL 1F.A STR ~fAW1 I Il. VD 2. LEAAN II)W HANYJ(ON MAX 817E FOOTWFAII. TOIIIOMKM Sitfi4I FORWARDN) Nou v ims-ritAIT% InhITKIN WiT11 lILL...designed as specified in Figure 18. 7.4.3 Xaw Control. Pedal munge - Forward and aft limits of yaw controls shall be as defined in Figures 16 and 17. 8

  14. Twenty-five years after Chernobyl: outcome of radioiodine treatment in children and adolescents with very high-risk radiation-induced differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Reiners, Christoph; Biko, Johannes; Haenscheid, Heribert; Hebestreit, Helge; Kirinjuk, Stalina; Baranowski, Oleg; Marlowe, Robert J; Demidchik, Ewgeni; Drozd, Valentina; Demidchik, Yuri

    2013-07-01

    After severe reactor emergencies with release of radioactive iodine, elevated thyroid cancer risk in children and adolescents is considered the main health consequence for the population exposed. We studied thyroid cancer outcome after 11.3 years' median follow-up in a selected, very high-risk cohort, 234 Chernobyl-exposed Belarusian children and adolescents undergoing postsurgical radioiodine therapy (RIT) in Germany. Cumulatively 100 children with or (without; n = 134) distant metastasis received a median 4 (2) RITs and 16.9 (6.6) GBq, corresponding to 368 (141) MBq/kg iodine-131. Outcomes were response to therapy and disease status, mortality, and treatment toxicity. Of 229 patients evaluable for outcome, 147 (64.2%) attained complete remission [negative iodine-131 whole-body scan and TSH-stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) < 1 μg /L], 69 (30.1%) showed nearly complete remission (complete response, except stimulated Tg 1-10 μg/L), and 11 (4.8%) had partial remission (Tg > 10 μg/L, decrease from baseline in radioiodine uptake intensity in ≥ 1 focus, in tumor volume or in Tg). Except for 2 recurrences (0.9%) after partial remission, no recurrences, progression, or disease-specific mortality were noted. One patient died of lung fibrosis 17.5 years after therapy, 2 of apparently thyroid cancer-unrelated causes. The only RIT side effect observed was pulmonary fibrosis in 5 of 69 patients (7.2%) with disseminated lung metastases undergoing intensive pulmonary surveillance. Experience of a large, very high-risk pediatric cohort with radiation-induced differentiated thyroid carcinoma suggests that even when such disease is advanced and initially suboptimally treated, response to subsequent RIT and final outcomes are mostly favorable.

  15. In vitro and in vivo growth alter the population dynamic and properties of a Jeryl Lynn mumps vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Connaughton, Sarah M.; Wheeler, Jun X.; Vitková, Eva; Minor, Philip; Schepelmann, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Mumps vaccines are live attenuated viruses. They are known to vary in effectiveness, degree of attenuation and adverse event profile. However, the underlying reasons are poorly understood. We studied two closely related mumps vaccines which originate from the same attenuated Jeryl Lynn-5 strain but have different efficacies. Jeryl Lynn-Canine Kidney (JL-CK), produced on primary canine kidney cells, is less effective than RIT4385, which is produced on chicken embryo fibroblasts. JL-CK and RIT4385 could be distinguished by a number of in vitro and in vivo properties. JL-CK produced heterogeneous, generally smaller plaques than RIT4385, but gave 100-fold higher titres when grown in cells and showed a higher degree of hydrocephalus formation in neonatal rat brains. Sanger sequencing of JL-CK identified 14 regions of heterogeneity throughout the genome. Plaque purification of JL-CK demonstrated the presence of five different Jeryl Lynn-5 variants encompassing the 14 mutations. One JL-CK mutation was associated with a small plaque phenotype, the effects of the others in vitro or in vivo were less clear. Only 4% of the JL-CK population corresponded to the parental Jeryl Lynn-5 strain. Next generation sequencing of JL-CK and virus before and after growth in cell lines or neonatal rat brains showed that propagation in vitro or in vivo altered the population dramatically. Our findings indicate that growth of JL-CK in primary canine kidney cells resulted in the selection of a mixture of mumps virus variants that have different biological properties compared to the parent Jeryl Lynn-5 virus. We also report three previously unknown heterogenic regions within the N gene of the RIT4385 vaccine. PMID:26187256

  16. In vitro and in vivo growth alter the population dynamic and properties of a Jeryl Lynn mumps vaccine.

    PubMed

    Connaughton, Sarah M; Wheeler, Jun X; Vitková, Eva; Minor, Philip; Schepelmann, Silke

    2015-08-26

    Mumps vaccines are live attenuated viruses. They are known to vary in effectiveness, degree of attenuation and adverse event profile. However, the underlying reasons are poorly understood. We studied two closely related mumps vaccines which originate from the same attenuated Jeryl Lynn-5 strain but have different efficacies. Jeryl Lynn-Canine Kidney (JL-CK), produced on primary canine kidney cells, is less effective than RIT4385, which is produced on chicken embryo fibroblasts. JL-CK and RIT4385 could be distinguished by a number of in vitro and in vivo properties. JL-CK produced heterogeneous, generally smaller plaques than RIT4385, but gave 100-fold higher titres when grown in cells and showed a higher degree of hydrocephalus formation in neonatal rat brains. Sanger sequencing of JL-CK identified 14 regions of heterogeneity throughout the genome. Plaque purification of JL-CK demonstrated the presence of five different Jeryl Lynn-5 variants encompassing the 14 mutations. One JL-CK mutation was associated with a small plaque phenotype, the effects of the others in vitro or in vivo were less clear. Only 4% of the JL-CK population corresponded to the parental Jeryl Lynn-5 strain. Next generation sequencing of JL-CK and virus before and after growth in cell lines or neonatal rat brains showed that propagation in vitro or in vivo altered the population dramatically. Our findings indicate that growth of JL-CK in primary canine kidney cells resulted in the selection of a mixture of mumps virus variants that have different biological properties compared to the parent Jeryl Lynn-5 virus. We also report three previously unknown heterogenic regions within the N gene of the RIT4385 vaccine. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. A Randomized Phase 2 Trial of 177Lu Radiolabeled Anti-PSMA Monoclonal Antibody J591 in Patients With High-Risk Castrate, Biochemically Relapsed Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    MDS Myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia has been reported in patients previously treated with anti-CD20 based RIT for non-hodgkin’s...RR, Rossi A, Jhaveri K, Feldman EJ, Leonard JP. Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia following initial treatment with... syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia in patients treated with ibritumomab tiuxetan radioimmunotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Sep 20;25(27):4285-92. 119

  18. Targeting Phosphatidylserine for Radioimmunotherapy of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    care for these patients is whole brain radiotherapy ( WBRT ). WBRT , however, is often associated with neurological complications that preclude...models. We further hypothesize that RIT in combination with low dose WBRT will not only achieve effective treatment of brain metastases but also...metastases by pimonidazole staining, indicating other causes than hypoxia may be related to PS exposure. 8 Fig. 4 Enhanced PS exposure after WBRT . Top. T2

  19. SU-E-J-03: A Comprehensive Comparison Between Alpha and Beta Emitters for Cancer Radioimmunotherapy

    SciT

    Huang, C.Y.; Guatelli, S; Oborn, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to perform a comprehensive comparison of the therapeutic efficacy and cytotoxicity of alpha and beta emitters for Radioimmunotherapy (RIT). For each stage of cancer development, specific models were built for the separate objectives of RIT to be addressed:a) kill isolated cancer cells in transit in the lymphatic and vascular circulation,b) regress avascular cell clusters,c) regress tumor vasculature and tumors. Methods: Because of the nature of short range, high LET alpha and long energy beta radiation and heterogeneous antigen expression among cancer cells, the microdosimetric approach is essential for the RIT assessment. Geant4 basedmore » microdosimetric models are developed for the three different stages of cancer progression: cancer cells, cell clusters and tumors. The energy deposition, specific energy resulted from different source distribution in the three models was calculated separately for 4 alpha emitting radioisotopes ({sup 211}At, {sup 213}Bi, {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac) and 6 beta emitters ({sup 32}P, {sup 33}P, {sup 67}Cu, {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I and {sup 177}Lu). The cell survival, therapeutic efficacy and cytotoxicity are determined and compared between alpha and beta emitters. Results: We show that internal targeted alpha radiation has advantages over beta radiation for killing isolated cancer cells, regressing small cell clusters and also solid tumors. Alpha particles have much higher dose specificity and potency than beta particles. They can deposit 3 logs more dose than beta emitters to single cells and solid tumor. Tumor control probability relies on deep penetration of radioisotopes to cancer cell clusters and solid tumors. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a quantitative understanding of the efficacy and cytotoxicity of RIT for each stage of cancer development.« less

  20. Loan and nonloan flows in the Australian interbank network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Webster, Rachel; Melatos, Andrew; Kieu, Tien

    2012-05-01

    High-value transactions between banks in Australia are settled in the Reserve Bank Information and Transfer System (RITS) administered by the Reserve Bank of Australia. RITS operates on a real-time gross settlement (RTGS) basis and settles payments and transfers sourced from the SWIFT payment delivery system, the Austraclear securities settlement system, and the interbank transactions entered directly into RITS. In this paper, we analyse a dataset received from the Reserve Bank of Australia that includes all interbank transactions settled in RITS on an RTGS basis during five consecutive weekdays from 19 February 2007 inclusive, a week of relatively quiescent market conditions. The source, destination, and value of each transaction are known, which allows us to separate overnight loans from other transactions (nonloans) and reconstruct monetary flows between banks for every day in our sample. We conduct a novel analysis of the flow stability and examine the connection between loan and nonloan flows. Our aim is to understand the underlying causal mechanism connecting loan and nonloan flows. We find that the imbalances in the banks' exchange settlement funds resulting from the daily flows of nonloan transactions are almost exactly counterbalanced by the flows of overnight loans. The correlation coefficient between loan and nonloan imbalances is about -0.9 on most days. Some flows that persist over two consecutive days can be highly variable, but overall the flows are moderately stable in value. The nonloan network is characterised by a large fraction of persistent flows, whereas only half of the flows persist over any two consecutive days in the loan network. Moreover, we observe an unusual degree of coherence between persistent loan flow values on Tuesday and Wednesday. We probe static topological properties of the Australian interbank network and find them consistent with those observed in other countries.

  1. Self-Consistent Nonlinear Slow-Time Scale Formulation and Simulation of Overmoded Gyrotron Oscillators and Amplifiers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-13

    where - e and me are the electron charge and rest mass, respectively, while c is the speed of light . An electron beam is continuously injected into...where -ri(t) and v(t) are the instantaneous position and velocity vectors of the i-th particle, obtained from its equations of motion in terms of its...Department Stanford University Columbia University Stanford, CA 94305 New York, NY 10027 Dr. Richard M. Patrick Mr. John Meson AVCO Everett Research Lab

  2. Whole genome sequencing of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa isolated from the chewing stick (Distemonanthus benthamianus): insights into Rhodotorula phylogeny, mitogenome dynamics and carotenoid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Bolaji N.; Cavanaugh, Nicole T.; Morales, Grace H.; Mayers, Ashley N.; Savka, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    In industry, the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa is commonly used for the production of carotenoids. The production of carotenoids is important because they are used as natural colorants in food and some carotenoids are precursors of retinol (vitamin A). However, the identification and molecular characterization of the carotenoid pathway/s in species belonging to the genus Rhodotorula is scarce due to the lack of genomic information thus potentially impeding effective metabolic engineering of these yeast strains for improved carotenoid production. In this study, we report the isolation, identification, characterization and the whole nuclear genome and mitogenome sequence of the endophyte R. mucilaginosa RIT389 isolated from Distemonanthus benthamianus, a plant known for its anti-fungal and antibacterial properties and commonly used as chewing sticks. The assembled genome of R. mucilaginosa RIT389 is 19 Mbp in length with an estimated genomic heterozygosity of 9.29%. Whole genome phylogeny supports the species designation of strain RIT389 within the genus in addition to supporting the monophyly of the currently sequenced Rhodotorula species. Further, we report for the first time, the recovery of the complete mitochondrial genome of R. mucilaginosa using the genome skimming approach. The assembled mitogenome is at least 7,000 bases larger than that of Rhodotorula taiwanensis which is largely attributed to the presence of large intronic regions containing open reading frames coding for homing endonuclease from the LAGLIDADG and GIY-YIG families. Furthermore, genomic regions containing the key genes for carotenoid production were identified in R. mucilaginosa RIT389, revealing differences in gene synteny that may play a role in the regulation of the biotechnologically important carotenoid synthesis pathways in yeasts. PMID:29158974

  3. U.S. EPA, Pesticide Product Label, VISCO 1153, 06/16/1989

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-19

    ... 0, •• ""i., IS p,"hi.it ••. PE~TICIDE OISPOSAl: P,stiei', Kast,s Irt t.XIC I",,,, is,.s.1 .f Ixe.ss ~.stici' •• S,'I, "ix t." •• , rits.t. is •• i.lltl ••• f F ••• ,.I L •• I' thiS. ...

  4. How well do TTM measures work among a sample of individuals with unhealthy alcohol use that is characterized by low readiness to change?

    PubMed

    Baumann, Sophie; Gaertner, Beate; Schnuerer, Inga; Bischof, Gallus; John, Ulrich; Freyer-Adam, Jennis

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the applicability of the transtheoretical model of intentional behavior change (TTM) to individuals with unhealthy alcohol use that is primarily characterized by low readiness to change. This study examined the psychometric properties of short measures by assessing three core constructs of the TTM: the 20-item Processes of Change (POC-20) scale, and short versions of the Alcohol Decisional Balance Scale (ADBS) and the Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy (AASE) scale. A sample of 427 individuals with unhealthy alcohol use (Mage = 30 years, 65% men), identified at job agencies in northeastern Germany, completed all three scales. Item difficulty (d), selectivity (rit), and Cronbach's alpha were calculated. Confirmatory factory analyses were used to test for construct validity and latent mean differences across the stages. The psychometric properties of the 8-item AASE were adequate (d range: 0.59-0.78; rit range: 0.59-0.68; α range: 0.74-0.81), except for one subscale. Most items of the POC-20 and the 10-item ADBS were difficult (dPOC range: 0.08-0.40; dADBS range: 0.21-0.58); selectivity (ritPOC range: 0.26-0.62; ritADBS range: 0.34-0.68) and internal consistency (αPOC range: 0.41-0.76; αADBS range: 0.64-0.78) were low to moderate. Construct validity was acceptable (Comparative Fit Index range: 0.95-0.99). The association between stages and TTM constructs partially followed expected patterns. Suggestions for modifications of TTM measures are discussed for better applicability among proactively recruited samples of individuals with unhealthy alcohol use and with primarily low readiness to change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Synchronizable Series Expressions. Part 1. User’s Manual for the OSS Macro Package.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    and prognS are often used in such a wav that ant Oss serlv, grat uitonisl% ends tip as, the ret urn valute. For examiple. the iii ai itI rit ent of...as j)0sSIbI1l. -11hi akes it straighitforwa~rd to midi (ert arid thle interaction of the, jIe-cffect,, wilit a sigeniapi)ed subexpression. Several

  6. SU-E-J-04: A Data-Driven, Response-Based, Multi-Criteria Decision Support System for Personalized Lung Radiation Treatment Planning

    SciT

    Luo, Y; McShan, D; Schipper, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a decision support tool to predict a patient's potential overall survival (OS) and radiation induced toxicity (RIT) based on clinical factors and responses during the course of radiotherapy, and suggest appropriate radiation dose adjustments to improve therapeutic effect. Methods: Important relationships between a patient's basic information and their clinical features before and during the radiation treatment are identified from historical clinical data by using statistical learning and data mining approaches. During each treatment period, a data analysis (DA) module predicts radiotherapy features such as time to local progression (TTLP), time to distant metastases (TTDM), radiation toxicity tomore » different organs, etc., under possible future treatment plans based on patient specifics or responses. An information fusion (IF) module estimates intervals for a patient's OS and the probabilities of RIT from a treatment plan by integrating the outcomes of module DA. A decision making (DM) module calculates “satisfaction” with the predicted radiation outcome based on trade-offs between OS and RIT, and finds the best treatment plan for the next time period via multi-criteria optimization. Results: Using physical and biological data from 130 lung cancer patients as our test bed, we were able to train and implement the 3 modules of our decision support tool. Examples demonstrate how it can help predict a new patient's potential OS and RIT with different radiation dose plans along with how these combinations change with dose, thus presenting a range of satisfaction/utility for use in individualized decision support. Conclusion: Although the decision support tool is currently developed from a small patient sample size, it shows the potential for the improvement of each patient's satisfaction in personalized radiation therapy. The radiation treatment outcome prediction and decision making model needs to be evaluated with more patients and

  7. High Performance Fatty Acid-Based Vinyl Ester Resin for Liquid Molding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    High Performance Fatty Acid -Based Vinyl Ester Resin for Liquid Molding by Xing Geng, John J. La Scala, James M. Sands, and Giuseppe R...it to the originator. Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 ARL-RP-184 July 2007 High Performance Fatty Acid ...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High Performance Fatty Acid -Based Vinyl Ester Resin for Liquid Molding 5c. PROGRAM

  8. Allgemeine Sprachfaehigkeit und Fremdsprachenerwerb. Zur Struktur von Leistungsdimensionen und linguistischer Kompetenz des Fremdsprachenlerners (General Language Ability and Foreign Language Acquisition. On the Structure of Performance Dimensions and the Linguistic Competence of the Foreign Language Learner). Diskussions beitraege aus dem Institute fuer Bildungsforschung, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Fritz; Vollmer, Helmut J.

    This study investigates the theoretical plausibility and empirical validity of the assumption that all performance in a foreign language can be traced back to a single factor, the general language ability factor. The theoretical background of this hypothesis is reviewed in detail. The concept of a unitary linguistic competence, interpreted as an…

  9. Networking as a Seismograph for Social Development. A Contribution to the Function Expansion of Networks Using the Example of Health Promotion of the Socially Disadvantaged (Netzwerkbildung als Seismograph gesellschaftlicher Entwicklungen: Ein Beitrag zur Funktionserweiterung von Netzwerken am Beispiel der Gesundheitsfoerderung von sozial Benachteiligten)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Miftelzu- wachs profitieren mochten. Je st5rker eine Landesvereinigung Modellprojekte akqui- rieren muss, urn die eigene Funktionsf5higkeit...Denn 5hnlich wie die Krankenkas- sen stehen andere Institutionen und Bereiche wie Sozialversicherungstrager, die Arzteschaft, Institutionen des Sports

  10. Hydraulische Optimierung des Reaktionsraumes um einen Infiltrationsbrunnen zur unterirdischen Enteisenung. Durchführung eines Feldversuchs mit Infiltrationssteuerung (Teil 2/2) Hydraulic optimization of the reaction zone around an injection well during subsurface iron removal (SIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartak, Rico; Macheleidt, Wolfgang; Ahrns, Johannes; Grischek, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    In subsurface iron removal (SIR), oxygen-enriched water is injected into an aquifer to create a reaction zone. Ahrns et al. (2017) simulated a doubling of the efficiency coefficient by the inactivation of well screen sections during injection for a vertical SIR pilot well penetrating an aquifer with varying dissolved iron concentrations. The optimized injection regime was adopted conceptually in a pilot SIR test. An inflatable packer was used to manipulate the outflow distribution. The packer was inflated before the injection phase then evacuated with a vacuum pump before pumping while remaining inside the casing. Cycles with conventional injection were performed first and iron breakthrough was monitored in the pumped water. Subsequently when the packer was used, iron removal increased by 25% and the efficiency coefficient by 50% for an adopted reference value of 5.0 mg/l. Although the study site was unfavorable for SIR because of the unfavorable low alkalinity (pH in the re- and infiltrate decreased down to 4.2), the injectant could have been pretreated by the addition of alkalis prior to injection. This was not considered in the simulation and iron concentrations were above the limits commonly used in practice. However, the overall use of an optimized injection will still be presented.

  11. On the contribution of Heinrich Bruns to theoretical geometrical optics. With consideration of his correspondence with scientists of the Zeiss Company in Jena 1888-1893. (German Title: Über den Beitrag von Heinrich Bruns zur theoretischen geometrischen Optik Unter Berücksichtigung seines Briefwechsels mit Wissenschaftlern der Zeiss-Werke in Jena 1888-1893)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgauds, Hans-Joachim; Münzel, Gisela

    This paper describes the works of Heinrich Bruns, director of the Leipzig University Observatory, on theoretical geometrical optics, which followed an outstanding tradition in Leipzig. Bruns and his pupils did not stop at theoretical considerations, but applied their findings to practical questions. Bruns' correspondence with opticians of the Zeiss Company in Jena, so far known only fragmentarily, gives impressive evidence of their friendly relationship characterized by mutual regard and stimulation.

  12. Willkommen, Mr. Chance: Methodologische Betrachtungen zur Gute empirischer Forschung in der Padagogik, diskutiert vor allem an der neueren Untersuchung uber Gewalt von Heitmeyer u.a. (1995) = Welcome, Mr. Chance: Methodological Considerations Concerning the Quality of Empirical Research in Educational Science Based on a Recent Study on Violence Published by Heitmeyer et al. (1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellenreuther, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Argues that the usefulness of strictly quantitative research is still questioned in educational studies, primarily due to deficiencies in methodological training. Uses a critique of a recent study by Heitmeyer et al. (1995) to illustrate the requirements of "good" empirical research. Considers the problems of hypothesis testing in field research.…

  13. Gelingende Integration? Anmerkungen zur Studie von D. Katzenbach u.a. uber den Hamburger Schulversuch "Integrative Grundschule" in ZfPad. 45 (1999), S. 567-590 (Successful Integration? Remarks on the Study by D. Katzenbach et al. on the Hamburg School Experiment "Integrative Elementary School" in ZfPad. 45 (1999), S. 567-590).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeder, Peter Martin

    1999-01-01

    Critiques two normative premises that guide the researchers' interpretation of results from the Hamburg School Experiment, an empirical study that focused on mainstreaming elementary students diagnosed as needing special education: (1) integrating these children in normal classrooms is legitimated; and (2) social integration should not preclude…

  14. Ueber Bild und Rolle zum Sprachhandeln. Ueberlegungen und praktische Beispiele zur Arbeit mit Rollenspiel und Bildergeschichte im Deutschunterricht mit auslaendischen Studenten (On Picture and Role in Language-in-Action. Considerations and Practical Examples of Role-Playing and Picture Stories in Teaching German to Foreign Learners).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeffler, Renate

    1979-01-01

    Describes work at an American college with students who are receiving an introduction to colloquial German. Role-playing and picture stories prove useful in learning, in both productive and receptive aspects. Describing a picture on three levels--factual, psychological and contemplative--is shown to be very useful. (IFS/WGA)

  15. SciT

    Leichner, P.K.

    This report summarizes research in beta-particle dosimetry, quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), the clinical implementation of these two areas of research in radioimmunotherapy (RIT), and postgraduate training provided since the inception of this grant on July 15, 1989. To improve beta-particle dosimetry, a point source function was developed that is valid for a wide range of beta emitters. Analytical solutions for beta-particle dose rates within out outside slabs of finite thickness were validated in experimental tumors and are now being used in clinical RIT. Quantitative SPECT based on the circular harmonic transform (CHT) algorithm was validated in phantom, experimental,more » and clinical studies. This has led to improved macrodosimetry in clinical RIT. In dosimetry at the multi-cellular level studies were made of the HepG2 human hepatoblastoma grown subcutaneously in nude mice. Histologic sections and autoradiographs were prepared to quantitate activity distributions of radiolabeled antibodies. Absorbed-dose calculations are being carried out for {sup 131}I and {sup 90}Y beta particles for these antibody distributions.« less

  16. Stc1: A Critical Link between RNAi and Chromatin Modification Required for Heterochromatin Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Bayne, Elizabeth H.; White, Sharon A.; Kagansky, Alexander; Bijos, Dominika A.; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Kim, Dong-Uk; Park, Han-Oh; Ponting, Chris P.; Rappsilber, Juri; Allshire, Robin C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In fission yeast, RNAi directs heterochromatin formation at centromeres, telomeres, and the mating type locus. Noncoding RNAs transcribed from repeat elements generate siRNAs that are incorporated into the Argonaute-containing RITS complex and direct it to nascent homologous transcripts. This leads to recruitment of the CLRC complex, including the histone methyltransferase Clr4, promoting H3K9 methylation and heterochromatin formation. A key question is what mediates the recruitment of Clr4/CLRC to transcript-bound RITS. We have identified a LIM domain protein, Stc1, that is required for centromeric heterochromatin integrity. Our analyses show that Stc1 is specifically required to establish H3K9 methylation via RNAi, and interacts both with the RNAi effector Ago1, and with the chromatin-modifying CLRC complex. Moreover, tethering Stc1 to a euchromatic locus is sufficient to induce silencing and heterochromatin formation independently of RNAi. We conclude that Stc1 associates with RITS on centromeric transcripts and recruits CLRC, thereby coupling RNAi to chromatin modification. PMID:20211136

  17. Integrative Treatment of Personality Disorder. Part I: Psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Mirjana Divac; Svrakic, Dragan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we outline the concept of integrative therapy of borderline personality, also referred to as fragmented personality, which we consider to be the core psychopathology underlying all clinical subtypes of personality disorder. Hence, the terms borderline personality, borderline disorder, fragmented personality, and personality disorder are used interchangeably, as synonyms. Our integrative approach combines pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, each specifically tailored to accomplish a positive feedback modulation of their respective effects. We argue that pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy of personality disorder complement each other. Pharmacological control of disruptive affects clears the stage, in some cases builds the stage, for the psychotherapeutic process to take place. In turn, psychotherapy promotes integration of personality fragments into more cohesive structures of self and identity, ultimately establishing self-regulation of mood and anxiety. We introduce our original method of psychotherapy, called reconstructive interpersonal therapy (RIT). The RIT integrates humanistic-existential and psychodynamic paradigms, and is thereby designed to accomplish a deep reconstruction of core psychopathology within the setting of high structure. We review and comment the current literature on the strategies, goals, therapy process, priorities, and phases of psychotherapy of borderline disorders, and describe in detail the fundamental principles of RIT.

  18. Aligning physics and physiology: Engineering antibodies for radionuclide delivery.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Ting K; Wu, Anna M

    2018-03-14

    The exquisite specificity of antibodies and antibody fragments renders them excellent agents for targeted delivery of radionuclides. Radiolabeled antibodies and fragments have been successfully used for molecular imaging and radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of cell surface targets in oncology and immunology. Protein engineering has been used for antibody humanization essential for clinical applications, as well as optimization of important characteristics including pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and clearance. Although intact antibodies have high potential as imaging and therapeutic agents, challenges include long circulation time in blood, which leads to later imaging time points post-injection and higher blood absorbed dose that may be disadvantageous for RIT. Using engineered fragments may address these challenges, as size reduction and removal of Fc function decreases serum half-life. Radiolabeled fragments and pretargeting strategies can result in high contrast images within hours to days, and a reduction of RIT toxicity in normal tissues. Additionally, fragments can be engineered to direct hepatic or renal clearance, which may be chosen based on the application and disease setting. This review discusses aligning the physical properties of radionuclides (positron, gamma, beta, alpha, and Auger emitters) with antibodies and fragments and highlights recent advances of engineered antibodies and fragments in preclinical and clinical development for imaging and therapy. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Ion acceleration via TNSA near and beyond the relativistic transparency limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Douglass; Poole, Patrick; Cochran, Ginevra; Willis, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Ultra-intense laser-based ion acceleration can proceed via several mechanisms whose fundamental operation and interplay with each other are still not well understood. The details of Relativistically Induced Transparency (RIT) and its impact on ultra-thin target acceleration are of interest for fundamental studies and to progress toward applications requiring controlled, high energy secondary radiation, e.g. hadron cancer therapy. Liquid crystal film targets formed in-situ with thickness control between 10 nm and > 50 μm uniquely allow study of how ion acceleration varies with target thickness. Several recent studies have investigated Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) down to the thickness at which RIT occurs, with a wide range of laser conditions (energy, pulse duration, and contrast), using various ion and optical diagnostics to ascertain acceleration mechanisms and quality. Observation of target-normal directed ion acceleration enhancement at the RIT thickness onset will be discussed, including analysis of ion spatial and spectral features as well as particle-in-cell simulations investigating the underlying physical processes. This material is based upon work supported by the AFOSR under Award Number FA9550-14-1-0085, by the NNSA under DE-NA0003107, and by computing time from the Ohio Supercomputer Center.

  20. Evaluation of monoclonal antibody-based direct, rapid immunohistochemical test for rabies diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Wang, Muyang; Liu, Tingfang; Zhang, Yan; Tu, Zhongzhong; Guo, Huancheng; Zhang, Cuijuan; Zhu, Renying; Ren, Wenlin; Sun, Le; Xu, Weidi; Wang, Yuyang; Li, Maohua; Tu, Changchun

    2018-06-01

    Rabies is a major public health problem in developing countries in Asia and Africa. Although a number of laboratory diagnoses can be used for rabies control, the WHO and OIE recommended gold standard for rabies diagnosis is the direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT). However, FAT is not widely used in developing countries because of deficient financial sources to procure fluorescent microscope. Recently the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT) has been developed and has a worldwide promising application, particularly in developing countries, since its result can be read by inexpensive light microscopy, in addition to be consistent with that of FAT. However, no commercial conjugated antibody is available to meet the laboratory demand. We describe here the production of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against rabies virus (RABV) N protein and its use as a biotinylated conjugate in a dRIT. Tested against a batch of 107 brain specimens representing a wide phylogenetic diversity of RABV collected from different animal species with multiple geographical origins in China, results showed that the dRIT had 100% specificity (95% CI 0.93-1.00) and 96.49% sensitivity (95% CI 0.88-1.00) as compared with the gold standard FAT. It therefore provides a simple, economical alternative to FAT, particularly for use in rabies diagnosis in developing countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Recombinant immunotoxin for cancer treatment with low immunogenicity by identification and silencing of human T-cell epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Mazor, Ronit; Eberle, Jaime A.; Hu, Xiaobo; Vassall, Aaron N.; Onda, Masanori; Beers, Richard; Lee, Elizabeth C.; Kreitman, Robert J.; Lee, Byungkook; Baker, David; King, Chris; Hassan, Raffit; Benhar, Itai; Pastan, Ira

    2014-01-01

    Nonhuman proteins have valuable therapeutic properties, but their efficacy is limited by neutralizing antibodies. Recombinant immunotoxins (RITs) are potent anticancer agents that have produced many complete remissions in leukemia, but immunogenicity limits the number of doses that can be given to patients with normal immune systems. Using human cells, we identified eight helper T-cell epitopes in PE38, a portion of the bacterial protein Pseudomonas exotoxin A which consists of the toxin moiety of the RIT, and used this information to make LMB-T18 in which three epitopes were deleted and five others diminished by point mutations in key residues. LMB-T18 has high cytotoxic and antitumor activity and is very resistant to thermal denaturation. The new immunotoxin has a 93% decrease in T-cell epitopes and should have improved efficacy in patients because more treatment cycles can be given. Furthermore, the deimmunized toxin can be used to make RITs targeting other antigens, and the approach we describe can be used to deimmunize other therapeutically useful nonhuman proteins. PMID:24799704

  2. Improving external beam radiotherapy by combination with internal irradiation.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, A; Koi, L; Zöphel, K; Sihver, W; Kotzerke, J; Baumann, M; Krause, M

    2015-07-01

    The efficacy of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is dose dependent, but the dose that can be applied to solid tumour lesions is limited by the sensitivity of the surrounding tissue. The combination of EBRT with systemically applied radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a promising approach to increase efficacy of radiotherapy. Toxicities of both treatment modalities of this combination of internal and external radiotherapy (CIERT) are not additive, as different organs at risk are in target. However, advantages of both single treatments are combined, for example, precise high dose delivery to the bulk tumour via standard EBRT, which can be increased by addition of RIT, and potential targeting of micrometastases by RIT. Eventually, theragnostic radionuclide pairs can be used to predict uptake of the radiotherapeutic drug prior to and during therapy and find individual patients who may benefit from this treatment. This review aims to highlight the outcome of pre-clinical studies on CIERT and resultant questions for translation into the clinic. Few clinical data are available until now and reasons as well as challenges for clinical implementation are discussed.

  3. Einsatz molekularer Methoden für Starterkulturen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrmann, Matthias A.; Pavlovic, Melanie

    Unter Starterkulturen versteht man Mikroorganismen (Bakterien, Hefen, Pilze), die pflanzlichen bzw. tierischen Rohstoffen zur gezielten Veränderung ihrer chemischen Zusammensetzung zugesetzt werden. Sie dienen im Wesentlichen der Aromabildung, der Strukturveränderung und der Konservierung der Lebensmittel und werden aufgrund spezieller, funktioneller Eigenschaften selektiert. Die Zugabe von Starterkulturen erfolgt in der Regel in relativ hohen Keimzahlen in Form von Rein- oder Mischkulturen. Die zum Einsatz kommenden Mikroorganismen sind ebenso zahlreich wie die daraus resultierenden Produkte und reichen von der Fermentation von Milchprodukten, Fleisch und Gemüse durch Milchsäurebakterien über die Essigsäureherstellung bis hin zum Einsatz von Hefen in der Brau- und Weinindustrie. Hieraus ergibt sich auch eine zunehmende Bedeutung schneller und zuverlässiger Methoden zur taxonomischen Identifizierung, aber auch zur Charakterisierung des genetischen Potenzials der jeweiligen Starterkulturen.

  4. Craniota, Wirbel- oder Schädeltiere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultze, Hans-Peter

    Zu den Craniota zählen alle Chordatiere, die eine dreiteilige Regionalisierung des Körpers in Kopf, Rumpf und Schwanz aufweisen. Der Kopf umfasst (1) das Neurocranium mit Gehirn und komplexen Sinnesorganen zur Wahrnehmung der Umgebung, (2) das Viscerocranium zur Nahrungsaufnahme und zur Ventilation der Kiemen bei den primär wasserlebenden Craniota und (3) das Dermatocranium (S. 38). Letzteres entsteht durch Verknöcherungen im Bindegewebe des Integuments, es dient dem Schutz des Kopfes und trägt im Mundbreich die Zähne. Zusammen bilden die drei Skelettstrukturen die funktionelle Einheit Schädel (Cranium). Außer der (somatischen) Rumpfmuskulatur und dem Axialskelett liegen im Rumpf Kreislauf-, Atmungs-, Verdauungs-, Exkretions- und Fortpflanzungsorgane. Der Schwanz, der Abschnitt hinter der Afteröffnung, die das Ende der Leibeshöhle markiert, dient mit Muskeln und Schwanzflosse der Fortbewegung.

  5. The additional benefit of residual spraying and insecticide-treated curtains for dengue control over current best practice in Cuba: Evaluation of disease incidence in a cluster randomized trial in a low burden setting with intensive routine control

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, Julio Popa; Mirabal, Mayelin; Cabrera, Pedro; Fonseca, Viviana; Gómez Padrón, Tania; Pérez Menzies, Mirtha; Montada, Domingo; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background Aedes control interventions are considered the cornerstone of dengue control programmes, but there is scarce evidence on their effect on disease. We set-up a cluster randomized controlled trial in Santiago de Cuba to evaluate the entomological and epidemiological effectiveness of periodical intra- and peri-domiciliary residual insecticide (deltamethrin) treatment (RIT) and long lasting insecticide treated curtains (ITC). Methodology/Principal findings Sixty three clusters (around 250 households each) were randomly allocated to two intervention (RIT and ITC) and one control arm. Routine Aedes control activities (entomological surveillance, source reduction, selective adulticiding, health education) were applied in the whole study area. The outcome measures were clinical dengue case incidence and immature Aedes infestation. Effectiveness of tools was evaluated using a generalized linear regression model with a negative binomial link function. Despite significant reduction in Aedes indices (Rate Ratio (RR) 0.54 (95%CI 0.32–0.89) in the first month after RIT, the effect faded out over time and dengue incidence was not reduced. Overall, in this setting there was no protective effect of RIT or ITC over routine in the 17months intervention period, with for house index RR of 1.16 (95%CI 0.96–1.40) and 1.25 (95%CI 1.03–1.50) and for dengue incidence RR of 1.43 (95%CI 1.08–1.90) and 0.96 (95%CI 0.72–1.28) respectively. The monthly dengue incidence rate (IR) at cluster level was best explained by epidemic periods (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 5.50 (95%CI 4.14–7.31)), the IR in bordering houseblocks (IRR 1.03 (95%CI 1.02–1.04)) and the IR pre-intervention (IRR 1.02 (95%CI 1.00–1.04)). Conclusions Adding RIT to an intensive routine Aedes control programme has a transient effect on the already moderate low entomological infestation levels, while ITC did not have any effect. For both interventions, we didn’t evidence impact on disease incidence. Further

  6. P15.05 High-dose methotrexate based immuno-chemotherapy with maintenance chemotherapy with High-dose methotrexate and deferred radiotherapy for elderly primary CNS lymphoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, K.; Miyake, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: High-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based chemotherapy with whole brain irradiation (WBRT) improves the prognosis of PCNSL. However, the high neurotoxicity rates observed, especially in the elderly, raised interest in chemotherapy-only treatments. Withholding radiotherapy substantially decreases the risk of neurotoxicity, however, disease control may be compromised. Therefore, developing novel treatment for the elderly patients is crucial. To assess the efficacy and toxicity of induction immunochemotherapy with rituximab (RIT) and HD-MTX, maintenance chemotherapy with HD-MTX and deferred WBRT in the treatment of elderly PCNSL patients, we conducted a retrospective analysis. Materials and Methods: Newly diagnosed elderly PCNSL patients (median age: 74 years) received biweekly RIT/ HD-MTX (375 mg/m2/dose; 3.5g/m2/dose) for 6 cycles followed by monthly RIT/MTX for 2 cycles (induction) and then were treated differently according to radiological response. With CR patents, HD-MTX was continued with every 3 months (maintenance) for 2 years. For PD patients, immunochemotherapy was interrupted and WBRT initiated immediately. Patients with PR and SD were treated with alternative chemotherapy with temozolomide and/or stereotactic radiotherapy or WBRT. Results: Twenty-eight patients were treated with the RIT/HD-MTX regimen. In 26 patients suitable for radiographic evaluation, 61.5% (16/26) had a CR, 23.1% (6/26) had a PR, 3.8 % (1/26) had a SD and 11.5% (3/26) had a PD. The median PFS was 24.6 months and median OS was 28.2 months for the entire cohort. Grade III-IV toxicities were observed in 8 of 28 patients and included neutropenia in 17.9%, thrombocytopenia in 3.6%, pneumonia in 10.7%, elevation of aminotransferases in 3.6%, and hyponatremia in 3.6%. Patients achieving a CR after induction immunochemotherapy (n=16) had a significantly longer OS (65.8 months) and PFS (52.4 months) than patients with less than CR (n=10) (OS: 13.9 months; PFS: 9.3

  7. The additional benefit of residual spraying and insecticide-treated curtains for dengue control over current best practice in Cuba: Evaluation of disease incidence in a cluster randomized trial in a low burden setting with intensive routine control.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Maria Eugenia; Vanlerberghe, Veerle; Rosales, Julio Popa; Mirabal, Mayelin; Cabrera, Pedro; Fonseca, Viviana; Gómez Padrón, Tania; Pérez Menzies, Mirtha; Montada, Domingo; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Aedes control interventions are considered the cornerstone of dengue control programmes, but there is scarce evidence on their effect on disease. We set-up a cluster randomized controlled trial in Santiago de Cuba to evaluate the entomological and epidemiological effectiveness of periodical intra- and peri-domiciliary residual insecticide (deltamethrin) treatment (RIT) and long lasting insecticide treated curtains (ITC). Sixty three clusters (around 250 households each) were randomly allocated to two intervention (RIT and ITC) and one control arm. Routine Aedes control activities (entomological surveillance, source reduction, selective adulticiding, health education) were applied in the whole study area. The outcome measures were clinical dengue case incidence and immature Aedes infestation. Effectiveness of tools was evaluated using a generalized linear regression model with a negative binomial link function. Despite significant reduction in Aedes indices (Rate Ratio (RR) 0.54 (95%CI 0.32-0.89) in the first month after RIT, the effect faded out over time and dengue incidence was not reduced. Overall, in this setting there was no protective effect of RIT or ITC over routine in the 17months intervention period, with for house index RR of 1.16 (95%CI 0.96-1.40) and 1.25 (95%CI 1.03-1.50) and for dengue incidence RR of 1.43 (95%CI 1.08-1.90) and 0.96 (95%CI 0.72-1.28) respectively. The monthly dengue incidence rate (IR) at cluster level was best explained by epidemic periods (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 5.50 (95%CI 4.14-7.31)), the IR in bordering houseblocks (IRR 1.03 (95%CI 1.02-1.04)) and the IR pre-intervention (IRR 1.02 (95%CI 1.00-1.04)). Adding RIT to an intensive routine Aedes control programme has a transient effect on the already moderate low entomological infestation levels, while ITC did not have any effect. For both interventions, we didn't evidence impact on disease incidence. Further studies are needed to evaluate impact in settings with high Aedes

  8. Beta emitters rhenium-188 and lutetium-177 are equally effective in radioimmunotherapy of HPV-positive experimental cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Phaeton, Rebecca; Jiang, Zewei; Revskaya, Ekaterina; Fisher, Darrell R; Goldberg, Gary L; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer caused by the infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) remains the fourth leading killer of women worldwide. Therefore, more efficacious treatments are needed. We are developing radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of HPV-positive cervical cancers by targeting E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins expressed by the cancer cells with the radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). To investigate the influence of different radionuclides on the RIT efficacy-we performed RIT of experimental cervical cancer with Rhenium-188 ((188) Re) and Lutetium-177 ((177) Lu)-labeled mAb C1P5 to E6. The biodistribution of (188) Re- and (177) Lu-labeled C1P5 was performed in nude female mice bearing CasKi cervical cancer xenografts and the radiation dosimetry calculations for the tumors and organs were carried out. For RIT the mice were treated with 7.4 MBq of either (188) Re-C1P5 or (177) Lu-C1P5 or left untreated, and observed for their tumor size for 28 days. The levels of (188) Re- and (177) Lu-C1P5 mAbs-induced double-strand breaks in CasKi tumors were compared on days 5 and 10 post treatment by staining with anti-gamma H2AX antibody. The radiation doses to the heart and lungs were similar for both (177) Lu-C1P5 and (188) Re-C1P5. The dose to the liver was five times higher for (177) Lu-C1P5. The doses to the tumor were 259 and 181 cGy for (177) Lu-C1P5 and (188) Re-C1P5, respectively. RIT with either (177) Lu-C1P5 or (188) Re-C1P5 was equally effective in inhibiting tumor growth when each was compared to the untreated controls (P = 0.001). On day 5 there was a pronounced staining for gamma H2AX foci in (177) Lu-C1P5 group only and on day 10 it was observed in both (177) Lu-C1P5 and (188) Re-C1P5 groups. (188) Re- and (177) Lu-labeled mAbs were equally effective in arresting the growth of CasKi cervical tumors. Thus, both of these radionuclides are candidates for the clinical trials of this approach in patients with advanced, recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer. © 2015 The

  9. Extracorporeal adsorption therapy: A Method to improve targeted radiation delivered by radiometal-labeled monoclonal antibodies.

    SciT

    Nemecek, Eneida R.; Green, Damian J.; Fisher, Darrell R.

    2008-04-01

    Many investigators have demonstrated the ability to treat hematologic malignancies with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting hematopoietic antigens such as anti-CD20 and anti-CD45. [1-5] Although the remission rates achieved with radioimmunotherapy (RIT) are relatively high, many patients subsequently relapse presumably due to suboptimal delivery of enough radiation to eradicate the malignancy. The dose-response of leukemia and lymphoma to radiation has been proven. Substantial amounts of radiation can be delivered by RIT if followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation to rescue the bone marrow from myeloablation.[ref] However, the maximum dose of RIT that can be used is still limited by toxicity to normalmore » tissues affected by nonspecific delivery of radiation. Efforts to improve RIT focus on improving the therapeutic ratios of radiation in target versus non-target tissues by removing the fraction of radioisotope that fails to bind to target tissues and circulates freely in the bloodstream perfusing non-target tissues. Our group and others have explored several alternatives for removal of unbound circulating antibody. [refs] One such method, extracorporeal adsorption therapy (ECAT) consists of removing unbound antibody by a method similar to plasmapheresis after critical circulation time and distribution of antibody into target tissues have been achieved. Preclinical studies of ECAT in murine xenograft models demonstrated significant improvement in therapeutic ratios of radioactivity. Chen and colleagues demonstrated that a 2-hour ECAT procedure could remove 40 to 70% of the radioactivity from liver, lung and spleen. [ref] Although isotope concentration in the tumor was initially unaffected, a 50% decrease was noted approximately 36 hours after the procedure. This approach was also evaluated in a limited phase I pilot study of patients with refractory B-cell lymphoma. [ref] After radiographic confirmation of tumor localization of a test dose of

  10. Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerthsen, Christian; Vogel, Helmut

    Die siebzehnte Auflage des Gerthsen ist zugleich die sechste in der Bearbeitung Helmut Vogels. Der Autor bereichert das klassische Studien- und Nachschlagewerk mit einem neuen Kapitel zur nichtlinearen Dynamik (auch Chaos und Fraktale werden besprochen) sowie acht instruktiven Farbtafeln. Daneben gibt es wieder kleinere Ergänzungen und Korrekturen. Wo die Darstellung wegen der selbstauferlegten Beschränkung im Umfang nicht alle Themen behandeln kann, helfen die mehr als zahlreichen Übungsaufgaben, die im Band Vogel, Probleme aus der Physik, ISBN 3-540-51217-9, mit Beiheft nun auch zur 17. Auflage verwendbar, ausführlich besprochen werden.

  11. Digitalisierung in der Energiewirtschaft - empirische Untersuchung und Wertschöpfungskette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell, Timo

    Die Energiewirtschaft nutzt seit je her digitale Strukturen zur Umsetzung ihrer Prozesse. Durch den (neuen) verabschiedeten politischen Ordnungsrahmen - dem Gesetz zur Digitalisierung der Energiewende - und durch die rasante Fortentwicklung technologischer Strukturen ergeben sich jedoch die Wertschöpfungsstufen erweiternde, diversifizierende und innovative Möglichkeiten für Energieversorger (EVU) Geschäftsfelder auszubauen bzw. neue zu erschließen. Dabei ist die digitale (R)Evolution keine rein technische Umsetzung, sondern insbesondere auch eine unternehmensinterne, strategische und intern-kulturelle Herausforderung.

  12. Einsteins Spuren in den Archiven der Wissenschaft: Physikgeschichte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Werner

    2005-07-01

    Die Erwähnungen und Zitierungen von Einsteins Arbeiten dokumentieren lediglich den quantifizierbaren Anteil von Einsteins Beitrag zur Physik. Gleichwohl belegen sie die außergewöhnliche Resonanz und Langzeitwirkung seiner Arbeiten. Die Häufigkeit der Zitierungen entspricht nicht der allgemeinen Einschätzung ihrer Bedeutung. Insbesondere die Pionierarbeiten werden inzwischen als bekannt vorausgesetzt und nicht mehr explizit zitiert. Interessanterweise ist seine nach 1945 meist zitierte Arbeit nicht eine der Pionierarbeiten zur Quantenphysik oder Relativitätstheorie, sondern jene aus dem Jahr 1935 zum berühmten Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradoxon.

  13. Hinderniserkennung und -verfolgung mit einer PMD-kamera im automobil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schamm, Thomas; Vacek, Stefan; Natroshvilli, Koba; Marius Zöllner, J.; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    Die Detektion von Hindernissen vor dem Automobil ist eine Hauptanforderung an moderne Fahrerassistenzsysteme (FAS). In dieser Arbeit wird ein System vorgestellt, das mit Hilfe einer PMDKamera (Photomischdetektor) Hindernisse auf der Fahrspur erkennt und deren relevante Parameter bestimmt. Durch die PMD-Kamera werden zunächst 3D-Tiefenbilder der Fahrzeugumwelt generiert. Nach einem initialen Filterprozess werden im Tiefenbild mit Hilfe eines Bereichswachstumsverfahrens Hindernisse gesucht. Zur Stabilisierung des Verfahrens und zur Parameterberechnung wird ein Kaiman Filter eingesetzt. Das Ergebnis ist eine Liste aller Hindernisse im Fahrbereich des Automobils.

  14. Anbindung des SISIS-SunRise-Bibliothekssystems an das zentrale Identitätsmanagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, Ralf; Pretz, Edwin

    Wir berichten über Konzepte und Implementierungen zur Datenprovisionierung aus den Personenverwaltungssystemen der Technischen Universität München (TUM) über das zentrale Metadirectory am Leibniz-Rechenzentrum (LRZ) in das SISIS-SunRise-Bibliothekssystem der Universitätsbibliothek der TUM (TUB). Es werden drei Implementierungsvarianten diskutiert, angefangen von der Generierung und Übertragung einfacher CSV-Dateien über ein OpenLDAP-basiertes Konzept als Backend für die SISIS-Datenbank bis zur endgültigen Implementierung mit dem OCLC IDM Connector.

  15. Ökophysik: Plaudereien über das Leben auf dem Land, im Wasser und in der Luft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachtigall, W.

    Prof. em. Dr. rer. nat. Werner Nachtigall, geb. 1934, war als Zoophysiologe und Biophysiker Leiter des Zoologischen Instituts der Universität des Saarlandes in Saarbrücken. In Forschung und Ausbildung hat er sich insbesondere mit Aspekten der Technischen Biologie und Bionik befasst und mit seinen Forschergruppen viele Basisdaten insbesondere zur Ökologie, Physiologie und Physik des Fliegens und Schwimmens aber auch zur Stabilität beispielsweise der Gräser erarbeitet. Lebewesen überraschen immer wieder durch ihre "Biodiversität", ihre hochspezifischen Ausgestaltungen und Anpassungen.

  16. Physik gestern und heute Spurensuche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, Wolfgang; Heering, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Im Jahre 1927 erhielt Charles Thomson Rees Wilson für die von ihm entwickelte Methode zur Visualisierung der Spuren ionisierender Strahlung den Nobelpreis für Physik. Die nach ihm benannte Nebelkammer wurde in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts zu einem Standardinstrument für Untersuchungen subatomarer Prozesse.

  17. On the Buckling Force of Floating Ice Plates,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    the derivations in Kappus phenomena is beyond the scope of the present report. (1939) or Kerr (1972), using Lagrange coordinates and Therefore, in the...eq 36 and w,(x, 0) in eq 24, we obtain LITERATURE CITED Pee(0) = L- YB2 (42) Kappus , R. (1939) Zur Elastizitatstheorie endlicher Verschie- 28 bungen

  18. Das Smart Meter Gateway - Der kritische Erfolgsfaktor für die Digitalisierung der Energiewende

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abs, Paul-Vincent

    Der kritische Erfolgsfaktor der Digitalisierung in der Energiewirtschaft liegt im bevorstehenden hohen Investitionsvolumen und der Beherrschung der neuen Technik. Ein Weg zur Kostenminimierung liegt im Zusammenschluss der einzelnen Akteure, um gemeinsame Skalenvorteile zu heben. Auch bieten neue Geschäftsmodelle die Möglichkeit, zusätzliche Erlöse zu generieren.

  19. Special Course on Subsonic/Transonic Aerodynamic Interference for Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    SHOCKS H = .83. CL = .40. COW .0005. A = 6.0 Fig. 25 Iteration history for transonic airfoil b) REDESIGNED WING design (M = .77) with weak shock Fig. 27...Finished Wing (King Cobra). RAE TN Aero. 2383, 1950. 10. Holstein , H.: Messungen zur Laminarhaltung der Grenzchicht an elnem Flugel. Lilenthal-Bericht

  20. Normung (Standardisierung)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostmann, Dirk

    Normung ist aus dem täglichen Leben nicht wegzudenken. In allen Bereichen des Lebens begegnet man Normen, die Aktivitäten reichen von Festlegungen für Kindersitze im Auto über Implantate zum Gelenkersatz bis zu Schraubengrößen oder Verfahren zur Optimierung von Unternehmen.

  1. Degradable Implantate: Entwicklungsbeispiele

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffieux, Kurt; Wintermantel, Erich

    Resorbierbare Implantate werden seit mehreren Jahrzehnten in der Implantologie eingesetzt. Bekannt wurden diese Biomaterialien mit dem Aufkommen von sich selbst auflösenden Nahtfäden auf der Basis von synthetisch hergestellten Polylactiden und Polyglycoliden in den 70er Jahren. In einem nächsten Schritt wurden Implantate wie Platten und Schrauben zur Gewebefixation aus den gleichen Biomaterialien hergestellt.

  2. A Computational Study of the Modification of Raindrop Size Distributions in Subcloud Downdrafts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    Schumann (1939) and Findeisen (1939). It is characterized by a raindrop distribution consisting of many small droplets and a few large drops; all large...rain by means of sequential rain drop size distributions. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 88, 301-314. Findeisen , W., 1939: Zur Frage der

  3. The Analytical Potential of Comparative Educational Research: Review of Two Historical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippelt, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    In this review, Rudolf Tippelt focuses on two central comparative educational publications that compare the English and German education systems under specific historical perspectives: (1) Lenhart V, "Die erste Schrift zur vergleichenden Erziehungswissenschaft"/"The First Treatise in Comparative Education." Fredericus Augustus…

  4. Design of the optical communication system for the asteroid impact mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heese, C.; Sodnik, Z.; Carnelli, I.

    2017-09-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is part of the joint Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) project of ESA, DLR, Observatoire de la Côte d'Ázur, NASA, and Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL).

  5. Atmospheric Turbulence Research at DFVLR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    DFVIR - ein mxteoroloisches Y system zur Untmrwxfszq der abm *iprisdcn Grenzschiidt. DWIR-Fbrschungsbericht FB 84-50, 150pp. English translatian: ESA... sytem Litton 72. " Temperature: Humidity - Two probes Rosemount 102 (fast and 0 ERC Lyman-alpha hygrometer slow). 0 Vaishla humicap relative humidity

  6. Poverty, Education and Gender: Pedagogic Transformations in the Schools for the Poor ("Armenschulwesen") in Hamburg, 1788-1871

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In the second half of the eighteenth century, an enlightened reformist spirit spread among Hamburg's bourgeois upper classes. This was exemplified by the activities of the "Gesellschaft zur Beforderung der Kunste und nutzlichen Gewerbe" ("Society for the Promotion of the Arts and Useful Trades") founded in 1765 as well as by a…

  7. Microplane Model for Fracture Analysis of Concrete Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    Curves for Cot,- Proceadings, Intern. Sympositim cai Numevical crete io Tension," Mater ils ,tndI : Str ~tuiztres d.- Un R. /na~gr No I., an. o196.9...and 226. ivinsterwalder, K, , "Festigkeit und Verfor- mung van Bet an lniter- 7.oRsIannitgenl, Duo tsatho 8. Kr~ner, h. , Zur 2’lastischen Verformung

  8. Investigations on Laminar Boundary-Layer Stability and Transition on Curved Boundaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-08-01

    an konkaven Wanden. G’.ottineer Nachrichten . Neue Folgo, 2, Nr. 1. Ii. Tollmien, W.: The Production of Turbulence. T.M. No. 609, NACA, 1931. 12...Schlichting, H.: Zur Entstehung der Turbulenz bei der Plattenstromung. GBttinger Nachrichten , M.P.K., pp. 181-208, 19_, und Bd. l, 1935. 13, . Taylor, G. I

  9. Europeanization of the Hospital Markets - Opportunities and Risks for German Hospitals (Europaeisierung des Krankenhausmarkets - Chancen und Risiken fuer deutsche Krankenhaeuser)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-06

    Information Services Institut (3M HIS Institut) hat u.a. mit der Entwicklung eines Werkzeugs zur Pflege und Weiterentwicklung des deutschen DRG-Systems ftir... Pflege (Krankenhauspflege) a. die Kosten wachsen schneller als allgerneine Inflation b. praktisch stabile Krankenversicherungsentnahme c. es existieren 9...Krankenkassen d. die Pflege ist von der Krankenversicherung voll (theoretisch) vergUltet e. Missverhlitnis zwischen Versicherungsentnuhrne und

  10. Visual Motion Perception and Visual Information Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-31

    tradi- tionally called the "span of apprehension" (Kulpe, 1904; Durable Storage Wundt , 1899). However, a partial-report procedure demon- strates...Gehrig. P. (1992). On the time course Wundt . W. (1899). Zur Kritik tachistoskopischer Versuche [A crit- of perceptual information that results from a

  11. Germany’s Chosen Path: Domestic Security Institutions in the Berlin Republic 1990-97.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    wird vom Neorealismusparadigma unterstotzt, hier dargestel It durch Kenneth Waltz. Das liberate Paradigma unterstUtzt die Perspektive der "Kultur von Zur... Paradigma folgen. Urn diesen aktuellen Weg in Richtung Realismus zu andern, mul$ Deutschland bestimmte Institutionen verandern oder abschaffen. In der

  12. On the quantization of wave fields⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, L.

    2017-04-01

    Originally published in German "Zur Quantelung der Wellenfelder" in Annalen der Physik 397, 113 (1930). Submitted for publication on March 18, 1930Translated by Donald Salisbury, Max-Planck-Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Berlin and Austin College, Sherman, TX, USA and Kurt Sundermeyer, Max-Planck-Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Berlin. DSalisbury@austincollege.edu

  13. A Framework and Strategies for Determining Reference Conditions for Streams with Legacy Sediments on Military Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    water where there is a sharp change in channel slope, such as a waterfall or lake, resulting from differential rates of erosion above and below the...Beitrage zur Lehre von der biologische Gewasserbeurteilung. International Review of Hydrobiology 2:126-52. ———. 1909. Oekologie der Saprobien. Uber

  14. Impulse fur Bibliotheken (Impulses for Libraries). Publications of Essen University Library 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helal, Ahmed H., Ed.

    This collection of 12 papers commemorates the retirement of Bernhard Adams. Adams had a 30-year career at the Bochum University Library (Germany) and advocated innovation and automation in libraries. The papers are: (1) "Gemeinsame Wegstrecken: Bernhard Adams zur Ehre" ("Common Milestones: In Honor of Bernhard Adams") (Harro…

  15. The transformation of regular circular motion into straight motion according to Nasir al din al-Tusi - a genious model for the conscious preservation of a defect of Ptolemy's lunar theory (German Title: Die Umwandlung gleichförmiger Kreisbewegung in geradlinige Bewegung nach Nasir al din al-Tusi - Ein geniales Modell zur bewußten Beibehaltung eines Mangels der Ptolemäischen Mondtheorie)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, Olaf; Mader, Rolf

    Nasir al din al-Tusi (1201-1274) was one of the most important universal scholars of Islam. As a convinced Aristotelian, he rejected Ptolemy's modifications of the Aristotelian dogma of uniform circular motion. He created a theory of lunar motion which is only based on uniform circular motion, and which results in the same representation of lunar motion as conceived by Ptolemy. He successfully attempted to consciously preserve, and not to correct, an error of Ptolemy's theory (the doubling of the earth-moon distance in the syzygies as compared to the quadratures). We explain the Tusi mechanism and point out its philosophical consequences (the unwanted dissolution of the difference between the extra- and intralunar world).

  16. Sentinel-Lymphknoten-Biopsie des Melanoms mittels Indocyaningrün und "FOVIS"-System.

    PubMed

    Göppner, Daniela; Nekwasil, Stephan; Jellestad, Anne; Sachse, Alexander; Schönborn, Karl-Heinz; Gollnick, Harald

    2017-02-01

    Der Nachweis metastatischer Infiltrate im Sentinel-Lymphkoten (SLN) gilt als wesentlicher prognostischer Faktor des Melanoms. Alternativ zur Farbstoffmethode mit Patentblau zum Goldstandard der SLN-Biopsie (SLNB) mittels Radiokolloid wird die fluoreszenzoptische Darstellung mit Hilfe von Indocyaningrün (ICG) und Nahinfrarot (NIR)-Kamerasystem kommuniziert. Im Vergleich zur konventionellen Methode wurde die Wertigkeit des ICG-/NIR-Verfahrens in Abhängigkeit vom Body-Mass-Index (BMI) des Patienten und der Konzentration von ICG bezüglich der Visualisierung des Lymphabstroms und des SLNs untersucht. An zehn Patienten wurde die SLNB mittels Technetium-99m, Patentblau und ICG durchgeführt. Die Fluoreszenz-Darstellung von Lymphbahnen und SLN erfolgte in Echtzeit mittels der NIR-Kameratechnik "FOVIS". Je nach erzielter Bildqualität wurde ICG in einer Dosis von 0,25 mg bis 2,5 mg intrakutan appliziert. Neun der zehn SLN wurden fluoreszenzoptisch identifiziert (90 %), alle zehn radioaktiv (100 %), nur acht (80 %) mittels ICG-Grünfärbung bzw. Patenblau-Markierung. Transdermal wurde ein SLN dargestellt (10 %). In Korrelation zum BMI waren höhere ICG-Mengen, bis zu 2,5 mg intrakutan absolut, in der Darstellung der Lymphbahnen von Vorteil. Die SLN-Fluoreszenzmarkierung mit dem ICG/NIR-Kamera-System "FOVIS" stellt eine sichere Alternative zur Farbstoffmethode mit Patentblau ergänzend zur Radiokolloidmethode mit Technetium-99m dar. Weitere Studien zur optimalen Dosierung von ICG und transdermalen Bildgebung in Relation zum BMI sind notwendig. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Alpha Particles Induce Autophagy in Multiple Myeloma Cells.

    PubMed

    Gorin, Jean-Baptiste; Gouard, Sébastien; Ménager, Jérémie; Morgenstern, Alfred; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Guilloux, Yannick; Chérel, Michel; Davodeau, François; Gaschet, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    Radiation emitted by the radionuclides in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches induce direct killing of the targeted cells as well as indirect killing through the bystander effect. Our research group is dedicated to the development of α-RIT, i.e., RIT using α-particles especially for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). γ-irradiation and β-irradiation have been shown to trigger apoptosis in tumor cells. Cell death mode induced by (213)Bi α-irradiation appears more controversial. We therefore decided to investigate the effects of (213)Bi on MM cell radiobiology, notably cell death mechanisms as well as tumor cell immunogenicity after irradiation. Murine 5T33 and human LP-1 MM cell lines were used to study the effects of such α-particles. We first examined the effects of (213)Bi on proliferation rate, double-strand DNA breaks, cell cycle, and cell death. Then, we investigated autophagy after (213)Bi irradiation. Finally, a coculture of dendritic cells (DCs) with irradiated tumor cells or their culture media was performed to test whether it would induce DC activation. We showed that (213)Bi induces DNA double-strand breaks, cell cycle arrest, and autophagy in both cell lines, but we detected only slight levels of early apoptosis within the 120 h following irradiation in 5T33 and LP-1. Inhibition of autophagy prevented (213)Bi-induced inhibition of proliferation in LP-1 suggesting that this mechanism is involved in cell death after irradiation. We then assessed the immunogenicity of irradiated cells and found that irradiated LP-1 can activate DC through the secretion of soluble factor(s); however, no increase in membrane or extracellular expression of danger-associated molecular patterns was observed after irradiation. This study demonstrates that (213)Bi induces mainly necrosis in MM cells, low levels of apoptosis, and autophagy that might be involved in tumor cell death.

  18. A model for hematopoietic death in man from irradiation of bone marrow during radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Scott, B R; Dillehay, L E

    1990-11-01

    There are numerous institutions worldwide performing clinical trials of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for cancer. For RIT, an exponentially decaying radionuclide is attached by using a chelating agent to a specific monoclonal or polyclonal tumour antibody (e.g. antiferritin IgG). The major limitation to RIT is toxicity to normal tissue in organs other than the one containing the tumour (e.g. bone marrow). The focus of this manuscript is on modelling the risk (or probability) of hematopoietic death in man for exponentially decaying patterns of high-energy beta irradiation (e.g. 90Y) of bone marrow by radioimmunoglobulin injected into the blood. The analytical solutions presented are only applicable to protocols for which significant uptake of radioactivity by the bone marrow does not occur, and only for high energy beta emitters. However, the generic equation used to obtain the analytical solutions is applicable to any continuous pattern of high energy beta irradiation. A model called the "normalized dose model" was used to generate calculated values for the LD50 as a function of the effective half-time for the radioimmunoglobulin in the blood. A less complicated empirical model was used to describe the calculated values. This model is presumed to be valid for effective half-times in blood of up to about 20 days. For longer effective half-times, the LD50 can be estimated using the normalized-dose model presented. In this manuscript, we also provide a modified Weibull model that allows estimation of the risk of hematopoietic death for single or multiple injections (in one cycle) of radioimmunoglobulin, for patients with normal susceptibility to irradiation and for patients with heightened susceptibility. With the modified Weibull model, the risk of hematopoietic death depends on the level of medical treatment provided to mitigate radiation injuries.

  19. System for Thermal Imaging of Hot Moving Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard; Hundley, Jason

    2007-01-01

    The High Altitude/Re-Entry Vehicle Infrared Imaging (HARVII) system is a portable instrumentation system for tracking and thermal imaging of a possibly distant and moving object. The HARVII is designed specifically for measuring the changing temperature distribution on a space shuttle as it reenters the atmosphere. The HARVII system or other systems based on the design of the HARVII system could also be used for such purposes as determining temperature distributions in fires, on volcanoes, and on surfaces of hot models in wind tunnels. In yet another potential application, the HARVII or a similar system would be used to infer atmospheric pollution levels from images of the Sun acquired at multiple wavelengths over regions of interest. The HARVII system includes the Ratio Intensity Thermography System (RITS) and a tracking subsystem that keeps the RITS aimed at the moving object of interest. The subsystem of primary interest here is the RITS (see figure), which acquires and digitizes images of the same scene at different wavelengths in rapid succession. Assuming that the time interval between successive measurements is short enough that temperatures do not change appreciably, the digitized image data at the different wavelengths are processed to extract temperatures according to the principle of ratio-intensity thermography: The temperature at a given location in a scene is inferred from the ratios between or among intensities of infrared radiation from that location at two or more wavelengths. This principle, based on the Stefan-Boltzmann equation for the intensity of electromagnetic radiation as a function of wavelength and temperature, is valid as long as the observed body is a gray or black body and there is minimal atmospheric absorption of radiation.

  20. Prediction of Therapy Tumor-Absorbed Dose Estimates in I-131 Radioimmunotherapy Using Tracer Data Via a Mixed-Model Fit to Time Activity

    PubMed Central

    Koral, Kenneth F.; Avram, Anca M.; Kaminski, Mark S.; Dewaraja, Yuni K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background For individualized treatment planning in radioimmunotherapy (RIT), correlations must be established between tracer-predicted and therapy-delivered absorbed doses. The focus of this work was to investigate this correlation for tumors. Methods The study analyzed 57 tumors in 19 follicular lymphoma patients treated with I-131 tositumomab and imaged with SPECT/CT multiple times after tracer and therapy administrations. Instead of the typical least-squares fit to a single tumor's measured time-activity data, estimation was accomplished via a biexponential mixed model in which the curves from multiple subjects were jointly estimated. The tumor-absorbed dose estimates were determined by patient-specific Monte Carlo calculation. Results The mixed model gave realistic tumor time-activity fits that showed the expected uptake and clearance phases even with noisy data or missing time points. Correlation between tracer and therapy tumor-residence times (r=0.98; p<0.0001) and correlation between tracer-predicted and therapy-delivered mean tumor-absorbed doses (r=0.86; p<0.0001) were very high. The predicted and delivered absorbed doses were within±25% (or within±75 cGy) for 80% of tumors. Conclusions The mixed-model approach is feasible for fitting tumor time-activity data in RIT treatment planning when individual least-squares fitting is not possible due to inadequate sampling points. The good correlation between predicted and delivered tumor doses demonstrates the potential of using a pretherapy tracer study for tumor dosimetry-based treatment planning in RIT. PMID:22947086

  1. Study of early pregnancy factor (EPF) in equine (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Ohnuma, K; Yokoo, M; Ito, K; Nambo, Y; Miyake, Y I; Komatsu, M; Takahashi, J

    2000-03-01

    Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is an immunosuppressive protein detected in the early pregnancy serum. We have already reported that we developed the rosette inhibition test for mare EPF and detected EPF in thoroughbreds. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not our method could be used clinically. The rosette inhibition test for equine EPF was carried out on serum from six nonpregnant and six pregnant Shetland ponies, a female and a male Chinese pony, and four nonpregnant and 13 pregnant thoroughbred mares. In the thoroughbreds sera were collected during the pregnancy period. Furthermore, we measured progesterone and detected pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) in order to confirm pregnancy of the Chinese pony 3 and 6 months after mating. In the nonpregnant Shetland ponies, the rosette inhibition titre (RIT) was 6.0+/-1.0 and EPF was negative. In contrast, in the pregnant ponies, the RIT was 9.2+/-0.4 and EPF was positive. Based on these results, we diagnosed pregnancy of the Chinese pony. The RIT of the female Chinese pony (3 months after mating) was above 10 and EPF was positive. Furthermore, we detected PMSG and progesterone in the serum of this pony. EPF appeared in the maternal blood circulation at 24-72 hr after mating, it was detected until the second trimester, and after that it disappeared from the maternal serum. The pony's EPF was detected by using the same rosette inhibition test as in the thoroughbred and was present from 24 to 72 hr after mating until the second trimester. The results indicated that our method was useful for pregnancy diagnosis of Equine.

  2. Radioimmunotherapy of cancer with high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation delivered by radionuclides emitting α-particles or Auger electrons.

    PubMed

    Aghevlian, Sadaf; Boyle, Amanda J; Reilly, Raymond M

    2017-01-15

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) aims to selectively deliver radionuclides emitting α-particles, β-particles or Auger electrons to tumors by conjugation to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize tumor-associated antigens/receptors. The approach has been most successful for treatment of non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma but challenges have been encountered in extending these promising results to the treatment of solid malignancies. These challenges include the low potency of β-particle emitters such as 131 I, 177 Lu or 90 Y which have been commonly conjugated to the mAbs, due to their low linear energy transfer (LET=0.1-1.0keV/μm). Furthermore, since the β-particles have a 2-10mm range, there has been dose-limiting non-specific toxicity to hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow (BM) due to the cross-fire effect. Conjugation of mAbs to α-particle-emitters (e.g. 225 Ac, 213 Bi, 212 Pb or 211 At) or Auger electron-emitters (e.g. 111 In, 67 Ga, 123 I or 125 I) would increase the potency of RIT due to their high LET (50-230keV/μm and 4 to 26keV/μm, respectively). In addition, α-particles have a range in tissues of 28-100μm and Auger electrons are nanometer in range which greatly reduces or eliminates the cross-fire effect compared to β-particles, potentially reducing their non-specific toxicity to the BM. In this review, we describe the results of preclinical and clinical studies of RIT of cancer using radioimmunoconjugates emitting α-particles or Auger electrons, and discuss the potential of these high LET forms of radiation to improve the outcome of cancer patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling the chemical evolution of nitrogen oxides near roadways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan Jason; DenBleyker, Allison; McDonald-Buller, Elena; Allen, David; Zhang, K. Max

    2011-01-01

    The chemical evolution of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) in the vicinity of roadways is numerically investigated using a computational fluid dynamics model, CFD-VIT-RIT and a Gaussian-based model, CALINE4. CFD-VIT-RIT couples a standard k- ɛ turbulence model for turbulent mixing and the Finite-Rate model for chemical reactions. CALINE4 employs a discrete parcel method, assuming that chemical reactions are independent of the dilution process. The modeling results are compared to the field measurement data collected near two roadways in Austin, Texas, State Highway 71 (SH-71) and Farm to Market Road 973 (FM-973), under parallel and perpendicular wind conditions during the summer of 2007. In addition to ozone (O 3), other oxidants and reactive species including hydroperoxyl radical (HO 2), organic peroxyl radical (RO 2), formaldehyde (HCHO) and acetaldehyde (CH 3CHO) are considered in the transformation from NO to NO 2. CFD-VIT-RIT is shown to be capable of predicting both NO x and NO 2 profiles downwind. CALINE4 is able to capture the NO x profiles, but underpredicts NO 2 concentrations under high wind velocity. Our study suggests that the initial NO 2/NO x ratios have to be carefully selected based on traffic conditions in order to assess NO 2 concentrations near roadways. The commonly assumed NO 2/NO x ratio by volume of 5% may not be suitable for most roadways, especially those with a high fraction of heavy-duty truck traffic. In addition, high O 3 concentrations and high traffic volumes would lead to the peak NO 2 concentration occurring near roadways with elevated concentrations persistent over a long distance downwind.

  4. Targeted nanoparticle delivery overcomes off-target immunostimulatory effects of oligonucleotides and improves therapeutic efficacy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bo; Mao, Yicheng; Bai, Li-Yuan; Herman, Sarah E. M.; Wang, Xinmei; Ramanunni, Asha; Jin, Yan; Mo, Xiaokui; Cheney, Carolyn; Chan, Kenneth K.; Jarjoura, David; Marcucci, Guido; Lee, Robert J.; Byrd, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Several RNA-targeted therapeutics, including antisense oligonucleotides (ONs), small interfering RNAs, and miRNAs, constitute immunostimulatory CpG motifs as an integral part of their design. The limited success with free antisense ONs in hematologic malignancies in recent clinical trials has been attributed to the CpG motif–mediated, TLR-induced prosurvival effects and inefficient target modulation in desired cells. In an attempt to diminish their off-target prosurvival and proinflammatory effects and specific delivery, as a proof of principle, in the present study, we developed an Ab-targeted liposomal delivery strategy using a clinically relevant CD20 Ab (rituximab)–conjugated lipopolyplex nanoparticle (RIT-INP)– and Bcl-2–targeted antisense G3139 as archetypical antisense therapeutics. The adverse immunostimulatory responses were abrogated by selective B cell–targeted delivery and early endosomal compartmentalization of G3139-encapsulated RIT-INPs, resulting in reduced NF-κB activation, robust Bcl-2 down-regulation, and enhanced sensitivity to fludarabine-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, significant in vivo therapeutic efficacy was noted after RIT-INP–G3139 administration in a disseminated xenograft leukemia model. The results of the present study demonstrate that CD20-targeted delivery overcomes the immunostimulatory properties of CpG-containing ON therapeutics and improves efficient gene silencing and in vivo therapeutic efficacy for B-cell malignancies. The broader implications of similar approaches in overcoming immunostimulatory properties of RNA-directed therapeutics in hematologic malignancies are also discussed. PMID:23165478

  5. Critical Energy Infrastructure Protection in Canada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    la participation volontaire du secteur privé dans le système intégré proposé et sur des mesures visant à encourager...que le gouvernement attache beaucoup d’importance à la protection des infrastructures énergétiques essentielles. Neuf ans après les attaques du 11...producteurs d’énergie et des services énergétiques qui sont si essentiels à la prospérité et au bien-être du Canada ainsi qu’à la sécurité de l’Amérique du

  6. Report of the Tenth Quadrennial Review of Military Compensation. Volume 1: Cash Compensation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Religion Small Business Police Military 80706050403020100 Ages 18–29 All Figure 1-4...receive the same basic pay, regardless of when they were first promoted to that grade . Ta bl e 4- 1. M on th ly B as ic Pa y Ta bl e, Ap ril 2...ig nm en t t o H ig h P rio rit y U ni t 32 3 A ct iv e C o m p o ne nt (A C ) – N T E $ 20 0, 00 0 ov er c ar ee r; R es er ve C o m p

  7. Successful radioimmunotherapy for micro and occult metastases in a SCID mouse model

    SciT

    Yokoyama, K.; Koshida, K.; Kinuya, S.

    1996-05-01

    It is often addressed that the most appropriate candidate, theoretically, for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is not bulky tumor burden but for micro or occult metastatic foci, The major obstacles in the verification for veracious efficacy of RIT had been clinically and preclinically the difficulty in obtaining such a model. We have developed the model of testicular tumor (primary site) with visible small metastases to the lymph nodes (LNs) and non-visible (occult) lesions to distant organs in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. And thus, the suppression of minute tumor depositions after RIT was evaluated. One week after hemilateral intratesticular injection of 2more » million of HELA Hep 2 cells that expressed placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), the group of the mice were treated with a single dose of I-131 labeled HPMS-1, anti-PLAP MoAb or with saline control. The I-131 labeled HPMS-1 (5.6 MBq / 150 {mu}g) was intravenously administered and at 2 weeks after, the testis, retroperitoneal and intraperitoneal LNs and other gans were removed. For the control group, the testicular tumor and LNs metastases were found in 100% and 86% of the mice. The metastases in the liver and lung were not observed by histological examination but in all mouse samples, the PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assay could identify the human {beta}-globin gene derived from HeLa cells, indicating the presence of definitive metastases. For the treated group, the average testicular tumor weight was significantly reduced by the factor of 2.4 (132 mg vs 311 mg, p<0.01). The LNs metastases were even more distinctively suppressed by the factor of 45.7 (13 mg vs 599 mg, p,0.05). Remarkably, the PCR products from the occult metastases were almost completely controlled; 97% suppression found for the liver and 81% for the lung. Thus, we conclude that using I-131 as a label, RIT is justified to used for targeting and killing minute tumor foci.« less

  8. National Dam Inspection Program. Keen Lake Dam (NDI Number PA-00092, Der Number 64-13), Delaware River Basin. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Lake bal; 1.fs iv 𔃻. 2 EVAI 17,,6 !1 ’,!L1i c valu t (it 1t -l t WIh lit S is fair .* ii I ’ t.it t lbankmitt ,hiouild r,-move,i .ini -- ’ co ’rIt e...note that f a dam depends on numerous and constantly changing internal and external conditions, and is evolutionary in nature. It would be incorrect to...structures appear to be in fair condition. In accordance with the Corps of Engineer’s evaluation guidelines, the size classification of this dam is

  9. Quantitative single-particle digital autoradiography with α-particle emitters for targeted radionuclide therapy using the iQID camera

    SciT

    Miller, Brian W., E-mail: brian.miller@pnnl.gov; Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Alpha-emitting radionuclides exhibit a potential advantage for cancer treatments because they release large amounts of ionizing energy over a few cell diameters (50–80 μm), causing localized, irreparable double-strand DNA breaks that lead to cell death. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches using monoclonal antibodies labeled with α emitters may thus inactivate targeted cells with minimal radiation damage to surrounding tissues. Tools are needed to visualize and quantify the radioactivity distribution and absorbed doses to targeted and nontargeted cells for accurate dosimetry of all treatment regimens utilizing α particles, including RIT and others (e.g., Ra-223), especially for organs and tumors with heterogeneous radionuclidemore » distributions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize a novel single-particle digital autoradiography imager, the ionizing-radiation quantum imaging detector (iQID) camera, for use in α-RIT experiments. Methods: The iQID camera is a scintillator-based radiation detection system that images and identifies charged-particle and gamma-ray/x-ray emissions spatially and temporally on an event-by-event basis. It employs CCD-CMOS cameras and high-performance computing hardware for real-time imaging and activity quantification of tissue sections, approaching cellular resolutions. In this work, the authors evaluated its characteristics for α-particle imaging, including measurements of intrinsic detector spatial resolutions and background count rates at various detector configurations and quantification of activity distributions. The technique was assessed for quantitative imaging of astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) activity distributions in cryosections of murine and canine tissue samples. Results: The highest spatial resolution was measured at ∼20 μm full width at half maximum and the α-particle background was measured at a rate as low as (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10{sup −4} cpm/cm{sup 2} (40 mm diameter detector area

  10. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 69, Number 1, July 1928

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1928-07-01

    Hamp!’hire Regiment, a company of the Dublin Fusiliers, and a field eompany of engineers-2000 men in all") were on board the collier Rit-er Clyde. This...in case the water was too deep for wading, a number of lighters -were hrought along with the collier , by means of which it was expected to form a pier...guessed him and descended off the heights of the Chemin des Dames, May 27, and drove to Chateau- Thierry . And that Foch had a French army with which to

  11. Removal of Noise from a Voice Signal by Synthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-05-01

    for 102.4 millisecond windows is about five times as great as the cost of computing for 25.6 millisecond windows. Hammett in his work on an adaptive...spectrum analysis vocoder, has examined the selection of data window widths in detail [18]. The solution Hammett used to optimize the trade off between...result is: n s(t) E Ri(t - i . T) i-1 In this equation n is the number of impulse responses under consideration, s(t) is the resulting synthetic signal

  12. SciT

    Miller, Brian W.; Frost, Sophia; Frayo, Shani

    Abstract Alpha emitting radionuclides exhibit a potential advantage for cancer treatments because they release large amounts of ionizing energy over a few cell diameters (50–80 μm) causing localized, irreparable double-strand DNA breaks that lead to cell death. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches using monoclonal antibodies labeled with alpha emitters may inactivate targeted cells with minimal radiation damage to surrounding tissues. For accurate dosimetry in alpha-RIT, tools are needed to visualize and quantify the radioactivity distribution and absorbed dose to targeted and non-targeted cells, especially for organs and tumors with heterogeneous radionuclide distributions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterizemore » a novel single-particle digital autoradiography imager, iQID (ionizing-radiation Quantum Imaging Detector), for use in alpha-RIT experiments. Methods: The iQID camera is a scintillator-based radiation detection technology that images and identifies charged-particle and gamma-ray/X-ray emissions spatially and temporally on an event-by-event basis. It employs recent advances in CCD/CMOS cameras and computing hardware for real-time imaging and activity quantification of tissue sections, approaching cellular resolutions. In this work, we evaluated this system’s characteristics for alpha particle imaging including measurements of spatial resolution and background count rates at various detector configurations and quantification of activity distributions. The technique was assessed for quantitative imaging of astatine-211 (211At) activity distributions in cryosections of murine and canine tissue samples. Results: The highest spatial resolution was measured at ~20 μm full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the alpha particle background was measured at a rate of (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10–4 cpm/cm2 (40 mm diameter detector area). Simultaneous imaging of multiple tissue sections was performed using a large-area iQID configuration (ø 11.5 cm

  13. A New Optical Technique for Rapid Determination of Creep and Fatigue Thresholds at High Temperature.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    measurements, made far away from the crack tip, produced much smoother and more sensible results. Measurements by Macha et al (16) agree very well with...dependent upon the measurement positin. It becomes independent of position far enough away from the tip; this is consistent with the results of Macha , et...D. E. Macha , W. N. Sharpe, Jr., and A. P. ’ral(11, ’.., "A Laser Interferometry Method for ,xp.rim,-rit;a1 Stress Intensity Factor Calibration", AST

  14. Analysis of Crystallographic Structure of a Japanese Sword by the Pulsed Neutron Transmission Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kino, K.; Ayukawa, N.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Uchida, T.; Uno, S.; Grazzi, F.; Scherillo, A.

    We measured two-dimensional transmission spectra of pulsed neutron beams for a Japanese sword sample. Atom density, crystalline size, and preferred orientation of crystals were obtained using the RITS code. The position dependence of the atomic density is consistent with the shape of the sample. The crystalline size is very small and shows position dependence, which is understood by the unique structure of Japanese swords. The preferred orientation has strong position dependence. Our study shows the usefulness of the pulsed neutron transmission method for cultural metal artifacts.

  15. Nanostructured Materials Development for Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, B. J.; Elich, J. B.; Gennett, T.; Castro, S. L.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2003-01-01

    There have been many recent advances in the use of nanostructured materials for space power applications. In particular, the use of high purity single wall nanotubes holds promise for a variety of generation and storage devices including: thin film lithium ion batteries, microelectronic proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, polymeric thin film solar cells, and thermionic power supplies is presented. Semiconducting quantum dots alone and in conjunction with carbon nanotubes are also being investigated for possible use in high efficiency photovoltaic solar cells. This paper will review some of the work being done at RIT in conjunction with the NASA Glenn Research Center to utilize nanomaterials in space power devices.

  16. Quantitative single-particle digital autoradiography with α-particle emitters for targeted radionuclide therapy using the iQID camera.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian W; Frost, Sofia H L; Frayo, Shani L; Kenoyer, Aimee L; Santos, Erlinda; Jones, Jon C; Green, Damian J; Hamlin, Donald K; Wilbur, D Scott; Fisher, Darrell R; Orozco, Johnnie J; Press, Oliver W; Pagel, John M; Sandmaier, Brenda M

    2015-07-01

    Alpha-emitting radionuclides exhibit a potential advantage for cancer treatments because they release large amounts of ionizing energy over a few cell diameters (50-80 μm), causing localized, irreparable double-strand DNA breaks that lead to cell death. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches using monoclonal antibodies labeled with α emitters may thus inactivate targeted cells with minimal radiation damage to surrounding tissues. Tools are needed to visualize and quantify the radioactivity distribution and absorbed doses to targeted and nontargeted cells for accurate dosimetry of all treatment regimens utilizing α particles, including RIT and others (e.g., Ra-223), especially for organs and tumors with heterogeneous radionuclide distributions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize a novel single-particle digital autoradiography imager, the ionizing-radiation quantum imaging detector (iQID) camera, for use in α-RIT experiments. The iQID camera is a scintillator-based radiation detection system that images and identifies charged-particle and gamma-ray/x-ray emissions spatially and temporally on an event-by-event basis. It employs CCD-CMOS cameras and high-performance computing hardware for real-time imaging and activity quantification of tissue sections, approaching cellular resolutions. In this work, the authors evaluated its characteristics for α-particle imaging, including measurements of intrinsic detector spatial resolutions and background count rates at various detector configurations and quantification of activity distributions. The technique was assessed for quantitative imaging of astatine-211 ((211)At) activity distributions in cryosections of murine and canine tissue samples. The highest spatial resolution was measured at ∼20 μm full width at half maximum and the α-particle background was measured at a rate as low as (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10(-4) cpm/cm(2) (40 mm diameter detector area). Simultaneous imaging of multiple tissue sections was

  17. Breast Tumor Detection and Treatment Using Tarvacin Labeled with Arsenic Radionuclides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    IVRT), or radio-immunotherapy (RIT). This radionuclide can be produced from natural germanium in nuclear reactors through the neutron induced nuclear... ra ts. When primary tumors reach 1 cm diameter 74As-SATA-Tarvacin will be adm inistered IV and biodistribution assessed in vivo using PET after 24...changes for the irradiation will be as follows. Production of ± 37 GBq of 74As by natGe(α,x)74As reaction. Estimated beam time 1 hour at 15μΑ on

  18. A System Approach to Adaptive Multi-Modal Sensor Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    afosr.af.mil> Prepared for Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Award FA9550-08-1-0199 February 2010 The City College of New York...York, NY 10031 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Dr. Douglas Cochran AFOSR Air ...RIT. We would also like to thank Dr. Erik Blasch at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RYAA) for his collaboration when our PhD student Mr

  19. Studies of Millimeter-Wave Diffraction Devices and Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-28

    7.0 REFERENCES 1. Andrenko, S . d., Devyatkov, Acad. N. D., and Shestopalov, V. P., "Millimeter Field Band Antenna Arrays", Dokl. Akad. 4auk SSSR, Vol... S UNCLASSTFIED I* .RIT.Y CL.ASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE :kFPOO- SEURITY CLASSIFICATION 1-b. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS .EM...State and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDIN.G NOS. ______ C)c \\~ S PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT 2~~V \\~ ~(~ELEMENT NO. NO. No. NO. ATEinciude Security

  20. Powerful Oxidizing Agents for the Oxidative Deintercalation of Lithium from Transition Metal Oxides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-16

    22217 11 TITLE dnrcluae Sec’.r/ 2 ’als.rit,catC Powerful Oxidizing Agents for the Oxidative Deintercalation of Lithium from Transition Metal Oxides...0 d dlentity by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB GROUP Oxidizing Agents, Lithium Oxides I - Deintercalation 19 AbS*RA?, trne on-tsxes~e it necessary...anid enit’y oy 010ck .1Uf~oer. N02+ andMoF6 are shown to be powerful oxidizing agents for the deintercalation of lithium from Li~oO2 an 62Ct . The

  1. Contribution of the backstreaming ions to the self-magnetic pinch (SMP) diode current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarakis, Michael G.; Bennett, Nichelle; Cuneo, Michael E.; Fournier, Sean D.; Johnston, Mark D.; Kiefer, Mark L.; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Nielsen, Dan S.; Oliver, Bryan V.; Sceiford, Matthew E.; Simpson, Sean C.; Renk, Timothy J.; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Webb, Timothy J.; Ziska, Derek; Droemer, Darryl W.; Gignac, Raymond E.; Obregon, Robert J.; Wilkins, Frank L.; Welch, Dale R.

    2018-04-01

    The results presented here were obtained with a self-magnetic pinch (SMP) diode mounted at the front high voltage end of the RITS accelerator. RITS is a Self-Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line (MITL) voltage adder that adds the voltage pulse of six 1.3 MV inductively insulated cavities. The RITS driver together with the SMP diode has produced x-ray spots of the order of 1 mm in diameter and doses adequate for the radiographic imaging of high area density objects. Although, through the years, a number of different types of radiographic electron diodes have been utilized with SABER, HERMES III and RITS accelerators, the SMP diode appears to be the most successful and simplest diode for the radiographic investigation of various objects. Our experiments had two objectives: first to measure the contribution of the back-streaming ion currents emitted from the anode target and second to try to evaluate the energy of those ions and hence the Anode-Cathode (A-K) gap actual voltage. In any very high voltage inductive voltage adder utilizing MITLs to transmit the power to the diode load, the precise knowledge of the accelerating voltage applied on the A-K gap is problematic. This is even more difficult in an SMP diode where the A-K gap is very small (˜1 cm) and the diode region very hostile. The accelerating voltage quoted in the literature is from estimates based on the measurements of the anode and cathode currents of the MITL far upstream from the diode and utilizing the para-potential flow theories and inductive corrections. Thus, it would be interesting to have another independent measurement to evaluate the A-K voltage. The diode's anode is made of a number of high-Z metals in order to produce copious and energetic flash x-rays. It was established experimentally that the back-streaming ion currents are a strong function of the anode materials and their stage of cleanness. We have measured the back-streaming ion currents emitted from the anode and propagating

  2. Advanced On-The-Job Training System: User’s Handbook (Sections 10-11). Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    leWd 4. idsodity a ne bety position Quit This Plan Select Option: Z (i)d4L.-tti irman Ifrom List, ()nter Specific S, (q)uit ? I 10-2.-4 0 The AOTS...Print SUperviaima List q. Rit This Plans Select Option: S 10-44 STEP 6: SELECT THE SUPERVISION LIST OPTION. Enter 5 and press 3RETU 30 D RA FT AOTS...training is accomplished by the trainee completing an on-line CAI lesson , while for other tasks, knowledge training is accomplished off line by the trainee

  3. A phase II study of radioimmunotherapy with intraventricular 131 I-3F8 for medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Kim; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Humm, John L; Zanzonico, Pat B; Haque, Sofia; Dunkel, Ira J; Wolden, Suzanne L; Donzelli, Maria; Goldman, Debra A; Lewis, Jason S; Lyashchenko, Serge K; Khakoo, Yasmin; Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Souweidane, Mark M; Greenfield, Jeffrey P; Lyden, David; De Braganca, Kevin D; Gilheeney, Stephen W; Larson, Steven M; Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2018-01-01

    High-risk and recurrent medulloblastoma (MB) is associated with significant mortality. The murine monoclonal antibody 3F8 targets the cell-surface disialoganglioside GD2 on MB. We tested the efficacy, toxicity, and dosimetry of compartmental radioimmunotherapy (cRIT) with intraventricular 131 I-labeled 3F8 in patients with MB on a phase II clinical trial. Patients with histopathologically confirmed high-risk or recurrent MB were eligible for cRIT. After determining adequate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow, patients received 2 mCi (where Ci is Curie) 124 I-3F8 or 131 I-3F8 with nuclear imaging for dosimetry, followed by up to four therapeutic (10 mCi/dose) 131 I-3F8 injections. Dosimetry estimates were based on serial CSF and blood samplings over 48 hr plus region-of-interest analyses on serial imaging scans. Disease evaluation included pre- and posttherapy brain/spine magnetic resonance imaging approximately every 3 months for the first year after treatment, and every 6-12 months thereafter. Forty-three patients received a total of 167 injections; 42 patients were evaluable for outcome. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Toxicities related to drug administration included acute bradycardia with somnolence, headache, fatigue, and CSF pleocytosis consistent with chemical meningitis and dystonic reaction. Total CSF absorbed dose was 1,453 cGy (where Gy is Gray; 350.0-2,784). Median overall survival from first dose of cRIT was 24.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI]:16.3-55.8). Patients treated in radiographic and cytologic remission were at a lower risk of death compared to patients with radiographically measurable disease (hazard ratio: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.18-0.88, P = 0.024). cRIT with 131 I-3F8 is safe, has favorable dosimetry to CSF, and when added to salvage therapy using conventional modalities, may have clinical utility in maintaining remission in high-risk or recurrent MB. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Two-year antibody persistence in children vaccinated at 12-15 months with a measles-mumps-rubella virus vaccine without human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Berry, Andrea A; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Diaz-Perez, Clemente; Mufson, Maurice A; Harrison, Christopher J; Leonardi, Michael; Twiggs, Jerry D; Peltier, Christopher; Grogg, Stanley; Carbayo, Antonio; Shapiro, Steven; Povey, Michael; Baccarini, Carmen; Innis, Bruce L; Henry, Ouzama

    2017-07-03

    One combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine without Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is currently licensed in the USA (M-M-R II; Merck, USA) and another has been developed (Priorix™ [MMR-RIT, GSK, Belgium]). In this follow-up study, children from USA or Puerto Rico, who had received one dose of M-M-R II or MMR-RIT at 12-15 months of age in the primary study (NCT00861744), were followed-up for 2 y post-vaccination. Anti-measles and anti-rubella antibodies were measured using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and anti-mumps antibodies using ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) assays. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded during the entire follow-up. The according-to-protocol (ATP) persistence cohort included 752 children (M-M-R II = 186, MMR-RIT = 566), who received primary vaccination at a mean age of 12.3 ( ± 0.67) months. 104 children were revaccinated with MMR-containing vaccines; therefore, serology results for timepoints after revaccination were excluded from the analysis. Seropositivity for measles (Year 1≥ 98.3%; Year 2≥ 99.4%) and rubella (Year 1≥ 98.9%; Year 2 = 100%) remained as high at Year 2 as at Day 42. Similarly, seropositivity for mumps determined by ELISA (Year 1≥ 90.1%; Year 2≥ 94.1%) and PRN assays (Year 1≥ 87.5%; Year 2≥ 91.7%) persisted. Thirty-three SAEs were recorded in 23 children; 2 SAEs (inguinal adenitis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura) and one SAE (febrile convulsion) were considered as potentially related to MMR-RIT and M-M-R II, respectively. This study showed that antibodies against measles, mumps and rubella persisted for up to 2 y post-vaccination with either MMR vaccine in children aged 12-15 months, and that both vaccines were well-tolerated during the follow-up period.

  5. α-Imaging Confirmed Efficient Targeting of CD₄₅-Positive Cells After ²¹¹At-Radioimmunotherapy for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    SciT

    Frost, Sophia; Miller, Brian W.; Back, Tom

    Alpha-radioimmunotherapy (α-RIT) targeting CD45 may substitute for total body irradiation in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) preparative regimens for lymphoma. Our goal was to optimize the anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody (MAb; CA12.10C12) protein dose for astatine-²¹¹(²¹¹At)-RIT, extending the analysis to include intra-organ ²¹¹At activity distribution and α-imaging-based small-scale dosimetry, along with imunohistochemical staining. Methods: Eight normal dogs were injected with either 0.75 (n=5) or 1.00 mg/kg (n=3) of ²¹¹At-B10-CA12.10C12 (11.5–27.6 MBq/kg). Two were euthanized and necropsied 19–22 hours postinjection (p.i.), and six received autologous HCT three days after ²¹¹At-RIT, following lymph node and bone marrow biopsies at 2–4 and/or 19 hours p.i.more » Blood was sampled to study toxicity and clearance; CD45 targeting was evaluated by flow cytometry. ²¹¹At localization and small scale dosimetry were assessed using two α-imaging : α-camera and iQID. Results: Uptake of ²¹¹At was highest in spleen (0.31–0.61 %IA/g), lymph nodes (0.02–0.16 %IA/g), liver (0.11–0.12 %IA/g), and marrow (0.06–0.08 %IA/g). Lymphocytes in blood and marrow were efficiently targeted using either MAb dose. Lymph nodes remained unsaturated, but displayed targeted ²¹¹At localization in T lymphocyte-rich areas. Absorbed doses to blood, marrow, and lymph nodes were estimated at 3.9, 3.0, and 4.2 Gy/210 MBq, respectively. All transplanted dogs experienced transient hepatic toxicity. Liver enzyme levels were temporarily elevated in 5 of 6 dogs; 1 treated with 1.00 mg MAb/kg developed ascites and was euthanized 136 days after HCT. Conclusion: ²¹¹At-anti-CD45 RIT with 0.75 mg MAb/kg efficiently targeted blood and marrow without severe toxicity. Dosimetry calculations and observed radiation-induced effects indicated that sufficient ²¹¹At-B10-CA12.10C12 localization was achieved for efficient conditioning for HCT.« less

  6. Military Off-the-Shelf: A Discussion on Combat Ship Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Layton ...S+ + ‘C le an S he et ’ In te rio r/ e xt er io r d es ig n id en tic al N ea r- id en tic al d es ig n / m in or m od s Si m...ila rit y in d es ig n bu t w ith U ni qu e de si gn a nd to le ad sh ip a to e xt er na l s tru ct ur e , in te rn al sy

  7. Tumor and red bone marrow dosimetry: comparison of methods for prospective treatment planning in pretargeted radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Woliner-van der Weg, Wietske; Schoffelen, Rafke; Hobbs, Robert F; Gotthardt, Martin; Goldenberg, David M; Sharkey, Robert M; Slump, Cornelis H; van der Graaf, Winette Ta; Oyen, Wim Jg; Boerman, Otto C; Sgouros, George; Visser, Eric P

    2015-12-01

    Red bone marrow (RBM) toxicity is dose-limiting in (pretargeted) radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Previous blood-based and two-dimensional (2D) image-based methods have failed to show a clear dose-response relationship. We developed a three-dimensional (3D) image-based RBM dosimetry approach using the Monte Carlo-based 3D radiobiological dosimetry (3D-RD) software and determined its additional value for predicting RBM toxicity. RBM doses were calculated for 13 colorectal cancer patients after pretargeted RIT with the two-step administration of an anti-CEA × anti-HSG bispecific monoclonal antibody and a (177)Lu-labeled di-HSG-peptide. 3D-RD RBM dosimetry was based on the lumbar vertebrae, delineated on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans acquired directly, 3, 24, and 72 h after (177)Lu administration. RBM doses were correlated to hematologic effects, according to NCI-CTC v3 and compared with conventional 2D cranium-based and blood-based dosimetry results. Tumor doses were calculated with 3D-RD, which has not been possible with 2D dosimetry. Tumor-to-RBM dose ratios were calculated and compared for (177)Lu-based pretargeted RIT and simulated pretargeted RIT with (90)Y. 3D-RD RBM doses of all seven patients who developed thrombocytopenia were higher (range 0.43 to 0.97 Gy) than that of the six patients without thrombocytopenia (range 0.12 to 0.39 Gy), except in one patient (0.47 Gy) without thrombocytopenia but with grade 2 leucopenia. Blood and 2D image-based RBM doses for patients with grade 1 to 2 thrombocytopenia were in the same range as in patients without thrombocytopenia (0.14 to 0.29 and 0.11 to 0.26 Gy, respectively). Blood-based RBM doses for two grade 3 to 4 patients were higher (0.66 and 0.51 Gy, respectively) than the others, and the cranium-based dose of only the grade 4 patient was higher (0.34 Gy). Tumor-to-RBM dose ratios would increase by 25% on average when treating with (90)Y instead of (177)Lu. 3D dosimetry identifies

  8. Quadrupole ion traps and trap arrays: geometry, material, scale, performance.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Z; Gao, L; Fico, M; Chappell, W J; Noll, R J; Cooks, R G

    2007-01-01

    Quadrupole ion traps are reviewed, emphasizing recent developments, especially the investigation of new geometries, guided by multiple particle simulations such as the ITSIM program. These geometries include linear ion traps (LITs) and the simplified rectilinear ion trap (RIT). Various methods of fabrication are described, including the use of rapid prototyping apparatus (RPA), in which 3D objects are generated through point-by-point laser polymerization. Fabrication in silicon using multilayer semi-conductor fabrication techniques has been used to construct arrays of micro-traps. The performance of instruments containing individual traps as well as arrays of traps of various sizes and geometries is reviewed. Two types of array are differentiated. In the first type, trap arrays constitute fully multiplexed mass spectrometers in which multiple samples are examined using multiple sources, analyzers and detectors, to achieve high throughput analysis. In the second, an array of individual traps acts collectively as a composite trap to increase trapping capacity and performance for a single sample. Much progress has been made in building miniaturized mass spectrometers; a specific example is a 10 kg hand-held tandem mass spectrometer based on the RIT mass analyzer. The performance of this instrument in air and water analysis, using membrane sampling, is described.

  9. Comparison of normal tissue pharmacokinetics with {sup 111}In/{sup 9}Y monoclonal antibody m170 for breast and prostate cancer

    SciT

    Lehmann, Joerg; Department of Radiodiagnosis and Therapy, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA; DeNardo, Gerald L.

    Purpose: Radioactivity deposition in normal tissues limits the dose deliverable by radiopharmaceuticals (RP) in radioimmunotherapy (RIT). This study investigated the absorbed radiation dose in normal tissues for prostate cancer patients in comparison to breast cancer patients for 2 RPs using the monoclonal antibody (MAb) m170. Methods and Materials: {sup 111}In-DOTA-glycylglycylglycyl-L-p-isothiocyanatophenylalanine amide (GGGF)-m170 and {sup 111}In-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) 2-iminothiolane (2IT)-m170, representing the same MAb and chelate with and without a cleavable linkage, were studied in 13 breast cancer and 26 prostate cancer patients. Dosimetry for {sup 9}Y was calculated using {sup 111}In MAb pharmacokinetics from the initial imaging study for eachmore » patient, using reference man- and patient-specific masses. Results: The reference man-specific radiation doses (cGy/MBq) were not significantly different for the breast and the prostate cancer patients for both RPs in all but one tissue-RP combination (liver, DOTA-2IT). The patient-specific doses had differences between the groups most of which can be related to weight differences. Conclusions: Similar normal tissue doses were calculated for two groups of patients having different cancers and genders. This similarity combined with continued careful analysis of the imaging data might allow the use of higher starting doses in early phase RIT studies.« less

  10. Iodine-131-labeled, transferrin-capped polypyrrole nanoparticles for tumor-targeted synergistic photothermal-radioisotope therapy.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuejiao; Liang, Chao; Feng, Liangzhu; Yang, Kai; Liu, Zhuang

    2017-08-22

    Combining different therapeutic functions within single tumor-targeted nanoscale delivery systems is promising to overcome the limitations of conventional cancer therapies. Herein, transferrin that recognizes transferrin receptors up-regulated on tumor cells is pre-labeled with iodine-131 ( 131 I) and then utilized as the stabilizer in the fabrication of polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles. The obtained transferrin-capped PPy@Tf- 131 I nanoparticles could be used for tumor-targeted radioisotope therapy (RIT) and photothermal therapy (PTT), by employing beta-emission from 131 I and the intrinsic high near-infrared (NIR) absorbance of PPy, respectively. Owing to the transferrin-mediated tumor targeting, PPy@Tf- 131 I nanoparticles exhibit obviously enhanced in vitro cancer cell binding and in vivo tumor uptake compared to its non-targeting counterpart. The combined RIT and PTT based on PPy@Tf- 131 I nanoparticles is then conducted, achieving a remarkable synergistic therapeutic effect. This work thus demonstrates a rather simple one-step approach to fabricate tumor-targeting nanoparticles based on protein-capped conjugated polymers, promising for combination cancer therapy with great efficacy and high safety.

  11. Detection of activity similar to that of early pregnancy factor after mating sows with a vasectomized boar.

    PubMed

    Koch, E; Ellendorff, F

    1985-05-01

    Incubation of normal pig lymphocytes in serum samples collected from 10 sows immediately before, and at daily intervals after mating with a vasectomized boar significantly elevated the rosette inhibition titre (RIT) of a standard antilymphocyte serum in 6 animals on the first but not on the 2nd and 3rd day after copulation. Infusion of seminal plasma without mating into 5 sows induced an obvious, but not statistically significant, transient rise of titres in 3 pigs. Neither sodium chloride infusion (N = 5), nor sham copulation with diverted penis (N = 5) influenced serum RITs. Porcine seminal plasma showed an inherent rosette-inhibiting property. A depression of rosette formation was evident in a concentration-dependent fashion up to a dilution of 1 in 320. Similarly, preincubation of lymphocytes in serial dilutions of seminal plasma in a non-pregnancy serum sample led to an amplification of the rosette inhibiting capacity of the antilymphocyte serum. Non-specific activation of the eggs to release a signal which induces the production of early pregnancy factor (EPF) or the resorption of seminal plasma components into the blood circulation are considered as possible explanations for the EPF-like activity after mating with a vasectomized boar.

  12. Rochester area interactive telecommunications network (RAITN): A partnership in Rochester between educators and industry

    SciT

    O`Leary, C.T.

    Primarily funded by Rochester Telephone Corporation, the RAITN system connects five area high schools, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), and State University of New York at Brockport. Monroe No. 1 Board of Cooperative Educational Services coordinates the interactive programming which may originate from any of the sites. Course offerings on the network range from full credit college courses to high schools sharing unique classes to increase each partners` breadth of educational options. Special events dealing with a variety of interest areas such as teen health issues, professional development, guest speakers and political leaders, and multicultural diversity topics fill out themore » schedule of interactive programming. {open_quotes}Electronic field trips{close_quotes} allow students and staff to {open_quotes}virtually attend{close_quotes} seminars, science fairs, and teleconferences held at RIT without leaving their schools. Internet connectivity and a new group of high school, university and industry partners are the next additions to the network.« less

  13. Congenital syphilis in neonates with nonreactive nontreponemal test results.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, P S; Cantey, J B; Zeray, F; Leos, N K; Sheffield, J S; Wendel, G D; Sánchez, P J

    2017-10-01

    Infants whose mothers had syphilis during pregnancy were studied to determine how often exposed newborns with normal physical examinations and nonreactive nontreponemal serologic tests had abnormal laboratory or radiographic studies. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from infants born to mothers with syphilis and had a normal examination and a nonreactive nontreponemal test. Some infants had IgM immunoblotting, PCR testing or rabbit infectivity testing (RIT) performed. From 1984 to 2002, 115 infants had a nonreactive serum Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL)/rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test and a normal physical examination at birth. Among 87 infants born to mothers who had untreated syphilis, 4 had a positive serum IgM immunoblot or PCR test, but none had spirochetes recovered by RIT. Two infants had anemia, one had an elevated serum alanine aminotransferase concentration and one with Down's syndrome had direct hyperbilirubinemia. Among 14 infants born to mothers treated <4 weeks before delivery, none had abnormal laboratory or radiographic tests, although 1 of 11 had a reactive serum IgM immunoblot. Among 14 infants born to mothers treated ⩾4 weeks before delivery, none had abnormal laboratory or radiographic tests. Newborns with normal physical examination and nonreactive nontreponemal test results are unlikely to have abnormalities detected on conventional laboratory and radiographic testing.

  14. Effect of ultra-high pressure homogenization on the interaction between bovine casein micelles and ritonavir.

    PubMed

    Corzo-Martínez, M; Mohan, M; Dunlap, J; Harte, F

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a milk-based powder formulation appropriate for pediatric delivery of ritonavir (RIT). Ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH) at 0.1, 300 and 500 MPa was used to process a dispersion of pasteurized skim milk (SM) and ritonavir. Loading efficiency was determined by RP-HPLC-UV; characterization of RIT:SM systems was carried out by apparent average hydrodynamic diameter and rheological measurements as well as different analytical techniques including Trp fluorescence, UV spectroscopy, DSC, FTIR and SEM; and delivery capacity of casein micelles was determined by in vitro experiments promoting ritonavir release. Ritonavir interacted efficiently with milk proteins, especially, casein micelles, regardless of the processing pressure; however, results suggest that, at 0.1 MPa, ritonavir interacts with caseins at the micellar surface, whilst, at 300 and 500 MPa, ritonavir is integrated to the protein matrix during UHPH treatment. Likewise, in vitro experiments showed that ritonavir release from micellar casein systems is pH dependent; with a high retention of ritonavir during simulated gastric digestion and a rapid delivery under conditions simulating the small intestine environment. Skim milk powder, especially, casein micelles are potentially suitable and efficient carrier systems to develop novel milk-based and low-ethanol powder formulations of ritonavir appropriate for pediatric applications.

  15. Relational identity theory: a systematic approach for transforming the emotional dimension of conflict.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Daniel L

    2010-10-01

    Emotions are a vital dimension in conflicts among nation-states and communities affiliated by common ethnic, economic, or political interests. Yet the individuals most responsible for managing such conflicts--heads of state, CEOs, intellectual or religious leaders--are often blind to the psychological forces affecting their interests. During 20 years of international research, consulting, and teaching, I have developed a program for teaching thought leaders how to apply psychological principles to achieve their aims while also reducing negative outcomes such as violence, social upheaval, and economic displacement. In this article, I present relational identity theory (RIT), a theoretical and intellectual framework I have originated to help people understand and deal with key emotional dimensions of conflict management. I argue that national and communal bonds are essentially tribal in nature, and I describe how a tribe's unaddressed relational identity concerns make it susceptible to what I term the tribes effect, a rigidification of its relational identity. I provide strategies based on RIT for mitigating the tribes effect and thus enhancing global security. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Nonlinear dynamic systems identification using recurrent interval type-2 TSK fuzzy neural network - A novel structure.

    PubMed

    El-Nagar, Ahmad M

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a novel structure of a recurrent interval type-2 Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy neural network (FNN) is introduced for nonlinear dynamic and time-varying systems identification. It combines the type-2 fuzzy sets (T2FSs) and a recurrent FNN to avoid the data uncertainties. The fuzzy firing strengths in the proposed structure are returned to the network input as internal variables. The interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2FSs) is used to describe the antecedent part for each rule while the consequent part is a TSK-type, which is a linear function of the internal variables and the external inputs with interval weights. All the type-2 fuzzy rules for the proposed RIT2TSKFNN are learned on-line based on structure and parameter learning, which are performed using the type-2 fuzzy clustering. The antecedent and consequent parameters of the proposed RIT2TSKFNN are updated based on the Lyapunov function to achieve network stability. The obtained results indicate that our proposed network has a small root mean square error (RMSE) and a small integral of square error (ISE) with a small number of rules and a small computation time compared with other type-2 FNNs. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring Plasma Formation Field Strength and Current Loss in Pulsed Power Diodes

    SciT

    Johnston, Mark D.; Patel, Sonal G.; Falcon, Ross Edward

    This LDRD investigated plasma formation, field strength, and current loss in pulsed power diodes. In particular the Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) e-beam diode was studied on the RITS-6 accelerator. Magnetic fields of a few Tesla and electric fields of several MV/cm were measured using visible spectroscopy techniques. The magnetic field measurements were then used to determine the current distribution in the diode. This distribution showed that significant beam current extends radially beyond the few millimeter x-ray focal spot diameter. Additionally, shielding of the magnetic field due to dense electrode surface plasmas was observed, quantified, and found to be consistent with themore » calculated Spitzer resistivity. In addition to the work on RITS, measurements were also made on the Z-machine looking to quantify plasmas within the power flow regions. Measurements were taken in the post-hole convolute and final feed gap regions on Z. Dopants were applied to power flow surfaces and measured spectroscopically. These measurements gave species and density/temperature estimates. Preliminary B-field measurements in the load region were attempted as well. Finally, simulation work using the EMPHASIS, electromagnetic particle in cell code, was conducted using the Z MITL conditions. The purpose of these simulations was to investigate several surface plasma generations models under Z conditions for comparison with experimental data.« less

  18. Back-streaming ion beam measurements in a Self Magnetic Insulated (SMP) electron diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarakis, Michael; Johnston, Mark; Kiefer, Mark; Leckbee, Josh; Webb, Timothy; Bennett, Nichelle; Droemer, Darryl; Welch, Dale; Nielsen, Dan; Ziska, Derek; Wilkins, Frank; Advance radiography department Team

    2014-10-01

    A self-magnetic pinch diode (SMP) is presently the electron diode of choice for high energy flash x-ray radiography utilizing pulsed power drivers. The Sandia National Laboratories RITS accelerator is presently fit with an SMP diode that generates very small electron beam spots. RITS is a Self-Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line (MITL) voltage adder that adds the voltage pulse of six 1.3 MV inductively insulated cavities. The diode's anode is made of high Z metal in order to produce copious and energetic flash x-rays for radiographic imaging of high areal density objects. In any high voltage inductive voltage adder (IVA) utilizing MITLs to transmit the power to the diode load, the precise knowledge of the accelerating voltage applied on the anode-cathode (A-K) gap is problematic. This is even more difficult in an SMP diode where the A-K gap is very small (~1 cm) and the diode region very hostile. We are currently measuring the back-streaming ion currents emitted from the anode and propagating through a hollow cathode tip. We then are evaluating the A-K gap voltage by ion time of flight measurements supplemented with filtered Rogowski coils. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE- AC04-94AL850.

  19. EFFECT OF ULTRA-HIGH PRESSURE HOMOGENIZATION ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN BOVINE CASEIN MICELLES AND RITONAVIR

    PubMed Central

    Corzo-Martínez, M.; Mohan, M.; Dunlap, J.; Harte, F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this work was to develop a milk-based powder formulation appropriate for pediatric delivery of ritonavir (RIT). Methods Ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH) at 0.1, 300 and 500 MPa was used to process a dispersion of pasteurized skim milk (SM) and ritonavir. Loading efficiency was determined by RP-HPLC-UV; characterization of RIT:SM systems was carried out by apparent average hydrodynamic diameter and rheological measurements as well as different analytical techniques including Trp fluorescence, UV spectroscopy, DSC, FTIR and SEM; and delivery capacity of casein micelles was determined by in vitro experiments promoting ritonavir release. Results Ritonavir interacted efficiently with milk proteins, especially, casein micelles, regardless of the processing pressure; however, results suggest that, at 0.1 MPa, ritonavir interacts with caseins at the micellar surface, whilst, at 300 and 500 MPa, ritonavir is integrated to the protein matrix during UHPH treatment. Likewise, in vitro experiments showed that ritonavir release from micellar casein systems is pH dependent; with a high retention of ritonavir during simulated gastric digestion and a rapid delivery under conditions simulating the small intestine environment. Conclusions Skim milk powder, especially, casein micelles are potentially suitable and efficient carrier systems to develop novel milk-based and low-ethanol powder formulations of ritonavir appropriate for pediatric applications. PMID:25270571

  20. DNA-RNA hybrid formation mediates RNAi-directed heterochromatin formation.

    PubMed

    Nakama, Mina; Kawakami, Kei; Kajitani, Takuya; Urano, Takeshi; Murakami, Yota

    2012-03-01

    Certain noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) implicated in the regulation of chromatin structure associate with chromatin. During the formation of RNAi-directed heterochromatin in fission yeast, ncRNAs transcribed from heterochromatin are thought to recruit the RNAi machinery to chromatin for the formation of heterochromatin; however, the molecular details of this association are not clear. Here, using RNA immunoprecipitation assay, we showed that the heterochromatic ncRNA was associated with chromatin via the formation of a DNA-RNA hybrid and bound to the RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complex. The presence of DNA-RNA hybrid in the cell was also confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis using anti-DNA-RNA hybrid antibody. Over-expression and depletion of RNase H in vivo decreased and increased the amount of DNA-RNA hybrid formed, respectively, and both disturbed heterochromatin. Moreover, DNA-RNA hybrid was formed on, and over-expression of RNase H inhibited the formation of, artificial heterochromatin induced by tethering of RITS to mRNA. These results indicate that heterochromatic ncRNAs are retained on chromatin via the formation of DNA-RNA hybrids and provide a platform for the RNAi-directed heterochromatin assembly and suggest that DNA-RNA hybrid formation plays a role in chromatic ncRNA function. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Developing a Vacuum Electrospray Source To Implement Efficient Atmospheric Sampling for Miniature Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Quan; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Xinqiong; Qian, Xiang; Ni, Kai; Wang, Xiaohao

    2017-12-05

    The performance of a miniature mass spectrometer in atmospheric analysis is closely related to the design of its sampling system. In this study, a simplified vacuum electrospray ionization (VESI) source was developed based on a combination of several techniques, including the discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface, direct capillary sampling, and pneumatic-assisted electrospray. Pulsed air was used as a vital factor to facilitate the operation of electrospray ionization in the vacuum chamber. This VESI device can be used as an efficient atmospheric sampling interface when coupled with a miniature rectilinear ion trap (RIT) mass spectrometer. The developed VESI-RIT instrument enables regular ESI analysis of liquid, and its qualitative and quantitative capabilities have been characterized by using various solution samples. A limit of detection of 8 ppb could be attained for arginine in a methanol solution. In addition, extractive electrospray ionization of organic compounds can be implemented by using the same VESI device, as long as the gas analytes are injected with the pulsed auxiliary air. This methodology can extend the use of the proposed VESI technique to rapid and online analysis of gaseous and volatile samples.

  2. Performance of an iodine-fueled radio-frequency ion-thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holste, Kristof; Gärtner, Waldemar; Zschätzsch, Daniel; Scharmann, Steffen; Köhler, Peter; Dietz, Patrick; Klar, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Two sets of performance data of the same radio-frequency ion-thruster (RIT) have been recorded using iodine and xenon, respectively, as propellant. To characterize the thruster's performance, we have recorded the radio-frequency DC-power, required for yielding preset values of the extracted ion-beam currents, as a function of mass flow. For that purpose, an iodine mass flow system had to be developed, calibrated, and integrated into a newly-built test facility for studying corrosive propellants. The performance mappings for iodine and xenon differ significantly despite comparable operation conditions. At low mass flows, iodine exhibits the better performance. The situation changes at higher mass flows where the performance of iodine is significantly poorer than that of xenon. The reason is very likely related to the molecular nature of iodine. Our results show that iodine as propellant is compatible with RIT technology. Furthermore, it is a viable alternative as propellant for dedicated space missions. In particular, when taking into account additional benefits such as possible storage as a solid and its low price the use of iodine as propellant in ion thrusters is competitive.

  3. Coupled turbulence and aerosol dynamics modeling of vehicle exhaust plumes using the CTAG model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan Jason; Zhang, K. Max

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents the development and evaluation of an environmental turbulent reacting flow model, the Comprehensive Turbulent Aerosol Dynamics and Gas Chemistry (CTAG) model. CTAG is designed to simulate transport and transformation of multiple air pollutants, e.g., from emission sources to ambient background. For the on-road and near-road applications, CTAG explicitly couples the major turbulent mixing processes, i.e., vehicle-induced turbulence (VIT), road-induced turbulence (RIT) and atmospheric boundary layer turbulence with gas-phase chemistry and aerosol dynamics. CTAG's transport model is referred to as CFD-VIT-RIT. This paper presents the evaluation of the CTAG model in simulating the dynamics of individual plumes in the “tailpipe-to-road” stage, i.e., VIT behind a moving van and aerosol dynamics in the wake of a diesel car by comparing the modeling results against the respective field measurements. Combined with sensitivity studies, we analyze the relative roles of VIT, sulfuric acid induced nucleation, condensation of organic compounds and presence of soot-mode particles in capturing the dynamics of exhaust plumes as well as their implications in vehicle emission controls.

  4. Management of fear of radiation exposure in carers of outpatients treated with iodine-131.

    PubMed

    Calais, Phillipe J; Page, Andrew C; Turner, J Harvey

    2012-07-01

    To characterise potential fear of radiation exposure in a normal population of individuals who have volunteered to care for a radioactive family member or friend after outpatient radioimmunotherapy (RIT) treatment for cancer, and obtain their knowing and willing acceptance of the risk. Over 750 carers of 300 patients confined to their homes for 1 week following outpatient iodine-131 rituximab RIT of lymphoma were interviewed by a nuclear medicine physicist according to a multi-visit integrated protocol designed to minimise radiation exposure, define risk and gain informed consent. Median radiation exposure of carers was 0.49 mSv (range 0.01-3.7 mSv) which is below the Western Australian regulatory limit of 5 mSv for consenting adult carers of radioactive patients. After signing a declaration of consent, only 2 carers of 750 abrogated their responsibility and none of those who carried out their duties expressed residual concerns at the end of the exit interview with respect to their radiation exposure. Fear of radiation exposure in a normal population may be characterised as a normal emotional response. In the special case of carers of radioactive patients, this fear may be successfully managed by rational, authoritative and empathic explanation to define the risk and gain willing acceptance within the context of domiciliary patient care.

  5. Charge Photogeneration Experiments and Theory in Aggregated Squaraine Donor Materials for Improved Organic Solar Cell Efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Susan Demetra

    Fossil fuel consumption has a deleterious effect on humans, the economy, and the environment. Renewable energy technologies must be identified and commercialized as quickly as possible so that the transition to renewables can happen at a minimum of financial and societal cost. Organic photovoltaic cells offer an inexpensive and disruptive energy technology, if the scientific challenges of understanding charge photogeneration in a bulk heterojunction material can be overcome. At RIT, there is a strong focus on creating new materials that can both offer fundamentally important scientific results relating to quantum photophysics, and simultaneously assist in the development of strong candidates for future commercialized technology. In this presentation, the results of intensive materials characterization of a series of squaraine small molecule donors will be presented, as well as a full study of the fabrication and optimization required to achieve >4% photovoltaic cell efficiency. A relationship between the molecular structure of the squaraine and its ability to form nanoscale aggregates will be explored. Squaraine aggregation will be described as a unique optoelectronic probe of the structure of the bulk heterojunction. This relationship will then be utilized to explain changes in crystallinity that impact the overall performance of the devices. Finally, a predictive summary will be given for the future of donor material research at RIT.

  6. Investigation of the effect of physical parameters on the design of tumour targeting agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Joanne Lois

    Tumour targeting using radiolabelled antibodies for radioimmunodetection (RAID) and radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has been studied for many years. The main factors that have limited clinical success are low tumour uptake, immunogenicity and poor therapeutic ratios. This thesis has applied current technology to make advances in this area of research. The effect of physical parameters (antibody size, valency, affinity and charge) on the design of tumour targeting agents was studied by constructing divalent (DFM) and trivalent (TFM) forms of the murine anti-CEA antibody A5B7 Fab' by chemical cross-linking. This involves partial reduction of the hinge disulphides to expose thiol (-SH) groups and subsequent reaction with a maleimide cross-linker to form a thioether bond at the hinge region. Previous studies have suggested that the stability of thioether bonds is superior to naturally occurring disulphide bonds present at the hinge region of IgG and F(ab')2. The aim was to compare the functional affinities and in vivo tumour targeting in nude mice bearing human tumour xenografts of DFM and TFM to similar sized parent IgG and F(ab')2. Radiolabelling with 131I and 90Y was also compared with a view to determine which combination would be optimal for RIT. Results clearly demonstrated a significantly faster on-rate of DFM compared to all other antibody forms and estimated dosimetry analysis suggested that DFM would be the most suitable antibody form radiolabelled with 131I for RIT. Both F(ab')2 and DFM showed high kidney uptake levels on labelling with which is unacceptable for RIT. Despite the improved tumour: blood ratios for TFM, the increased estimated dose to normal tissues and lower therapeutic effect in RIT studies suggests that the most promising combination with the radionuclide appears to be IgG. A humanised version of A5B7 hFab' has been constructed previously in order to reduce its immunogenicity in man. The in vivo stability of hDFM proved to be superior to hF(ab')2

  7. Ein Konzept für den energieeffizienten Betrieb von Mobilfunknetzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, N.; von Hugo, D.

    2015-11-01

    Der flächendeckende Betrieb mehrerer Mobilfunknetze unterschiedlicher Technologie in einem Land sorgt aufgrund der ständigen Bereithaltung von Übertragungskapazität für Dienste mit zunehmend höherem Datenvolumenbedarf für einen erheblichen Energieverbrauch. Das Forschungsförderungsprojekt ComGreen hat sich zur Aufgabe gesetzt, durch lastadaptiven Betrieb und intelligente dynamische Rekonfiguration des Funkzugangsnetzes zur Energieeinsparung beizutragen. Konzept, Herausforderungen, ausgewählte Ergebnisse von Simulationen und prototypischem Betrieb werden ebenso wie typische Erwartungswerte des künftigen Energieverbrauchs im Mobilfunkbereich vorgestellt. Sowohl Berechnungen als auch Messungen zeigen, dass durch kontext-basierte dynamische Rekonfiguration von zellularen Funknetzen Energieeinsparungen im Bereich von 25-40 % ermöglicht werden.

  8. Biokompatible Implantate und Neuentwicklungen in der Gynäkologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Volker R.; Kiechle, Marion

    Für den Einsatz in der Gynäkologie stehen heute eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher, biokompatibler Materialien und Implantate zur Verfügung. Auf eine Auswahl soll hier näher eingegangen werden, die die verschiedenen Materialien und Bauweisen repräsentieren. So sind Brustimplantate seit fast vier Jahrzehnten im Gebrauch für die Brustvergrösserung und den Brustwiederaufbau. Material, Bauweisen und medizinische Aspekte einschliesslich der kontroversen Diskussion um Silikon werden im folgenden erläutert. Neuere Entwicklungen von Verhütungstechniken für permanente Sterilisation wie den Filshie ClipTM für transabdominalen und den STOPTM für intraluminalen Verschluss der Eileiter oder die intrauterin plazierte Hormonspirale MirenaTM für zeitlich begrenzte Verhütung werden beschrieben. Eine neue Perspektive zur Verhinderung postoperativer intraabdominaler Adhäsionen stellt Spray-GelTM, ein Zweikomponenten Hydrogel aus Polyethylenglykol, dar.

  9. Ein Kredit für Weihnachtsbaumkugeln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutsch, Sina

    Eine Mathematikerin aus dem DFG-Forschungszentrum Matheon arbeitet an Methoden zur dreidimensionalen Visualisierung. Sie hat die Geschäftsidee, Weihnachtsbaumkugeln mit bewegten Hologrammen herzustellen, die sich individuell gestalten lassen, und plant eine Existenzgründung. Aus einem öffentlichen Förderprogramm erhält sie ein günstiges Darlehen in Höhe von 50 000 Euro. Für die Startphase ihres Unternehmens benötigt sie jedoch den vierfachen Betrag.

  10. Acta Mechanica Sinica (Selected Articles),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-05

    done by an external force. In the 1930’s, Trefftz and Kappus [8 ] also applied this principle to derive the elastic buckling equation and stability...theorie der stabilitat des elastischen gleichgewichts, Zeit. fur Angew. Math. u Mech. B13 (1933), L... 160. 120 [8] Kappus , R., Zur elastizitats...strain relations and boundary condiiomns for the prebeckling fundamental path solution. As Kappus had done in 1939, a new variation 6* can be imposed m

  11. [Critical mass, explosive participation at the Max-Planck Institute about research of the living conditions of the scientific-technical world in Starnberg].

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Reviewers of the Max-Planck-Institut zur Erforschung der Lebensbedingungen der wissenschaftlich-technischen Welt (MPIL) did focus upon an abundance of vague reports of evaluative commissions, of benchmarking, of scientific modes. Thus it remained rather neglected, what staff actually had researched. An example: Progression and end of project AKR (Work-Consumption-Assessment) does display all kinds of related emotions at MPIL, and the sensitive guidance by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker.

  12. PubMed

    Schützenberger, Anne; Hammer, Georg Philipp

    2018-06-01

    Sanuki T et al. Long-term Evaluation of Type 2 Thyroplasty with Titanium Bridges for Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2017; 157: 80–84 JAPANISCHE ÄRZTE FüR HALS-, NASEN- UND OHRENHEILKUNDE SOWIE KOPF- UND HALSCHIRURGIE BERICHTETEN üBER STIMMLICHE LANGZEITERGEBNISSE NACH DURCHFüHRUNG EINER THYROPLASTIK TYP 2 ZUR BEHANDLUNG DER SPASMODISCHEN DYSPHONIE VOM ADDUKTOR TYP.

  13. Behavioral Issues in the Use of Interactive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-14

    communication. American Psychologist, 1971, 26, 949-961. Codd , E. F . Seven steps to rendezvous with the casual user. IBM Research Report, RI 1333. 1974. Conrad...Approved for public releasel distribution unlimited. F LL(I j i’ This ~Research wavs spotdi pr yteEnierons~ao _ 1Repr o seionrin who Zur ichati emte...natural language ( Codd , 1974). Behavioral work has shown that non-programmers could learn to use a laboratory query language in about 3 hours (Thomas

  14. Implications of the Khrgian-Mazin Distribution Function for Water Clouds and Distribution Consistencies With Aerosols and Rain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-06

    Preprints 14th Radar Meteorology Conf. Tucson, Amer. Meteor. Soc. 413-418. Findeisen , W. (1932) Measurement of the size and number of cloud drops for the...study of coagulation in non-homogeneous clouds. Gerl. Beitr. z Geophys. 35:295-340. Findeisen , W. (1938) Die kolloid-meteorologischen vorgtnge bei...der nieder-schlagsbildung. Meteor. Z. 55:12 1-135. Findeisen , W. (1939) Zur Frage der Regentropfenbildung in reinen Wasserwolken. Meteor. Z. 56:365-368

  15. The Concept of Comprehensive Security: A Distinctive Feature of a Shared Security Culture in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Sicherheitsbegriff, ed. Bundesakademie für Sicherheitspolitik (Hamburg: Mittler, 2001), 18. 92. Emil Kirchner and James Sperling , “The New Security Threats in...im 21. Jahrhundert - Keine allein militärische Aufgabe. Rede von Heidi Wegener, MdB, am 23.03.2006 im Marshall Center. www.marshallcenter.org/site...Wenger (Zürich: Forschungsstelle für Sicherheitspolitik, 2005), 11 217. Kurt R. Spillmann, " Von der bewaffneten Neutralität zur kooperativen

  16. Determination of Parameters for Development of a Physiologically Based Model for the Toxicokinetics of C(+)P(+)-Soman

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    In conducting research utilizing recombinant DNA technology , the investigator(s) adhered to current guidelines promulgated by the National...zur Rtickstandanalyse), saponin (BDH, Poole, UK), aluminium sulfate.16 H2 0 (BDH Analar, Ž 98%), sodium bicarbonate (Lamens en Indemans, ’s...isopropanol). The mixture was extracted with 3 ml ethyl acetate. Gas chromatographic analysis of the soman stereoisomers in the ethyl acetate phase was

  17. European Research Program on Viscous Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    hochviskoser Flassigkeiten. To be published in Acta Mechanica (1980) 8.36b K.O. Felsch Ein Beitrag zur Berechnung der Str ~ mung in einer Tesla- M...R. Schilling Berechnung der ausgebillten Str ~ mung in gekrummten Kanalen R. Simon mit rechteckigem Quersclnitt. Recent developments in theoretical an...package. co 12 REFERENCES No. Author Title, etc 1.4a S.G. Sundkvist V~rmek&llors inverkan pd str ~mning och temperatur i ventiler- ade lokaler (Numerisk

  18. Kamera-basierte Erkennung von Geschwindigkeitsbeschränkungen auf deutschen Straen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhüser, Dennis; Ziegenmeyer, Marco; Gumpp, Thomas; Scholl, Kay-Ulrich; Zöllner, J. Marius; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    An Fahrerassistenzsysteme im industriellen Einsatz werden hohe Anforderungen bezüglich Zuverlässigkeit und Robustheit gestellt. In dieser Arbeit wird die Kombination robuster Verfahren wie der Hough-Transformation und Support-Vektor-Maschinen zu einem Gesamtsystem zur Erkennung von Geschwindigkeitsbeschränkungen beschrieben. Es setzt eine Farbvideokamera als Sensorik ein. Die Evaluation auf Testdaten bestätigt durch die ermittelte hohe Korrektklassifikationsrate bei gleichzeitig geringer Zahl Fehlalarme die Zuverlässigkeit des Systems.

  19. Artificial Turbulence for Imaging and Wave Propagation. Volume 3432

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    zunehmenden Maße Möglichkeiten gesucht, lokale Unscharfen in dem Objektbild eines Fernrohres oder einer Kamera , welche beispielsweise durch...Verwendung von Kameras oder Fernrohren zur Beobachtung von Objekten innerhalb der Erdatmosphäre oder durch diese hindurch treten lokale Unscharfen in dem...Trägerschicht aufgebracht sind. Die Einrichtung wird in den Strahlengang des betreffenden Beobachtungsgerätes, beispielsweise einer Kamera oder eines

  20. Wirkstoffe, Medikamente und Mathematische Bildverarbeitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Günter J.; Lorenz, Dirk A.; Maaß, Peter; Preckel, Hartwig; Trede, Dennis

    Die Entwicklung neuer Medikamente ist langwierig und teuer. Der erste Schritt ist hierbei die Suche nach neuen Wirkstoffkandidaten, die für die Behandlung bislang schwer therapierbarer Krankheiten geeignet sind. Hierfür stehen der Pharma- und Biotechnologieindustrie riesige Substanzbibliotheken zur Verfügung. In diesen Bibliotheken werden die unterschiedlichsten Substanzen gesammelt, die entweder synthetisch hergestellt oder aus Pilzen, Bakterienkulturen und anderen Lebewesen gewonnen werden können.

  1. Wolfgang Pauli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enz, Charles P.

    2000-11-01

    Wolfgang Pauli gehört zu den bedeutendsten Physikern des 20. Jahrhunderts. Erst das von ihm entdeckte Ausschließungsprinzip erklärt den Aufbau des Periodensystems der Elemente. Darüber hinaus legte er den Grundstein für die Quantenfeldtheorie. Privat zeigte sich Pauli als bissiger und humorvoller Mensc gleichermaßen, und sein Hang zur Psychoanalyse lässt ihn überdies als interessante Persönlichkeit erscheinen.

  2. Middle-Class Consensus, Social Capital and the Mechanics of Economic Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Michael, Social Capital and Regional Mobility, Nr. 4/2002. "* Schdfer, Wolf, EU-Erweiterung: Anmerkungen zum Balassa - Samuelson -Effekt, Nr. 3/2002...variations, while the argument of both the present paper and most of the previous literature on inequality and growth refers to long-run growth effects of...Diskussionsbeitriige zur Finanzwissenschaft " Josten, Stefan, Crime, Inequality, and Economic Growth. A Classical Argument for Distributional Equality

  3. Introduction of a Diagnosis Related Groups’ Case Flat Rate System: Hopes and Fears (einfuerhrng eines drg-fallpauschalensystems - hoffnungen und aengste)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    Anwendung und Pflege des neuen Systems dienen soil, wenn die entscheidenden Vorgaben bereits durch die Deckelung gegeben sind. Oder denkt man an den...Software und die da- mit verbundenen Lizenzgebuhren, sondern auch in der Folge um die Schulung der Mitarbeiter sowie die Pflege und Weiterentwicklung...sung an die medizinische Entwicklung" sowie von "Verfahren zur laufen- den Pflege des VergOtungssystems" gesprochen. Es mossen jedoch klare

  4. Vapor Pressure of N,N’-Diisopropylcarbodiimide (DICDI)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    S) Brozena, Ann. (ECBC); Williams, Barry R. (Leidos, Inc.); and Tevault, David E. (JRAD, Inc.) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER CB Defense Technology Base...historical data are compared to the new correlation. 2. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS The DICDI used in the present work was obtained from Sigma -Aldrich...26, 1960. 7. Bayer Corporation, Carbodiimides. U.K. Patent GB685,970, January 14, 1953 . 8. Seefelder, M.; Neubauer, G. Verfahren zur

  5. Kraft-Wärmekopplung und Blockheiz-Kraftwerke BHKW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahoransky, Richard; Allelein, Hans-Josef; Bollin, Elmar; Oehler, Helmut; Schelling, Udo

    Die thermischen Wirkungsgrade von Kraftwerken zur Stromerzeugung sind relativ gering. Beispielsweise erreichen moderne Kohlekraftwerke heute bis etwa 45 %, Gasturbinen maximal 40 % und Diesel-Motoren nicht über 50 %. Kombinations-Kraftwerke, Gas- und Dampfturbinen-Prozesse können an die 60 % thermischer Wirkungsgrad bei der Umwandlung der zugeführten Wärme in mechanische bzw. elektrische Energie erzielen. Ein ähnlich hoher Wert wird in Zukunft von den Brennstoffzellen erwartet. Der nicht in Arbeit umgewandelte Anteil der zugeführten Wärme fällt als Abwärme an und geht ungenutzt in die Umgebung. Ein Teil dieser Abwärme lässt sich durch entsprechende Installationen bei allen Kraftwerksprozessen zur Wassererwärmung oder zur Dampferzeugung für industrielle Zwecke nutzen. Für Heizzwecke genügt eine Temperatur der Abwärme von 60 %C bis 80 %C, während die Erzeugung von Industriedampf deutlich höhere Temperaturen voraussetzt.

  6. SU-E-J-48: Imaging Origin-Radiation Isocenter Coincidence for Linac-Based SRS with Novalis Tx

    SciT

    Geraghty, C; Workie, D; Hasson, B

    Purpose To implement and evaluate an image-based Winston-Lutz (WL) test to measure the displacement between ExacTrac imaging origin and radiation isocenter on a Novalis Tx system using RIT V6.2 software analysis tools. Displacement between imaging and radiation isocenters was tracked over time. The method was applied for cone-based and MLC-based WL tests. Methods The Brainlab Winston-Lutz phantom was aligned to room lasers. The ExacTrac imaging system was then used to detect the Winston- Lutz phantom and obtain the displacement between the center of the phantom and the imaging origin. EPID images of the phantom were obtained at various gantry andmore » couch angles and analyzed with RIT calculating the phantom center to radiation isocenter displacement. The RIT and Exactrac displacements were combined to calculate the displacement between imaging origin and radiation isocenter. Results were tracked over time. Results Mean displacements between ExacTrac origin and radiation isocenter were: VRT: −0.1mm ± 0.3mm, LNG: 0.5mm ± 0.2mm, LAT: 0.2mm ± 0.2mm (vector magnitude of 0.7 ± 0.2mm). Radiation isocenter was characterized by the mean of the standard deviations of the WL phantom displacements: σVRT: 0.2mm, σLNG: 0.4mm, σLAT: 0.6mm. The linac couch base was serviced to reduce couch walkout. This reduced σLAT to 0.2mm. These measurements established a new baseline of radiation isocenter-imaging origin coincidence. Conclusion The image-based WL test has ensured submillimeter localization accuracy using the ExacTrac imaging system. Standard deviations of ExacTrac-radiation isocenter displacements indicate that average agreement within 0.3mm is possible in each axis. This WL test is a departure from the tradiational WL in that imaging origin/radiation isocenter agreement is the end goal not lasers/radiation isocenter.« less

  7. MO-PIS-Exhibit Hall-01: Tools for TG-142 Linac Imaging QA I

    SciT

    Clements, M; Wiesmeyer, M

    2014-06-15

    Partners in Solutions is an exciting new program in which AAPM partners with our vendors to present practical “hands-on” information about the equipment and software systems that we use in our clinics. The therapy topic this year is solutions for TG-142 recommendations for linear accelerator imaging QA. Note that the sessions are being held in a special purpose room built on the Exhibit Hall Floor, to encourage further interaction with the vendors. Automated Imaging QA for TG-142 with RIT Presentation Time: 2:45 – 3:15 PM This presentation will discuss software tools for automated imaging QA and phantom analysis for TG-142.more » All modalities used in radiation oncology will be discussed, including CBCT, planar kV imaging, planar MV imaging, and imaging and treatment coordinate coincidence. Vendor supplied phantoms as well as a variety of third-party phantoms will be shown, along with appropriate analyses, proper phantom setup procedures and scanning settings, and a discussion of image quality metrics. Tools for process automation will be discussed which include: RIT Cognition (machine learning for phantom image identification), RIT Cerberus (automated file system monitoring and searching), and RunQueueC (batch processing of multiple images). In addition to phantom analysis, tools for statistical tracking, trending, and reporting will be discussed. This discussion will include an introduction to statistical process control, a valuable tool in analyzing data and determining appropriate tolerances. An Introduction to TG-142 Imaging QA Using Standard Imaging Products Presentation Time: 3:15 – 3:45 PM Medical Physicists want to understand the logic behind TG-142 Imaging QA. What is often missing is a firm understanding of the connections between the EPID and OBI phantom imaging, the software “algorithms” that calculate the QA metrics, the establishment of baselines, and the analysis and interpretation of the results. The goal of our brief presentation

  8. Laser-plasmas in the relativistic-transparency regime: Science and applications

    PubMed Central

    Cort Gautier, D.; Palaniyappan, Sasikumar; Albright, Brian J.; Favalli, Andrea; Hunter, James F.; Mendez, Jacob; Roth, Markus; Deppert, Oliver; Espy, Michelle; Guler, Nevzat; Hamilton, Christopher; Hegelich, Bjorn Manuel; Henzlova, Daniela; Ianakiev, Kiril D.; Iliev, Metodi; Johnson, Randall P.; Kleinschmidt, Annika; Losko, Adrian S.; McCary, Edward; Mocko, Michal; Nelson, Ronald O.; Roycroft, Rebecca; Schanz, Victor A.; Schaumann, Gabriel; Schmidt, Derek W.; Sefkow, Adam; Taddeucci, Terry N.; Yin, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Laser-plasma interactions in the novel regime of relativistically induced transparency (RIT) have been harnessed to generate intense ion beams efficiently with average energies exceeding 10 MeV/nucleon (>100 MeV for protons) at “table-top” scales in experiments at the LANL Trident Laser. By further optimization of the laser and target, the RIT regime has been extended into a self-organized plasma mode. This mode yields an ion beam with much narrower energy spread while maintaining high ion energy and conversion efficiency. This mode involves self-generation of persistent high magnetic fields (∼104 T, according to particle-in-cell simulations of the experiments) at the rear-side of the plasma. These magnetic fields trap the laser-heated multi-MeV electrons, which generate a high localized electrostatic field (∼0.1 T V/m). After the laser exits the plasma, this electric field acts on a highly structured ion-beam distribution in phase space to reduce the energy spread, thus separating acceleration and energy-spread reduction. Thus, ion beams with narrow energy peaks at up to 18 MeV/nucleon are generated reproducibly with high efficiency (≈5%). The experimental demonstration has been done with 0.12 PW, high-contrast, 0.6 ps Gaussian 1.053 μm laser pulses irradiating planar foils up to 250 nm thick at 2–8 × 1020 W/cm2. These ion beams with co-propagating electrons have been used on Trident for uniform volumetric isochoric heating to generate and study warm-dense matter at high densities. These beam plasmas have been directed also at a thick Ta disk to generate a directed, intense point-like Bremsstrahlung source of photons peaked at ∼2 MeV and used it for point projection radiography of thick high density objects. In addition, prior work on the intense neutron beam driven by an intense deuterium beam generated in the RIT regime has been extended. Neutron spectral control by means of a flexible converter-disk design has been

  9. Optimized conditions for chelation of yttrium-90-DOTA immunoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Kukis, D L; DeNardo, S J; DeNardo, G L; O'Donnell, R T; Meares, C F

    1998-12-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with 90Y-labeled immunoconjugates has shown promise in clinical trials. The macrocyclic chelating agent 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N",N"'-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) binds 90Y with extraordinary stability, minimizing the toxicity of 90Y-DOTA immunoconjugates arising from loss of 90Y to bone. However, reported 90Y-DOTA immunoconjugate product yields have been typically only < or =50%. Improved yields are needed for RIT with 90Y-DOTA immunoconjugates to be practical. (S) 2-[p-(bromoacetamido)benzyl]-DOTA (BAD) was conjugated to the monoclonal antibody Lym-1 via 2-iminothiolane (2IT). The immunoconjugate product, 2IT-BAD-Lym-1, was labeled in excess yttrium in various buffers over a range of concentrations and pH. Kinetic studies were performed in selected buffers to estimate radiolabeling reaction times under prospective radiopharmacy labeling conditions. The effect of temperature on reaction kinetics was examined. Optimal radiolabeling conditions were identified and used in eight radiolabeling experiments with 2IT-BAD-Lym-1 and a second immunoconjugate, DOTA-peptide-chimeric L6, with 248-492 MBq (6.7-13.3 mCi) of 90Y. Ammonium acetate buffer (0.5 M) was associated with the highest uptake of yttrium. On the basis of kinetic data, the time required to chelate 94% of 90Y (four half-times) under prospective radiopharmacy labeling conditions in 0.5 M ammonium acetate was 17-148 min at pH 6.5, but it was only 1-10 min at pH 7.5. Raising the reaction temperature from 25 degrees C to 37 degrees C markedly increased the chelation rate. Optimal radiolabeling conditions were identified as: 30-min reaction time, 0.5 M ammonium acetate buffer, pH 7-7.5 and 37 degrees C. In eight labeling experiments under optimal conditions, a mean product yield (+/- s.d.) of 91%+/-8% was achieved, comparable to iodination yields. The specific activity of final products was 74-130 MBq (2.0-3.5 mCi) of 90Y per mg of monoclonal antibody. The immunoreactivity of 90Y

  10. Laser-plasmas in the relativistic-transparency regime: science and applications

    DOE PAGES

    Fernandez, Juan Carlos; Gautier, Donald Cort; Huang, Chengkun; ...

    2017-05-30

    Laser-plasma interactions in the novel regime of relativistically induced transparency (RIT) have been harnessed to generate intense ion beams efficiently with average energies exceeding 10 MeV/nucleon (>100 MeV for protons) at “table-top” scales in experiments at the LANL Trident Laser. By further optimization of the laser and target, the RIT regime has been extended into a self-organized plasma mode. This mode yields an ion beam with much narrower energy spread while maintaining high ion energy and conversion efficiency. This mode involves self-generation of persistent high magnetic fields (~10 4 T, according to particle-in-cell simulations of the experiments) at the rear-sidemore » of the plasma. These magnetic fields trap the laser-heated multi-MeV electrons, which generate a high localized electrostatic field (~0.1 TV/m). After the laser exits the plasma, this electric field acts on a highly structured ion-beam distribution in phase space to reduce the energy spread, thus separating acceleration and energy-spread reduction. Thus, ion beams with narrow energy peaks at up to 18 MeV/nucleon are generated reproducibly with high efficiency (≈5%). The experimental demonstration has been done with 0.12 PW, high-contrast, 0.6 ps Gaussian 1.053 μm laser pulses irradiating planar foils up to 250 nm thick at 2–8 × 10 20 W/cm 2. These ion beams with co-propagating electrons have been used on Trident for uniform volumetric isochoric heating to generate and study warm-dense matter at high densities. These beam plasmas have been directed also at a thick Ta disk to generate a directed, intense point-like Bremsstrahlung source of photons peaked at ~2 MeV and used it for point projection radiography of thick high density objects. In addition, prior work on the intense neutron beam driven by an intense deuterium beam generated in the RIT regime has been extended. Neutron spectral control by means of a flexible converter-disk design has been demonstrated, and the

  11. Impairments in Dark Adaptation Are Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Severity and Reticular Pseudodrusen.

    PubMed

    Flamendorf, Jason; Agrón, Elvira; Wong, Wai T; Thompson, Darby; Wiley, Henry E; Doss, E Lauren; Al-Holou, Shaza; Ferris, Frederick L; Chew, Emily Y; Cukras, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    We investigate whether ocular and person-based characteristics were associated with dark adaptation (DA). Cross-sectional, single-center, observational study. One hundred sixteen participants older than 50 years of age with a range of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) severity. Participants underwent best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) testing, ophthalmoscopic examination, and multimodal imaging. Presence of reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) was assessed by masked grading of fundus images and was confirmed with optical coherence tomography. Eyes also were graded for AMD features (drusen, pigmentary changes, late AMD) to generate person-based AMD severity groups. One eye was designated the study eye for DA testing. Nonparametric statistical testing was performed on all comparisons. The primary outcome of this study was the rod intercept time (RIT), which is defined as the time for a participant's visual sensitivity to recover to a stimulus intensity of 5×10(-3) cd/m(2) (a decrease of 3 log units), or until a maximum test duration of 40 minutes was reached. A total of 116 study eyes from 116 participants (mean age, 75.4±9.4 years; 58% female) were analyzed. Increased RIT was associated significantly with increasing AMD severity, increasing age (r = 0.34; P = 0.0002), decreasing BCVA (r = -0.54; P < 0.0001), pseudophakia (P = 0.03), and decreasing subfoveal choroidal thickness (r = -0.27; P = 0.003). Study eyes with RPD (15/116 [13%]) had a significantly greater mean RIT compared with eyes without RPD in any AMD severity group (P < 0.02 for all comparisons), with 80% reaching the DA test ceiling. Impairments in DA increased with age, worse visual acuity, presence of RPD, AMD severity, and decreased subfoveal choroidal thickness. Analysis of covariance found the multivariate model that best fit the data included age, AMD group, and presence of RPD (R(2) = 0.56), with the presence of RPD conferring the largest parameter estimate. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of

  12. Laser-plasmas in the relativistic-transparency regime: Science and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Juan C.; Cort Gautier, D.; Huang, Chengkung; Palaniyappan, Sasikumar; Albright, Brian J.; Bang, Woosuk; Dyer, Gilliss; Favalli, Andrea; Hunter, James F.; Mendez, Jacob; Roth, Markus; Swinhoe, Martyn; Bradley, Paul A.; Deppert, Oliver; Espy, Michelle; Falk, Katerina; Guler, Nevzat; Hamilton, Christopher; Hegelich, Bjorn Manuel; Henzlova, Daniela; Ianakiev, Kiril D.; Iliev, Metodi; Johnson, Randall P.; Kleinschmidt, Annika; Losko, Adrian S.; McCary, Edward; Mocko, Michal; Nelson, Ronald O.; Roycroft, Rebecca; Santiago Cordoba, Miguel A.; Schanz, Victor A.; Schaumann, Gabriel; Schmidt, Derek W.; Sefkow, Adam; Shimada, Tsutomu; Taddeucci, Terry N.; Tebartz, Alexandra; Vogel, Sven C.; Vold, Erik; Wurden, Glen A.; Yin, Lin

    2017-05-01

    Laser-plasma interactions in the novel regime of relativistically induced transparency (RIT) have been harnessed to generate intense ion beams efficiently with average energies exceeding 10 MeV/nucleon (>100 MeV for protons) at "table-top" scales in experiments at the LANL Trident Laser. By further optimization of the laser and target, the RIT regime has been extended into a self-organized plasma mode. This mode yields an ion beam with much narrower energy spread while maintaining high ion energy and conversion efficiency. This mode involves self-generation of persistent high magnetic fields (˜104 T, according to particle-in-cell simulations of the experiments) at the rear-side of the plasma. These magnetic fields trap the laser-heated multi-MeV electrons, which generate a high localized electrostatic field (˜0.1 T V/m). After the laser exits the plasma, this electric field acts on a highly structured ion-beam distribution in phase space to reduce the energy spread, thus separating acceleration and energy-spread reduction. Thus, ion beams with narrow energy peaks at up to 18 MeV/nucleon are generated reproducibly with high efficiency (≈5%). The experimental demonstration has been done with 0.12 PW, high-contrast, 0.6 ps Gaussian 1.053 μm laser pulses irradiating planar foils up to 250 nm thick at 2-8 × 1020 W/cm2. These ion beams with co-propagating electrons have been used on Trident for uniform volumetric isochoric heating to generate and study warm-dense matter at high densities. These beam plasmas have been directed also at a thick Ta disk to generate a directed, intense point-like Bremsstrahlung source of photons peaked at ˜2 MeV and used it for point projection radiography of thick high density objects. In addition, prior work on the intense neutron beam driven by an intense deuterium beam generated in the RIT regime has been extended. Neutron spectral control by means of a flexible converter-disk design has been demonstrated, and the neutron beam has

  13. Radioimmunotherapy with Tenarad, a 131I-labelled antibody fragment targeting the extra-domain A1 of tenascin-C, in patients with refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Aloj, Luigi; D'Ambrosio, Laura; Aurilio, Michela; Morisco, Anna; Frigeri, Ferdinando; Caraco', Corradina; Di Gennaro, Francesca; Capobianco, Gaetana; Giovannoni, Leonardo; Menssen, Hans D; Neri, Dario; Pinto, Antonio; Lastoria, Secondo

    2014-05-01

    The extra-domain A1 of tenascin-C (TC-A1) is highly expressed in the extracellular matrix of tumours and on newly formed blood vessels and is thus a valuable target for radionuclide therapy. Tenarad is a fully human miniantibody or small immunoprotein (SIP, molecular weight 80 kDa) labelled with (131)I that is derived from a TC-A1-binding antibody. Previous phase I/II studies with a similar compound ((131)I-L19SIP) used for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) have shown preliminary efficacy in a variety of cancer types. In this ongoing phase I/II trial, Tenarad was administered to patients with recurrent Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) refractory to conventional treatments. Eight patients (four men, four women; age range 19 - 41) were enrolled between April 2010 and March 2011. All patients had received a median of three previous lines of chemotherapy (range three to six) and seven had also undergone autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) or bone marrow transplantation. In addition, seven patients received external beam radiation. All patients had nodal disease, constitutional B symptoms and some showed extranodal disease in skeletal bone (four patients), lung (three), liver (two) and spleen (one). Baseline assessments included whole-body FDG PET with contrast-enhanced CT and diagnostic Tenarad planar and SPECT studies. Patients were considered eligible to receive a therapeutic dose of Tenarad (2.05 GBq/m(2)) if tumour uptake was more than four times higher than that of muscle. All patients were eligible and received the therapeutic dose of Tenarad. Only one patient developed grade 4 thrombocytopenia and leucocytopenia, requiring hospitalization and therapeutic intervention. All other patients had haematological toxicity of grade 3 or lower, which resolved spontaneously. At the first response assessment (4 - 6 weeks after therapy), one patient showed a complete response, one showed a partial response (PR) and five had disease stabilization (SD). Five patients were given up to

  14. Rhenium‐186‐mercaptoacetyltriglycine‐labeled Monoclonal Antibody for Radioimmunotherapy: In vitro Assessment, in vivo Kinetics and Dosimetry in Tumor‐bearing Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Tega, Harunobu; Hiramatsu, Takashi; Konishi, Shota; Yamamoto, Wakako; Shuke, Noriyuki; Aburano, Tamio; Watanabe, Naoto; Takayama, Terahiko; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa

    1998-01-01

    Stability and immunoreactivity of 186Re‐labeled monoclonal antibody were examined, and its in vivo kinetics was investigated in tumor‐bearing Balb/c nu/nu female mice to assess the feasibility of using it in radioimmunotherapy (RIT). A murine IgG1, A7, against a 45 kD glycoprotein in human colon cancer was radiolabeled with 186Re by using a chelating method with a mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3). 186Re‐MAG3 complex was conjugated to A7 after esterification of 186Re‐MAG3 with tetrafluorophenol (TFP). The efficiency of 186Re‐MAG3‐TFP production and the labeling efficiency of A7 were 51–59% and 57–60%, respectively. Immunoreactivity of purified 186Re‐MAG3‐A7 was 68.2% at infinite antigen excess. In 0.9% NaCl at 4°C, the radioactivity (12.7 MBq/mg, 3.55 MBq/ml) dissociated with time from 186Re‐MAG3‐A7 as a small molecular weight moiety because of autoradiolysis. The addition of ascorbic acid, 5 mg/ml, as a radioprotectant or storage at –80°C could effectively prevent the radiolysis of 186Re‐MAG3‐A7 for 7 days. Immunoreactivity of 186Re‐MAG3‐A7, 6.70 MBq/mg (6.66 MBq/ml), stored in the presence of ascorbic acid was well retained up to 8 days after the preparation. In colon cancer xenografted mice, 31.0% of the injected dose/g of 186Re‐MAG3‐A7 had accumulated in the tumors at 24 h postinjection. Estimated radiation dose to tumors was 14.9 cGy/37 kBq up to 8 days postinjection which was 12‐fold greater than the whole‐body radiation dose. These in vivo characteristics were superior to those of A7 labeled with radioiodine, affording greater therapeutic ratios than 131I‐A7. Because of the better image quality of 186Re‐MAG3‐A7 as well as more favorable dosimetry, 186Re‐MAG3‐A7 would be a better choice for RIT of colon cancer than 131I‐A7. These results indicated the feasibility of RIT with 186Re‐MAG3‐A7, though the prevention of radiolysis of the labeled antibody should be considered. PMID:9765625

  15. Accelerated hematopoietic recovery with angiotensin-(1-7) after total body radiation.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Kathleen E; Espinoza, Theresa; Roda, Norma; Meeks, Christopher J; Hill, Colin; Louie, Stan G; Dizerega, Gere S

    2012-06-01

    Angiotensin (1-7) [A(1-7)] is a component of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) that stimulates hematopoietic recovery after myelosuppression. In a Phase I/IIa clinical trial, thrombocytopenia after chemotherapy was reduced by A(1-7). In this study, the ability of A(1-7) to improve recovery after total body irradiation (TBI) is shown with specific attention to radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Mice were exposed to TBI (doses of 2-7 Gray [Gy]) of cesium 137 gamma rays, followed by treatment with A(1-7), typical doses were 100-1000 μg/kg given once or once daily for a specified number of days depending on the study. Animals are injected subcutaneously via the nape of the neck with 0.1 ml drug in saline. The recovery of blood and bone marrow cells was determined. Effects of TBI and A(1-7) on survival and bleeding time was also evaluated. Daily administration of A(1-7) after radiation exposure improved survival (from 60% to 92-97%) and reduced bleeding time at day 30 after TBI. Further, A(1-7) increased early mixed progenitors (3- to 5-fold), megakaryocyte (2- to 3-fold), myeloid (3- to 6-fold) and erythroid (2- to 5-fold) progenitors in the bone marrow and reduced radiation-induced thrombocytopenia (RIT) (up to 2-fold). Reduction in the number of treatments to 3 per week also improved bone marrow recovery and reduced RIT. As emergency responder and healthcare systems in case of nuclear accident or/and terrorist attack may be overwhelmed, the consequence of delayed initiation of treatment was ascertained. Treatment with A(1-7) can be delayed up to 5 days and still be effective in the reduction of RIT or acceleration of bone marrow recovery. The data presented in this paper indicate that A(1-7) reduces the consequences of critical radiation exposure and can be initiated well after initial exposure with maximal effects on early responding hematopoietic progenitors when treatment is initiated 2 days after exposure and 5 days after exposure for the later responding

  16. Envenimation scorpionique compliqué d'un accident vasculaire cérébral ischemique

    PubMed Central

    Bibiche, Youssef; Berdai, Adnan; Labib, Smael; Harandou, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Les piqûres de scorpion sont dans un certain nombre de pays, un accident fréquemment rencontré, et un risque grave. Au Maroc, les données épidémiologiques établies par le centre anti-poison (CAPM) montrent que les piqûres scorpioniques se placent en tête de toutes les intoxications relevées par le centre (60%). Les envenimations scorpioniques posent un grand problème de santé publique. L'apparition de signes neurologiques lors d'une envenimation scorpionique témoigne d'une envenimation grave et correspond au stade III de l’échelle de sévérité. Nous rapportons le cas d'une envenimation scorpionique compliqué d'un Accident vasculaire cérébral ischémique (AVCI) chez un enfant. PMID:26175806

  17. Forecasting ozone concentrations in the east of Croatia using nonparametric Neural Network Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovač-Andrić, Elvira; Sheta, Alaa; Faris, Hossam; Gajdošik, Martina Šrajer

    2016-07-01

    Ozone is one of the most significant secondary pollutants with numerous negative effects on human health and environment including plants and vegetation. Therefore, more effort is made recently by governments and associations to predict ozone concentrations which could help in establishing better plans and regulation for environment protection. In this study, we use two Artificial Neural Network based approaches (MPL and RBF) to develop, for the first time, accurate ozone prediction models, one for urban and another one for rural area in the eastern part of Croatia. The evaluation of actual against the predicted ozone concentrations revealed that MLP and RBF models are very competitive for the training and testing data in the case of Kopački Rit area whereas in the case of Osijek city, MLP shows better evaluation results with 9% improvement in the correlation coefficient. Furthermore, subsequent feature selection process has improved the prediction power of RBF network.

  18. Anthropometric history of the French Revolution in the Province of Orleans.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Hermann

    2011-07-01

    We estimate the trend in average height of the population of the French province Orleans from 1715 to the beginning of the 19th century using data on recruits who were drafted either through a lottery system or through general conscription. After controlling for age, residence, and occupation, we find a general decline in the biological standard of living in the decades before the French Revolution. The results support a Ricardian-Malthusian interpretation of the causes of the French Revolution. In the debate 'Revolution de la misère ou de la prospérité' our findings support the side which argues that the French Revolution was a culmination of a long-lasting economic malaise during the final phases of the Ancien Régime. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. General Relativistic Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code developments: A progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Joshua; Silberman, Zachary; Rizzo, Monica

    2017-01-01

    We report on our progress in developing a new general relativistic Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code, which will be appropriate for studying the properties of accretion disks around black holes as well as compact object binary mergers and their ejecta. We will discuss in turn the relativistic formalisms being used to handle the evolution, our techniques for dealing with conservative and primitive variables, as well as those used to ensure proper conservation of various physical quantities. Code tests and performance metrics will be discussed, as will the prospects for including smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes within other numerical relativity codebases, particularly the publicly available Einstein Toolkit. We acknowledge support from NSF award ACI-1550436 and an internal RIT D-RIG grant.

  20. A Numerical Study of Flare Stabilized Projectiles at Mach 7.0.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    vlue of expansion over the nose shoulder, decreases the grid spacing at the wall was 0.5 x 10 . gradual ly along the cylinder body, and jumps quickly at...34Aerodynamic H1ea t ing to t he It ype r.,o t ic l en gthIts f or ’oI 1 cofi i rit ions h,’ h-on R e soar ch1 A ir c r aft X -2 4 C,’’ A IA A P.-iper 7...III~r zj Wr TI)~w 1117T 1)111 RVIS w Ron _ o ’Ij.’. wa ,, F)J HOW1 ll~ k l’\\ I (C 1, l jja r i 1, . *-XE I’ X II)FII, I ,!’.1 11 ’A ot’’rI II)’L’’𔃺 S

  1. Training Families To Learn Science Together Using Astronomical Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; Wyllie, G.; Lierheimer, D.

    2012-05-01

    We present a collection of messages and lessons learned from a set of Family Science programs that have been developed, implemented and/or evaluated by the RIT Insight Lab over the past 5 years. The programs are connected by their use of astronomical topics to serve as the motivator for engagement and learning. The programs all focus on the development of inquiry skills and connecting family members to each other as science learning communities, rather than focusing on the development of specific content knowledge. We show how family science programs can increase engagement in STEM for parents and their children alike, and strengthen the pipeline of the next generation of scientists and engineers.

  2. Genetic heterogeneity of L-Zagreb mumps virus vaccine strain

    PubMed Central

    Kosutic-Gulija, Tanja; Forcic, Dubravko; Šantak, Maja; Ramljak, Ana; Mateljak-Lukacevic, Sanja; Mazuran, Renata

    2008-01-01

    Background The most often used mumps vaccine strains Jeryl Lynn (JL), RIT4385, Urabe-AM9, L-Zagreb and L-3 differ in immunogenicity and reactogenicity. Previous analyses showed that JL, Urabe-AM9 and L-3 are genetically heterogeneous. Results We identified the heterogeneity of L-Zagreb throughout the entire genome. Two major variants were defined: variant A being identical to the consensus sequence of viral seeds and vaccine(s) and variant B which differs from variant A in three nucleotide positions. The difference between viral variants in L-Zagreb strain is insufficient for distinct viral strains to be defined. We demonstrated that proportion of variants in L-Zagreb viral population depends on cell substrate used for viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion L-Zagreb strain should be considered as a single strain composed of at least two variant viral genomes. PMID:18616793

  3. Genetic heterogeneity of L-Zagreb mumps virus vaccine strain.

    PubMed

    Kosutic-Gulija, Tanja; Forcic, Dubravko; Santak, Maja; Ramljak, Ana; Mateljak-Lukacevic, Sanja; Mazuran, Renata

    2008-07-10

    The most often used mumps vaccine strains Jeryl Lynn (JL), RIT4385, Urabe-AM9, L-Zagreb and L-3 differ in immunogenicity and reactogenicity. Previous analyses showed that JL, Urabe-AM9 and L-3 are genetically heterogeneous. We identified the heterogeneity of L-Zagreb throughout the entire genome. Two major variants were defined: variant A being identical to the consensus sequence of viral seeds and vaccine(s) and variant B which differs from variant A in three nucleotide positions. The difference between viral variants in L-Zagreb strain is insufficient for distinct viral strains to be defined. We demonstrated that proportion of variants in L-Zagreb viral population depends on cell substrate used for viral replication in vitro and in vivo. L-Zagreb strain should be considered as a single strain composed of at least two variant viral genomes.

  4. Pre-Deployment Handbook Papua New Guinea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    ai M or eh ea d W ea m Ku pi an o A ng or am Te le fo m in Ta la se a G lo uc es te r...rit ai n B ou ga in vi lle C ho is eu l S an ta Y sa be l W oo dl ar k P oc kl in gt on R ee f D ’E nt re ca st ea ux Is la nd s Lo ui si ad e A...rc hi pe la go B is m a rc k A rc h ip e la g o Ta sk ul K ar ka r Lo ng K iw ai U

  5. Monoclonal Antibodies Radiolabeling with Rhenium-188 for Radioimmunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Petra; Pasquali, Micol

    2017-01-01

    Rhenium-188, obtained from an alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator, is actually considered a useful candidate for labeling biomolecules such as antibodies, antibody fragments, peptides, and DNAs for radiotherapy. There is a widespread interest in the availability of labeling procedures that allow obtaining 188Re-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for various therapeutic applications, in particular for the rhenium attachment to tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (Mo)Abs for immunotherapy. Different approaches have been developed in order to obtain 188Re-radioimmunoconjugates in high radiochemical purity starting from the generator eluted [188Re]ReO4−. The aim of this paper is to provide a short overview on 188Re-labeled (Mo)Abs, focusing in particular on the radiolabeling methods, quality control of radioimmunoconjugates, and their in vitro stability for radioimmunotherapy (RIT), with particular reference to the most important contributions published in literature in this topic. PMID:28951872

  6. nuMap: A Web Platform for Accurate Prediction of Nucleosome Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, Bader A.; Alshammari, Thamir H.; Felton, Nathan L.; Zhurkin, Victor B.; Cui, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Nucleosome positioning is critical for gene expression and of major biological interest. The high cost of experimentally mapping nucleosomal arrangement signifies the need for computational approaches to predict nucleosome positions at high resolution. Here, we present a web-based application to fulfill this need by implementing two models, YR and W/S schemes, for the translational and rotational positioning of nucleosomes, respectively. Our methods are based on sequence-dependent anisotropic bending that dictates how DNA is wrapped around a histone octamer. This application allows users to specify a number of options such as schemes and parameters for threading calculation and provides multiple layout formats. The nuMap is implemented in Java/Perl/MySQL and is freely available for public use at http://numap.rit.edu. The user manual, implementation notes, description of the methodology and examples are available at the site. PMID:25220945

  7. nuMap: a web platform for accurate prediction of nucleosome positioning.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Bader A; Alshammari, Thamir H; Felton, Nathan L; Zhurkin, Victor B; Cui, Feng

    2014-10-01

    Nucleosome positioning is critical for gene expression and of major biological interest. The high cost of experimentally mapping nucleosomal arrangement signifies the need for computational approaches to predict nucleosome positions at high resolution. Here, we present a web-based application to fulfill this need by implementing two models, YR and W/S schemes, for the translational and rotational positioning of nucleosomes, respectively. Our methods are based on sequence-dependent anisotropic bending that dictates how DNA is wrapped around a histone octamer. This application allows users to specify a number of options such as schemes and parameters for threading calculation and provides multiple layout formats. The nuMap is implemented in Java/Perl/MySQL and is freely available for public use at http://numap.rit.edu. The user manual, implementation notes, description of the methodology and examples are available at the site. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    SciT

    Gu, Wenbin

    2014-08-29

    This report documents the work performed by General Motors (GM) under the Cooperative agreement No. DE-EE0000470, “Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance,” in collaboration with the Penn State University (PSU), University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), and University of Rochester (UR) via subcontracts. The overall objectives of the project are to investigate and synthesize fundamental understanding of transport phenomena at both the macro- and micro-scales for the development of a down-the-channel model that accounts for all transport domains in a broad operating space. GM as a prime contractor focused onmore » cell level experiments and modeling, and the Universities as subcontractors worked toward fundamental understanding of each component and associated interface.« less

  9. Malaria diagnosis and treatment under the strategy of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI): relevance of laboratory support from the rapid immunochromatographic tests of ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal.

    PubMed

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2001-07-01

    The algorithm developed for the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) provides guidelines for the treatment of paediatric malaria. In areas where malaria is endemic, for example, the IMCI strategy may indicate that children who present with fever, a recent history of fever and/or pallor should receive antimalarial chemotherapy. In many holo-endemic areas, it is unclear whether laboratory tests to confirm that such signs are the result of malaria would be very relevant or useful. Children from a holo-endemic region of Tanzania were therefore checked for malarial parasites by microscopy and by using two rapid immunochromatographic tests (RIT) for the diagnosis of malaria (ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal. At the time they were tested, each of these children had been targeted for antimalarial treatment (following the IMCI strategy) because of fever and/or pallor. Only 70% of the 395 children classified to receive antimalarial drugs by the IMCI algorithm had malarial parasitaemias (68.4% had Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites, 1.3% only P. falciparum gametocytes, 0.3% P. ovale and 0.3% P. malariae). As indicators of P. falciparum trophozoites in the peripheral blood, fever had a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 15.5% whereas pallor had a sensitivity of 72.2% and a specificity of 50.8%. The RIT both had very high corresponding sensitivities (of 100.0% for the ICT and 94.0% for OptiMal) but the specificity of the ICT (74.0%) was significantly lower than that for OptiMal (100.0%). Fever and pallor were significantly associated with the P. falciparum asexual parasitaemias that equalled or exceeded the threshold intensity (2000/microl) that has the optimum sensitivity and specificity for the definition of a malarial episode. Diagnostic likelihood ratios (DLR) showed that a positive result in the OptiMal test (DLR = infinity) was a better indication of malaria than a positive result in the ICT (DLR = 3.85). In fact, OptiMal had diagnostic reliability (0

  10. A Subarcsecond ALMA Molecular Line Imaging Survey of the Circumbinary, Protoplanetary Disk Orbiting V4046 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Joel H.; Qi, C.; Dickson-Vandervelde, Annie; Forveille, Thierry; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Oberg, Karin; Wilner, David; Andrews, Sean; Gorti, Uma; Sacco, Germano; Rapson, Valerie; Principe, David

    2018-01-01

    We present a suite of ALMA interferometric molecular line and continuum images of the gas-rich circumbinary disk orbiting the nearby, young, short-period, solar-mass binary system V4046 Sgr (D ~ 73 pc; age ~20 Myr). These Cycle 2 and 3 ALMA observations of V4046 Sgr were undertaken in the 1.1 to 1.4 mm wavelength range (ALMA Band 6) with antenna configurations involving maximum baselines of several hundred meters, yielding subarcsecond-resolution images in more than a dozen molecular species and isotopologues. Collectively, these ALMA images serve to elucidate, on linear size scales of ~30-40 AU, the chemical structure of an evolved, circumbinary, protoplanetary disk.This research is supported by NASA Exoplanets program grant NNX16AB43G to RIT.

  11. Microwave ECR Ion Thruster Development Activities at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Outer solar system missions will have propulsion system lifetime requirements well in excess of that which can be satisfied by ion thrusters utilizing conventional hollow cathode technology. To satisfy such mission requirements, other technologies must be investigated. One possible approach is to utilize electrodeless plasma production schemes. Such an approach has seen low power application less than 1 kW on earth-space spacecraft such as ARTEMIS which uses the rf thruster the RIT 10 and deep space missions such as MUSES-C which will use a microwave ion thruster. Microwave and rf thruster technologies are compared. A microwave-based ion thruster is investigated for potential high power ion thruster systems requiring very long lifetimes.

  12. Willingness to Pay for a Clear Night Sky: Use of the Contingent Valuation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Stephanie; Winebrake, J.; Noel-Storr, J.

    2006-12-01

    A clear night sky is a public good, and as a public good government intervention to regulate it is feasible and necessary. Light pollution decreases the ability to view the unobstructed night sky, and can have biological, human health, energy related, and scientific consequences. In order for governments to intervene more effectively with light pollution controls (costs), the benefits of light pollution reduction also need to be determined. This project uses the contingent valuation method to place an economic value on one of the benefits of light pollution reduction aesthetics. Using a willingness to pay approach, this study monetizes the value of a clear night sky for students at RIT. Images representing various levels of light pollution were presented to this population as part of a survey. The results of this study may aid local, state, and federal policy makers in making informed decisions regarding light pollution.

  13. Even dying must be edited: further thoughts on Joan Robinson.

    PubMed Central

    Curry, S; Zucker, A; Trautmann, J

    1981-01-01

    "Joan Robinson: One Woman's Story' is a cinéma vérité style record of a woman's losing struggle against ovarian cancer. The film has been shown now twice on the American Public Television Network. It has received good notices primarily from the lay press. Yet the film depicts much that is out-of-date and much that is debatable. In general, we feel that it presents a depressing picture of the cancer patient. This was not Joan Robinson's intention and her bravery only serves to highlight this picture of suffering with cancer. We point to specific flaws in the film. We then go on to account for why many reviewers seem to have been blind to these flaws. It is suggested that criteria for good works of art, for good public health information, and for admirable personal traits were confused. PMID:7205894

  14. Monoclonal Antibodies Radiolabeling with Rhenium-188 for Radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Uccelli, Licia; Martini, Petra; Pasquali, Micol; Boschi, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Rhenium-188, obtained from an alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator, is actually considered a useful candidate for labeling biomolecules such as antibodies, antibody fragments, peptides, and DNAs for radiotherapy. There is a widespread interest in the availability of labeling procedures that allow obtaining 188 Re-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for various therapeutic applications, in particular for the rhenium attachment to tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (Mo)Abs for immunotherapy. Different approaches have been developed in order to obtain 188 Re-radioimmunoconjugates in high radiochemical purity starting from the generator eluted [ 188 Re]ReO 4 - . The aim of this paper is to provide a short overview on 188 Re-labeled (Mo)Abs, focusing in particular on the radiolabeling methods, quality control of radioimmunoconjugates, and their in vitro stability for radioimmunotherapy (RIT), with particular reference to the most important contributions published in literature in this topic.

  15. Recent CCD Images of Hubble's Variable Nebula (NGC 2261)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, D.; Dykstra, W.; Schulitz, F.

    1992-05-01

    Four CCD exposures of Hubble's Variable Nebula were taken with the RIT Kodak KF-4200 array using the 0.6m Hawaii telescope at Mauna Kea. The field of view was 5' x 7' of arc with a resolution of 0.3" per pixel. The effective wavelengths were v 5300A, r 6200A, i 8000A and ii 9000A. Preliminary image processing has been done on Macintosh IIfxs and LCs using NIH Image1.44b20 and has revealed considerable detail in the dust cloud, but no obvious obscuration features as seen at past epochs. Final image processing is continuing on Sun workstations using IRAF and SAO Image. Differences of structure between the wavelength bands and comparisons between images at other epochs, CO maps, and polarimetry will be discussed.

  16. Final Report on the Special Year in Numerical Analysis, 1980-81.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    C -NF L<N.; ~F 17E NAME AND...1!V I r iA llg oxperl.t5 kf tilO h Cor Co1rmal i t!’-! -;,1 1’’ 1iij . . 1! ’ni’~~’~; , 7rrk’rit pi’’bihrim;, 11id C iiir I’lf", i~2 DD I AN 7 1473...wcla cm[h1i %a plee Iol- , ujre ica I I inear al c ’’ !,:, tn rd numi~ i- , ii-l i, 1. . c ; 1,~ 1h a ce 1) 1. ~ i~; i Im: ion e ut hod: ~ tr IIIIj an

  17. Nanoparticle-in-microparticle oral drug delivery system of a clinically relevant darunavir/ritonavir antiretroviral combination.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Robin; Ashkenazi, Dana Levin; Arzi, Roni Sverdlov; Zlobin, Vita; Shofti, Rona; Sosnik, Alejandro

    2018-05-01

    Nanonizationhas been extensively investigated to increase theoral bioavailability of hydrophobicdrugsin general andantiretrovirals(ARVs)used inthe therapy of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in particular. Weanticipatedthatin the caseofprotease inhibitors, a family of pH-dependent ARVsthatdisplay high aqueous solubility undertheacidconditionsof thestomach andextremely low solubilityunder the neutral ones ofthe small intestine, this strategy might failowing to an uncontrolled dissolution-re-precipitation process that will take place along the gastrointestinal tract.To tackle thisbiopharmaceutical challenge, in this work, wedesigned, produced and fully characterized a novelNanoparticle-in-MicroparticleDelivery System(NiMDS)comprised of pure nanoparticlesofthefirst-line protease inhibitor darunavir(DRV) and itsboosting agentritonavir (RIT) encapsulated within film-coated microparticles.For this, a clinically relevant combination of pure DRV and RIT nanoparticles wassynthesized by a sequential nanoprecipitation/solvent diffusion and evaporation method employing sodium alginateas viscosity stabilizer. Then, pure nanoparticles were encapsulated within calcium alginate/chitosanmicroparticlesthat were film-coated with a series ofpoly(methacrylate) copolymers with differential solubility in the gastrointestinal tract. This coating ensured full stability under gastric-like pH and sustained drug release under intestinal one. PharmacokineticstudiesconductedinalbinoSpragueDawleyratsshowed that DRV/RIT-loadedNiMDSs containing 17% w/w drug loading based on dry weight significantlyincreasedthe oral bioavailabilityof DRVby 2.3-foldwith respect to both theunprocessedandthenanonized DRV/RIT combinations that showed statistically similar performance. Moreover, they highlighted the limited advantage of only drugnanonizationto improve the oral pharmacokinetics of protease inhibitors and the potential of our novel delivery approach to improve the oral pharmacokinetics of

  18. What's All the Talc About? Air Entrainment in Dilute Pyroclastic Density Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, B. J.; Andrews, B. J.; Fauria, K.

    2015-12-01

    A quantitative understanding of air entrainment is critical to predicting the behaviors of dilute Pyroclastic Density Currents (PDCs), including runout distance, liftoff, and mass fractionation into co-PDC plumes. We performed experiments in an 8.5x6x2.6 meter tank using 20 micron talc powder over a range of conditions to describe air entrainment as a function of temperature, duration and mass flux. The experiments are reproducible and are scaled with respect to the densimetric and thermal Richardson numbers (Ri and RiT), Froude number, thermal to kinetic energy density ratio (TEb/KE), Stokes number, and Settling number, such that they are dynamically similar to natural dilute PDCs. Experiments are illuminated with a swept laser sheet and imaged at 1000 Hz to create 3D reconstructions of the currents, with ~1-2 cm resolution, at up to 1.5 Hz. An array of 30 high-frequency thermocouples record the precise temperature in the currents at 3 Hz. Bulk entrainment rates are calculated based on measured current volumes, surface areas, temperatures and velocities. Entrainment rates vary from ~0-0.9 and do not show simple variation with TEb/KE, Ri, or RiT. Entrainment does, however, increase with decreasing eruption duration and increasing mass flux. Our results suggest that current heads entrain air more efficiently than current bodies (>0.5 compared to ~0.1). Because shorter duration currents have proportionally larger heads, their bulk entrainment rates are controlled by those heads, whereas longer duration currents are dominated by their bodies. Our experiments demonstrate that air entrainment, which exerts a fundamental control on PDC runout and liftoff, varies spatially and temporally within PDCs.

  19. Venetoclax Synergizes with Radiotherapy for Treatment of B-cell Lymphomas.

    PubMed

    O'Steen, Shyril; Green, Damian J; Gopal, Ajay K; Orozco, Johnnie J; Kenoyer, Aimee L; Lin, Yukang; Wilbur, D Scott; Hamlin, Donald K; Fisher, Darrell R; Hylarides, Mark D; Gooley, Theodore A; Waltman, Amelia; Till, Brian G; Press, Oliver W

    2017-07-15

    Constitutive B-cell receptor signaling leads to overexpression of the antiapoptotic BCL-2 protein and is implicated in the pathogenesis of many types of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). The BCL-2 small-molecule inhibitor venetoclax shows promising clinical response rates in several lymphomas, but is not curative as monotherapy. Radiotherapy is a rational candidate for combining with BCL-2 inhibition, as DNA damage caused by radiotherapy increases the activity of pro-apoptotic BCL-2 pathway proteins, and lymphomas are exquisitely sensitive to radiation. We tested B-NHL responses to venetoclax combined with either external beam radiotherapy or radioimmunotherapy (RIT), which joins the selectivity of antibody targeting with the effectiveness of irradiation. We first tested cytotoxicity of cesium-137 irradiation plus venetoclax in 14 B-NHL cell lines representing five lymphoma subtypes. Combination treatment synergistically increased cell death in 10 of 14 lines. Lack of synergy was predicted by resistance to single-agent venetoclax and high BCL-XL expression. We then assessed the efficacy of external beam radiotherapy plus venetoclax in murine xenograft models of mantle cell (MCL), germinal-center diffuse large B-cell (GCB-DLBCL), and activated B-cell (ABC-DLBCL) lymphomas. In each model, external beam radiotherapy plus venetoclax synergistically increased mouse survival time, curing up to 10%. We finally combined venetoclax treatment of MCL and ABC-DLBCL xenografts with a pretargeted RIT (PRIT) system directed against the CD20 antigen. Optimal dosing of PRIT plus venetoclax cured 100% of mice with no detectable toxicity. Venetoclax combined with radiotherapy may be a promising treatment for a wide range of lymphomas Cancer Res; 77(14); 3885-93. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Impact of Different Correlations on TRACEv4.160 Predicted Critical Heat Flux

    SciT

    Jasiulevicius, A.; Macian-Juan, R.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an independent assessment of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) models implemented in TRACEv4.160 with data from the experiments carried out at the Royal Institute of Technology (RIT) in Stockholm, Sweden, with single vertical uniformly heated 7.0 m long tubes. In previous CHF assessment studies with TRACE, it was noted that, although the overall code predictions in long single tubes with inner diameters of 1.0 to 2.49 cm agreed rather well with the results of experiments (with r.m.s. error being 25.6%), several regions of pressure and coolant mass flux could be identified, in which the code strongly under-predictsmore » or over-predicts the CHF. In order to evaluate the possibility of improving the code performance, some of the most widely used and assessed CHF correlations were additionally implemented in TRACEv4.160, namely Bowring, Levitan - Lantsman, and Tong-W3. The results obtained for the CHF predictions in single tubes with uniform axial heat flux by using these correlations, were compared to the results produced with the standard TRACE correlations (Biasi and CISE-GE), and with the experimental data from RIT, which covered a broad range of pressures (3-20 MPa) and coolant mass fluxes (500-3000 kg/m{sup 2}s). Several hundreds of experimental points were calculated to cover the parameter range mentioned above for the evaluation of the newly implemented correlations in the TRACEv4.160 code. (author)« less

  1. Pre-clinical evaluation and efficacy studies of a melanin-binding IgM antibody labeled with 188Re against experimental human metastatic melanoma in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Revskaya, E; Sesay, M A; Damania, H; Boucher, R; Sellers, R S; Howell, R C; Burns, L; Thornton, G B; Natarajan, A; Mirick, G R; DeNardo, S J; DeNardo, G L; Casadevall, A

    2008-07-01

    Currently there is no satisfactory treatment for metastatic melanoma. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) uses the antigen-antibody interaction to deliver lethal radiation to target cells. Recently we established the feasibility of targeting melanin in tumors with 188-Rhenium ((188)Re)-labeled 6D2 mAb to melanin. Here we carried out pre-clinical development of (188)Re-6D2 to accrue information necessary for a Phase I trial in patients with metastatic melanoma. TCEP proved to be effective in generating a sufficient number of -SH groups on 6D2 to ensure high radiolabeling yields with (188)Re and preserved its structural integrity. (188)Re-6D2 was quickly cleared from the blood with the half-life of approximately 5 hrs and from the body--with the half-life of 10 hr. The doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mCi significantly (p < 0.05) slowed down A2058 tumor growth in nude mice, also causing release of melanin into the extracellular space which could provide additional target for repeated treatments. Transient effects of RIT on WBC and platelet counts resolved by Day 14 post-treatment. Tris(2-Carboxyethyl) Phosphine Hydrochloride (TCEP) was evaluated as potential agent for generation of -SH groups on 6D2 mAb. TCEP-treated 6D2 mAb was radiolabeled with (188)Re and its radiochemical purity and stability was measured by ITLC and HPLC and its immunoreactivity--by melanin-binding ELISA. The pharmacokinetics, therapeutic efficacy and acute hematologic toxicity studies were performed in nude mice bearing lightly pigmented A2058 human metastatic melanoma tumors. We have developed radiolabeling and quality control procedures for melanin-binding (188)Re-6D2 mAb which made possible currently an on-going Phase I clinical trial in patients with metastatic melanoma.

  2. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 02: Radiogenomic Modeling of Normal Tissue Toxicities in Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Hypofractionated Radiotherapy

    SciT

    Coates, J; Jeyaseelan, K; Ybarra, N

    2014-08-15

    Inter-patient radiation sensitivity variability has recently been shown to have a genetic component. This genetic component may play a key role in explaining the fluctuating rates of radiation-induced toxicities (RITs). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have thus far yielded inconsistent results in delineating RITs while copy number variations (CNVs) have not yet been investigated for such purposes. We explore a radiogenomic modeling approach to investigate the association of CNVs and SNPs, along with clinical and dosimetric variables, in radiation induced rectal bleeding (RB) and erectile dysfunction (ED) in prostate cancer patients treated with curative hypofractionated irradiation. A cohort of 62 prostatemore » cancer patients who underwent hypofractionated radiotherapy (66 Gy in 22 fractions) between 2002 to 2010 were retrospectively genotyped for CNV and SNP rs5489 in the xrcc1 DNA repair gene. Late toxicity rates for RB grade 2 and 3 and grade 3 alone were 29.0% and 12.9%, respectively. ED toxicity was found to be 62.9%. Radiogenomic model performance was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) and resampling by cross-validation. Binary variables were evaluated using Chi-squared contingency table analysis and multivariate models by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). Ten patients were found to have three copies of xrcc1 CNV (RB: χ{sup 2}=14.6, p<0.001 and ED: χ{sup 2}=4.88, p=0.0272) and twelve had heterozygous rs25489 SNP (RB: χ{sup 2}=0.278, p=0.599 and ED: χ{sup 2}=0.112, p=0.732). Radiogenomic modeling yielded significant, cross-validated NTCP models for RB (AUC=0.665) and ED (AUC=0.754). These results indicate that CNVs may be potential predictive biomarkers of both late ED and RB.« less

  3. Heating the Primordial Soup: X-raying the Circumstellar Disk of T Cha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principe, David; Huenemoerder, D.; Kastner, J. H.; Bessell, M. S.; Sacco, G.

    2014-01-01

    The classical T Tauri Star (cTTS) T Chamaeleontis (T Cha) presents a unique opportunity to probe pre-main sequence star-disk interactions and late-stage circumstellar disk evolution. T Cha is the only known example of a nearly edge-on, actively accreting star/disk system within ~110 pc, and furthermore may be orbited by a low-mass companion or massive planet that has cleared an inner hole in its disk. The star is characterized by strong variability in the optical 3 magnitudes in the V band) as well as large and variable extinction (AV in the range of 1-5). Like most cTTS, T Cha is also a luminous X-ray source. We present preliminary results of two observations (totaling 150 ks) of T Cha with Chandra’s HETGS. Our motivations are to (a) determine the intrinsic X-ray spectrum of T Cha, so as to establish whether its X-ray emission can be attributed to accretion shocks, coronal emission, or a combination; (b) investigate whether its X-ray flux exhibits modulation that may be related to the stellar rotational period 3.3 days); and (c) take advantage of the nearly-edge-on disk viewing geometry to model the spectrum of X-rays absorbed by the gaseous disk orbiting T Cha. These results will serve as much-needed input to models of magnetospheric accretion and irradiated, planet-forming disks. This research is supported via award number GO3-14022X to RIT issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of NASA under contract NAS803060. Additional support is provided by National Science Foundation grant AST-1108950 to RIT.

  4. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.) Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC), Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs)

    PubMed Central

    Loiola, Carina Mendes; Azevedo, Alinne Oliveira Nunes; Diniz, Leandro E. C.; Aragão, Wilson Menezes; Azevedo, Carlos Diego de O.; Santos, Pedro Henrique A. D.; Ramos, Helaine Christine C.; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Ramos, Semíramis R. Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT) accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT) accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall—Praia do Forte (BRTPF), Brazilian Tall—Merepe (BRTMe) and West African Tall (WAT); the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT); the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT); and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT), Tonga Tall (TONT) and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics. PMID:26974540

  5. Evaluation of Parkinson Disease Risk Variants as Expression-QTLs

    PubMed Central

    Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Dumitriu, Alexandra; Hadzi, Tiffany C.; Beach, Thomas G.; Myers, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    The recent Parkinson Disease GWAS Consortium meta-analysis and replication study reports association at several previously confirmed risk loci SNCA, MAPT, GAK/DGKQ, and HLA and identified a novel risk locus at RIT2. To further explore functional consequences of these associations, we investigated modification of gene expression in prefrontal cortex brain samples of pathologically confirmed PD cases (N = 26) and controls (N = 24) by 67 associated SNPs in these 5 loci. Association between the eSNPs and expression was evaluated using a 2-degrees of freedom test of both association and difference in association between cases and controls, adjusted for relevant covariates. SNPs at each of the 5 loci were tested for cis-acting effects on all probes within 250 kb of each locus. Trans-effects of the SNPs on the 39,122 probes passing all QC on the microarray were also examined. From the analysis of cis-acting SNP effects, several SNPs in the MAPT region show significant association to multiple nearby probes, including two strongly correlated probes targeting the gene LOC644246 and the duplicated genes LRRC37A and LRRC37A2, and a third uncorrelated probe targeting the gene DCAKD. Significant cis-associations were also observed between SNPs and two probes targeting genes in the HLA region on chromosome 6. Expanding the association study to examine trans effects revealed an additional 23 SNP-probe associations reaching statistical significance (p<2.8×10−8) including SNPs from the SNCA, MAPT and RIT2 regions. These findings provide additional context for the interpretation of PD associated SNPs identified in recent GWAS as well as potential insight into the mechanisms underlying the observed SNP associations. PMID:23071545

  6. Triple Therapy of HER2+ Cancer Using Radiolabeled Multifunctional Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Alternating Magnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Zolata, Hamidreza; Afarideh, Hossein; Davani, Fereydoun Abbasi

    2016-11-01

    By using radio-labeled multifunctional superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and an alternating magnetic field (AMF), we carried out targeted hyperthermia, drug delivery, radio-immunotherapy (RIT), and controlled chemotherapy of cancer tumors. We synthesized and characterized Indium-111-labeled, Trastuzumab and Doxorubicin (DOX)-conjugated APTES-PEG-coated SPIONs in our previous work. Then, we evaluated their capability in SPECT/MRI (single photon emission computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging) dual modal molecular imaging, targeting, and controlled release. In this research, AMF was introduced to evaluate therapeutic effects of magnetic hyperthermia on radionuclide-chemo therapy of HER2 + cells and tumor (HER2 + )-bearing mice. In vitro and in vivo experiments using synthesized complex were repeated under an AMF (f: 100 KHz, H: 280 Gs). Instead of an intra-tumor injection in most hyperthermia experiments, SPIONs were injected to the tail vein, based on our delivery strategies. For magnetic delivery, we held a permanent Nd-B-Fe magnet near the tumor region. The results showed that simultaneous magnetic hyperthermia enhanced SKBR3 cancer cells, killing by 24%, 28%, 33%, and 80% at 48 hours post-treatment for treated cells with (1) bare SPIONs; (2) antibody-conjugated, DOX-free, surface-modified SPIONs; (3) 111 In-labeled, antibody-conjugated surface-modified SPIONs; and (4) 111 In-labeled, antibody- and DOX-conjugated surface-modified SPIONs, respectively. Moreover, tumor volume inhibitory rate was 85% after a 28 day period of treatment. By using this method, multimodal imaging-guided, targeted hyperthermia, RIT, and controlled chemotherapy could be achievable in the near future.

  7. Characterization of Rod Function Phenotypes Across a Range of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Severities and Subretinal Drusenoid Deposits

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Oliver J.; Cukras, Catherine A.; Jeffrey, Brett G.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To examine spatial changes in rod-mediated function in relationship to local structural changes across the central retina in eyes with a spectrum of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) disease severity. Methods Participants were categorized into five AMD severity groups based on fundus features. Scotopic thresholds were measured at 14 loci spanning ±18° along the vertical meridian from one eye of each of 42 participants (mean = 71.7 ± 9.9 years). Following a 30% bleach, dark adaptation was measured at eight loci (±12°). Rod intercept time (RIT) was defined from the time to detect a −3.1 log cd/m2 stimulus. RITslope was defined from the linear fit of RIT with decreasing retinal eccentricity. The presence of subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD), ellipsoid (EZ) band disruption, and drusen at the test loci was evaluated using optical coherence tomography. Results Scotopic thresholds indicated greater rod function loss in the macula, which correlated with increasing AMD group severity. RITslope, which captures the spatial change in the rate of dark adaptation, increased with AMD severity (P < 0.0001). Three rod function phenotypes emerged: RF1, normal rod function; RF2, normal scotopic thresholds but slowed dark adaptation; and RF3, elevated scotopic thresholds with slowed dark adaptation. Dark adaptation was slowed at all loci with SDD or EZ band disruption, and at 32% of loci with no local structural changes. Conclusions Three rod function phenotypes were defined from combined measurement of scotopic threshold and dark adaptation. Spatial changes in dark adaptation across the macula were captured with RITslope, which may be a useful outcome measure for functional studies of AMD. PMID:29847647

  8. Characterization of Rod Function Phenotypes Across a Range of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Severities and Subretinal Drusenoid Deposits.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Oliver J; Cukras, Catherine A; Jeffrey, Brett G

    2018-05-01

    To examine spatial changes in rod-mediated function in relationship to local structural changes across the central retina in eyes with a spectrum of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) disease severity. Participants were categorized into five AMD severity groups based on fundus features. Scotopic thresholds were measured at 14 loci spanning ±18° along the vertical meridian from one eye of each of 42 participants (mean = 71.7 ± 9.9 years). Following a 30% bleach, dark adaptation was measured at eight loci (±12°). Rod intercept time (RIT) was defined from the time to detect a -3.1 log cd/m2 stimulus. RITslope was defined from the linear fit of RIT with decreasing retinal eccentricity. The presence of subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD), ellipsoid (EZ) band disruption, and drusen at the test loci was evaluated using optical coherence tomography. Scotopic thresholds indicated greater rod function loss in the macula, which correlated with increasing AMD group severity. RITslope, which captures the spatial change in the rate of dark adaptation, increased with AMD severity (P < 0.0001). Three rod function phenotypes emerged: RF1, normal rod function; RF2, normal scotopic thresholds but slowed dark adaptation; and RF3, elevated scotopic thresholds with slowed dark adaptation. Dark adaptation was slowed at all loci with SDD or EZ band disruption, and at 32% of loci with no local structural changes. Three rod function phenotypes were defined from combined measurement of scotopic threshold and dark adaptation. Spatial changes in dark adaptation across the macula were captured with RITslope, which may be a useful outcome measure for functional studies of AMD.

  9. Monte Carlo MCNP-4B-based absorbed dose distribution estimates for patient-specific dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Yoriyaz, H; Stabin, M G; dos Santos, A

    2001-04-01

    This study was intended to verify the capability of the Monte Carlo MCNP-4B code to evaluate spatial dose distribution based on information gathered from CT or SPECT. A new three-dimensional (3D) dose calculation approach for internal emitter use in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) was developed using the Monte Carlo MCNP-4B code as the photon and electron transport engine. It was shown that the MCNP-4B computer code can be used with voxel-based anatomic and physiologic data to provide 3D dose distributions. This study showed that the MCNP-4B code can be used to develop a treatment planning system that will provide such information in a time manner, if dose reporting is suitably optimized. If each organ is divided into small regions where the average energy deposition is calculated with a typical volume of 0.4 cm(3), regional dose distributions can be provided with reasonable central processing unit times (on the order of 12-24 h on a 200-MHz personal computer or modest workstation). Further efforts to provide semiautomated region identification (segmentation) and improvement of marrow dose calculations are needed to supply a complete system for RIT. It is envisioned that all such efforts will continue to develop and that internal dose calculations may soon be brought to a similar level of accuracy, detail, and robustness as is commonly expected in external dose treatment planning. For this study we developed a code with a user-friendly interface that works on several nuclear medicine imaging platforms and provides timely patient-specific dose information to the physician and medical physicist. Future therapy with internal emitters should use a 3D dose calculation approach, which represents a significant advance over dose information provided by the standard geometric phantoms used for more than 20 y (which permit reporting of only average organ doses for certain standardized individuals)

  10. Conventional and pretargeted radioimmunotherapy using bismuth-213 to target and treat non-Hodgkin lymphomas expressing CD20: a preclinical model toward optimal consolidation therapy to eradicate minimal residual disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Steven I; Shenoi, Jaideep; Pagel, John M; Hamlin, Don K; Wilbur, D Scott; Orgun, Nural; Kenoyer, Aimee L; Frayo, Shani; Axtman, Amanda; Bäck, Tom; Lin, Yukang; Fisher, Darrell R; Gopal, Ajay K; Green, Damian J; Press, Oliver W

    2010-11-18

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with α-emitting radionuclides is an attractive approach for the treatment of minimal residual disease because the short path lengths and high energies of α-particles produce optimal cytotoxicity at small target sites while minimizing damage to surrounding normal tissues. Pretargeted RIT (PRIT) using antibody-streptavidin (Ab-SA) constructs and radiolabeled biotin allows rapid, specific localization of radioactivity at tumor sites, making it an optimal method to target α-emitters with short half-lives, such as bismuth-213 (²¹³Bi). Athymic mice bearing Ramos lymphoma xenografts received anti-CD20 1F5(scFv)(4)SA fusion protein (FP), followed by a dendrimeric clearing agent and [²¹³Bi]DOTA-biotin. After 90 minutes, tumor uptake for 1F5(scFv)₄SA was 16.5% ± 7.0% injected dose per gram compared with 2.3% ± .9% injected dose per gram for the control FP. Mice treated with anti-CD20 PRIT and 600 μ Ci [²¹³Bi]DOTA-biotin exhibited marked tumor growth delays compared with controls (mean tumor volume .01 ± .02 vs. 203.38 ± 83.03 mm³ after 19 days, respectively). The median survival for the 1F5(scFv)₄SA group was 90 days compared with 23 days for the control FP (P < .0001). Treatment was well tolerated, with no treatment-related mortalities. This study demonstrates the favorable biodistribution profile and excellent therapeutic efficacy attainable with ²¹³Bi-labeled anti-CD20 PRIT.

  11. Forecasting Strategies for Predicting Peak Electric Load Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Harshit

    Academic institutions spend thousands of dollars every month on their electric power consumption. Some of these institutions follow a demand charges pricing structure; here the amount a customer pays to the utility is decided based on the total energy consumed during the month, with an additional charge based on the highest average power load required by the customer over a moving window of time as decided by the utility. Therefore, it is crucial for these institutions to minimize the time periods where a high amount of electric load is demanded over a short duration of time. In order to reduce the peak loads and have more uniform energy consumption, it is imperative to predict when these peaks occur, so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed. The research work presented in this thesis has been conducted for Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), where the demand charges are decided based on a 15 minute sliding window panned over the entire month. This case study makes use of different statistical and machine learning algorithms to develop a forecasting strategy for predicting the peak electric load days of the month. The proposed strategy was tested for a whole year starting May 2015 to April 2016 during which a total of 57 peak days were observed. The model predicted a total of 74 peak days during this period, 40 of these cases were true positives, hence achieving an accuracy level of 70 percent. The results obtained with the proposed forecasting strategy are promising and demonstrate an annual savings potential worth about $80,000 for a single submeter of RIT.

  12. Heavy ion acceleration in the radiation pressure acceleration and breakout afterburner regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, G. M.; McGuffey, C.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.; Beg, F. N.

    2017-07-01

    We present a theoretical study of heavy ion acceleration from ultrathin (20 nm) gold foil irradiated by high-intensity sub-picosecond lasers. Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, three laser systems are modeled that cover the range between femtosecond and picosecond pulses. By varying the laser pulse duration we observe a transition from radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) to the relativistic induced transparency (RIT) regime for heavy ions akin to light ions. The underlying physics of beam formation and acceleration is similar for light and heavy ions, however, nuances of the acceleration process make the heavy ions more challenging. A more detailed study involving variation of peak laser intensity I 0 and pulse duration τFWHM revealed that the transition point from RPA to RIT regime depends on the peak laser intensity on target and occurs for pulse duration {τ }{{F}{{W}}{{H}}{{M}}}{{R}{{P}}{{A}}\\to {{R}}{{I}}{{T}}}[{{f}}{{s}}]\\cong 210/\\sqrt{{I}0[{{W}} {{{cm}}}-2]/{10}21}. The most abundant gold ion and charge-to-mass ratio are Au51+ and q/M ≈ 1/4, respectively, half that of light ions. For ultrathin foils, on the order of one skin depth, we established a linear scaling of the maximum energy per nucleon (E/M)max with (q/M)max, which is more favorable than the quadratic one found previously. The numerical simulations predict heavy ion beams with very attractive properties for applications: high directionality (<10° half-angle), high fluxes (>1011 ions sr-1) and energy (>20 MeV/nucleon) from laser systems delivering >20 J of energy on target.

  13. Soluble CD30 does not predict late acute rejection or safe tapering of immunosuppression in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Valke, Lars L F G; van Cranenbroek, Bram; Hilbrands, Luuk B; Joosten, Irma

    2015-01-01

    Previous reports revealed the potential value of the soluble CD30 level (sCD30) as biomarker for the risk of acute rejection and graft failure after renal transplantation, here we examined its use for the prediction of safe tapering of calcineurin inhibitors as well as late acute rejection. In a cohort of renal transplant patients receiving triple immunosuppressive therapy we examined whether sCD30 can be used as a marker for safe (rejection-free) discontinuation of tacrolimus at six months after transplantation (TDS cohort: 24 rejectors and 44 non-rejecting controls). Also, in a second cohort of patients (n=22, rejectors n=11 and non-rejectors n=11), participating in a clinical trial of rituximab as induction therapy after renal transplantation (RITS cohort), we examined whether sCD30 could predict the occurrence of late (>3months post-transplant) acute rejection episodes. sCD30 was measured by ELISA in serum taken before and at several time points after transplantation. Overall, in the TDS cohort sCD30 decreased after transplantation. No difference in sCD30 was observed between rejectors and non-rejecting controls at any of the time points measured. In addition, in the RITS cohort, sCD30 measured at three months after transplantation were not indicative for the occurrence of late acute rejection. In two prospectively followed cohorts of renal transplant patients we found no association between sCD30 and the occurrence of either late acute rejection or acute rejection after reduction of immunosuppression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Peripheral Changes Associated With Delayed Dark Adaptation in Age-related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Laíns, Inês; Park, Dong Ho; Mukai, Ryo; Silverman, Rebecca; Oellers, Patrick; Mach, Steven; Kim, Ivana K; Vavvas, Demetrios G; Miller, Joan W; Miller, John B; Husain, Deeba

    2018-06-01

    To study the association between peripheral changes in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and dark adaptation (DA). Prospective, cross-sectional study. We recruited patients with AMD and a control group (>50 years) without any vitreoretinal disease. Ultra-widefield (UWF) pseudocolor and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) were obtained, and were assessed by 2 graders for the presence of several peripheral changes in perimacular, midperipheral, and far-peripheral zones. All participants were also imaged with 7-field color fundus photographs used for AMD staging (Age-Related Eye Disease Study classification system). Both eyes of study participants were tested with a dark adaptation (DA) extended protocol (20 minutes). Multilevel mixed-effect models (accounting for correlated outcomes between 2 eyes) were used for analyses. We included 128 eyes (n = 72 patients), 75% with AMD and the remainder controls. The presence of reticular pigmentary changes in the midperipheral (ß = 4.3, P = .012) and far-peripheral zones (ß = 8.4, P < .001) was associated with delayed rod-intercept times (RITs), even after adjusting for confounding factors. The presence, number, and extent of peripheral classic drusen did not show a similar association (P ≥ .148). The presence of a mottled decreased FAF pattern in the midperipheral zone was also associated with prolonged RITs (β = 4.4, P = .031). Our results suggest an association between DA and the presence of peripheral reticular pigmentary changes, as well as the presence of a peripheral mottled decreased FAF pattern. This provides new insights on the clinical significance of peripheral changes in AMD, and their contribution to impairments on DA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.) Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC), Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs).

    PubMed

    Loiola, Carina Mendes; Azevedo, Alinne Oliveira Nunes; Diniz, Leandro E C; Aragão, Wilson Menezes; Azevedo, Carlos Diego de O; Santos, Pedro Henrique A D; Ramos, Helaine Christine C; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Ramos, Semíramis R Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT) accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT) accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF), Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe) and West African Tall (WAT); the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT); the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT); and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT), Tonga Tall (TONT) and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics.

  16. The influence of proteasome inhibitor MG132, external radiation and unlabeled antibody on the tumor uptake and biodistribution of 188Re-labeled anti-E6 C1P5 antibody in cervical cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Phaeton, Rébécca; Wang, Xing Guo; Einstein, Mark H.; Goldberg, Gary L.; Casadevall, Arturo; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2009-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered a necessary step for the development of cervical cancer and >95% of all cervical cancers have detectable HPV sequences. We have recently demonstrated the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) which targeted viral oncoprotein E6 in treatment of experimental cervical cancer We hypothesized that pre-treatment of tumor cells with various agents which cause cell death and/or elevation of E6 levels would increase the accumulation of radiolabeled antibodies to E6 in cervical tumors. Methods HPV-16 positive CasKi cells were treated in vitro with up to 6 Gy of external radiation, or proteasome inhibitor MG-132 or unlabeled anti-E6 antibody C1P5 and cell death was assessed. Biodistribution of 188Rhenium (188Re)-labeled C1P5 antibody was performed in both control and radiation MG-132 treated CasKi tumor-bearing nude mice. Results . 188Re-C1P5 antibody demonstrated tumor specificity and very low uptake and fast clearance from the major organs. The amount of tumor uptake was enhanced by MG-132 but was unaffected by pre-treatment with radiation. In addition, in vitro studies demonstrated an unanticipated effect of unlabeled antibody on the amount of cell death, a finding that was suggested by our previous in vivo studies in CasKi tumor model. Conclusion We demonstrated that pre-treatment of cervical tumors with proteasome inhibitor MG-132 and with unlabeled antibody to E6 can serve as a means to generate non-viable cancer cells and to elevate the levels of target oncoproteins in the cells for increasing the accumulation of targeted radiolabeled antibodies in tumors. These results favor further development of RIT of cervical cancers targeting viral antigens. PMID:20127955

  17. Contribution of the backstreaming ions to the Self-Magnetic pinch (SMP) diode current

    SciT

    Mazarakis, Michael G.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Fournier, Sean D.

    2016-08-08

    Summary form only given. The results presented here were obtained with an SMP diode mounted at the front high voltage end of the RITS accelerator. RITS is a Self-Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line (MITL) voltage adder that adds the voltage pulses of six 1.3 MV inductively insulated cavities. Our experiments had two objectives: first to measure the contribution of the back-streaming ion currents emitted from the anode target to the diode beam current, and second to try to evaluate the energy of those ions and hence the actual Anode-Cathode (A-K) gap actual voltage. In any very high voltage inductive voltage addermore » (IVA) utilizing MITLs to transmit the power to the diode load, the precise knowledge of the accelerating voltage applied on the anode-cathode (A-K) gap is problematic. The accelerating voltage quoted in the literature is from estimates based on measurements of the anode and cathode currents of the MITL far upstream from the diode and utilizing the para-potential flow theories and inductive corrections. Thus it would be interesting to have another independent measurement to evaluate the A-K voltage. The diode's anode is made of a number of high Z metals in order to produce copious and energetic flash x-rays. The backstreaming currents are a strong fraction of the anode materials and their stage of cleanness and gas adsorption. We have measured the back-streaming ion currents emitted from the anode and propagating through a hollow cathode tip for various diode configurations and different techniques of target cleaning treatments, such as heating to very high temperatures with DC and pulsed current, with RF plasma cleaning and with both plasma cleaning and heating. Finally, we have also evaluated the A-K gap voltage by ion filtering techniques.« less

  18. Molecular and cellular characterisation of the zinc uptake (Znu) system of Nostoc punctiforme.

    PubMed

    Hudek, Lee; Pearson, Leanne A; Michalczyk, Agnes; Neilan, Brett A; Ackland, M Leigh

    2013-11-01

    Metal homoeostasis in cyanobacteria is based on uptake and export systems that are controlled by their own regulators. This study characterises the zinc uptake (Znu) system in Nostoc punctiforme. The system was found to comprise of three subunits in an ACB operon: a Zn(2+)-binding protein (ZnuA18), a transmembrane domain (ZnuB) and an ATPase (ZnuC). These proteins are encoded within the znu operon regulated by a zinc uptake transcription repressor (Zur). Interestingly, a second Zn(2+)-binding protein (ZnuA08) was also identified at a distal genomic location. Interactions between components of the ZnuACB system were investigated using knockouts of the individual genes. The znuA08(-), znuA18(-), znuB(-) and znuC(-) mutants displayed overall reduced znuACB transcript levels, suggesting that all system components are required for normal expression of znu genes. Zinc uptake assays in the Zn(2+)-binding protein mutant strains showed that the disruption of znuA18 had a greater negative effect on zinc uptake than disruption of znuA08. Complementation studies in Escherichia coli indicated that both znuA08 and znuA18 were able to restore zinc uptake in a znuA(-) mutant, with znuA18 permitting the highest zinc uptake rate. The N. punctiforme zur was also able to complement the E. coli zur(-) mutant. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spirituelles Wohlbefinden und Coping bei Sklerodermie, Lupus erythematodes und malignem Melanom.

    PubMed

    Pilch, Michaela; Scharf, Sabina Nadine; Lukanz, Martin; Wutte, Nora Johanna; Fink-Puches, Regina; Glawischnig-Goschnik, Monika; Unterrainer, Human-Friedrich; Aberer, Elisabeth

    2016-07-01

    Religiös-spirituelles Wohlbefinden ist verbunden mit höherer Vitalität und verminderter Depressionsneigung. In unserer Studie untersuchten wir die Strategien zur Krankheitsbewältigung und die Rolle von Religiosität-Spiritualität (R-S) zur Verbesserung des subjektiven Wohlbefindens. 149 Patienten (107 Frauen), 44 mit systemischer Sklerodermie (SKL), 48 mit Lupus erythematodes (LE) und 57 mit malignem Melanom (MM), Stadium I-II, wurden mittels eines selbstentwickelten Fragebogens zum subjektiven Wohlbefinden, zu den mit der Erkrankung einhergehenden Umständen sowie mit dem Multidimensionalen Inventar (MI-RSB) zu R-S befragt. LE-Patienten sind zum Zeitpunkt der Diagnosestellung stärker belastet als SKL- und MM-Patienten. SKL- und LE-Patienten können erst nach Jahren die Erkrankung akzeptieren. Der Gesamtscore des religiös-spirituellen Befindens liegt bei LE-Patienten signifikant unter dem Wert der Normalbevölkerung. Fotosensitivität und Gelenksschmerzen sind bei LE-Patienten negativ assoziiert mit der Fähigkeit Vergeben zu können. SKL-Patienten mit Gesichtsveränderungen und Lungenbeteiligung zeigen höhere allgemeine Religiosität. MM-Patienten haben höhere Werte für transzendente Hoffnung. Vorträge über die Krankheit und psychologische Betreuung sind die wichtigsten Bedürfnisse von Patienten mit SKL, LE und MM an ihre Betreuer. Religiös-spirituelle Angebote zur Krankheitsverarbeitung scheinen derzeit eine untergeordnete Rolle zu spielen, könnten aber eine wichtige Ressource sein, der man in Zukunft mehr Aufmerksamkeit schenken sollte. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Virtuelle Kraftwerke für Smart Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, Thomas; Heyne, Jean-Christoph

    In den zurückliegenden Jahren haben insbesondere zwei Trends die Stromversorgung bestimmt: der starke Anstieg der dezentralen und der Ausbau der regenerativen Stromerzeugung, die vor allem in den Verteilnetzen stattfinden. Angesichts dieser Entwicklung gewinnen virtuelle Kraftwerke (VK) immer mehr an Bedeutung. In der frühen Phase waren VK insbesondere eine Möglichkeit, kleine dezentrale Erzeuger zu einer größeren Einheit zu bündeln und sie so marktfähig zu machen. Heute werden sie - überwacht und gesteuert über ein Dezentrales Energie-Management-System (DEMS) - gemeinsam mit Demand Response betrieben, also dem Reagieren eines Energieabnehmers auf Marktpreise. Das Demand Side Management soll zur Flexibilisierung der Industrie beitragen. Da der Ausbau der Übertragungsnetze nur schleppend vorankommt, kann die Nutzung von lastseitiger Flexibilität einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Versorgungssicherheit leisten. Im zweiten Teil des Beitrags geht es um die Entwicklung der Märkte. Großes Interesse besteht immer noch an der Regelenergie, zumal der Bedarf bis 2050 deutlich steigen wird. Die Spotmärkte Intraday und Day-Ahead wachsen kontinuierlich, deshalb werden sie für VK immer wichtiger. Am Ende gibt der Beitrag einen Ausblick auf die künftige Entwicklung, in der Regelenergie- und Spotmärkte noch eine Rolle spielen, aber andere Geschäftsmodelle wichtiger werden. Darüber hinaus geht es um langfristige Entwicklungen, die z. B. zusätzliche Serviceleistungen durch VK betreffen.

  1. Resistivity Changes Due to Precipitation Effects in Fibre Reinforced Mg-Al-Zn-Mn Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiehn, J.; Kainer, K. U.; Vostrý, P.; Stulíková, I.

    1997-05-01

    The change of electrical properties of alumina short fibre reinforced Mg-Al-Zn-Mn alloy AZ91D during isochronal annealing up to 300 °C is discussed. The Saffil® fibres were incorporated into the magnesium alloy by direct squeeze casting. The fibre distribution is random planar parallel to the flat faces of the dc four-point resistivity specimens machined from the solution treated castings. A sharp drop of resistivity between 140 and 260 °C is explained by the formation of incoherent -phase particles. Some practical recommendations concerning the use of alumina short fibre reinforced AZ91 alloy are made on the basis of the results obtained. Es werden die Änderungen der elektrischen Eigenschaften der aluminiumoxid-kurzfaserverstärkten Mg-Al-Zn-Mn Legierung AZ91D während isochroner Wärmebehandlungen bis 300 °C diskutiert. Das direkte Preßgießverfahren diente zur Herstellung der Saffil®-Faser Magnesium Verbundwerkstoffe. Die Proben zur Widerstandsmessung nach der Vier-Punkt Methode wurden durch spanende Bearbeitung aus den lösungsgeglühten Preßgußstücken herausgearbeitet, so daß sie regellose Faserverteilung in den Ebenen parallel zu den flachen Probenseiten aufwiesen. Ein starker Abfall des elektrischen Widerstands im Temperaturbereich zwischen 140 und 260 °C wird durch die Bildung inkohärenter β-Phase erklärt. Auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse werden einige Empfehlungen zur Anwendung der kurzfaserverstärkten Legierung AZ91 gegeben.

  2. Visualisierung analoger Schaltungen durch 3-D Animation von transienten SPICE-Simulationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J.; Manoli, Y.

    2007-06-01

    Für das Zeichnen analoger Schaltpläne wird oft versucht, die Potentialverteilung in der entsprechenden Schaltung auszunutzen, um eine Platzierung der Bauteile nach abfallendem Potential vorzunehmen. Mit Hilfe von Computerunterstützung gelingt es, eine verallgemeinerte dreidimensionale Platzierungsstrategie anzuwenden, die allein auf Grund der Potentialwerte einer Schaltung die automatische Generierung einer technisch exakten Potentialdarstellung erlaubt. Somit ist es möglich, die Ergebnisse von transienten SPICE-Simulationen in jedem Zeitschritt darzustellen und eine Animation des zeitlichen Verhaltens zu erzeugen. Die Umsetzung dieser Methode zur Einbettung in eine webbasierte Lern - und Arbeitsplattform wird im Folgenden erläutert.

  3. Mikrospritzgießen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Karl-Herbert; Ammer, Daniel; Hoffstetter, Marc; Wintermantel, Erich

    Bei der Betrachtung von aktuellen Produktentwicklungen lässt sich durch alle Branchen hinweg ein deutlicher Trend zur Miniaturisierung und Funktionsintegration auf kleinstem Raum erkennen. Der Einsatz technischer Kunststoffe, die überwiegend im Thermoplast-Spritzgießverfahren verarbeitet werden, leistet dabei einen wichtigen Beitrag um diese Produktentwicklungen in marktfähige Artikel umsetzen zu können. Hierbei sind im Vergleich zum Standardspritzgießen einige Besonderheiten hinsichtlich des Formenbaus, der Anlagen- sowie Prozesstechnik und der Qualitätssicherung zu beachten.

  4. Republication of: On the general relativity theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyl, H.

    2009-07-01

    This English translation of the paper by H. Weyl, "Zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie", Physikalische Zeitschrift 24, 230-232 (1923), in which he formulated the geometrical foundations of a model of an expanding Universe, has been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for publication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. The paper is accompanied by an editorial note written by Juergen Ehlers and by Weyl's brief biography compiled by Andrzej Krasiński from internet sources, with corrections provided by Weyl's son and grandson.

  5. Abtasttheorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    Das Abtasttheorem von Shannon ist von grundlegender Bedeutung für die Nachrichtentechnik, besonders aber für den Fall, dass ein Analogsignal in ein digital codiertes Signal überführt werden soll. Es legt fest, wie oft ein analoges Signal abgetastet werden muss, um es, digital codiert, wieder ″fehlerfrei″ in ein analoges Signal zurückwandeln zu können. Außerdem ist bezüglich der im Analogsignal enthaltenen Frequenzen eine bestimmte Bedingung zu erfüllen. Die Ableitung ist hier in verkürzter Form dargestellt.

  6. Mathematisches Bewusstsein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaenders, Rainer; Kvasz, Ladislav

    Wenn jemand sagt, dass ein Bus um 9 Uhr abfährt - weiß man es dann? Angenommen, man ist darüber unterrichtet, dass die Busse unter der Woche immer zur vollen Stunde abfahren - von 7 Uhr morgens bis 7 Uhr abends, weiß man es dann mit dem Wissen um diese allgemeine Regel besser, dass der Bus um 9 Uhr abfährt? Macht es einen Unterschied, ob man den Fahrplan erstellt, den Bus lenkt oder nur mitfährt, um sich dieser Tatsache bewusst zu sein?

  7. Nichtkontinuierliche (zeitdiskrete) Signale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    Zeitdiskrete Signale werden häufig aus zeitkontinuierlichen Signalen durch Abtastung erzeugt. Dass beide Signale gleichwertig sind, zeigt das Abtasttheorem (Kap. 116) von Shannon, sofern die Bedingung nach (116.2), f_{ab}≈(2{,}2 {\\ldots} 4)\\cdot fg) eingehalten wird. Digitale Signale haben Vorteile: Einfache Speicherung, Weiterverarbeitung in Rechnern, wenig störanfällige Übertragung. Für die Bearbeitung dieser Signale dienen die im Kapitel dargestellten Hilfsmittel: Diskrete Fouriertransformation; Schnelle Fouriertransformation; z-Transformation: Darstellung, Sätze zur z-Transformation, Korrespondenzen zu Zeitfunktionen, Beispiele.

  8. Schaltungsunterlagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Peter

    Beim Zeichnen von Schaltplänen werden alle zugehörigen Maschinen, Geräte, Schaltteile und Leitungen nicht maßstabsgetreu und der tatsächlichen Ausführung ähnlich gezeichnet, sondern durch genormte graphische Symbole dargestellt. Die Ausführungen in diesem Kapitel sollen dazu eine Hilfestellung geben. Behandelt werden folgende Themen: Wichtige VDE-Bestimmungen; Diagrammdarstellungen; Schaltzeichen nach DIN; Kennzeichnung von elektrischen Betriebsmitteln; Schaltungsunterlagen der Energietechnik; Schaltungsunterlagen der Elektronik; Schaltzeichen für Binäre Elemente; Entwurf von Schaltungen: Einzelplatinen, Gedruckte Schaltungen; Projektierung. Zahlreiche Tabellen und Abbildungen dienen zur Erläuterung.

  9. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  10. Segmentierung von Aortenaneurysmen in CTA-Bildern mit dem statistischen Verfahren der Active Appearance Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Katharina; Egger, Jan; Großkopf, Stefan; Kaftan, Jens N.; Dörner, Ralf; Freisleben, Bernd

    In diesem Beitrag werden Active Appearance Models (AAMs) zur Segmentierung der äußeren Kontur von Aortenaneurysmen eingesetzt. Diese Aufgabe ist wegen des geringen Kontrastes zum umliegenden Gewebe und des Aufbaus der teils thrombotisierten oder kalzifizierten Gefäßwände im Bereich eines Aneurysmas so komplex, dass sie aufgrund der Vielgestalt der Kontur in CT-Angiographie-Bildern die Verwendung eines statistischen Modells für Form und eingeschlossene Textur rechtfertigt. Für die Evaluation des Verfahrens wurden verschiedene statistische Modelle aus Schichten von neun CTA-Datensätzen trainiert und die Segmentierung anhand von Leave-One-Out-Tests überprüft.

  11. Bewertung von Fahrzeuggeräuschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus; Schulte-Fortkamp, Brigitte; Fiebig, André; Haverkamp, Michael

    Bei der Wahrnehmung und Beurteilung eines Automobils sind unzählige Merkmale und Eigenschaften von Bedeutung. Dabei können Merkmale objektiv-technisch beschrieben werden, wie Angaben zur Motorisierung, Höchstgeschwindigkeit, Drehmoment, zulässige Zuladung, Verbrauch usw. Daneben sind weitere Eigenschaften von Bedeutung, die sich einer einfachen objektiv-technischen Beschreibung entziehen. Hier sind Begriffe zu nennen, wie Sicherheit, allgemeine Qualitätsanmutung, Design, Ergonomie, Komfort, Haptik, Fahrdynamik, Zuverlässigkeit, die deutlich schwieriger objektiv erfassbar und beschreibbar sind (Abb. 4.1).

  12. Transition of the Combustion of Condensed Systems into an Explosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-06

    tubes iwholly L 1 ed,’ with exrlnsives. Figure Cb de ,-cts the tube which w-.as used ty Gi’pson ar’J !Ma’L"ek for the study of the transition of ccrtUS...continuous optical recording c_’ the trocess of the tlii-sitiOTI CT’ crmsr.ion into aCetonatio.. it is schematically’ de -cicted on rg c The tube...r thlis zur-ose Zverev designed a special electronic amelifier. hIs amplifIer had a sc.*w resnonse, which made it rossible to use the ciezoelectric

  13. Tissue Engineering in der Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde, Kopf- und Halschirurgie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bücheler, Markus; Bootz, Friedrich

    Tissue Engineering ist eine Schlüsseltechnologie für den Gewebeersatz der Zukunft. Am Beispiel der Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde, Kopf- und Halschirurgie werden klinisch etablierte Gewebeersatzmethoden und aktuelle Entwicklungen des Tissue Engineering gegenübergestellt. Die Besonderheiten der zu ersetzenden Gewebe im Kopf- und Halsbereich erfordert vielfältige Ersatzverfahren. Im klinischen Alltag werden heute vor allem autogene Transplantate und Implantate für den Gewebeersatz verwendet [1]. In vitro hergestellte Gewebe werden abgesehen von Einzelanwendungen zur Zeit noch nicht am Patienten eingesetzt.

  14. Mittelwert- und Arbeitstaktsynchrone Simulation von Dieselmotoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, Sebastian

    Getrieben durch die immer restriktiveren Anforderungen an das Emissions- und Verbrauchsverhalten moderner Verbrennungsmotoren steigt die Komplexität von Motormanagementsystemen mit jeder Modellgeneration an. Damit geht nicht nur eine Zunahme des Softwareumfangs von Steuergeräten sondern zugleich ein deutlicher Anstieg des Applikations-, Vermessungs- und Testaufwandes einher. Zur Effizienzsteigerung des Software- und Funktionsentwicklungsprozesses haben sich daher in der Automobilindustrie sowie in Forschungsinstituten verschiedene modell- und simulationsbasierte Methoden wie die Model-in-the-Loop (MiL) Simulation, die Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) Simulation, das Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) sowie die Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) Simulation etabliert.

  15. [Involuntary sterilization of men in the Third Reich using the example of the surgical clinic in Göttingen from 1934-1944].

    PubMed

    Hansson, N

    2015-04-01

    The German Law for Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring (Das Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses) was enacted in 1933. It allowed forced sterilization of patients who had been diagnosed with certain so-called hereditary diseases. Drawing on patient files from the city of Göttingen, this article provides new research results about the practice of forced sterilization of men in the Third Reich. Results show that around 1000 men were sentenced to sterilization by the local hereditary health court (Erbgesundheitsgericht). In this article, some aspects of the operation and "refertilization" are reconstructed.

  16. Netz ohne doppelten Boden: Internet-Sicherheit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Johann

    2002-07-01

    Die Sicherheitslücken des heutigen Internets haben zwei Ursachen: sein ursprüngliches Design für rein militärische Zwecke sowie die gefährliche Sorglosigkeit der Entwickler und Betreiber von Internet-Komponenten. Dabei kann ein kleiner Kreis von Experten Angriffe auf die eigentlichen Netzknoten ausführen. Typische Hacker-Angriffe kommen von Endsystemen des Internets und richten sich auch gegen Endsysteme wie Firmen-Intranets oder einzelne PCs. Dagegen gibt es eine Reihe von Schutzmöglichkeiten. Es ist jedoch keine einfache Lösung zur Erhöhung der Internet-Sicherheit in Sicht.

  17. Funkmesstechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    Ein Hauptgebiet der Funkmesstechnik ist durch den Begriff RADAR (radio detection and ranging gekennzeichnet. Bei diesem Verfahren werden impulsförmige elektromagnetische Wellen von einer Antenne ausgesendet und an Körpern oder Stoffverteilungen (Wolken) reflektiert. Die Sendeantenne wird auf Empfang umgeschaltet, und anhand des Echos sind Rückschlüsse auf die Lage und die Beschaffenheit der Körper oder der Stoffverteilungen möglich. Angewendet wird die Radartechnik bei der Kontrolle und der Sicherung des Land-, Wasser- und Flugverkehrs, in der Meteorologie zur Wetterprognose, in der Astrologie und im militärischen Bereich.

  18. Aufbau des humanoiden Roboters BART III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resetov, Dimitri; Pietsch, Björn; Gerth, Wilfried

    Der vorliegende Beitrag präsentiert den humanoiden Roboter BART III, der am Institut für Regelungstechnik als eine robuste und erweiterbare Plattform für weiterführende Grundlagenforschung zur zweibeinigen Fortbewegung entwickelt wurde. Im Gegensatz zu den bisher am IRT genutzten Robotern BARt-UH und LISA besitzt der neue Roboter einen beweglichen Oberkörper mit einem Bauchgelenk und Armen. BART III besitzt insgesamt 19 aktive Freiheitsgrade, 12 davon im Unterkörper. Ein weiteres Merkmal des Roboters ist die im gesamten Körper verteilte Ansteuerelektronik, die neben der lokalen Motorregelung diverse sicherheitsrelevante Funktionen übernimmt.

  19. Das CARNOTsche Paradigma und seine erkenntnistheoretischen Implikationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöpf, Hans-Georg

    Der vorliegende historisch-kritische Essay führt die Eigentümlichkeiten der klassischen phänomenologischen Thermodynamik auf das von CARNOT geschaffene Paradigma zurück und greift einige damit zusammenhängende Fragen auf.Translated AbstractCARNOT's Paradigm and its Epistemological ImplicationsThe present historic-critical essay traces the pecularities of classical phenomenological thermodynamics back to the paradigm, created by CARNOT, and takes up some questions to which this paradigm gives rise.

  20. Development of a Gene Therapy Trial for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Evidence that replication of the antitumor adenovirus ONYX -015 is not controlled by the p53 and p14(ARF) tumor suppressor genes. J Virol 2002; 76...12483–12490. 27 Rothmann T, Hengstermann A, Whitaker NJ, Scheffner M, zur Hausen H. Replication of ONYX -015, a potential anticancer adenovirus, is...export, rather than p53 inactivation, determines ONYX -015 tumor selectivity. Cancer Cell 2004; 6: 611–623. 29 O’Shea CC, Soria C, Bagus B, McCormick F

  1. Grundlagen der Nachrichtenübertragung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    Die Nachrichtentechnik hat die Aufgabe, Nachrichten auszutauschen. Nachrichten sind z. B. Fragen, Beobachtungen und Befehle. Unter dem Begriff Nachrichtenübertragung wird hier die elektrische Nachrichtenübertragung verstanden, denn zur Übermittlung von Nachrichten werden Spannungen und Ströme sowie elektrische und magnetische Felder eingesetzt. Die Übertragung beginnt mit der Nachrichtenquelle, die die Nachrichten aussendet, und endet mit der Nachrichtensenke, die sie empfängt. Zwischen beiden liegt das elektrische Nachrichtenübertragungssystem, dessen Funktionseinheiten dargestellt sind und erläutert werden.

  2. Von Donuts und Zucker: Mit Neutronen biologische Makromoleküle erforschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Roland P.

    2003-05-01

    Für die Erforschung von Biomolekülen bieten Neutronen einzigartige Eigenschaften. Vor allem ihre unterschiedliche Wechselwirkung mit dem natürlichen Wasserstoff und seinem schweren Isotop Deuterium ermöglicht tiefe Einblicke in Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik von Proteinen, Nukleinsäuren und Biomembranen. Bei vielen Fragestellungen zur Strukturaufklärung gibt es kaum oder keine Alternative zum Neutron. Das Institut Laue-Langevin trägt Bahnbrechendes zum Erfolg der Neutronen-Methoden in der Biologie bei.

  3. PubMed

    Hey, Christiane

    2018-04-01

    Bock JM et al. Evaluation of the natural history of patients who aspirate. Laryngoscope 2017; 127: S1–S10 DIE KLINISCHE PROGRESSION DER ASPIRATION BIS ZU EVENTUELLEN PULMONALEN STöRUNGEN IST NICHT VOLLSTäNDIG VERSTANDEN. EMPFEHLUNGEN ZUR ERNäHRUNGSUMSTELLUNG, SCHWERE VON PENETRATION UND ASPIRATION GEMäß PAS SOWIE DIE ÄTIOLOGIE DER DYSPHAGIE BEEINFLUSSEN MöGLICHERWEISE DIE ZEITSPANNE BIS ZUM AUFTRETEN DES ERSTEN PULMONALEN EREIGNISSES SOWIE DAS GESAMTüBERLEBEN VON PATIENTEN MIT VFS-DOKUMENTIERTER, ASYMPTOMATISCHER PENETRATION UND ASPIRATION.

  4. Sternbilder und ihre Mythen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasching, Gerhard

    Die Sternbilder und die damit verbundenen Mythen helfen, sich am Sternenhimmel zurechtzufinden und vermitteln die Vielfalt der Bilder der Mythologie und der Sternsagen. Sternkarten und alte Kupferstiche aus dem Bestand der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek zeigen, wie man sich in früheren Jahrhunderten den Sternenhimmel vorgestellt hat. Ausführliche Sachverzeichnisse mit über 3000 Suchbegriffen erleichtern den Zugang zu Stern- und Sternbildnamen und zur Mythologie. Die dritte, erweiterte Auflage gibt für die kommenden Jahrzehnte darüber Auskunft, wo und wann die Planeten aber auch Sternhaufen, Gasnebel und Galaxien am Himmel mühelos aufgefunden werden können.

  5. Imagineering the astronomical revolution - Essay review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, Nicholas.

    2006-11-01

    Concerning following Books: (I) Transmitting knowledge - words, images, and instruments in early modern Europe. Kusukawa and Maclean (eds.), OUP, Oxford, 2006; (II) Widmung, Welterklärung und Wissenschaftslegitimierung: Titelbilder und ihre Funktionen in der wissenschaftlichen Revolution. Remmert, Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 2005; (III) The power of images in early modern science. Lefevre, Renn and Schoepflin (eds.), Birkhäuser, Basel, 2003; (IV) Immagini per conoscere - dal Rinascimento alla rivoluzione scientifica. Meroi and Pogliano (eds.), Olschki, Florenz, 2001; (V) Erkenntnis Erfindung Konstruktion - Studien zur Bildgeschichte von Naturwissenschaften und Technik vom 16. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert. Holländer (ed.), Mann, Berlin, 2000.

  6. Models in Insurance: Paradigms, Puzzles, Communications and Revolutions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    80.7] G. Buoro, G. Pavesi and G. Zucchiatti, "Osservazioni sul Sistema di Calcolo del Margine di Solvabiliti," 71-80. [80.8] J. Calcanis and A...Vegas, "Un Ensayo sobre la Concepci6n Sistema aplicada a la Empresa de Seguros," 443-462. [80.41] K. H. Wolff, "Zur numerischen Berechnung der... Teoria della Credibilit&," Giornale dell’ Istituto degli Attuari, 27, 219-231 (1964). (D51 N. De Pril, "The Efficiency of a Bonus-Malus System," AB, 10

  7. Kontinuierliche Wanddickenbestimmung und Visualisierung des linken Herzventrikels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornheim, Lars; Hahn, Peter; Oeltze, Steffen; Preim, Bernhard; Tönnies, Klaus D.

    Zur Bestimmung von Defekten in der Herztätigkeit kann die Veränderung der Wanddicke des linken Ventrikels in zeitlichen MRTAufnahmesequenzen gemessen werden. Derzeit werden für diese Bestimmung im allgemeinen nur die aufwändig manuell erstellte Segmentierungen der Endsystole und Enddiastole benutzt. Wir stellen ein bis auf die Startpunktinitialisierung automatisches Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Wanddicke des linken Ventrikels und ihrer Veränderung vor, das auf einer vollständigen Segmentierung der Herzwand in allen Zeitschritten durch ein dynamisches dreidimensionales Formmodell (Stabiles Feder-Masse-Modell) basiert. Dieses Modell nutzt bei der Segmentierung neben der Grauwertinformation eines Zeitschrittes auch die Segmentierungen der anderen Zeitschritte und ist so aufgebaut, dass die Wanddicken direkt gemessen und visualisiert werden können. Auf diese Weise werden die lokalen Wanddickenextrema über den gesamten Aufnahmezeitraum detektiert, auch wenn sie nicht in die Endsystole bzw. -diastole fallen. Das Verfahren wurde auf sechs 4D-Kardio-MRT-Datensätzen evaluiert und stellte sich als sehr robust bzgl. der einzig nötigen Interaktion heraus.

  8. [Gerog Fresenius and the species Aspergillus fumigatus].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A

    1998-01-01

    The species Aspergillus fumigatus was first extensively described by G. Fresenius. J. B. Georg W. Fresenius was born in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, in 1808 and also died there in 1866. He studied medicine and finished his doctorate thesis (MD) in 1829. Afterwards he started his career as a physician and surgeon in Frankfurt/Main in the same year. In 1831 Fresenius became a university lecturer for botany at the "Senckenbergisches medicinisches Institut"; this institute specialized in botany. In this year Fresenius also became the director of the botanical gardens of Frankfurt/Main. Apart from his collaboration in the institute for agriculture he actively participated in the microscopical association of Frankfurt as well as the "Senckenbergische medicinische Gesellschaft". Almost over the whole period, Fresenius also worked as a physician taking care of miserable people. The outstanding publications of Fresenius are "Die Flora von Frankfurt" (Flora of Frankfurt) and "Beiträge zur Mykologie" (Contributions to Mycology). The monograph "Beiträge zur Mykologie" was published by Fresenius as a dedication for the centennial celebrations of the Senckenberg foundation ("Senckenbergische Stiftung"). It contains 132 pages and 13 excellent lithographic figures (Camera lucida). The third part of this monograph also contains the description of the species A. fumigatus. Fresenius was an engaged physician as well as an outstanding researcher and expert in natural sciences who described numerous new fungal species some of which are still accepted nowadays in accordance with the "International Code of Botanical Nomenclature".

  9. Professionelles Learning Service Management an Hochschulen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baume, Matthias; Rathmayer, Sabine; Gergintchev, Ivan; Schulze, Elvira

    Aufbauend auf den Großteils bereits geschaffenen eLearning Infrastrukturen für eine moderne Organisation stehen nahezu alle Hochschulen vor der Aufgabe, geeignete Lern- und Wissensmanagementkonzepte in Hinblick auf die Dienstgüte und den Anwenderbezug zu realisieren. Ein möglicher Lösungsansatz ist dabei die Entwicklung und Umsetzung eines Rahmenkonzeptes zur Verbesserung und Weiterentwicklung der Lehr-/Lernprozesse für Dozenten und Studenten am Beispiel bereits vorhandener und etablierter Service-Management-Konzepte. Übertragen auf die universitäre Organisation und Lehre, wäre ein derartiges Rahmenwerk zur Planung, Erbringung und Unterstützung von Lehr-/Lerndienstleistungen mit Einbezug der wichtigsten Lehr-/Lernprozesse ein dringend benötigter und fundamentaler Schritt hin zu einer schrittweisen Professionalisierung und Verbesserung der Hochschullehre. Der Beitrag erschließt eine Konzeptskizze für professionelles Learning Service Management an Hochschulen und gibt einen Ausblick auf die mögliche Vorgehensweise bei dessen Implementierung und Evaluierung.

  10. Prä- und perioperative Aspekte der Versorgung dermatochirurgischer Patienten.

    PubMed

    Müller, Cornelia S L; Hubner, Wakiko; Thieme-Ruffing, Sigrid; Pföhler, Claudia; Vogt, Thomas; Volk, Thomas; Gärtner, Barbara C; Bialas, Patric

    2017-02-01

    Die Dermatochirurgie nimmt hinsichtlich vieler Punkte eine Sonderstellung unter den operativen Fächern ein. Hierzu gehört in erster Linie die Tatsache, dass bis auf wenige Ausnahmen fast alle Eingriffe traditionell in Lokal- bzw. Regionalanästhesie und oft auch in räumlich-infrastruktureller Trennung von den großen Zentral-Operationssälen stattfinden können. Die peri- und postoperative Überwachung obliegt dabei dem dermatochirurgischen Operationsteam. Das sui generis kleinere OP-Team hat somit eine ganze Reihe perioperativer Notwendigkeiten zu beachten, um die sich in den "großen" chirurgischen Fächern eine Vielzahl verschiedener beteiligter Fachgruppen gemeinsam kümmern. Hierzu gehören neben Hygieneaspekten, Kenntnissen in der Überwachung der Patienten sowie dem Aspekt der surgical site infections auch Fragen zur postoperativen Schmerztherapie sowie detailliertes pharmakologisches Wissen über die zur Anwendung kommenden Lokalanästhetika und das Handling der damit assoziierten toxischen und allergischen Reaktionen. Eine interdisziplinäre Zusammenarbeit und Verantwortung für den Patienten ist notwendig und erfordert die Erarbeitung und Umsetzung qualitätsorientierter und evidenzbasierter Handlungsanweisungen, die im dermatochirurgischen OP-Setting meist weit über das eigentliche Fach hinausgehen. Ziel dieses Weiterbildungsartikels soll die komprimierte Darstellung der genannten fachübergreifenden Standpunkte bezüglich der wichtigsten perioperativen Aspekte sein. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Energy as a Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pell, Wolfgang

    Energie wird zum Gebrauchsgegenstand, zur Commodity und rückt doch in den Blickpunkt der Aufmerksamkeit. Volkswirtschaftliche, politische, gesellschaftliche und betriebswirtschaftliche Ansprüche lassen Services rund um die Energieversorgung (Energy-related Services) entstehen. Convenience Services, die den Ansprüchen der Konsumenten gerecht werden, wie Visualisierung von (dezentraler) Energieerzeugung und -verbrauch auf Basis digitaler Smart Meter, die den analogen Ferraris-Zähler ersetzen, sowie optimierter Energieeinsatz halten in Haushalten als digitalisierten Standorten (Smart Sites) Einzug. Energieoptimierung auf Basis des Paradigmas "Verbrauch folgt Erzeugung" stellt Nachfrageflexibilität industrieller Prozesse (Demand Response) als Energie-Effizienz-Faktor in den Vordergrund und lässt Services wie ihre Vermarktung als Regelenergie zur Stabilisierung der Netzfrequenz entstehen. Ein Innovation Action Plan liefert einen Ausblick, wohin die Integration neuer Technologien, die Steigerung der Kundennähe und die Entwicklung neuer Geschäftsmodelle die Energiewirtschaft führen kann. Mit Eco-Home und Power-Pool werden zwei konkrete Beispiele für Energy as a Service vorgestellt.

  12. Biokompatible Metalle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Suk-Woo; Wintermantel, Erich

    Metalle als Implantatwerkstoffe werden in der Medizin für zwei Hauptanwendungen eingesetzt: für Prothesen des totalen Gelenkersatzes wie beispielsweise Hüft-, Knie- und Schulterprothesen und für Fixationselemente zur Stabilisierung von Frakturen. Beispiele hierfür sind Osteosyntheseplatten, Marknägel, Schrauben, Drähte und Stents. Eine der ersten Anwendungen von Metallen im menschlichen Körper war die Fixation von Fragmenten eines gebrochenen Humerus (Oberarmknochen) mit einem Metalldraht durch zwei französische Physiker im Jahr 1775 [1]. Ausführliche Untersuchungen zur Verträglichkeit von Metallen im menschlichen Körper wurden bereits im frühen 19. Jahrhundert durchgeführt. Von den untersuchten Werkstoffen verursachten die edlen Metalle wie Gold, Silber und Platin aufgrund ihrer Korrosionsbeständigkeit und Körperverträglichkeit die geringsten Reizungen im menschlichen Körper. Die klinische Anwendung der Edelmetalle war jedoch wegen der geringen mechanischen Eigenschaften beschränkt. Andere Metalle wie Messing, Kupfer oder Eisen wiesen vergleichsweise höhere Festigkeitswerte auf, sie waren jedoch aufgrund der geringen Korrosionsbeständigkeit und Biokompatibilität nicht für den klinischen Einsatz geeignet. Ein weiteres Problem stellte die Gefahr der Infektion durch unsterile Instrumente und Implantate dar. Gegen Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts hielt die antiseptische Operationsmethode Einzug in die Kliniken, die z. B. erfolgreiche Operationen mit Silberdraht ermöglichte.

  13. Atopic Eczema and Stress among Single Parents and Families: An Empirical Study of 96 Mothers.

    PubMed

    Gieler, Uwe; Schoof, Stefanie; Gieler, Tanja; Scheewe, Sibylle; Schut, Christina; Kupfer, Jörg

    2017-01-04

    This study investigated the extent to which single mothers of children with atopic eczema experience disease-related stress. A total of 96 mothers were divided into 4 groups: mothers living with a partner, who had or did not have a child with atopic eczema, and single mothers, who had or did not have a child with atopic eczema. The following questionnaires were used to assess psychological burden: Short Stress Questionnaire (Kurzer Fragebogen zur Erfassung von Belastung; KFB), Satisfaction with Life Questionnaire (Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit; FLZ), General Depression Scale (Allgemeine Depressions-Skala; ADS), and the Questionnaire for Parents of Children with Atopic Eczema (Fragebogen für Eltern von Neurodermitis kranken Kindern; FEN). Single mothers had higher levels of helplessness and aggression due to their child's scratching behaviour than did mothers living with a partner and a child with atopic eczema. Single mothers of children with atopic eczema had the highest scores regarding experienced stress in the family and the lowest scores concerning general life satisfaction. Special care should be provided for single mothers with higher stress, in order to teach them how to deal with the scratching behaviour of their children.

  14. Bildbasierte Navigation eines mobilen Roboters mittels omnidirektionaler und schwenkbarer Kamera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nierobisch, Thomas; Hoffmann, Frank; Krettek, Johannes; Bertram, Torsten

    Dieser Beitrag präsentiert einen neuartigen Ansatz zur entkoppelten Regelung der Kamera-Blickrichtung und der Bewegung eines mobilen Roboters im Kontext der bildbasierten Navigation. Eine schwenkbare monokulare Kamera hält unabhängig von der Roboterbewegung die relevanten Merkmale für die Navigation im Sichtfeld. Die Entkopplung der Kamerablickrichtung von der eigentlichen Roboterbewegung wird durch die Projektion der Merkmale auf eine virtuelle Bildebene realisiert. In der virtuellen Bildebene hängt die Ausprägung der visuellen Merkmale für die bildbasierte Regelung nur von der Roboterposition ab und ist unabhängig gegenüber der tatsächlichen Blickrichtung der Kamera. Durch die Schwenkbarkeit der monokularen Kamera wird der Arbeitsbereich, über dem sich ein Referenzbild zur bildbasierten Regelung eignet, gegenüber einer statischen Kamera signifikant vergrößert. Dies ermöglicht die Navigation auch in texturarmen Umgebungen, die wenig verwertbare Textur- und Strukturmerkmale aufweisen.

  15. Epigenetische Aspekte bei Karzinomen der Kopf-Hals-Region

    PubMed Central

    Schmezer, Peter; Plass, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Plattenepithelkarzinome der Kopf-Hals-Region (HNSCC) zählen seit Jahren zu den weltweit häufigsten Krebsarten. Trotz vieler Bemühungen hat sich das 5-Jahres-Überleben bei Patienten mit HNSCC kaum verbessert. Um einen Fortschritt zu erzielen, ist es notwendig, die der Erkrankung zugrunde liegenden biologischen Prozesse besser zu verstehen. Neben den bekannten genetischen Veränderungen haben molekular-zytogenetische Untersuchungen bei HNSCC gezeigt, dass es weitere Veränderungen gibt, die mit Vermehrung und Verlust chromosomaler Bereiche einhergehen, für die jedoch die krankheitsverursachenden Gene bisher nicht identifiziert wurden. Darüberhinaus haben jüngste Forschungsergebnisse verdeutlicht, dass epigenetische Modifikationen wie die DNA Methylierung eine wichtige Rolle spielen. So konnte gezeigt werden, dass bei HNSCC eine Reihe von Genen (z.B. das Tumorsuppressorgen CDKN2A sowie DAPK1, MGMT, TIMP3, TCF21, und C/EBPα) hypermethylierte Bereiche in regulatorischen DNA Sequenzen aufweisen, wodurch ihre Expression verringert oder unterbunden wird. Die Hypermethylierung solcher Gene könnte als Biomarker zur Früherkennung von HNSCC genutzt werden und nicht zuletzt dadurch zur Verbesserung von Prävention und Therapieerfolg beitragen. PMID:18483718

  16. Qualitätsmanagement in molekularbiologischen Laboratorien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Manuela

    Jedes Laboratorium führt Untersuchungen nach bestem Wissen und Gewissen durch, und jeder Analytiker weiß von sich, dass er/sie gute Arbeit macht. Trotzdem können Analysen des gleichen Probenmaterials in verschiedenen Laboren zu unterschiedlichen Ergebnissen führen. Sofern es sich dabei nicht um Untersuchungen im Bereich der Nachweisgrenze und damit letztlich um statistisch bedingte Unterschiede oder Inhomogenitäten im Probenmaterial handelt, trägt dies nicht zur Vertrauenswürdigkeit von analytischen Untersuchungsergebnissen bei. Mit der zunehmenden Globalisierung der Märkte rückt die gegenseitige Anerkennung von analytischen Resultaten immer stärker in den Vordergrund. Die Vergleichbarkeit von Laborresultaten wird erleichtert, wenn sich die Laboratorien auf die gleichen Richtlinien zur Vorgehensweise und Handhabung ihrer Arbeiten verständigen. Im Bereich der Laboruntersuchungen von Lebensmitteln, Futtermitteln und Saatgut ist als derartige Rischt-Schnur die EN ISO/IEC 17025 [1] anerkannt. Diese Norm enthält alle Anforderungen, die Prüflaboratorien erfüllen müssen, wenn sie nachweisen wollen, dass sie ein Qualitätsmanagementsystem betreiben, technisch (meint: fachlich) kompetent und fähig sind, fachlich fundierte Ergebnisse zu erzielen.

  17. Theoretische Konzepte der Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.; Simon, B.; Simon, H.

    "Dies ist kein Lehrbuch der theoretischen Physik, auch kein Kompendium der Physikgeschichte ... , vielmehr eine recht anspruchsvolle Sammlung historischer Miniaturen zur Vergangenheit der theoretischen Physik - ihrer "Sternstunden", wenn man so will. Frei vom Zwang, etwas Erschöpfendes vorlegen zu müssen, gelingt dem Autor etwas Seltenes: einen "lebendigen" Zugang zum Ideengebäude der modernen Physik freizulegen, ... zu zeigen, wie Physik in praxi entsteht... Als Vehikel seiner Absichten dienen dem Autor geschichtliche Fallstudien, insgesamt sieben an der Zahl. Aus ihnen extrahiert er das seiner Meinung nach Lehrhafte, dabei bestrebt, mathematische Anachronismen womöglich zu vermeiden... Als Student hätte ich mir diese gescheiten Essays zum Werden unserer heutigen physikalischen Weltsicht gewünscht. Sie sind originell, didaktisch klug und genieren sich auch nicht, von der Faszination zu sprechen, die ... von der Physik ausgeht. Unnötig darauf hinzuweisen, das sie ein gründliches "konventionelles" Studium weder ersetzen wollen noch können, sie vermögen aber, dazu zu ermuntern." #Astronomische Nachrichten (zur englischen Ausgabe)#1

  18. Zinc Detoxification Is Required for Full Virulence and Modification of the Host Leaf Ionome by Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Fernando; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for all forms of life because it is a structural or catalytic cofactor of many proteins, but it can have toxic effects at high concentrations; thus, microorganisms must tightly regulate its levels. Here, we evaluated the role of Zn homeostasis proteins in the virulence of the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapevine, among other diseases. Two mutants of X. fastidiosa 'Temecula' affected in genes which regulate Zn homeostasis (zur) and Zn detoxification (czcD) were constructed. Both knockouts showed increased sensitivity to Zn at physiologically relevant concentrations and increased intracellular accumulation of this metal compared with the wild type. Increased Zn sensitivity was correlated with decreased growth in grapevine xylem sap, reduced twitching motility, and downregulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthetic genes. Tobacco plants inoculated with either knockout mutant showed reduced foliar symptoms and a much reduced (czcD) or absent (zur) modification of the leaf ionome (i.e., the mineral nutrient and trace element composition), as well as reduced bacterial populations. The results show that detoxification of Zn is crucial for the virulence of X. fastidiosa and verifies our previous findings that modification of the host leaf ionome correlates with bacterial virulence.

  19. Rosazea-Management: Update über allgemeine Maßnahmen und topische Therapieoptionen.

    PubMed

    Schaller, M; Schöfer, H; Homey, B; Hofmann, M; Gieler, U; Lehmann, P; Luger, T A; Ruzicka, T; Steinhoff, M

    2016-12-01

    Obwohl bislang für die Rosazea keine kurative Therapie besteht, können verschiedene Optionen zur Behandlung der Symptome und zur Vorbeugung von Exazerbationen empfohlen werden. Neben Selbsthilfemaßnahme wie der Vermeidung von Triggerfaktoren und einer geeigneten Hautpflege sollte das Rosazea-Management bei Patienten mit erythematöser und leichter bis schwerer papulopustulöser Rosazea die Anwendung topischer Präparate als First-Line-Therapie umfassen. Da Überlappungen der charakteristischen Rosazea-Symptome im klinischen Alltag die Regel sind, sollte die medikamentöse Therapie auf die individuellen Symptome zugeschnitten werden; auch eine Kombinationstherapie kann erforderlich sein. Zu den für die Behandlung der Hauptsymptome der Rosazea zugelassenen Wirkstoffen gehören Brimonidin gegen das Erythem sowie Ivermectin, Metronidazol oder Azelainsäure gegen entzündliche Läsionen. Ihre Wirksamkeit wurde in zahlreichen validen, gut kontrollierten Studien belegt. Darüber hinaus existieren verschiedene nicht zugelassene topische Behandlungsmöglichkeiten, deren Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit noch in größeren, kontrollierten Studien zu untersuchen ist. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Merkel cell carcinoma: is this a true carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Marek; Kopinski, Piotr; Schwartz, Robert; Czajkowski, Rafal

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have brought an enhanced understanding of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) biology, especially with regard to the Merkel cell polyoma virus as a causative agent. Differences between Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive and Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative MCC in morphology; gene expression, miRNA profiles and prognosis have been reported. Origin of MCC is controversial. Presence of neurosecretory granules has suggested that these carcinomas originate from one of the neurocrest derivatives, most probably Merkel cells; the name Merkel cell carcinoma is now widely accepted. Expression of PGP 9.5, chromogranin A and several neuropeptides, initially regarded as specific markers for neural and neuroendocrine cells, has recently been shown in a subset of lymphomas. MCC commonly expresses terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and PAX5. Their co-expression under physiologic circumstances is restricted to pro/pre-B cells and pre-B cells. These findings lead to the hypothesis by zur Hausen et al. that MCC originates from early B cells. This review was intended to critically appraise zur Hausen's hypothesis and discuss the possibility that MCC is a heterogenous entity with distinct subtypes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.