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  1. Digitale Transformation, aber wie? - Von der Spielwiese zur Umsetzungsplanung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Thomas

    Es besteht wohl kaum Anlass zur Annahme, dass die seit Jahrzehnten etablierten Markt- und Technologiestrukturen der Energiewirtschaft sich nicht in einem radikalen Ablöseprozess mit Gewinnern und Verlierern befinden. Aber Vorsicht - vordergründig bereits verloren erscheinende Geschäftsmodelle erfahren im Zuge der Digitalisierung einerseits noch intensiveren Wettbewerbsdruck, können aber andererseits von diesem "technologischen Jungbrunnen" profitieren, um verlorenes Terrain zurückzugewinnen. Im folgenden Kapitel wird ein Managementzyklus aufgezeigt, der in Anlehnung an die bereits erfolgreiche Implementierung digitaler R/Evolutionen anderer Branchen aufzeigt, wie die Geschäftsleitung systematisch kostenbewusst und zielorientiert die Digitalisierung umsetzen kann.

  2. Verbesserte Visualisierung der Koronararterien in MSCT-Daten mit direkter Vergleichbarkeit zur Angiographie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacalli, Christina; Jähne, Marion; Wesarg, Stefan

    In diesem Beitrag stellen wir neue, automatisierte Verfahren zur Visualisierung der Koronararterien einerseits und für eine direkte Vergleichbarkeit mit konventionellen Angiogrammen andererseits vor. Unser Ansatz umfasst Methoden für die automatische Extraktion des Herzens aus kontrastverstärkten CT-Daten, sowie für die Maskierung grosser kontrastmittelgefüllter Kavitäten des Herzens, um die Sichtbarkeit der Koronararterien bei der Darstellung mittels Volumenrendering zu verbessern. Zum direkten Vergleich mit konventionellen Angiographien wurde ein Verfahren zur automatischen Generierung von Projektionsansichten aus den CT-Daten entwickelt.

  3. Einstellung und Wissen von Lehramtsstudierenden zur Evolution - ein Vergleich zwischen Deutschland und der Türkei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Dittmar; Soran, Haluk

    Es wird eine Untersuchung vorgestellt, in der Wissen und Überzeugungen von Lehramtsstudierenden aller Fächer zum Thema Evolution an zwei Universitäten in Deutschland und der Türkei erhoben worden sind. Die Befragung wurde in Dortmund und in Ankara durchgeführt. Es stellte sich heraus, dass ausgeprägte Defizite im Verständnis der Evolutionsmechanismen herrschen. Viele Studierende, insbesondere aus der Türkei, sind nicht von der Faktizität der Evolution überzeugt. Dies gilt sowohl für Studierende mit Fach Biologie als auch für Studierende mit anderen Fächern. Näher untersucht worden sind die Faktoren, die die Überzeugungen zur Evolution beeinflussen können, was ja in Anbetracht der hohen Ablehnungsrate der Evolution von besonderem Interesse ist. Das Vertrauen in die Wissenschaft spielt hierbei eine besondere Rolle: Wer der Wissenschaft vertraut, ist auch eher von der Evolution überzeugt, als diejenigen, die skeptisch gegenüber der Wissenschaft sind.

  4. S2k-Leitlinie zum Gebrauch von Präparationen zur lokalen Anwendung auf der Haut (Topika).

    PubMed

    Wohlrab, Johannes; Staubach, Petra; Augustin, Matthias; Eisert, Lisa; Hünerbein, Andreas; Nast, Alexander; Reimann, Holger; Strömer, Klaus; Mahler, Vera

    2018-03-01

    Diese Leitlinie richtet sich an Assistenz- und Fachärzte der Dermatologie sowie an Kostenträger und politische Entscheidungsgremien. Die Leitlinie wurde im formellen Konsensusverfahren (S2k) von Dermatologen unter Einbindung von Apothekern erstellt. Die Leitlinie stellt allgemeine Aspekte der Pharmakokinetik sowie der regulatorischen Begrifflichkeiten dar. Es werden Empfehlungen zur Indikation von Magistralrezepturen sowie deren Qualitätssicherung gegeben. Die Bedeutung der galenischen Grundlagen und die Problematik bei einer Substitution gegeneinander verschiedener Grundlagen werden dargestellt. Die Leitlinie umfasst Kriterien zur Auswahl einer adäquaten Grundlage sowie spezifische Aspekte zur Therapieplanung. Die Leitlinie gibt Empfehlungen zum Management bei Unverträglichkeiten gegenüber Bestandteilen der Grundlagen oder Hilfsstoffe. © 2018 The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  5. Robuste Verzweigungserkennung von Gefäßen in CTA-Datensätzen zur modellbasierten Extraktion der Centerline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Thomas; Fritz, Dominik; Biermann, Christina; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    Bei der Befundung und Visualisierung von Blutgefäßen ist deren Centerline von zentraler Bedeutung. Die Unterscheidung zwischen unverzweigten Abschnitten des Gefäßes und Verzweigungsbereichen ermöglicht den Einsatz spezialisierter und sehr effizienter Algorithmen zur modellbasierten Extraktion der Centerline. In diesem Artikel wird ein robustes Verfahren zur Verzweigungserkennung vorgestellt. Das Verfahren beruht auf einem Front-Propagation-Ansatz mit dynamisch angepassten Schwellwerten und einer anschließenden Clusteranalyse. Die vorgestellte Methode zur Verzweigungserkennung wurde als Komponente einer Architektur zur Extraktion der Centerline auf handannotierten Datensätzen getestet. Erste Ergebnisse sind sehr vielversprechend und ermöglichen auch bei pathologischen Gefäßen eine robuste Detektion von Gefäßverzweigungen.

  6. Zeitspiel ist keine Alternative - Warum der Wandel zur Pflicht wird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieper, Stephan

    "Wege entstehen dadurch, dass man sie geht." (Franz Kafka) Die Welt der Digitalisierung ist voll von Wegen, die jemand gegangen ist, bevor dort ein Weg war. Manche dieser Wege stellten sich als Sackgasse heraus, manche als Abkürzung und aus anderen wurden ganze Wegenetze und Städte. Die Energiewelt wird durch den digitalen Wandel nicht verschont bleiben. Durch die intelligenten Messsysteme und die zugehörigen, neuen Strukturen werden energiefremden Wettbewerbern Chancen zum Markteintritt eröffnet. EVUs müssen sich darauf einstellen, dass der permanente Wandel nicht mehr enden wird. Doch auch den EVUs eröffnen sich Optionen. Um erfolgreich zu sein, müssen sie lernen loszugehen, ohne das genaue Ziel zu kennen.

  7. Ganzheitliche Digitalisierungsansätze im Stadtwerk: Von der Strategie bis zur Umsetzung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudenhausen, Roman; Hahn, Heike

    Digitalisierung muss im Stadtwerk dazu führen, Kundenerwartungen, die heutzutage schon vielfach durch digitales Know-how und Erfahrungen geprägt sind, in einzigartiger Weise zu entsprechen - in Form digitaler Kundenkontaktpunkte, automatisierter Prozesse oder plattformbasierter Geschäftsmodelle. Eine große Rolle spielen dabei unternehmensweit nutzbare Informationen, die eine 360-Grad-Sicht auf den Kunden ermöglichen. Nur in dieser Kombination werden sich nachhaltig Wettbewerbsvorteile generieren lassen. Manch ein Kunde wird die Lust, einen Prozess zu Ende zu gehen, schon vor dem Abschluss verlieren, wenn er nicht unmittelbar und ohne die digitale Welt zu verlassen zum Ziel kommt. Eine nur "halb digitale Kundenerfahrung" wird weder zu Neugeschäft noch zur positiven emotionalen Bindung zwischen Kunden und Stadtwerk führen. Nicht zu unterschätzen sind zudem Erwartungen hinsichtlich zukünftiger Geschäftsmodelle, aus denen sich disruptive Bedrohungen für die herkömmlichen Strom- und Gasangebote ergeben werden. Erste innovative Ansätze finden sich bereits im Markt, die erahnen lassen, dass zurzeit viel diskutierte Technologien wie die Blockchain nicht mehr nur hypothetischer Natur sind. Die Auseinandersetzung mit der Digitalisierung erfolgt dabei sinnvollerweise in einem unternehmensweit abgestimmten Rahmen, der eine zielgerichtete und ganzheitliche Vorgehensweise ermöglicht.

  8. Auf dem Weg zur digitalen Fakultät - moderne IT Infrastruktur am Beispiel des Physik-Departments der TU München

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homolka, Josef

    Der Geschäftsbetrieb einer Universität ist durch zunehmende Digitalisierung und Nutzung elektronischer Medien gekennzeichnet. Die Einführung immer leistungsfähigerer zentraler IT-Systeme führt zu einer komplexen Vielfalt heterogener Benutzer- und Administrationsschnittstellen. Zur Schaffung einer umfassenden benutzerfreundlichen und nahtlosen IT-Infrastruktur ist die Beteiligung aller organisatorischen Einheiten und Ebenen erforderlich. Am Physik-Departement der Technischen Universität München wurden unter Integration eigener Ressourcen mit zentralen Ressourcen, die im Rahmen des IntegraTUM Projektes entwickelt und bereitgestellt wurden, existierende Dienste weiterentwickelt und neue Angebote aufgebaut. Das System, bestehend aus den Komponenten Netzwerk, Arbeitsplatzrechner, Serverinfrastruktur, E-Mail-Service, WWWDienst, Datenhaltung und Software wurde für die Nutzerkreise Studenten und Mitarbeiter im Hinblick auf Anwenderfreundlichkeit und nahtlosen Zugriff optimiert.

  9. Probleme aus der Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Helmut

    Das beliebte Arbeitsbuch "Probleme aus der Physik" bietet nun auch zur 17. Auflage von Gerthsen Vogel "Physik" (ISBN 3-540-56638-4) mit über 1150 gelösten Aufgaben aus der Physik und ihren Anwendungen in Technik, Astrophysik, Geound Biowissenschaften eine Fülle an Material zum Üben und Weiterlernen, zur Prüfungsvorbereitung und zum Selbststudium. Neu hinzugekommen ist ein Kapitel zur nichtlinearen Dynamik. Aufgaben aller Schwierigkeitsgrade machen "Probleme aus der Physik" unentbehrlich für Studenten der Physik im Haupt- und Nebenfach; Schüler der Leistungskurse Physik finden hier eine hervorragende Ergänzung.

  10. Das Smart Meter Gateway - Der kritische Erfolgsfaktor für die Digitalisierung der Energiewende

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abs, Paul-Vincent

    Der kritische Erfolgsfaktor der Digitalisierung in der Energiewirtschaft liegt im bevorstehenden hohen Investitionsvolumen und der Beherrschung der neuen Technik. Ein Weg zur Kostenminimierung liegt im Zusammenschluss der einzelnen Akteure, um gemeinsame Skalenvorteile zu heben. Auch bieten neue Geschäftsmodelle die Möglichkeit, zusätzliche Erlöse zu generieren.

  11. Werner Heisenberg zum 100. Geburtstag: Pionier der Quantenmechanik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2001-11-01

    Werner Heisenberg war eine der prägendsten Gestalten der Physik des 20. Jahrhunderts. Zu seinen wichtigsten Verdiensten gehören die Grundlegung der Quantenmechanik, die Formulierung der Unschärferelationen sowie die Beteiligung an der Ausarbeitung der Kopenhagener Deutung der Quantenmechanik. Darüber hinaus lieferte er Arbeiten von fundamentalem Charakter zur Theorie des Atomkerns, zur kosmischen Strahlung und zur Quantenfeldtheorie. Während des Krieges war er an den Arbeiten des Uranvereins beteiligt, der die Möglichkeit einer Entwicklung von Kernwaffen untersuchte, jedoch über Vorarbeiten zur Reaktorphysik nicht hinauskam. Wegen dieser Tätigkeit wurde er bei Kriegsende für einige Monate in England interniert. Nach seiner Rückkehr widmete er sich vor allem dem Aufbau der Physik in Deutschland, die während der NS-Zeit nahezu ihrer gesamten Substanz beraubt worden war.

  12. Atmosphärisches Plasma in der Medizintechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Thomas; Knospe, Alexander; Buske, Christian

    Bei der Fertigung komplexer Bauteile werden immer häufiger unterschiedlichste Materialien zur Erfüllung der Funktion kombiniert. Kunststoff, Metall, Glas oder Keramik müssen miteinander verbunden werden. Dies gilt für die unterschiedlichsten Industriebereiche; von der Halbleiter-/Elektronikindustrie [1, 2] über die Automobilindustrie [3, 4] bis hin zur Medizintechnik werden für Verklebungs- [5], Bedruckungs-, Lackier- [6] und Anspritzprozesse optimal vorbehandelte Oberflächen benötigt.

  13. Theoretische Konzepte der Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.; Simon, B.; Simon, H.

    "Dies ist kein Lehrbuch der theoretischen Physik, auch kein Kompendium der Physikgeschichte ... , vielmehr eine recht anspruchsvolle Sammlung historischer Miniaturen zur Vergangenheit der theoretischen Physik - ihrer "Sternstunden", wenn man so will. Frei vom Zwang, etwas Erschöpfendes vorlegen zu müssen, gelingt dem Autor etwas Seltenes: einen "lebendigen" Zugang zum Ideengebäude der modernen Physik freizulegen, ... zu zeigen, wie Physik in praxi entsteht... Als Vehikel seiner Absichten dienen dem Autor geschichtliche Fallstudien, insgesamt sieben an der Zahl. Aus ihnen extrahiert er das seiner Meinung nach Lehrhafte, dabei bestrebt, mathematische Anachronismen womöglich zu vermeiden... Als Student hätte ich mir diese gescheiten Essays zum Werden unserer heutigen physikalischen Weltsicht gewünscht. Sie sind originell, didaktisch klug und genieren sich auch nicht, von der Faszination zu sprechen, die ... von der Physik ausgeht. Unnötig darauf hinzuweisen, das sie ein gründliches "konventionelles" Studium weder ersetzen wollen noch können, sie vermögen aber, dazu zu ermuntern." #Astronomische Nachrichten (zur englischen Ausgabe)#1

  14. Organisationsaspekte in der Umsetzung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balck, Henning; Bungard, Walter; Hofmann, Karsten; Ganz, Walter; Schwenker, Burkhard; Hanßen, Dirk; Meindl, Rudolf; Schloske, Alexander; Thieme, Paul; Teufel, Peter

    Strukturbrüche sind eine der Hauptursachen für die Schwierigkeiten vieler Unternehmen, ihre Organisationsform zu modernisieren und vor allem turbulenten Marktbedingungen anzupassen. Klassische Beispiele für Strukturbrüche finden sich in der Spaltung von Aufbau- und Ablauforganisation, der Spaltung von Produktion und Dienstleistung oder der Spaltung von Planung und Ausführung. Ein wirkungsvoller Ansatz zur Überwindung solcher Spaltungen ist eine Art Versöhnungsmuster: die Polare Organisation. Wesentliche Elemente dieser Organisationsform sind ihr Netzwerkcharakter, kooperatives Zusammenwirken, eine hohe Kommunikationsintensität und eine polare Koppelung der kommunizierenden Partner oder - in abstrahierter Form - die organisierte Balance erfolgskritischer Gegensätze, wie Kosten und Qualität.

  15. Der II. Hauptsatz der Wärmelehre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintze, Joachim

    Wir haben in (4.44) den II. Hauptsatz als empirische Tatsache folgendermaßen formuliert: (i) Wärmeenergie geht von selbst nur von einem wärmeren Körper auf einen kälteren über, niemals in der umgekehrten Richtung. Nun werden wir beweisen, dass sich aus diesem Prinzip folgende äquivalente Formulierungen für den II. Hauptsatz ableiten lassen: (ii) Es ist unmöglich, ein Perpetuum mobile zweiter Art zu bauen, d. h. eine Maschine, die fortlaufend Wärmeenergie vollständig in mechanische Arbeit umsetzen kann. Eine Wärmekraftmaschine, die einen Kreisprozess mit der höchsten Temperatur Tw und der niedrigsten Temperatur Tk durchläuft, hat höchstens den Carnotschen Wirkungsgrad c = (Tw - Tk)/Tw. Wenn in der Maschine nur reversible Prozesse ablaufen, die gesamte Wärmezufuhr bei der Temperatur Tw erfolgt und ausschließlich bei der Temperatur Tw gekühlt wird, ist ihr Wirkungsgrad = C. Es gibt keine Wärmekraftmaschine, die eine bessere Ausnutzung der Wärmeenergie ermöglicht. (iv) In jedem thermodynamischen System existiert die Zustandsgröße Entropie, definiert durch ihr Differential dS = (dQrev)/T . Entropie kann erzeugt, aber nicht vernichtet werden. Bei Zustandsänderungen, die in einem abgeschlossenen System ablaufen, nimmt die Entropie entweder zu (irreversible Prozesse), oder sie bleibt konstant (reversible Prozesse). Im Anschluss an (iii) werden wir zur Definition der thermodynamischen Temperatur und bei der Diskussion von (iv) zu einem tieferen Verständnis der Entropie gelangen. Es zeigt sich, dass die Entropie das eigentliche Bindeglied zwischen Mechanik und Wärmelehre darstellt. Am Ende des Kapitels werden wir einige Anwendungen des II. Hauptsatzes betrachten.

  16. Implantate in der Augenheilkunde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresp, Joachim H.

    Im Bereich der Augenheilkunde findet sich die weltweit am häufigsten ausgeführte chirurgische Massnahme, die operative Behandlung des Grauen Stars: die Katarakt. Bei der Katarakt handelt es sich um eine Eintrübung der natürlichen Augenlinse, die sich je nach Stadium der Erkrankung leicht opak, über milchig bis zu bräunlich präsentiert. Mit dieser Zunahme der Undurchlässigkeit für das sichtbare Licht geht eine Abnahme des Sehvermögens einher, die bis zur totalen Erblindung führen kann. Bedingt durch die sehr eingeschränkten chirurgischen Möglichkeiten in den Ländern der Dritten Welt ist die Katarakt die Erblindungsursache Nummer 1 in der Welt. Ganz im Gegensatz hierzu ist in den industrialisierten Ländern Europas, Amerikas und Asiens die Katarakt-OP die sicherste chirurgische Intervention. In der Augenheilkunde werden Implantate aller drei Aggregatszustände verwendet.

  17. Zur chemie der marsoberfläche

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keil, Klaus; Clark, Benton C.; Baird, A.K.; Toulmin, Priestley; Rose, Harry J.

    1978-01-01

    Analyses of 13 samples of Martian surface materials with the Viking X-ray fluorescence spectrometers show SiO2 similar to that of terrestrial mafic rocks, whereas Fe2O3, Cl, and S are higher and Al2O3, K2O, Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr are lower. Low totals suggest presence of CO2, H2O, and Na2O. Duricrust fragments are higher in S than fines, but samples from both landing sites are surprisingly similar. We suggest that Martian surface materials are aeolian deposits of complex mixtures of weathering products of maficultramafic rocks, possibly consisting of iron-rich clays, sulfates, iron oxides, carbonates, and chlorides.

  18. Einsteins Spuren in den Archiven der Wissenschaft: Physikgeschichte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Werner

    2005-07-01

    Die Erwähnungen und Zitierungen von Einsteins Arbeiten dokumentieren lediglich den quantifizierbaren Anteil von Einsteins Beitrag zur Physik. Gleichwohl belegen sie die außergewöhnliche Resonanz und Langzeitwirkung seiner Arbeiten. Die Häufigkeit der Zitierungen entspricht nicht der allgemeinen Einschätzung ihrer Bedeutung. Insbesondere die Pionierarbeiten werden inzwischen als bekannt vorausgesetzt und nicht mehr explizit zitiert. Interessanterweise ist seine nach 1945 meist zitierte Arbeit nicht eine der Pionierarbeiten zur Quantenphysik oder Relativitätstheorie, sondern jene aus dem Jahr 1935 zum berühmten Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradoxon.

  19. Liquid Biopsy zur Überwachung von Melanompatienten.

    PubMed

    Gaiser, Maria Rita; von Bubnoff, Nikolas; Gebhardt, Christoffer; Utikal, Jochen Sven

    2018-04-01

    In den letzten sechs Jahren wurden verschiedene innovative systemische Therapien zur Behandlung des metastasierten malignen Melanoms (MM) entwickelt. Die konventionelle Chemotherapie wurde durch neuartige Primärtherapien abgelöst, darunter systemische Immuntherapien (Anti-CTLA4- und Anti-PD1-Antikörper; Zulassung von Anti-PDL1-Antikörpern erwartet) und Therapien, die gegen bestimmte Mutationen gerichtet sind (BRAF, NRAS und c-KIT). Daher stehen die behandelnden Ärzte neuen Herausforderungen gegenüber, beispielsweise der Stratifizierung von Patienten für geeignete Behandlungen und der Überwachung von Langzeit-Respondern auf Progression. Folglich werden zuverlässige Methoden zur Überwachung von Krankheitsprogression oder Behandlungsresistenz benötigt. Lokalisierte und fortgeschrittene Krebserkrankungen können zur Bildung zirkulierender Tumorzellen und Tumor-DNA (ctDNA) führen, die sich in Proben von peripherem Blut nachweisen und quantifizieren lassen (Liquid Biopsy). Im Fall von Melanompatienten können die Ergebnisse von Liquid Biopsy als neuartige prädiktive Biomarker bei therapeutischen Entscheidungen hilfreich sein, insbesondere im Zusammenhang mit mutationsbasierten zielgerichteten Therapien. Die Herausforderungen bei der Anwendung der Liquid Biopsy beinhalten strikte Kriterien für den Phänotyp der zirkulierenden MM-Zellen oder ihrer Fragmente und die Instabilität von ctDNA im Blut. In diesem Übersichtsartikel diskutieren wir die Beschränkungen der Liquid Biopsy hinsichtlich ihrer Anwendung in der Routinediagnostik. © 2018 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Grundlagen und Grundbegriffe der Messtechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    Es ist eine wesentliche Aufgabe der Messtechnik, technische Vorgänge quantitativ zu erfassen und anhand der gemessenen Größen Funktionsabläufe zu steuern. Als Beispiel sei ein Kraftwerk zur Energieerzeugung genannt, bei dem nur über die Messung von Temperaturen, Leistungen, Drücken und anderen Größen Aussagen über den momentanen Zustand möglich sind und bei Abweichungen vom Sollwert geeignete Eingriffe in das System erfolgen können. Damit eine eindeutige Kommunikation möglich wird, sind die in der Messtechnik verwendeten Begriffe, Messverfahren und Maßeinheiten in entsprechenden Normen oder Vorschriften festgelegt.

  1. Medizintechnik in der Tumororthopädie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgkart, Rainer; Gollwitzer, Hans; Holzapfel, Boris; Rudert, Maximilian; Rechl, Hans; Gradinger, Reiner

    Die Behandlung der Knochentumoren unterlag in den letzten 20 Jahren einem raschen und stetigen Wandel, was zum einen auf die verbesserten Therapieerfolge durch den Einsatz von neoadjuvanten Therapieformen zurückzuführen ist, und andererseits von medizintechnischen Entwicklungen bezüglich moderner Schnittbilddiagnostik, neuer 3D Operationsplanungsverfahren wie das Rapid Prototyping und adaptiv modularer Tumorendoprothesensystemen u. a. begleitet wurde. Gerade die technischen Entwicklungen haben dazu geführt, daß im Bereich der Extremitäten und der Wirbelsäule radikalere Eingriffe durchgeführt werden können, was die lokale Tumorkontrolle wesentlich verbessert hat. In zunehmenden Maße werden deshalb nicht nur Kurzzeiterfolge sondern auch mittel- und langfristige Fortschritte bei der Behandlung der malignen Knochentumoren einschließlich der Metastasenbehandlung erreicht. Grundlage der Therapie ist dabei immer primär die Sicherung der Diagnose mittels Biopsie und die bildgebende sowie histologische Stadieneinteilung des malignen Tumors. Nach der Tumorresektion kann die Rekonstruktion biologisch oder mit Endoprothesensystemen erfolgen. Gerade die weiterentwickelten modularen Systeme führen zu guten funktionellen Ergebnissen mit langen Standzeiten und einer reduzierten Komplikationsrate. Individuell angefertigte Implantate sind vor allem im Bereich der Rekonstruktion komplexer Beckentumoren von großer klinischer Bedeutung.

  2. Grundlagen der Nachrichtenübertragung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    Die Nachrichtentechnik hat die Aufgabe, Nachrichten auszutauschen. Nachrichten sind z. B. Fragen, Beobachtungen und Befehle. Unter dem Begriff Nachrichtenübertragung wird hier die elektrische Nachrichtenübertragung verstanden, denn zur Übermittlung von Nachrichten werden Spannungen und Ströme sowie elektrische und magnetische Felder eingesetzt. Die Übertragung beginnt mit der Nachrichtenquelle, die die Nachrichten aussendet, und endet mit der Nachrichtensenke, die sie empfängt. Zwischen beiden liegt das elektrische Nachrichtenübertragungssystem, dessen Funktionseinheiten dargestellt sind und erläutert werden.

  3. Biokompatible Implantate und Neuentwicklungen in der Gynäkologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Volker R.; Kiechle, Marion

    Für den Einsatz in der Gynäkologie stehen heute eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher, biokompatibler Materialien und Implantate zur Verfügung. Auf eine Auswahl soll hier näher eingegangen werden, die die verschiedenen Materialien und Bauweisen repräsentieren. So sind Brustimplantate seit fast vier Jahrzehnten im Gebrauch für die Brustvergrösserung und den Brustwiederaufbau. Material, Bauweisen und medizinische Aspekte einschliesslich der kontroversen Diskussion um Silikon werden im folgenden erläutert. Neuere Entwicklungen von Verhütungstechniken für permanente Sterilisation wie den Filshie ClipTM für transabdominalen und den STOPTM für intraluminalen Verschluss der Eileiter oder die intrauterin plazierte Hormonspirale MirenaTM für zeitlich begrenzte Verhütung werden beschrieben. Eine neue Perspektive zur Verhinderung postoperativer intraabdominaler Adhäsionen stellt Spray-GelTM, ein Zweikomponenten Hydrogel aus Polyethylenglykol, dar.

  4. Ökophysik: Plaudereien über das Leben auf dem Land, im Wasser und in der Luft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachtigall, W.

    Prof. em. Dr. rer. nat. Werner Nachtigall, geb. 1934, war als Zoophysiologe und Biophysiker Leiter des Zoologischen Instituts der Universität des Saarlandes in Saarbrücken. In Forschung und Ausbildung hat er sich insbesondere mit Aspekten der Technischen Biologie und Bionik befasst und mit seinen Forschergruppen viele Basisdaten insbesondere zur Ökologie, Physiologie und Physik des Fliegens und Schwimmens aber auch zur Stabilität beispielsweise der Gräser erarbeitet. Lebewesen überraschen immer wieder durch ihre "Biodiversität", ihre hochspezifischen Ausgestaltungen und Anpassungen.

  5. Umgang mit Antithrombotika bei Operationen an der Haut vor und nach Publikation der entsprechenden S3-Leitlinie.

    PubMed

    Gaskins, Matthew; Dittmann, Martin; Eisert, Lisa; Werner, Ricardo Niklas; Dressler, Corinna; Löser, Christoph; Nast, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    Laut einer Befragung im Jahre 2012 war der Umgang mit Antithrombotika bei dermatochirurgischen Eingriffen in Deutschland sehr heterogen. 2014 wurde erstmals eine evidenzbasierte Leitlinie zu diesem Thema veröffentlicht. Es wurde eine anonyme Befragung derselben Stichprobe zum Umgang mit Antithrombotika sowie zu Kenntnissen der Leitlinie durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse wurden als relative Häufigkeiten berichtet und denen aus 2012 gegenübergestellt. 208 Antwortbögen wurden ausgewertet (Rücklaufquote: 36,6 %). Die große Mehrheit der Dermatologen erklärte, kleinere Eingriffe unter Fortführung der Therapie mit Phenprocoumon, niedrig dosierter Acetylsalicylsäure (≤ 100 mg) und Clopidogrel sowie mit direkten oralen Antikoagulanzien durchzuführen. Bei größeren Eingriffen war der Umgang hingegen weiterhin heterogen, insbesondere unter niedergelassenen Dermatologen. Der Anteil der Dermatologen, die Phenprocoumon, Acetylsalicylsäure und Clopidogrel leitlinienkonform verwendeten, hat sich insgesamt vergrößert. Führten 2012 beispielsweise 53,8 % der Klinikärzte bzw. 36,3 % der niedergelassenen Dermatologen eine große Exzision unter Fortführung der Therapie mit niedrig dosierter Acetylsalicylsäure durch, taten dies 2017 90,2 % bzw. 57,8 % (Phenprocoumon: 33,8 % bzw. 11,9 % auf 63,9 % bzw. 29,9 %; Clopidogrel: 36,9 % bzw. 23,2 % auf 63,9 % bzw. 30,6 %). Unter den Klinikärzten war ein hoher Anteil mit der Leitlinie vertraut und fand diese hilfreich. Eine Zunahme des leitlinienkonformen Verhaltens war bei allen Eingriffen zu verzeichnen. Bei größeren Eingriffen zeigte sich trotz deutlicher Verbesserung die Notwendigkeit verstärkter Anstrengungen zur Leitlinienumsetzung bzw. zur Identifizierung von Implementierungsbarrieren. © 2018 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Identifikationsverfahren zur Analyse von EEG-Signalen bei Epilepsie mit Reaktions-Diffusions Netzwerken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollas, F.; Tetzlaff, R.

    2007-06-01

    Partielle Differentialgleichungen des Reaktions-Diffusions-Typs beschreiben Phänomene wie Musterbildung, nichtlineare Wellenausbreitung und deterministisches Chaos und werden oft zur Untersuchung komplexer Vorgänge auf den Gebieten der Biologie, Chemie und Physik herangezogen. Zellulare Nichtlineare Netzwerke (CNN) sind eine räumliche Anordnung vergleichsweise einfacher dynamischer Systeme, die eine lokale Kopplung untereinander aufweisen. Durch eine Diskretisierung der Ortsvariablen können Reaktions-Diffusions-Gleichungen häufig auf CNN mit nichtlinearen Gewichtsfunktionen abgebildet werden. Die resultierenden Reaktions-Diffusions-CNN (RD-CNN) weisen dann in ihrer Dynamik näherungsweise gleiches Verhalten wie die zugrunde gelegten Reaktions-Diffusions-Systeme auf. Werden RD-CNN zur Identifikation neuronaler Strukturen anhand von EEG-Signalen herangezogen, so besteht die Möglichkeit festzustellen, ob das gefundene Netzwerk lokale Aktivität aufweist. Die von Chua eingeführte Theorie der lokalen Aktivität Chua (1998); Dogaru und Chua (1998) liefert eine notwendige Bedingung für das Auftreten von emergentem Verhalten in zellularen Netzwerken. Änderungen in den Parametern bestimmter RD-CNN könnten auf bevorstehende epileptische Anfälle hinweisen. In diesem Beitrag steht die Identifikation neuronaler Strukturen anhand von EEG-Signalen durch Reaktions-Diffusions-Netzwerke im Vordergrund der dargestellten Untersuchungen. In der Ergebnisdiskussion wird insbesondere auch die Frage nach einer geeigneten Netzwerkstruktur mit minimaler Komplexität behandelt.

  7. Von neuen Geschäftsideen zur gelebten Digitalisierung in Utility 4.0 - das Integrierte Geschäftsmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doleski, Oliver D.

    Die Energiewirtschaft benötigt neue, digitale Geschäftsmodelle. Gegenwärtig folgt auf Liberalisierung und Energiewende die nächste Stufe einer weitreichenden Bereinigung des Versorgungsmarktes. Digitalisierung und Dezentralisierung sind heute in aller Munde und verlangen nach neuen Produkten und Dienstleistungen. Dabei wirken die immensen Herausforderungen einer digitalen Energiewelt wie Beschleuniger für die Transformation im Versorgungssektor und tragen damit zur breiten Etablierung von Utilities 4.0 bei. Dieser Entwicklungsprozess vollzieht sich mithilfe unterschiedlicher Methoden zur Realisierung neuer Geschäftsideen. Allerdings greifen die gängigen Konzepte zur Entwicklung von Geschäftsmodellen gerade im Hinblick auf die Berücksichtigung komplexer, unbeständiger Rahmenbedingungen und spezifischer Anforderungen der digitalen Energiewelt mitunter zu kurz. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird das auf dem ganzheitlichen St. Galler Management-Konzept beruhende Integrierte Geschäftsmodell iOcTen als geeignetes Instrumentarium zur Geschäftsmodellentwicklung vorgestellt. Neben der Modellbeschreibung unterstützt ein intuitiv verständlicher Leitfaden den Praktiker bei der Transformation vom klassischen Versorgungsunternehmen zum digitalen Energiedienstleistungsunternehmen.

  8. Segmentierung von Aortenaneurysmen in CTA-Bildern mit dem statistischen Verfahren der Active Appearance Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Katharina; Egger, Jan; Großkopf, Stefan; Kaftan, Jens N.; Dörner, Ralf; Freisleben, Bernd

    In diesem Beitrag werden Active Appearance Models (AAMs) zur Segmentierung der äußeren Kontur von Aortenaneurysmen eingesetzt. Diese Aufgabe ist wegen des geringen Kontrastes zum umliegenden Gewebe und des Aufbaus der teils thrombotisierten oder kalzifizierten Gefäßwände im Bereich eines Aneurysmas so komplex, dass sie aufgrund der Vielgestalt der Kontur in CT-Angiographie-Bildern die Verwendung eines statistischen Modells für Form und eingeschlossene Textur rechtfertigt. Für die Evaluation des Verfahrens wurden verschiedene statistische Modelle aus Schichten von neun CTA-Datensätzen trainiert und die Segmentierung anhand von Leave-One-Out-Tests überprüft.

  9. Prä- und perioperative Aspekte der Versorgung dermatochirurgischer Patienten.

    PubMed

    Müller, Cornelia S L; Hubner, Wakiko; Thieme-Ruffing, Sigrid; Pföhler, Claudia; Vogt, Thomas; Volk, Thomas; Gärtner, Barbara C; Bialas, Patric

    2017-02-01

    Die Dermatochirurgie nimmt hinsichtlich vieler Punkte eine Sonderstellung unter den operativen Fächern ein. Hierzu gehört in erster Linie die Tatsache, dass bis auf wenige Ausnahmen fast alle Eingriffe traditionell in Lokal- bzw. Regionalanästhesie und oft auch in räumlich-infrastruktureller Trennung von den großen Zentral-Operationssälen stattfinden können. Die peri- und postoperative Überwachung obliegt dabei dem dermatochirurgischen Operationsteam. Das sui generis kleinere OP-Team hat somit eine ganze Reihe perioperativer Notwendigkeiten zu beachten, um die sich in den "großen" chirurgischen Fächern eine Vielzahl verschiedener beteiligter Fachgruppen gemeinsam kümmern. Hierzu gehören neben Hygieneaspekten, Kenntnissen in der Überwachung der Patienten sowie dem Aspekt der surgical site infections auch Fragen zur postoperativen Schmerztherapie sowie detailliertes pharmakologisches Wissen über die zur Anwendung kommenden Lokalanästhetika und das Handling der damit assoziierten toxischen und allergischen Reaktionen. Eine interdisziplinäre Zusammenarbeit und Verantwortung für den Patienten ist notwendig und erfordert die Erarbeitung und Umsetzung qualitätsorientierter und evidenzbasierter Handlungsanweisungen, die im dermatochirurgischen OP-Setting meist weit über das eigentliche Fach hinausgehen. Ziel dieses Weiterbildungsartikels soll die komprimierte Darstellung der genannten fachübergreifenden Standpunkte bezüglich der wichtigsten perioperativen Aspekte sein. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Intelligente Messsysteme - Mehrwert für unterschiedliche Stufen der Wertschöpfung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, Benjamin

    Die Veränderung der Energiewirtschaft schreitet kontinuierlich voran - und wird mit Gesetz zur Digitalisierung der Energiewende nicht abgeschlossen sein. Vielmehr steigen die Innovationsgeschwindigkeit und die Erwartungshaltung der Kunden. Dieses Kapitel beschreibt, wie intelligente Messsysteme die Basis für neue Möglichkeiten schaffen und wie sich diese Veränderungen auf die Wertschöpfung auswirken. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf dem Wandel der einzelnen Wertschöpfungsstufen im Verlauf der Liberalisierung des Messwesens und dem seit dem 02.09.2016 verbindlichen Messstellenbetriebsgesetzes. Der Beitrag zeigt auf, wie sich bisher getrennte Wertschöpfungsstufen nunmehr direkt berühren und miteinander interagieren. Deutlich wird dadurch, wie Informationen zu Mehrwert führen können - aber auch, welche Fragen noch zu beantworten sind und welche Hürden es zu überwinden gilt.

  11. Zwischen Commonsense und Wissenschaft Mathematik in der Erziehungsphilosophie A. N. Whiteheads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sölch, Dennis

    Obwohl Whitehead heute wie selbstverständlich als Philosoph rezipiert wird, so hat er seine wissenschaftliche Laufbahn doch als Mathematiker begonnen. Lange Zeit war er gemeinsam mit Bertrand Russell als Autor der Principia Mathematica unter Mathematikern und mathematischen Logikern deutlich besser bekannt als unter Philosophen. Doch selbst von denjenigen, die sich mit Whiteheads Überlegungen zur Metaphysik, zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte und zur Theologie befassen, werden seine Schriften zur Philosophie von Erziehung und Bildung häufig kaum beachtet. So entgeht es leicht, dass Whitehead nicht nur ein auf theoretischem Gebiet brillanter Mathematiker war, sondern sein theoretisches Fachwissen im Hinblick auf pädagogische und didaktische Relevanz fortwährend reflektiert hat.

  12. Eine selbstkonsistente Carleman Linearisierung zur Analyse von Oszillatoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Harry; Mathis, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    Die Analyse nichtlinearer dynamischer Schaltungen ist bis heute eine herausfordernde Aufgabe, da nur selten analytische Lösungen angegeben werden können. Daher wurden eine Vielzahl von Methoden entwickelt, um eine qualitative oder quantitative Näherung für die Lösungen der Netzwerkgleichung zu erhalten. Oftmals wird beispielsweise eine Kleinsignalanalyse mit Hilfe einer Taylorreihe in einem Arbeitspunkt durchgeführt, die nach den Gliedern erster Ordnung abgebrochen wird. Allerdings ist diese Linearisierung nur in der Nähe des stabilen Arbeitspunktes für hyperbolische Systeme gültig. Besonders für die Analyse des dynamischen Verhaltens von Oszillatoren treten jedoch nicht-hyperbolische Systeme auf, sodass diese Methode nicht angewendet werden kann Mathis (2000). Carleman hat gezeigt, dass nichtlineare Differentialgleichungen mit polynomiellen Nichtlinearitäten in ein unendliches System von linearen Differentialgleichungen transformiert werden können Carleman (1932). Wird das unendlichdimensionale Gleichungssystem für numerische Zwecke abgebrochen, kann bei Oszillatoren der Übergang in eine stationäre Schwingung (Grenzzyklus) nicht wiedergegeben werden. In diesem Beitrag wird eine selbstkonsistente Carleman Linearisierung zur Untersuchung von Oszillatoren vorgestellt, die auch dann anwendbar ist, wenn die Nichtlinearitäten keinen Polynomen entsprechen. Anstelle einer linearen Näherung um einen Arbeitspunkt, erfolgt mit Hilfe der Carleman Linearisierung eine Approximation auf einem vorgegebenen Gebiet. Da es jedoch mit der selbstkonsistenten Technik nicht möglich ist, das stationäre Verhalten von Oszillatoren zu beschreiben, wird die Berechnung einer Poincaré-Abbildung durchgeführt. Mit dieser ist eine anschließende Analyse des Oszillators möglich.

  13. Ultrastrukturelle Untersuchungen zur Morphologie und Genese der Spermien von Archaeogastropoda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohnert, R.; Storch, V.

    1983-03-01

    The sperm cells of Patella coerulea (Patellacea), Monodonta turbinata, and Gibbula tumida (Trochacea) were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. They belong to the primitive type (sensu Franzén) and have more features in common with primitive Bivalvia sperms than with Neritacea. Their head contains an apical acrosome and a roundish nucleus followed by 4 or 5 mitochondria and a centriolar apparatus which consists of two centrioles, one of which bears a flagellum. The sperm cells of Monodonta and Gibbula are very similar to each other and differ mainly in size; Patella exhibits more differences (very small acrosome, subacrosomal space, variable number of spherical mitochondria (origin of spermic dimorphism ?). The development of the sperm cells shows no peculiarities.

  14. Zur Problematik der Plansprachen (Issues Concerning Artificial World Languages)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayrhofer, Manfred

    1972-01-01

    The reasons for creating international auxiliary languages, such as Esperanto, are examined. The study of the synthesis of such languages is considered useful for linguistic theory. (Text is in German.) Available from Humanities Press, Inc., Atlantic Highlands, N.J. 07716. (TL)

  15. Methodenvergleich zur Bestimmung der hydraulischen Durchlässigkeit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storz, Katharina; Steger, Hagen; Wagner, Valentin; Bayer, Peter; Blum, Philipp

    2017-06-01

    Knowing the hydraulic conductivity (K) is a precondition for understanding groundwater flow processes in the subsurface. Numerous laboratory and field methods for the determination of hydraulic conductivity exist, which can lead to significantly different results. In order to quantify the variability of these various methods, the hydraulic conductivity was examined for an industrial silica sand (Dorsilit) using four different methods: (1) grain-size analysis, (2) Kozeny-Carman approach, (3) permeameter tests and (4) flow rate experiments in large-scale tank experiments. Due to the large volume of the artificially built aquifer, the tank experiment results are assumed to be the most representative. Hydraulic conductivity values derived from permeameter tests show only minor deviation, while results of the empirically evaluated grain-size analysis are about one magnitude higher and show great variances. The latter was confirmed by the analysis of several methods for the determination of K-values found in the literature, thus we generally question the suitability of grain-size analyses and strongly recommend the use of permeameter tests.

  16. Mikrobielle Kurzzeitteste zur Bestimmung der mutagenen Potenz chemischer Substanzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gericke, Dietmar

    1983-04-01

    During the last 20 years it became much more interesting to test new chemicals as fast as possible for their carcinogenic potency. Therefore new test models were developed. Mutagenicity seems to be one sign for carcinogenicity. Therefore test systems using microorganisms were studied which are influenced by mutagenic substances. These systems are described, first of all the Ames-Test, using revertants of Salmonella typhimurium, secondly the Escherichia coli system deficient of DNA-polymerase A (DNA-Pol A-). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was introduced some years ago and finally the Neurospora crassa system serves as an additional test to define exactly the localisation of mutations. The tests and their problems are discussed.

  17. Die Digitalisierung der Energiewirtschaft: Potenziale und Herausforderungen der IKT-Branche für Utility 4.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichele, Christian; Schönberger, Marius

    Energieunternehmen haben auf dem Weg zur digitalen Transformation noch viele Herausforderungen zu bewältigen. Ein besonderer Schwerpunkt liegt derzeit auf der Modernisierung der IT-Systeme. Ausgangspunkt hierzu ist, dass sich bei den Endkonsumenten Mobile Applikationen, Smartphones, Tablet-PCs oder Smart TVs einer immensen Beliebtheit erfreuen. Durch diese Technologien wird die physische und virtuelle Welt in immer weiter zunehmendem Maße miteinander verknüpft. Mobile Applikation können einen wahren Hype hervorrufen und Verhaltensweisen auch nachhaltig verändern (ein Beispiel hierfür ist Pokémon Go, eine App die ein virtuelles Spiel mit der realen Umgebung kombiniert und die erstmalig auch eingefleischte Zocker aus der Anonymität ihrer häuslichen Umgebung hervorlocken konnte und für analoge Bewegung im Freien sorgte).

  18. Modellierung des Einflusses der Landnutzung auf die Hochwasserentstehung in der Mesoskala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehoff, Daniel

    2001-10-01

    heterogene Erscheinungsbild bebauter Flächen mit einer Mischung aus versiegelten Bereichen und Freiflächen wird berücksichtigt, indem jede Teilfläche je nach Versiegelungsgrad in einen unversiegelten Bereich und einen versiegelten Bereich mit Anschluss an die Kanalisation aufgeteilt wird. (4) Dezentraler Rückhalt von Niederschlagswasser kann sowohl für natürliche Mulden als auch für gezielt angelegte Versickerungsmulden mit definierten Infiltrationsbedingungen simuliert werden. Das erweiterte Modell wird exemplarisch auf drei mesoskalige Teileinzugsgebiete des Rheins angewandt. Diese drei Gebiete mit einer Fläche von zwischen 100 und 500 km² wurden im Hinblick darauf ausgewählt, dass jeweils eine der drei Hauptlandnutzungskategorien Bebauung, landwirtschaftliche Nutzung oder Wald dominiert. Für die drei Untersuchungsgebiete sind räumlich explizite Landnutzungs- und Landbedeckungsszenarien entworfen worden, deren Einfluss auf die Hochwasserentstehung mit Hilfe des erweiterten hydrologischen Modells simuliert wird. Im Einzelnen werden die Auswirkungen von Verstädterung, Maßnahmen zur Niederschlagsversickerung in Siedlungsgebieten, Stilllegung agrarisch genutzter Flächen, veränderter landwirtschaftlicher Bodenbearbeitung, Aufforstung sowie von Sturmschäden in Wäldern untersucht. Diese Eingriffe beeinflussen die Interzeption von Niederschlag, dessen Infiltration, die oberflächennahen unterirdischen Fließprozesse sowie, zum Beispiel im Fall der Kanalisation, auch die Abflusskonzentration. Die hydrologischen Simulationen demonstrieren, dass die Versiegelung einer Fläche den massivsten Eingriff in die natürlichen Verhältnisse darstellt und deshalb die stärksten (negativen) Veränderungen der Hochwassersituation hervorbringt. Außerdem wird deutlich, dass eine bloße Änderung des Interzeptionsvermögens zu keinen wesentlichen Veränderungen führt, da die Speicherkapazität der Pflanzenoberflächen im Verhältnis zum Volumen hochwasserausl

  19. Tissue Engineering in der Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde, Kopf- und Halschirurgie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bücheler, Markus; Bootz, Friedrich

    Tissue Engineering ist eine Schlüsseltechnologie für den Gewebeersatz der Zukunft. Am Beispiel der Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde, Kopf- und Halschirurgie werden klinisch etablierte Gewebeersatzmethoden und aktuelle Entwicklungen des Tissue Engineering gegenübergestellt. Die Besonderheiten der zu ersetzenden Gewebe im Kopf- und Halsbereich erfordert vielfältige Ersatzverfahren. Im klinischen Alltag werden heute vor allem autogene Transplantate und Implantate für den Gewebeersatz verwendet [1]. In vitro hergestellte Gewebe werden abgesehen von Einzelanwendungen zur Zeit noch nicht am Patienten eingesetzt.

  20. Smartes System für die Energiewende - der Übertragungsnetzbetreiber in der digitalen Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflaum, Rainer; Egeler, Tobias

    Die Übertragungsnetze stellen eine zuverlässige Versorgung von Haushalt, Gewerbe und Industrie mit elektrischer Energie sicher und sind damit Grundlage einer modernen Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Die mittlerweile unumkehrbaren Entwicklungen der nationalen und europäischen Energiewende stellen den Übertragungsnetzbetreiber in seinen Kernaufgaben, dem Bau und Betrieb von Netzen, dem Markt- und Netzzugang und der Integration der erneuerbaren Energien vor neue und große Herausforderungen. Verbrauchsnahe dezentrale Erzeugung wie verbrauchsferne zentrale Erzeugung muss im Sinne der Gewährleistung der Systemstabilität gemanagt und in Einklang mit dem Verbrauch gebracht werden. Erneuerbare Energien müssen zudem in einem solchen System ihren Beitrag zur System- und Marktintegration leisten. All das erfordert mehr Daten, um in einem Gesamtsystem dynamische Reaktionsmöglichkeiten gewährleisten zu können. Erst die "Digitalisierung" schafft dabei die notwendigen Voraussetzungen die Komplexität zu stemmen. Die Digitalisierung stellt daher ein Kernelement dieses Wandels des Übertragungsnetzbetreibers dar, die einerseits mit zum Entstehen der neuen Herausforderungen beiträgt, andererseits aber auch hilft Werkzeuge bereitzustellen, diesen Herausforderungen zu begegnen. Im folgenden Beitrag wird aufgezeigt, wie die Digitalisierung die Aufgaben und Instrumente des Übertragungsnetzbetreibers verändern. Ausgehend von den heutigen Aufgaben eines Übertragungsnetzbetreibers und dem gültigen Rechtsrahmen werden unter dem Begriff "Notwendiges Set für morgen" smarte Elemente und Werkzeuge beschrieben, die bereits heute im Einsatz sind oder in den nächsten Jahren notwendig werden. Im Anschluss erfolgt anhand einiger Beispiele aus unterschiedlichen Bereichen eine Konkretisierung der Einsatzzwecke der Digitalisierung beim Übertragungsnetzbetreiber. Ein kurzer Ausblick mit Fokus auf den weiteren Veränderungsprozess rundet den Beitrag ab.

  1. Digitalisierung in der Energiewirtschaft - empirische Untersuchung und Wertschöpfungskette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell, Timo

    Die Energiewirtschaft nutzt seit je her digitale Strukturen zur Umsetzung ihrer Prozesse. Durch den (neuen) verabschiedeten politischen Ordnungsrahmen - dem Gesetz zur Digitalisierung der Energiewende - und durch die rasante Fortentwicklung technologischer Strukturen ergeben sich jedoch die Wertschöpfungsstufen erweiternde, diversifizierende und innovative Möglichkeiten für Energieversorger (EVU) Geschäftsfelder auszubauen bzw. neue zu erschließen. Dabei ist die digitale (R)Evolution keine rein technische Umsetzung, sondern insbesondere auch eine unternehmensinterne, strategische und intern-kulturelle Herausforderung.

  2. Versuche zur Gewinnung von katalytischen Antikörpern zur Hydrolyse von Arylcarbamaten und Arylharnstoffen. (English Title: Attempts to produce catalytic antibodies for hydrolysis of arylcarbamates and arylureas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Deljana

    2002-05-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit gelang es, katalytische Antikörper zur Hydrolyse von Benzylphenylcarbamaten sowie zahlreiche monoklonale Antikörper gegen Haptene herzustellen. Es wurden verschiedene Hapten-Protein-Konjugate unter Verwendung unterschiedlicher Kopplungsmethoden hergestellt und charakterisiert. Zur Generierung der hydrolytisch aktiven Antikörper wurden Inzuchtmäuse mit KLH-Konjugaten von 4 Übergangszustandsanaloga (ÜZA) immunisiert. Mit Hilfe der Hybridomtechnik wurden verschiedene monoklonale Antikörper gegen diese ÜZA gewonnen. Dabei wurden sowohl verschiedene Immunisierungsschemata als auch verschiedene Inzuchtmausstämme und Fusionstechniken verwendet. Insgesamt wurden 32 monoklonale Antikörper gegen die verwendeten ÜZA selektiert. Diese Antikörper wurden in groen Mengen hergestellt und gereinigt. Zum Nachweis der Antikörper-vermittelten Katalyse wurden verschiedene Methoden entwickelt und eingesetzt, darunter immunologische Nachweismethoden mit Anti-Substrat- und Anti-Produkt-Antikörpern und eine photometrische Methode mit Dimethylaminozimtaldehyd. Der Nachweis der hydrolytischen Aktivität gelang mit Hilfe eines Enzymsensors, basierend auf immobilisierter Tyrosinase. Die Antikörper N1-BC1-D11, N1-FA7-C4, N1-FA7-D12 und R3-LG2-F9 hydrolysierten die Benzylphenylcarbamate POCc18, POCc19 und Substanz 27. Der Nachweis der hydrolytischen Aktivität dieser Antikörper gelang auch mit Hilfe der HPLC. Der katalytische Antikörper N1-BC1-D11 wurde kinetisch und thermodynamisch untersucht. Es wurde eine Michaelis-Menten-Kinetik mit Km von 210 µM, vmax von 3 mM/min und kcat von 222 min-1 beobachtet. Diese Werte korrelieren mit den Werten der wenigen bekannten Diphenylcarbamat-spaltenden Abzyme. Die Beschleunigungsrate des Antikörpers N1-BC1-D11 betrug 10. Das ÜZA Hei3 hemmte die hydrolytische Aktivität. Dies beweist, dass die Hydrolyse in der Antigenbindungsstelle stattfindet. Weiter wurde zwischen der Antikörperkonzentration und der

  3. Methoden der digitalen Planung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westkämper, Engelbert; Niemann, Jörg; Warschat, Joachim; Scheer, August-Wilhelm; Thomas, Oliver

    Die industrielle Produktion ist das Herz der verarbeitenden Industrie in Deutschland. Mit einem Beitrag von rund 500 Mrd. EUR pro Jahr erwirtschaftet das verarbeitende Gewerbe etwa ein Viertel der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Wertschöpfung in Deutschland. Gemessen am Produktionswert der Gesamtwirtschaft betrug der industrielle Anteil sogar über ein Drittel. Der Erhalt und der Ausbau der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit unter den gegebenen Rahmenbedingungen der globalen Märkte ist eine der größten Herausforderungen der deutschen Wirtschaft [5, 8]. In diesem Beitrag soll - ausgehend von einer Strategie der Ausrüster von Fabriken in einer globalen Produktion - diskutiert werden, wie mit der digitalen Fabrik Potentiale in den Planungs- und Wandlungsprozessen erschlossen werden können.

  4. Ustekinumab in der Therapie der Pustulosis palmoplantaris - Eine Fallserie mit neun Patienten.

    PubMed

    Buder, Valeska; Herberger, Katharina; Jacobi, Arnd; Augustin, Matthias; Radtke, Marc Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Die Pustulosis palmoplantaris ist eine chronisch entzündliche Hauterkrankung, die mit bedeutenden Einschränkungen der Lebensqualität und der Belastbarkeit einhergeht. Aufgrund von Zulassungsbeschränkungen und einem häufig therapierefraktären Verlauf sind die Behandlungsmöglichkeiten limitiert. Nach zuvor frustranen Therapien erhielten 9 Patienten mit Pustulosis palmoplantaris nach Ausschluss einer latenten Tuberkulose Ustekinumab (45 mg Ustekinumab bei < 100 kg Körpergewicht [KG], 90 mg Ustekinumab > 100 kg KG) in Woche 0, 4, 12 und 24. Reguläre Visiten erfolgten nach 4 und 12 Wochen, im weiteren Verlauf alle 12 Wochen. Das Durchschnittsalter bei Therapiebeginn betrug 48 Jahre. Drei Patienten waren männlich. Bei n  =  4 Patienten (44,4 %) wurde eine Verbesserung um 75 % des Palmoplantar-Psoriasis-Area-Severity-Index (PPPASI) erreicht. Insgesamt verbesserte sich der PPPASI nach 24 Wochen durchschnittlich um 71,6 %. Eine komplette Abheilung zeigte sich bei n  =  2 Patienten nach 24 Wochen. Bis auf lokale Injektionsreaktionen und leichte Infekte wurden keine unerwünschten Wirkungen beobachtet. Die Fallserie ist ein weiterer Beleg für die Wirksamkeit und Verträglichkeit von Ustekinumab in der Therapie der Pustulosis palmoplantaris. Zur Beurteilung der Langzeitwirkung und -sicherheit sowie der Wirksamkeit einer intermittierenden Therapie sind kontrollierte Studiendaten sowie Beobachtungen im Rahmen von Patientenregistern notwendig. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. [COPD und Klangtherapie: Pilotstudie zur Wirksamkeit einer Behandlung mit Körpertambura bei COPD-Patienten].

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Bernhard; Schmidt, Stefan; Hartwig, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Hintergrund: Erkrankungen der Atemorgane treten mit steigendem Alter öfter auf, nehmen weltweit zu und sind häufige Ursachen für Morbidität und Mortalität. In dieser Pilotstudie wurde der Frage nachgegangen, ob eine einmalige 10-minütige Behandlung mit einer Körpertambura eine signifikante und effektive Verbesserung der Lungenfunktion von Patienten mit chronisch-obstruktiver Lungenerkrankung (COPD; GOLD-Stadium A oder B) erbringen kann. Patienten und Methoden: 54 Probanden konnten je zur Hälfte in eine Behandlungsgruppe (Körpertambura) und eine aktive Kontrollgruppe (Atemtherapie) randomisiert werden. Eine Bestimmung der Lungenfunktionsmessparameter «Einsekundenkapazität» (FEV1) und «inspiratorische Vitalkapazität» (IVC) zu den Zeitpunkten T1 (Baseline), T2 (direkt nach Behandlung) und als Follow-up etwa 3 Wochen nach T1 (T3). Ergebnisse: Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte sich der Kontrollgruppe in beiden Werten signifikant überlegen. Die Zeit-×-Gruppe-Interaktion (Varianzanalyse) ergab p = 0,001 (FEV1) bzw. p = 0,04 (IVC). Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte bei beiden Werten eine Verbesserung von klinischer Relevanz. Schlussfolgerung: Diese Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Klangbehandlung mittels einer Körpertambura - neben den schulmedizinischen, leitliniengerechten Therapien - eine zusätzliche, nebenwirkungsarme, aber durchaus klinisch wirksame Option für die Behandlung von COPD-Patienten darstellen kann, um deren Lebensqualität zu stabilisieren und zu verbessern. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  6. Umsetzung der Unternehmensstrategie mit der Balanced Scorecard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, Isabel; Bergmann, Lars; Portmann, Stefan; Lacker, Thomas; Lacker, Michael; Fleischmann, Jürgen; Kozó, Hans

    Die Balanced Scorecard (BSC) ist ein Ansatz zum strategischen Management, der neben der Ausrichtung des Unternehmens auf finanzielle Zielwerte ebenso großes Gewicht auf so genannte weiche Faktoren legt, die den wirtschaftlichen Erfolg eines Unternehmens erst ermöglichen. Das entscheidende Merkmal der Balanced Scorecard ist dabei, dass sie ein ausgewogenes System strategischer Ziele herstellt, welches das Unternehmen hinsichtlich der vier Perspektiven Finanzen, Kunden, interne Prozesse und Mitarbeiter und Potenziale strategisch ausrichtet (Kaplan u. Norton 1997).

  7. Meilensteine in der Erforschung der kompakten Objekte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camenzind, Max

    Kompakte Objekte besitzen zum einen eine sehr hohe Dichte, und zum anderen sind sie durch die Tatsache charakterisiert, dass keine nuklearen Reaktionen mehr in ihrem Inneren stattfinden können. Aus diesem Grund können sie im Unterschied zu gewöhnlichen Sternen der Gravitation nicht mehr mit dem Druck des thermischen Gases widerstehen. In den Weißen Zwergen bzw. Neutronensternen wird der Gravitation der Quantendruck eines Elektronengases bzw. einer Neutronenflüssigkeit entgegengesetzt. Ein solches Gas besteht aus Elektronen bzw. Neutronen, die auf ihr niedrigstes Energieniveau zusammengepresst wurden. Durch die daraus resultierende hohe Bewegungsenergie der Fermionen wird der sogenannte Quantendruck erzeugt.

  8. Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung von Satellitengalaxien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Björn

    2002-01-01

    Gleichgewichtsmodelle ein- und zweikomponentiger Satellitengalaxien werden erzeugt und die Gezeiteneinwirkungen der als starres äußeres Potential angenommenen Milchstraße auf sie betrachtet. Eine erste Reihe von Simulationen mit anfänglich kugelsymmetrischen einkomponentigen Satelliten zeigt, daß sich nach elliptischer Deformation ein Balken und Schweife ungleicher Länge ausbilden, deren Aussehen sich periodisch ändert. Mithilfe von Vergleichssimulationen wurden folgende Phänomene am Satelliten entdeckt: (1) Hochdichtebereiche in den Schweifen, (2) Niedrigdichtebereiche um den Kern bzw. Balken und (3) ein oft verdeckter Balken. Analysiert wird das Erscheinungsbild in Zeitabhängigkeit. Die Teilchen gehen dem Kern über den Balken verloren und bewegen sich entlang gewisser stets gleich aussehender charakteristischer Strukturen in die Schweife. Nach einer Herleitung allgemeiner Größen des mehrkomponentigen Kingprofils werden drei stabile Standardmodelle zweikomponentiger Satellitengalaxien mit Massenverhältnis 1:10 (baryonische zu dunkle Materie) und unterschiedlicher Verteilung der dunklen und sichtbaren Materie gefunden. Ohne die Allgemeinheit der Ergebnisse zu beeinträchtigen, wurde dabei die Große Magellanische Wolke als Grundlage der Modelle genommen. Nach geeigneter Wahl der Bahn, zu der der Gezeitenradius des verwendeten dreikomponentigen Milchstraßenpotentials sowohl analytisch als auch numerisch berechnet wird, werden Simulationen der Modelle analysiert. Hauptaugenmerk ist das unterschiedliche Verhalten der Komponenten. Hauptergebnisse: (1) Es ist möglich, große Anteile dunkler, jedoch nur geringe sichtbarer Materie abzulösen. Dunkle und sichtbare Materie können unterschiedliche morphologische Strukturen bilden. (2) Je nach Konzentration der Komponenten ist die Eigengravitation der Teilchen mehr oder weniger für das Aussehen bestimmend. (3) Die Kernauflösung des Satelliten findet im Perigalaktikum (PG), sein Zerfall aber erst im

  9. The psychosocial situation of obese children: Psychological factors and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Korsten-Reck, U; Korsten, K; Haeberle, K; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Dickhuth, H H; Schulz, E

    2009-01-01

    The psychosocial situation of obese children at the beginning of the Freiburg Intervention Trial for Obese Children (FITOC) program influences the course and outcome of intervention therapy. At the beginning of FITOC, mothers of 30 children (12 ♂ age 10.5 ± 1.4, 18 ♀; 10.2 ± 1.3) rated the psychopathological symptoms using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the quality of life of their children (Inventar zur Erfassung der Lebensqualität [ILK]). 46.6% of mothers rated their children to be disturbed (normal population group, 2% disturbed). There was no correlation between the body mass index of the child and the CBCL score. On the ILK, the obese children themselves selected “good” while the mother’s view of their childrens’ quality of life varied around “poor”. The stress on the mother increased with the degree of the child’s obesity and number of critical life events (p = 0.030). The CBCL and the ILK at the beginning of treatment serve as a good screening instrument for psychopathology and distress in children with obesity. PMID:22110318

  10. Vergleich von rekombinanten Vaccinia- und DNA-Vektoren zur Tumorimmuntherapie im C57BL/6-Mausmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnen, Heiko

    2002-10-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Tumorimpfstoffe auf der Basis des Plasmid-Vektors pCI, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) und MVA-infizierten dendritischen Zellen entwickelt und durch Sequenzierung, Western blotting und durchflußzytometrische Analyse überprüft. Die in vivo Wirksamkeit der Vakzinen wurde in verschiedenen Tumormodellen in C57BL/6 Mäusen verglichen. Die auf dem eukaryotischen Expressionsvektor pCI basierende DNA-Vakzinierung induzierte einen sehr wirksamen, antigenspezifischen und langfristigen Schutz vor Muzin, CEA oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Eine MVA-Vakzinierung bietet in den in dieser Arbeit durchgeführten Tumormodellen keinen signifikanten Schutz vor Muzin oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Sowohl humane, als auch murine in vitro generierte dendritische Zellen lassen sich mit MVA – im Vergleich zu anderen viralen Vektoren – sehr gut infizieren. Die Expressionsrate der eingefügten Gene ist aber gering im Vergleich zur Expression in permissiven Wirtszellen des Virus (embryonale Hühnerfibroblasten). Es konnte gezeigt werden, daß eine MVA-Infektion dendritischer Zellen ähnliche Auswirkungen auf den Reifezustand humaner und muriner dendritischer Zellen hat, wie eine Infektion mit replikationskompetenten Vakzinia-Stämmen, und außerdem die Hochregulation von CD40 während der terminalen Reifung von murinen dendritischen Zellen inhibiert wird. Die während der langfristigen in vitro Kultur auf CEF-Zellen entstandenen Deletionen im MVA Genom führten zu einer starken Attenuierung und dem Verlust einiger Gene, die immunmodulatorische Proteine kodieren, jedoch nicht zu einer Verminderung des zytopathischen Effekts in dendritischen Zellen. Die geringe Expressionsrate und die beobachtete Inhibition der Expression kostimulatorischer Moleküle auf dendritischen Zellen kann für eine wenig effektive Induktion einer Immunantwort in MVA vakzinierten Tieren durch cross priming oder die direkte Infektion

  11. [Kombinierte Anwendung von Strahlentherapie und adjuvanter Therapie mit einem Mistelextrakt (Viscum album L.) zur Behandlung des oralen malignen Melanoms beim Hund: Eine retrospektive Studie].

    PubMed

    von Bodungen, Uta; Ruess, Katja; Reif, Marcus; Biegel, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Hintergrund: Orale maligne Melanome (OMM) des Hundes zeichnen sich durch schnelles Wachstum, lokale Invasion und hohe Metastasierungsraten aus. Extrakte auf Basis von Viscum album L. (VAE) werden zunehmend in der Krebstherapie sowohl in der Human- als auch in der Veterinärmedizin eingesetzt. Ziel unserer Studie war es zu untersuchen, inwieweit die adjuvante Therapie mit VAE eine therapeutische Option zur Behandlung von OMM ist. Besonderes Augenmerk galt dabei der Überlebenszeit und möglichen Nebenwirkungen. Tiere und Methoden: 26 Hunde mit OMM, die in einem der größten veterinäronkologischen Zentren der Schweiz allesamt eine Strahlentherapie erhielten (teilweise nach operativer Tumorresektion) wurden in die retrospektive Studie eingeschlossen: 18 Hunde wurden mit VAE behandelt (1 ml VAE (Iscador®) in ansteigenden Konzentrationen von 0,1 bis 20 mg/ml subkutan 3-mal pro Woche (VAE-Gruppe), 8 erhielten keine adjuvante Behandlung (Vergleichsgruppe). Wir verglichen die Größenentwicklung der OMM sowie die Überlebenszeit. Ergebnisse: Patienten mit Bestrahlung und adjuvanter VAE-Therapie zeigten mit 236 Tagen eine signifikant längere mediane Überlebenszeit im Vergleich zu Patienten mit Bestrahlung, aber ohne adjuvante VAE-Therapie (49 Tage; Log-Rank-Test: p = 0,0047). Die VAE-Therapie verlängerte die Überlebenszeit um mehr als zwei Drittel (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0,30, 95%-Konfidenzintervall (KI) 0,11-0,86; p = 0,024), während ein höheres Tumorstadium gemäß UICC (Union internationale contre le cancer) einen statistischen Trend zur Verdopplung des Sterberisikos zeigte (UICC-Stadium III/IV vs. I/II: HR = 2,12, 95%-KI 0,88-5,12; p = 0,095). Zwei Patienten zeigten milde Nebenwirkungen während der VAE-Behandlung. Einer der beiden zeigte 1 Tag lang ein selbstlimitiertes Fieber, bei dem anderen Patienten reduzierten wir die Dosis von einem konzentrierteren zu einem weniger konzentrierten VAE (Serie 0) aufgrund von Müdigkeit, die daraufhin verschwand

  12. Herausforderungen für künftige Lernumgebungen am Beispiel der Fakultät für Medizin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergintchev, Ivan; Graf, Stephan

    Nach der weit reichenden Etablierung von eLearning in den letzten Jahren stehen nahezu alle deutschen Hochschulen vor der Aufgabe, wettbewerbsfähige hochschulübergreifende Mechanismen sowie entsprechende organisatorische Rahmenbedingungen zu schaffen. Vor allem die Umsetzung von EBologna und die Unterstützung kooperativer Bildungsangebote verstärken diese Notwendigkeit. Motiviert durch die Veränderungen im Bereich der Hochschullehre und die Herausforderungen für künftige Lernumgebungen schlagen wir eine Integrationslösung im Sinne eines Learning Gateway vor, die zur webgestützten Abwicklung von kooperativen Bildungsangeboten in heterogen Lernumgebungen eingesetzt werden kann. Ihre Praxisanwendung verdeutlichen wir anschließend im komplexen Szenario der Medizin an der TUM. Die Evaluierung der Umsetzung belegt den deutlichen Mehrwert des Ansatzes.

  13. Epigenetische Aspekte bei Karzinomen der Kopf-Hals-Region

    PubMed Central

    Schmezer, Peter; Plass, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Plattenepithelkarzinome der Kopf-Hals-Region (HNSCC) zählen seit Jahren zu den weltweit häufigsten Krebsarten. Trotz vieler Bemühungen hat sich das 5-Jahres-Überleben bei Patienten mit HNSCC kaum verbessert. Um einen Fortschritt zu erzielen, ist es notwendig, die der Erkrankung zugrunde liegenden biologischen Prozesse besser zu verstehen. Neben den bekannten genetischen Veränderungen haben molekular-zytogenetische Untersuchungen bei HNSCC gezeigt, dass es weitere Veränderungen gibt, die mit Vermehrung und Verlust chromosomaler Bereiche einhergehen, für die jedoch die krankheitsverursachenden Gene bisher nicht identifiziert wurden. Darüberhinaus haben jüngste Forschungsergebnisse verdeutlicht, dass epigenetische Modifikationen wie die DNA Methylierung eine wichtige Rolle spielen. So konnte gezeigt werden, dass bei HNSCC eine Reihe von Genen (z.B. das Tumorsuppressorgen CDKN2A sowie DAPK1, MGMT, TIMP3, TCF21, und C/EBPα) hypermethylierte Bereiche in regulatorischen DNA Sequenzen aufweisen, wodurch ihre Expression verringert oder unterbunden wird. Die Hypermethylierung solcher Gene könnte als Biomarker zur Früherkennung von HNSCC genutzt werden und nicht zuletzt dadurch zur Verbesserung von Prävention und Therapieerfolg beitragen. PMID:18483718

  14. Analyse der pharmazeutischen Versorgungssituation von Patienten mit Psoriasis-Arthritis auf Basis von Routinedaten der Gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung.

    PubMed

    Sondermann, Wiebke; Ventzke, Julia; Matusiewicz, David; Körber, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Die Psoriasis-Arthritis (PsA) gehört zu den chronisch entzündlichen Gelenkerkrankungen. Trotz zahlreicher versorgungswissenschaftlicher Studien in Deutschland liegen zur pharmazeutischen Versorgungssituation von PsA-Patienten bisher kaum aktuelle Ergebnisse vor. Mit Hilfe einer systematischen Literaturrecherche sowie anhand von Routinedaten der Allgemeinen Ortskrankenkasse (AOK) Rheinland/Hamburg wird ein aktueller Überblick über die pharmazeutische Versorgung von PsA-Patienten in Deutschland gegeben. Selektiert wurden Versicherte aus dem ambulanten und stationären Bereich, die im 1. und 2. Quartal des Jahres 2014 die gesicherte Abrechnungsdiagnose Psoriasis-Arthritis L40.5+ aufwiesen. Anschließend wurden auf Basis dieser "vorab definierten" Kohorte die Arzneimitteldaten für 5 Jahre (01.01.2010-31.12.2014) abgerufen. Es konnten insgesamt n  =  3205 Versicherte (45 % männlich, 55 % weiblich) der AOK Rheinland/Hamburg mit einer gesicherten PsA-Diagnose selektiert werden. Das Durchschnittsalter betrug 58,9 Jahre. 53,7 % der PsA-Patienten wurden mit systemischen PsA-relevanten Arzneimitteln versorgt. Nichtsteroidale Antirheumatika (NSAR) wurden am häufigsten verordnet, gefolgt von systemischen Glucocorticoiden. Von den selektierten PsA-Patienten, die eine Systemtherapie erhielten, wurden 72,1 % mittels einer Disease-modifying-antirheumatic-Drug (DMARD)-Monotherapie behandelt, gefolgt von der Kombinationstherapie aus DMARDs und Biologika (20,9 %). Die pharmakologische Therapie der PsA muss eine Gewährleistung zwischen adäquater Versorgung der PsA mit Verhinderung der Krankheitsprogression und ökonomischer Verantwortung darstellen. © 2018 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Der neue Kosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsöld, Albrecht; Baschek, Bodo

    Astronomie, Astrophysik und Weltraumforschung haben innerhalb weniger Jahrzehnte eine geradezu explosive Entwicklung genommen. Die neuen Beobachtungsmöglichkeiten durch die Raumfahrt, die Entwicklung hochempfindlicher Lichtdetektoren und der Einsatz leistungsstarker Computer haben uns neuartige Aspekte in der faszinierenden Welt der Galaxien und Quasare, der Sterne und Planeten erschlossen. Nachdem die dritte Auflage vergriffen ist, trägt die vorliegende vierte, völlig neubearbeitete Auflage des NEUEN KOSMOS dieser stürmischen Entwicklung Rechnung. In überschaubarem Umfang wird - bei bescheidenen Ansprüchen an die mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Vorbildung des Lesers - eine zusammenhängende Einführung in das Gesamtgebiet der Astronomie und Astrophysik gegeben, welche die Beobachtungen und die Grundgedanken ihrer theoretischen Deutung in gleicher Weise berücksichtigt. Auch in seiner neuen Gestalt wird der NEUE KOSMOS den Studenten und Forschern in Bereichen der Astronomie, Physik und Geowissenschaften sowie einem weiten Kreis ernsthaft interessierter Amateure viel Neues und viel Freude bringen.

  16. Modulare und durchgängige Produktmodelle als Erfolgsfaktor zur Bedienung einer Omni-Channel-Architektur - PLM 4.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovatchev, Julius; Felsmann, Marcus

    Mit der Transformation der Wertschöpfungsstrukturen von Utility 1.0 zu Utility 4.0 erfolgt offensichtlich auch eine Veränderung des Produkts. Vor dem Hintergrund disruptiver Technologien (IoT, Big Data, Cloud, Robotics etc.) und auch gesellschaftlicher Veränderungen entstehen ständig neue Geschäftsmodelle und Produkte, die über die reine Versorgungsdienstleistung (z. B. Strom) hinausgehen. Dabei muss der wertvolle Rohstoff Produktdaten für smarte Produkte durchgängiger und schneller nutzbar gemacht werden. Die modularen und durchgängigen Produktstrukturen leisten einen Beitrag zur Beherrschung von Komplexität und stellen somit einen wesentlichen Hebel für erfolgreiche Produktentwicklung und -management dar. In diesem Beitrag werden Ansätze beschrieben, wie es den vor der Herausforderung Utility 4.0 stehenden Unternehmen gelingen kann, Smart-Energy-Produkte so zu modellieren, dass sie die Interoperabilität der einzelnen Produktionsmodule sicherstellt und ein Ende-zu-Ende-Management ermöglicht.

  17. Situating Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana Seidel; Ward, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a situative approach to studying motivation to learn in social contexts. We begin by contrasting this perspective to more prevalent psychological approaches to the study of motivation, describing epistemological and methodological differences that have constrained conversation between theoretical groups. We elaborate on…

  18. Kants Theorie der Sonne: Physikgeschichte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    Im Rahmen seiner Kosmogonie entwickelte der junge Immanuel Kant eine Theorie der Sonne. Sie ist ein einzigartiges Zeugnis seiner intuitiven Vorstellungskraft und beweist auch die Leistungsfähigkeit der damaligen, vorwiegend von Newton geprägten Weltsicht. Entstehung, Aufbau und Dynamik der Sonne werden in Kants Theorie ebenso erklärt wie etwa das Phänomen der Sonnenflecken.

  19. Turbulenzübergang in der Rohrströmung: Die Lösung eines alten Rätsels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Hof, Björn; Faisst, Holger

    2006-09-01

    Die Strömung von Flüssigkeiten und Gasen durch eine Röhre kann zwei Zustände annehmen. Einer ist laminar, also gleichmäßig geordnet, einer ist zeitlich-räumlich verwirbelt und turbulent. Mit dem Übergang zur Turbulenz nimmt der Strömungswiderstand drastisch zu. Vor etwa 120 Jahren beschrieb Osborne Reynolds bereits das Verhalten der Rohrströmung sehr genau. Er beobachtete, dass der Turbulenzübergang sehr empfindlich von äußeren Störungen abhängt, was bislang rätselhaft blieb. Dieses Rätsel konnte nun mit einer Kombination aus Computerstudien, Konzepten aus der nichtlinearen Dynamik und speziell entwickelten Experimenten gelöst werden.

  20. Hardware-Abbildung eines videobasierten Verfahrens zur echtzeitfähigen Auswertung von Winkelhistogrammen auf eine modulare Coprozessor-Architektur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatt, H.; Tarnowsky, A.; Blume, H.; Pirsch, P.

    2010-10-01

    Dieser Beitrag behandelt die Abbildung eines videobasierten Verfahrens zur echtzeitfähigen Auswertung von Winkelhistogrammen auf eine modulare Coprozessor-Architektur. Die Architektur besteht aus mehreren dedizierten Recheneinheiten zur parallelen Verarbeitung rechenintensiver Bildverarbeitungsverfahren und ist mit einem RISC-Prozessor verbunden. Eine konfigurierbare Architekturerweiterung um eine Recheneinheit zur Auswertung von Winkelhistogrammen von Objekten ermöglicht in Verbindung mit dem RISC eine echtzeitfähige Klassifikation. Je nach Konfiguration sind für die Architekturerweiterung auf einem Xilinx Virtex-5-FPGA zwischen 3300 und 12 000 Lookup-Tables erforderlich. Bei einer Taktfrequenz von 100 MHz können unabhängig von der Bildauflösung pro Einzelbild in einem 25-Hz-Videodatenstrom bis zu 100 Objekte der Größe 256×256 Pixel analysiert werden. This paper presents the mapping of a video-based approach for real-time evaluation of angular histograms on a modular coprocessor architecture. The architecture comprises several dedicated processing elements for parallel processing of computation-intensive image processing tasks and is coupled with a RISC processor. A configurable architecture extension, especially a processing element for evaluating angular histograms of objects in conjunction with a RISC processor, provides a real-time classification. Depending on the configuration of the architecture extension, 3 300 to 12 000 look-up tables are required for a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA implementation. Running at a clock frequency of 100 MHz and independently of the image resolution per frame, 100 objects of size 256×256 pixels are analyzed in a 25 Hz video stream by the architecture.

  1. Strahlungsfeldbedingungen bei der Ionisationsdosimetrie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Hanno

    Bei der Dosimetrie von Photonenstrahlungen mit luftgefüllten Ionisationskammern werden in diesem Kapitel zwei Grenzfälle unterschieden. Der eine Fall ist die Bedingung des so genannten Sekundärelektronengleichwichts im Kammervolumen. In diesem Fall bestimmen ausschließlich die Photonen im Messvolumen die dosimetrische Anzeige. Der zweite Grenzfall ist gegeben, wenn das Luftvolumen und die Kammer das Strahlungsfeld im Phantom so wenig stören, dass der Sekundärelektronenfluss unverändert bleibt. Diese Bedingungen nennt man BRAGG-GRAY-Bedingungen. Beide Grenzfälle sind in der Praxis nur näherungsweise zu verwirklichen. Abweichungen müssen durch entsprechende Korrekturen oder Kalibrierungen berücksichtigt werden.

  2. Spitznävi: unterschiedliche klinische, dermatoskopische und histopathologische Merkmale in der Kindheit.

    PubMed

    Dika, Emi; Neri, Iria; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Barisani, Alessia; Ravaioli, Giulia Maria; Patrizi, Annalisa

    2017-01-01

    Die Charakterisierung der klinischen Merkmale und des biologischen Potenzials von Spitznävi hat in den letzten Jahrzehnten breites Interesse gefunden. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Beschreibung der klinischen und dermatoskopischen Merkmale von Spitznävi sowie des klinischen Ergebnisses nach chirurgischer Exzision von Spitznävi in drei pädiatrischen Altersgruppen. Restrospektive Studie zur Analyse von klinischen Merkmalen, videodermatoskopischen Bildern, histopathologischen Diagnosen und Behandlungsergebnissen. Der Grad der Pigmentierung wurde sowohl klinisch als auch histopathologisch beurteilt. Bei 71 Patienten wurden 72 spitzoide Neoplasien entfernt. Videodermatologische Bilder lagen für 41 Patienten vor. Das Muster der Pigmentierung korrelierte signifikant mit dem Alter der Patienten: Hyperpigmentierte Läsionen waren bei Vorschulkindern selten, bei Patienten von 7 bis 12 Jahren und ab 13 Jahren dagegen häufiger. Eine histopathologische Diagnose von atypischen Spitznävi wurde selten durchgeführt. Keiner der Patienten, bei denen ursprünglich ein atypischer Spitznävus diagnostiziert worden war, entwickelte ein Lokalrezidiv oder Metastasen während der anschließenden Nachbeobachtung. Pigmentierte Spitznävi traten im Alter ab 13 Jahren häufiger auf. Die Studie bestätigt andere Berichte über die Altersverteilung von Pigmentierungsmustern und hebt die geringe Anzahl atypischer Spitznävi bei pädiatrischen Patienten hervor sowie das Ausbleiben von Rezidiven bei der langfristigen Nachbeobachtung. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Variabilität des Reviergesangs des Buchfinken (Fringilla coelebs) zur Raum-Zeit-Beschreibung von Metapopulationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, Björn

    2003-10-01

    Der Buchfinkengesang wurde in Potsdam in zwei Hauptpopulationen über drei Jahre aufgenommen. Jedes Individuum wurde eindeutig am individuellen Strophentypenrepertoire identifiziert. Ein weiterer Punkt der die individuelle Wiedererkennung bestätigt ist die hohe Standorttreue der adulten Männchen. Die beschriebene Methode eignet sich für die Untersuchung von gesamten Populationen, um den Wandel des Gesangs von Populationen in Raum und Zeit zu beschreiben. Die Haupterkenntnisse der Arbeit sind: - Die Gesamtanzahl der Grundstrophentypen innerhalb einer Population bleibt über Jahre konstant. - Die relative Häufigkeit jedes einzelnen Strophentyps variiert von Jahr zu Jahr und von Population zu Population. - Gesangslernen erfolgt exakt mit einem Korrektheitsgrad von mindestens 96%. - Das Song-Sharing ist innerhalb der Population hoch. Die diskutierten Mechanismen für das Song-Sharing sind: Die Lebenserwartung, das Zugverhalten, das Lernverhalten, die Etabliertheit von Strophentypen, Weibchenpräferenzen und die Reaktionen der territorialen Männchen. - Weiterhin wurde ein Modell zur kulturellen Evolution des Buchfinkengesangs programmiert, um die Rolle der Einflussfaktoren, wie Fehlerquote, Abwanderungsrate und Laufzeit zu ermitteln. Der Wandel des Dialektes erfolgt graduell in Raum und Zeit. Daher sind keine scharfen Dialektgrenzen anzutreffen. Trotz dieser Tatsache markieren die etablierten Strophentypen die Population. 50 % der Juvenilen siedeln am Geburtsort, auf diese Weise bleibt der Dialekt erhalten und Inzest wird vermieden. -Analysiert man das Repertoire benachbarten Männchen bei isolierten Alleen, so entspricht die Gesangsangleichung in etwa dem Zufall. -Intraindividuelle Vergleiche der quantitativen Parameter des jeweiligen Strophentyps wurden saisonal und annuell durchgeführt. Saisonal konnten für einen Strophentyp ein Trend ermittelt werden. Bei jährlichen Vergleichen konnten intraindividuell ausschließlich nicht signifikante Ergebnisse ermittelt

  4. Der Rohingya - Konflikt:. Genese, aktuelle Situation und geopolitische Aspekte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bepler, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    The Rohingya in Myanmar are often described as the most persecuted minority in the world. In the former Burma, the Rohingya are considered illegal immigrants and have been denied citizenship for decades. Since the end of August 2017, more than 655,000 Rohingya from Rakhine State have fled to neighboring Bangladesh. While the public usually discusses the ethnic-religious and humanitarian causes and effects of the conflict, the political, economic and geopolitical interests of directly and indirectly involved actors also play a role.

  5. Der Rohingya - Konflikt: - Genese, aktuelle Situation und geopolitische Aspekte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bepler, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    The Rohingya in Myanmar are often described as the most persecuted minority in the world. In the former Burma, the Rohingya are considered illegal immigrants and have been denied citizenship for decades. Since the end of August 2017, more than 655,000 Rohingya from Rakhine State have fled to neighboring Bangladesh. While the public usually discusses the ethnic-religious and humanitarian causes and effects of the conflict, the political, economic and geopolitical interests of directly and indirectly involved actors also play a role.

  6. Reisen im freien Fall - Teil 2: Das Zwillingsparadoxon aus dem Blickwinkel der ART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonne, Bernd; Weiß, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Nachdem wir uns mit den Prinzipien der ART und einigen Beispielen vertraut gemacht haben, kommen wir nun zur Berechnung des Zwillingsparadoxons aus Sicht des reisenden Zwillings. Dabei spielt das Äquivalenzprinzip eine große Rolle. Deshalb wird die Bewegungssituation noch einmal erläutert, diesmal aus Sicht von Katrin. Sie befindet sich in ihrem System S'in Ruhe. In ihrem System läuft die Zeit t'ab. Nach dem Start fühlt Katrin jedoch eine Kraft, die sie als Gravitationskraft interpretieren kann. Sie merkt es daran, dass sie in den Sitz gedrückt wird. Nach einiger Zeit werden die Triebwerke abgeschaltet, und das Raumschiff fliegt mit konstanter Geschwindigkeit weiter, Phase 2. Anschließend wird der Schub der Triebwerke solange umgekehrt, bis das Raumschiff irgendwo mit der Geschwindigkeit null am Umkehrpunkt U landet, Phase 3 (Abb. 15.1). Die Erde, auf der sich Michael befindet, bewegt sich mit x'(t') aus Sicht von Katrin im freien Fall von ihr weg, s. das Experiment mit dem steigenden Fahrstuhl in Abschn. 13.2.1.

  7. The Zur regulon of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Zinc is considered as an essential element for all living organisms, but it can be toxic at large concentrations. Bacteria therefore tightly regulate zinc metabolism. The Cg2502 protein of Corynebacterium glutamicum was a candidate to control zinc metabolism in this species, since it was classified as metalloregulator of the zinc uptake regulator (Zur) subgroup of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family of DNA-binding transcription regulators. Results The cg2502 (zur) gene was deleted in the chromosome of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 by an allelic exchange procedure to generate the zur-deficient mutant C. glutamicum JS2502. Whole-genome DNA microarray hybridizations and real-time RT-PCR assays comparing the gene expression in C. glutamicum JS2502 with that of the wild-type strain detected 18 genes with enhanced expression in the zur mutant. The expression data were combined with results from cross-genome comparisons of shared regulatory sites, revealing the presence of candidate Zur-binding sites in the mapped promoter regions of five transcription units encoding components of potential zinc ABC-type transporters (cg0041-cg0042/cg0043; cg2911-cg2912-cg2913), a putative secreted protein (cg0040), a putative oxidoreductase (cg0795), and a putative P-loop GTPase of the COG0523 protein family (cg0794). Enhanced transcript levels of the respective genes in C. glutamicum JS2502 were verified by real-time RT-PCR, and complementation of the mutant with a wild-type zur gene reversed the effect of differential gene expression. The zinc-dependent expression of the putative cg0042 and cg2911 operons was detected in vivo with a gfp reporter system. Moreover, the zinc-dependent binding of purified Zur protein to double-stranded 40-mer oligonucleotides containing candidate Zur-binding sites was demonstrated in vitro by DNA band shift assays. Conclusion Whole-genome expression profiling and DNA band shift assays demonstrated that Zur directly represses in a zinc

  8. CAD in der Praxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labisch, Susanna

    Konstruktion und Fertigung erfolgen in der Praxis fast ausschließlich rechnerunterstützt. Mit diesem Rechnereinsatz beim Konstruieren (CAD, Computer Aided Design) und Fertigen CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) scheint die technische Zeichnung an Bedeutung zu verlieren, da die Verständigung zwischen Konstruktions- und Fertigungsabteilung primär durch den Austausch digitaler Daten erfolgen kann.

  9. Zur Soziolinguistik in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Sociolinguistics in the Federal Republic of Germany)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jachnow, Helmut

    1975-01-01

    Traces the history of sociolinguistic studies in West Germany from the early nineteenth century with Humboldt and reports on the state and purposes of sociolinguistic studies in present-day Federal Republic of Germany. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden (Text is in German.) (TL)

  10. Isotopenhydrologische Methoden (2H, 18O) zur Bestimmung der Grundwasserneubildung in Trockengebieten: Potenzial und Grenzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Matthias; Gaj, Marcel; Königer, Paul; Tulimeveva Hamutoko, Josefina; Wanke, Heike; Wallner, Markus; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    The estimation of groundwater recharge in water-limited environments is challenging due to climatic conditions, the occurrence of deep unsaturated zones, and specialized vegetation. We critically examined two methods based on stable isotopes of soil water: (i) the interpretation of natural isotope depth-profiles and subsequent approximation of recharge using empirical relationships and (ii) the use of deuterium-enriched water (2H2O) as tracer. Numerous depth-profiles were measured directly in the field in semiarid Namibia using a novel in-situ technique. Additionally, 2H2O was injected into the soil and its displacement over a complete rainy season monitored. Estimated recharge ranges between 0 and 29 mm/y for three rainy seasons experiencing seasonal rainfall of 660 mm (2013/14), 313 mm (2014/15) and 535 mm (2015/16). The results of this study fortify the suitability of water stable isotope-based approaches for recharge estimation and highlight enormous potential for future studies of water vapor transport and ecohydrological processes.

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Einsteins Kosmos. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Kosmologie Relativitatstheorie und zu Einsteins Wirken und Nachwirken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.

    2006-12-01

    This book collects about 15 papers (most of them by one single author) on Einstein and the history of general relativity (GR) and the foundations of relativistic cosmology. The matter not only deals with Einstein and his times, but also with pre-GR ideas, and with the interplay of Einstein and his colleagues (opposing as well as supporting personalities). As the title indicates, all papers are written in German, but they include comprehensive Abstracts both in German and English. The book is illustrated with quite a number classical - but also some far more original though not less beautiful - photographs and facsimiles of documents. The book is edited very well, though the style of references is not quite homogeneous. There is no Index. K. Hentschel covers Einstein's argumentation for the existence of graviational redshift, and the initial search for empirical support. The error analysis of observational evidence supporting relativistic light deflection is discussed in a paper by P. Brosche. In particular, H. Duerbeck and P. Flin - in their description of the life and work of Silberstein, who was quite sceptic on the significance of the observational verifications a la Eddington - include the transcription of two most revealing letters by Silberstein to Sommerfeld (1919) and to Einstein (1934). In the first letter, Silberstein clearly shows his scientific maturity and integrity by scrutinising the observational evidence supporting light deflection, presented at a joint meeting of the Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society. The second letter, which is more a personal letter, includes lots of political references and connotations. Some of Einstein's political views are also revealed by D.B. Herrmann on the basis of his own correspondence with E.G. Straus, a collaborator of Einstein's. In a consequent paper, S. Grundmann gives remarks on Herrmann's contribution and illustrates Einstein's attitude towards Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin. M. Schemmel discusses Schwarzschild's cosmological speculations, and wonders why some people do immediately grasp the meaning and consequence of newly proposed doctrines, whereas the bulk of the contemporaneous scientists respond in a rather low profile. T. Jung reviews Einstein's contribution to cosmology, leading to the Friedmann-Einstein and Einstein-de Sitter universes (with a detailed Appendix on the Friedmann-Lemaitre cosmology), and also presents the cosmological work of Selety, and his correspondence with Einstein. In a subsequent paper, H.-J. Schmidt comments on Einstein's criticism on de Sitter's solution of the Einstein field equations. Controversies with Einstein are elaborated by G. Singer (on Friedmann) and by K. Roessler (on Lemaitre). J. Renn and T. Sauer discuss Mandl's role in the publication history of Einstein's papers, notably Einstein's short paper on gravitational lensing. Finally, the book concludes with a contribution by D.B. Herrmann about the relationship between Einstein and Archenhold Observatory (where Einstein gave his first Berlin popular lecture in 1915), the transcription of H.-J. Treder's 1979 public address at the Einstein memorial plaque, and an inventory list of about 50 Einstein memorabilia - monuments, busts, plaques - compiled by W.R. Dick. This book is based on ideas approached in a historical context from the individual perspective of the authors. It is a real treasure trove of information and basic references on the history of GR, and it also covers quite some grounds with mathematical equations.

  12. Batch-Versuche zur Bestimmung der Sorption und Reaktionskinetik von fluoreszierenden Tracern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitl, Tobias; Wohnlich, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    For many tracer experiments, prior determination of interaction between solid medium and used tracers is of major interest in order to achieve efficient, economic and successful field experiments. In the present study, three different types of batch experiments were performed with three fluorescent dyes (Na-Fluorescein, Amidorhodamin G and Tinopal CBS-X) and three different rock types (sandstone, claystone and limestone), to determine distribution coefficients and reaction kinetics. All three rock types were analysed for organic carbon content, specific surface area and mineralogical composition to identify the main sorption mechanisms. For all tracers, different sorption properties were found depending on the type of rock. The strongest sorption was observed for Tinopal CBS-X in contact with claystone. Only Na-Fluorescein showed sorption (albeit limited) in contact with the sandstones. The investigated limestones indicated a high sorption for the tracer Tinopal CBS-X. Regarding reaction kinetics, in most cases, thermodynamic equilibrium conditions were reached after two weeks.

  13. Erste Erkenntnisse zur Prospektion und Charakterisierung des Aquifers der Aroser Dolomiten, Schweiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regli, Christian; Kleboth, Peter; Eichenberger, Urs; Schmassmann, Silvia; Nyfeler, Peter; Bolay, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    In urban areas of the Swiss Alps the use of geothermal energy from several hundred meters depth becomes increasingly important. For this mainly open systems have priority. This work presents the first insights in the prospection and characterisation of the so far unexplored, utilizable, and abundant Aquifer of the Arosa Dolomites. Besides the use of established methods and techniques, such as seismic measurements, an exploration drilling, borehole geophysical measurements, and pumping tests, the application of the KARSYS-approach for geological and conceptual hydrogeological 3D-modelling of the aquifer is illustrated. In addition, the development of a viewer for 3D-visualization of drillings is documented. The hydrogeological and metrological approaches allow a lithological facies differentiation of the Arosa Dolomites, and a differentiation of the fractured and karstified areas within the aquifer. The results represent the basis for advanced findings optimizing and risks minimising exploration and drilling planning, and for sustainable utilization planning.

  14. Wege zur Festigung der Fachlexik (Ways of Building a Technical Vocabulary)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmykowa, Elena

    1974-01-01

    Learning to read foreign technical texts requires (a) a minimum vocabulary and (b) effective drill. The following are suggested: translation, question-answer method, definition exercises, exercises to develop skill in the use of reference works, schematic presentations and tables, annotating and making reports and summaries. (Text is in German.)…

  15. Evaluation der zentralen TUM-Lernplattform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Elvira; Baume, Matthias; Graf, Stephan; Gergintchev, Ivan

    Die Notwendigkeit der Qualitätssicherung und -kontrolle für innovative universitäre Lehr-/Lernszenarien ist in der Praxis unbestritten. Die Wirksamkeit der Einführung der zentralen Lernplattform CLIX Campus der imc AG an der TUM wurde mittels quantitativer und qualitativer Evaluation überprüft. Als statistische Bewertungsgrundlage wurde der Erreichungsgrad bestimmter Projektziele herangezogen. Aufbauend auf den theoretischen Grundlagen der Evaluation von Bildungsangeboten gibt diese Studie Aufschluss über die Ergebnisse der Datenerhebungen sowie die Einschätzung der Plattform aus Nutzersicht und belegt die wesentliche Bedeutung der durchgängigen IT-Infrastruktur und speziell der einheitlichen Verfügbarkeit der eLearning Angebote.

  16. Tokamak und Stellarator - zwei Wege zur Fusionsenergie: Fusionsforschung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milch, Isabella

    2006-07-01

    Im Laufe der Fusionsforschung haben sich zwei Bautypen für ein zukünftiges Kraftwerk als besonders aussichtsreich erwiesen: Tokamak und Stellarator. Mit dem geplanten Tokamak-Experimentalreaktor ITER steht die internationale Fusionsforschung vor der Demonstration eines Energie liefernden Plasmas. Parallel soll die in Greifswald entstehende Forschungsanlage Wendelstein 7-X die Kraftwerkstauglichkeit des alternativen Bauprinzips der Stellaratoren zeigen.

  17. Structural and Mechanistic Basis of Zinc Regulation Across the E. coli Zur Regulon

    PubMed Central

    Gilston, Benjamin A.; Wang, Suning; Marcus, Mason D.; Canalizo-Hernández, Mónica A.; Swindell, Elden P.; Xue, Yi; Mondragón, Alfonso; O'Halloran, Thomas V.

    2014-01-01

    Commensal microbes, whether they are beneficial or pathogenic, are sensitive to host processes that starve or swamp the prokaryote with large fluctuations in local zinc concentration. To understand how microorganisms coordinate a dynamic response to changes in zinc availability at the molecular level, we evaluated the molecular mechanism of the zinc-sensing zinc uptake regulator (Zur) protein at each of the known Zur-regulated genes in Escherichia coli. We solved the structure of zinc-loaded Zur bound to the PznuABC promoter and show that this metalloregulatory protein represses gene expression by a highly cooperative binding of two adjacent dimers to essentially encircle the core element of each of the Zur-regulated promoters. Cooperativity in these protein-DNA interactions requires a pair of asymmetric salt bridges between Arg52 and Asp49′ that connect otherwise independent dimers. Analysis of the protein-DNA interface led to the discovery of a new member of the Zur-regulon: pliG. We demonstrate this gene is directly regulated by Zur in a zinc responsive manner. The pliG promoter forms stable complexes with either one or two Zur dimers with significantly less protein-DNA cooperativity than observed at other Zur regulon promoters. Comparison of the in vitro Zur-DNA binding affinity at each of four Zur-regulon promoters reveals ca. 10,000-fold variation Zur-DNA binding constants. The degree of Zur repression observed in vivo by comparison of transcript copy number in wild-type and Δzur strains parallels this trend spanning a 100-fold difference. We conclude that the number of ferric uptake regulator (Fur)-family dimers that bind within any given promoter varies significantly and that the thermodynamic profile of the Zur-DNA interactions directly correlates with the physiological response at different promoters. PMID:25369000

  18. Grundlagen der zeichnerischen Darstellung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Peter

    Eine Technische Zeichnung muss nach DIN 6774 Teil 1 in der Weise angefertigt werden, dass sie übersichtlich, unmissverständlich, auch in verkleinertem Maßstab lesbar bleibt, kostengünstig reproduzierbar und dauerhaft archivierbar ist. Zu dem Zweck benötigt man entsprechendes Papier und angepasstes Zeichengerät. Heute ist die Anfertigung mit entsprechenden Rechnerprogrammen möglich.

  19. Wie wissenschaftlich ist der Evolutionsgedanke?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Gerhard

    Darwin war ein besonnener Mann; alles Aufsehen war ihm zuwider. Trotzdem hat er eine Revolution ausgelöst, deren Wirkung nicht auf die Biologie beschränkt blieb. Seine Theorie lässt sich in fünf Teiltheorien zerlegen, die sich durch die Begriffe Artenwandel, Verwandtschaft alles Lebendigen und gemeinsamer Ursprung, Artenaufspaltung und Artenvielfalt, Gradualismus, natürliche Auslese charakterisieren lassen. Dadurch wurden mehrere religiöse und weitere weltanschauliche Überzeugungen in Frage gestellt. Deshalb wird die Evolutionstheorie auch heute noch vielfach kritisiert, ja bekämpft. Die Vorwürfe lassen sich ordnen nach den Kriterien, mit denen wir erfahrungswissenschaftliche Theorien beurteilen. Haltbar ist daran nur, dass es für die Evolutionstheorie zwar beliebig viele Bestätigungen gibt, aber nur wenige Widerlegungsmöglichkeiten. Durch die neuerdings entwickelten und durchgeführten Evolutionsexperimente ist die empirische Situation allerdings deutlich besser geworden. Am (erfahrungs)wissenschaftlichen Charakter der Evolutionstheorie besteht deshalb kein Zweifel.

  20. [Leben im Eismeer - Tauchuntersuchungen zur Biologie arktischer Meerespflanzen und Meerestiere

    PubMed

    Lippert; Karsten; Wiencke

    2000-01-01

    Die Maske wird nochmals auf Dichtigkeit überprüft, der Knoten der Sicherungsleine mit zwei halben Schlägen fixiert, dann rutscht die Taucherin von der Eiskante in das kalte Wasser. Eine halbe Stunde vergeht, bevor ihr Kopf wieder aus dem Eisloch auftaucht und sie ein großes Sammelnetz nach oben reicht, gefüllt mit verschiedenen Arten von Makroalgen. Obwohl noch große Flächen des Kongsfjordes im arktischen Spitzbergen zugefroren sind und das Festland von einer dicken Schneedecke bedeckt ist, hat unter Wasser in den Algenwäldern bereits der Sommer und damit die Saison der Meeresbiologen begonnen.

  1. Gesellschaft, Lebensgemeinschaft, Ökosystem - Über die Kongruenz von politischen und ökologischen Theorien der Entwicklung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Annette

    Im Jahr 1859 veröffentlichte Charles Darwin "On the Origin of Species“. Seine Evolutionstheorie ist das wohl spektakulärste Beispiel einer naturwissenschaftlichen Theorie großer gesellschaftlicher Relevanz. Ihre verschiedenen Facetten wurden in der Öffentlichkeit kontrovers diskutiert, unter anderem auch ihre Anwendung zur Erklärung von Zuständen und Prozessen menschlicher Gesellschaften. Zum Teil wurde die Seiensweise der Natur - scheinbar unabhängig von gesellschaftlichen Interessen - für die Erklärung und Legitimation gesellschaftlicher Zustände oder die Legitimation von politischen Ideologien herangezogen (Sozialdarwinismus). Denn Gesellschaft funktioniere ja so, wie Darwin die Natur erklärt habe: es herrsche z. B. Konkurrenzkampf, Auslese und Arbeitsteilung, Erfolg hätten diejenigen, die sich an die Bedingungen am Besten anpassten.

  2. van der Waals torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, Raul; Schatz, George

    2014-03-01

    The theory of generalized van der Waals forces by Lifshtz when applied to optically anisotropic media predicts the existence of a torque. In this work we present a theoretical calculation of the van der Waals torque for two systems. First we consider two isotropic parallel plates where the anisotropy is induced using an external magnetic field. The anisotropy will in turn induce a torque. As a case study we consider III-IV semiconductors such as InSb that can support magneto plasmons. The calculations of the torque are done in the Voigt configuration, that occurs when the magnetic field is parallel to the surface of the slabs. The change in the dielectric function as the magnetic field increases has the effect of decreasing the van der Waals force and increasing the torque. Thus, the external magnetic field is used to tune both the force and torque. The second example we present is the use of the torque in the non retarded regime to align arrays of nano particle slabs. The torque is calculated within Barash and Ginzburg formalism in the nonretarded limit, and is quantified by the introduction of a Hamaker torque constant. Calculations are conducted between anisotropic slabs of materials including BaTiO3 and arrays of Ag nano particles. Depending on the shape and arrangement of the Ag nano particles the effective dielectric function of the array can be tuned as to make it more or less anisotropic. We show how this torque can be used in self assembly of arrays of nano particles. ref. R. Esquivel-Sirvent, G. C. Schatz, Phys. Chem C, 117, 5492 (2013). partial support from DGAPA-UNAM.

  3. Zeit im Wandel der Zeit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichelburg, P. C.

    Contents: Einleitung(P. C. Aichelburg). 1. Über Zeit, Bewegung und Veränderung (Aristoteles). 2. Ewigkeit und Zeit (Plotin). 3. Was ist die Zeit? (Augustinus). 4. Von der Zeit (Immanuel Kant). 5. Newtons Ansichten über Zeit, Raum und Bewegung (Ernst Mach). 6. Über die mechanische Erklärung irreversibler Vorgänge (Ludwig Boltzmann). 7. Das Maß der Zeit (Henri Poincaré). 8. Dauer und Intuition (Henri Bergson). 9. Die Geschichte des Unendlichkeitsproblems (Bertrand Russell). 10. Raum und Zeit (Hermann Minkowski). 11. Der Unterschied von Zeit und Raum (Hans Reichenbach). 12. Newtonscher und Bergsonscher Zeitbegriff (Norbert Wiener). 13. Die Bildung des Zeitbegriffs beim Kinde (JeanPiaget).14. Eine Bemerkung über die Beziehungen zwischen Relativitätstheorie und der idealistischen Philosophie (Kurt Gödel). 15. Der zweite Hauptsatz und der Unterschied von Vergangenheit und Zukunft (Carl Friedrich v. Weizsäcker). 16. Zeit als physikalischer Begriff (Friedrich Hund). 17. Zeitmessung und Zeitbegriff in der Astronomie (Otto Heckmann). 18. Kann die Zeit rückwärts gehen? (Martin Gardner). 19. Zeit und Zeiten (Ilya Prigogine, Isabelle Stengers). 20. Zeit als dynamische Größe in der Relativitätstheorie (P. C. Aichelburg).

  4. Agoraphobia: A Situational Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Austin; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Agoraphobia patients answered a questionnaire describing anxiety-producing situations. Home environment was associated with supportive company. Situations requiring patients to venture out alone were most anxiety-producing. The overriding importance of a significant other suggests treatment implications. (JAC)

  5. Verantwortlicher Umgang mit Antibiotika: Notwendigkeit der Antibiotikareduktion in der Aknetherapie.

    PubMed

    Gollnick, Harald P M; Buer, Jan; Beissert, Stefan; Sunderkätter, Cord

    2016-12-01

    Der übermäßige oder unkritische weltweite Einsatz von Antibiotika in der Medizin hat die Ausbreitung von Antibiotikaresistenzen beschleunigt. In einigen Bereichen sind viele Antibiotika bei bakteriellen Infektionen, die zuvor noch gut auf antibakterielle Wirkstoffe reagierten, mittlerweile wirkungslos geworden. Dermatologen/Venerologen setzten orale und topische Antibiotika bei der Behandlung von Acne vulgaris routinemäßig ein, obwohl Akne weder eine infektiöse Erkrankung ist noch alleine durch das Propionibacterium getriggert wird. Vielmehr ist sie eine komplexe, chronische entzündliche Hauterkrankung, die durch verschiedene pathogenetische Faktoren wie follikuläre Hyperkeratose, erhöhter Sebumproduktion, bakterielle Proliferation und Entzündung zustande kommt. Folglich sollte eine erfolgreiche Therapie auf die Bekämpfung verschiedener pathogenetischer Faktoren und nicht nur auf die von Propionibacterium acnes abzielen. Daher wurden topische Retinoide und Benzoylperoxid als Mittel der ersten Wahl definiert. Monotherapien mit lokalen Antibiotika sollten insgesamt vermieden werden. Systemische Antibiotika der Tetrazyklin-Gruppe haben bei bestimmen Krankheitsstadien ihren Sinn, ihre Wirkung könnte aber eher auf der antientzündlichen als auf der antibiotischen Reaktion beruhen. Gesundheitsbehörden ermahnen alle Gesundheitsdienstleister, den Einsatz von Antibiotika einzuschränken. Das Nutzen-Risiko-Verhältnis muss bei der Entscheidung für oder gegen eine antibiotische Therapie bei einem einzelnen Patienten immer auch in Bezug auf das öffentliche Interesse am Erhalt der Wirksamkeit von Antibiotika abgewogen werden. Im Folgenden werden das aktuelle Krankheitskonzept zu Acne vulgaris und die sich daraus ableitenden Konsequenzen für den Einsatz von Antibiotika vorgestellt. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Epidemic classification of phytosanitary situations on cereal crops using mathematical modeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most plant protection researchers and experts divide emerging phytosanitary situations into three classes: epidemic, moderate development of disease, and yield depression. The known principles and methods for estimating these situations (Van der Plank J.E., Kranz J. et al.) do not fully describe th...

  7. Dynamics of Situation Definition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Dongseop; Moro, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    Situation definition is the process and product of actors' interpretive activities toward a given situation. By reviewing a number of psychological studies conducted in experimental settings, we found that the studies have only explicated a part of the situation definition process and have neglected its dynamic aspects. We need to focus on the…

  8. Die Energiebranche am Beginn der digitalen Transformation: aus Versorgern werden Utilities 4.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doleski, Oliver D.

    Die traditionelle Energieversorgung befindet sich in einer Zäsur. Das seit Jahrzehnten bewährte und stabile Geschäftsmodell einer zuverlässig planbaren, zentralen Energieerzeugung mit anschließender unidirektionaler Verteilung geriet spätestens seit der Energiewende des Jahres 2011 immer mehr unter Druck. Angesichts fortschreitender Digitalisierung und Dezentralisierung einerseits und gestiegener Erwartungshaltung der Kunden gegenüber "ihrem" Versorger andererseits sieht sich die Energiebranche heute einem epochalen Transformationsprozess gegenübergestellt. Bei diesem entwickeln sich aus den monopolistischen Versorgern des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts (Utility 1.0), über die liberalisierten Energieversorgungsunternehmen (Utility 2.0) und Energiedienstleistungsunternehmen (Utility 3.0) heutiger Prägung, die digitalen Energiedienstleistungsunternehmen (Utility 4.0) von morgen. Oliver D. Doleski beschränkt sich in seinem Beitrag nicht auf die reine Beschreibung dieses Veränderungsprozesses an sich. Vielmehr werden darüber hinaus sowohl die mit dieser Entwicklung verbundenen übergeordneten Ziele als auch die wesentlichen Anforderungen an erfolgreiche Utilities 4.0 skizziert. Das Kapitel endet mit einem prägnanten Überblick profitabler Betätigungsfelder, die zur Sicherung der ökonomischen Zukunft von Energiekonzernen, Regionalversorgern und Stadtwerken beitragen können.

  9. Die Baukastensystematik in der Fördertechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebulke, Johannes

    In der Fördertechnik wird kaum ein größerer Einsatzfall so dem anderen gleichen, dass man zwei Anlagen nach denselben Zeichnungen fertigen kann. Konstruktionszeiten, Rüst- und Umstellungszeiten der Fertigung sind hoch; der Kunde muss bei Einzelanfertigung lange Lieferzeiten in Kauf nehmen. In der Fördertechnik haben sich daher Baukastenprinzip, Standardisierung und die Konstruktion von Erzeugnisreihen weitgehend durchgesetzt.

  10. Verbesserung der Symmetrie von Hirnaufnahmen entlang der Sagittalebene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ens, Konstantin; Wenzel, Fabian; Fischer, Bernd

    Die lokale Symmetrie von Hirnscans entlang der Sagittalebene zu ermitteln und zu modizifieren, ist für eine Reihe neurologischer Anwendungen interessant. Beispielsweise kann der voxelweise Vergleich von rechter und linker Hirnhälfte nur dann Aufschluss über die Lokalisierung von Läsionen geben, wenn durch Transformation ein Hirnscan eine möglichst hohe Symmetrie aufweist. Ein weiteres Anwendungsgebiet ist die Visualisierung von medialen Hirnschnitten, für die die Trennfläche beider Hirnhälfte möglichst eben sein sollte. Diese Arbeit stellt die Entwicklung eines Verfahrens vor, mit dessen Hilfe die Symmetrie von Hirnaufnahmen entlang der Sagittalebene verbessert werden kann. Dies geschieht unter Verwendung von aktiven Konturen, die mit Hilfe einer neuartigen Kostenfunktion gesteuert werden. Experimente am Ende der Arbeit mit strukturellen Kernspinaufnahmen demonstrieren die Leistungsfähigkeit des Verfahrens.

  11. Novice Situation Cards: The Scripted Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longan, Nathan

    1995-01-01

    This article suggests that to better prepare students for the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) oral proficiency interview, it is up to instructors to see that these students are better prepared in oral, creative speech. Bridging exercises between dialogue memorization and personalized situations can be used to help…

  12. Der evolutionäre Naturalismus in der Ethik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Marie I.

    Charles Darwin hat eindrucksvoll gezeigt, dass der Mensch ebenso wie alle anderen Lebewesen ein Produkt der biologischen Evolution ist. Die sich an Darwin anschließende Forschung hat außerdem plausibel gemacht, dass sich nicht nur viele der körperlichen Merkmale des Menschen, sondern auch (zumindest einige) seiner Verhaltensdispositionen in adaptiven Selektionsprozessen herausgebildet haben. Die Vorstellung, dass auch die menschliche Moralität evolutionär bedingt ist, scheint daher auf den ersten Blick ganz überzeugend. Schließlich hat die Evolutionstheorie in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten in vielen Bereichen (auch außerhalb der Biologie) ihre weitreichende Bedeutung unter Beweis gestellt. Warum sollte, so könnte man beispielsweise fragen, gerade die Fähigkeit des Menschen, moralische Normen aufzustellen und gemäß ihnen zu handeln, nicht evolutionär erklärt werden können? Und warum sollte eine solche evolutionäre Erklärung der menschlichen Moralität irrelevant für die Rechtfertigung moralischer Normen sein? Warum sollte die Ethik eine Bastion der Philosophen bleiben, für die evolutionsbiologische Forschungsergebnisse über den Menschen und seine nächsten Verwandten keinerlei Relevanz besitzen?

  13. Situating emotional experience

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the “default mode” network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional

  14. Analyse der Literatur zu Klimawirkungen in Deutschland: ein Gesamtbild mit Lücken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, Mark; Greiving, Stefan; Lindner, Christian; Lückenkötter, Johannes; Schauser, Inke

    Dieses Kapitel präsentiert Ergebnisse einer umfassenden Literaturauswertung zu relevanten Klimawirkungen für Deutschland, die im Rahmen des Projekts "Netzwerk Vulnerabilität" vorgenommen wurde. Es zeigt auf, dass ein aggregiertes Gesamtbild der Klimawirkungen für Deutschland als Grundlage für Folgenabschätzungen und Anpassungsplanungen noch nicht gezeichnet werden kann, da eine große Bandbreite an Ansätzen zur Bewertung von Vulnerabilitäten oder Klimawandelfolgen existiert und die gegenwärtig vorhandenen Klimawirkungs- und Vulnerabilitätsstudien von großer Heterogenität gekennzeichnet sind. Als erster Schritt wird deshalb eine Zusammenschau bereits vorhandener Ansätze geliefert.

  15. Situational reaction and planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, John; Pfluger, Nathan

    1994-01-01

    One problem faced in designing an autonomous mobile robot system is that there are many parameters of the system to define and optimize. While these parameters can be obtained for any given situation determining what the parameters should be in all situations is difficult. The usual solution is to give the system general parameters that work in all situations, but this does not help the robot to perform its best in a dynamic environment. Our approach is to develop a higher level situation analysis module that adjusts the parameters by analyzing the goals and history of sensor readings. By allowing the robot to change the system parameters based on its judgement of the situation, the robot will be able to better adapt to a wider set of possible situations. We use fuzzy logic in our implementation to reduce the number of basic situations the controller has to recognize. For example, a situation may be 60 percent open and 40 percent corridor, causing the optimal parameters to be somewhere between the optimal settings for the two extreme situations.

  16. Situation Report--Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in Colombia are presented in this situation report. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background covers ethnic groups, language, religion, economy, communication/education, medical/social welfare, and…

  17. FORS am Very Large Telescope der Europäischen Südsternwarte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    unterschiedlicher spektraler Auflösung von einzelnen oder mehreren Objekten aufgenommen werden. Dabei erlaubt der schnelle Wechsel zwischen den unterschiedlichen Beobachtungsarten z.B. zunächst die Aufnahme und direkt anschließend die Spektroskopie weit entfernter Galaxien. Damit kann dann u.a. die stellare Zusammensetzung und die Entfernung bestimmt werden. Als eines der leistungsfähigsten astronomischen Instrumente seiner Art wird FORS1 ein wahres Arbeitspferd für die Untersuchung des fernen Universums darstellen. Der Bau von FORS Das FORS-Projekt wird unter ESO-Kontrakt von einem Konsortium dreier deutscher astronomischer Institute durchgeführt, der Landessternwarte Heidelberg und den Universitäts-Sternwarten von Göttingen and München. Bis zur Beendigung des Projekts werden die beteiligten Institute Arbeit im Umfang von ca. 180 Mann-Jahren eingebracht haben. Bei der Landessternwarte Heidelberg lag die Leitung des Projekts. Hier wurde außerdem das gesamte optische System konstruiert, die Beschaffung der Komponenten der abbildenden Optik und der Zusatzoptiken für Spektroskopie und Polarimetrie durchgeführt und die spezielle Computersoftware geschrieben, mit der die von FORS gelieferten Daten verarbeitet und ausgewertet werden. Darüber hinaus wurde in der Werkstatt der Sternwarte ein Teleskopsimulator gebaut, mit dem alle wesentlichen Funktionen von FORS in Europa getestet werden konnten, bevor das Instrument zum Paranal (Chile) transportiert wurde. An der Universitäts-Sternwarte Göttingen wurden Konstruktion, Herstellung und Zusammenbau der gesamten Mechanik von FORS durchgeführt. Der größte Teil der Präzisionsteile, insbesondere der Multispalteinheit, wurde in der feinmechanischen Werkstatt der Sternwarte hergestellt. Die Beschaffung der großen Instrumentengehäuse und Flansche, die Computeranalysen für mechanische und thermische Stabilität des empfindlichen Spektrographen und die Herstellung der speziellen Werkzeuge für Handhabung, Wartung und Justierung

  18. Der Organismus der Mathematik - mikro-, makro- und mesoskopisch betrachtet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Reinhard

    Meist enden ähnliche Gespräche über Mathematik etwa an diesem Punkt, ohne dass der Nichtmathematiker von der Sinnhaftigkeit mathematischer Forschung, ja mathematischer Tätigkeit generell überzeugt werden konnte. Ich glaube nicht, dass dem Laien Blindheit für die Großartigkeit unserer Wissenschaft vorzuwerfen ist, wenn hier keine befriedigendere Kommunikation zustande kommt. Ich sehe als Ursache eher ein stark verkürztes Bild von der Mathematik, welches auch Fachleute oft zeichnen, weil ihnen eine angemessenere Darstellung ihres Faches zu viel Mühe macht - und das obwohl Mathematik nur betreiben kann, wer geistige Mühen sonst keineswegs scheut. Ich will versuchen, den Ursachen dieses eigentümlichen Phänomens auf den Grund zu gehen.

  19. Räumlich-statistische Charakterisierung der Hydrogeochemie einer BTEX-Grundwasserkontamination am Standort "RETZINA"/Zeitz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachter, Thorsten; Dethlefsen, Frank; Gödeke, Stefan; Dahmke, Andreas

    Kurzfassung Bei der Erkundung von Grundwasserschadensfällen werden gewöhnlich punktuell erhobene Messdaten über den betrachteten Aquifer interpoliert. Die Reichweite der Autokorrelation der Daten entscheidet dabei über Zulässigkeit und Qualität der Interpolation. Während auf regionalem Maßstab Daten vorliegen, gibt es nur sehr wenig Arbeiten über Korrelationslängen auf lokalem Maßstab. Diese Arbeit untersucht die Interpolationssicherheit am Beispiel der BTEX-Kontamination am Testfeld RETZINA in Zeitz anhand von Variogrammen und Krigingstandardabweichung. Als Datengrundlage dienten Analysenergebnisse aus über 50 Grundwassermessstellen und 180 Sedimentproben. Für Benzol, Methan, Sulfat und Alkalität genügte der mittlere Abstand der Probennahmepunkte von etwa 50 m für hinreichende Interpolationssicherheit, im Falle von gelöstem Eisen, gelöstem Mangan und Redoxpotenzial war die vorhandene Datendichte zu gering, für die Hauptionen, pH-Wert und elektr. Leitfähigkeit hätten bereits größere Probenabstände ausgereicht. Die Reichweiten der Autokorrelation im Sediment sind geringer als die Probennahmeabstände, weshalb die Messwerte der Eisen- und Schwefelbindungsformen nicht regionalisiert werden konnten. Die Ergebnisse sind hinsichtlich der Entwicklung von Probennahmestrategien von Bedeutung. Zur Verbesserung der Übertragbarkeit bedarf es noch ähnlicher Untersuchungen an weiteren Standorten. Investigation of sites with groundwater contamination usually involves interpolation of point-based results across the aquifer under consideration. The range of autocorrelation thereby decides whether the quality of interpolation will be sufficient. While there are investigations on the regional (km) scale, only a few publications exist for correlation lengths at a local (10s to 100s of m) scale. This study investigates the accuracy of interpolation at the example of the BTEX-contaminated aquifer in Zeitz by means of variogram analysis and interpretation of

  20. Der Begriff der Verständlichkeit in der modernen Physik (1948).

    PubMed

    Feyerabend, Paul K

    2016-06-01

    This is a critical transcription of Paul Feyerabend's earliest extant essay "Der Begriff der Verständlichkeit in der modernen Physik" (1948) recovered from the European Forum Alpbach archives. In it, Feyerabend defends positivism as a progressive framework for scientific research in certain stages of scientific development. He argues that in physics visualizability (Anschaulichkeit) and intelligibility (Verständlichkeit) are time-conditioned concepts: what is deemed visualizable in the development of physical theories is relative to a specific historical context and changes over time. He concludes that from time to time the abandonment of visualizability is crucial for progress in physics, as it is conducive to major theory change, illustrating the point on the basis of advances in atomic theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Components of the Unique Zur Regulon of Cupriavidus metallidurans Mediate Cytoplasmic Zinc Handling

    PubMed Central

    Bütof, Lucy; Schmidt-Vogler, Christopher; Herzberg, Martin; Große, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zinc is an essential trace element, yet it is toxic at high concentrations. In the betaproteobacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans, the highly efficient removal of surplus zinc from the periplasm is responsible for the outstanding metal resistance of the organism. Rather than having a typical Zur-dependent, high-affinity ATP-binding cassette transporter of the ABC protein superfamily for zinc uptake at low concentrations, C. metallidurans has the secondary zinc importer ZupT of the zinc-regulated transporter, iron-regulated transporter (ZRT/IRT)-like protein (ZIP) family. It is important to understand, therefore, how this zinc-resistant bacterium copes with exposure to low zinc concentrations. Members of the Zur regulon in C. metallidurans were identified by comparing the transcriptomes of a Δzur mutant and its parent strain. The consensus sequence of the Zur-binding box was derived for the zupTp promoter-regulatory region by use of a truncation assay. The motif was used to predict possible Zur boxes upstream of Zur regulon members. The binding of Zur to these boxes was confirmed. Two Zur boxes upstream of the cobW1 gene, encoding a putative zinc chaperone, proved to be required for complete repression of cobW1 and its downstream genes in cells cultivated in mineral salts medium. A Zur box upstream of each of zur-cobW2, cobW3, and zupT permitted both low expression levels of these genes and their upregulation under conditions of zinc starvation. This demonstrates a compartmentalization of zinc homeostasis in C. metallidurans, where the periplasm is responsible for the removal of surplus zinc, cytoplasmic components are responsible for the management of zinc as an essential cofactor, and the two compartments are connected by ZupT. IMPORTANCE Elucidating zinc homeostasis is necessary for understanding both host-pathogen interactions and the performance of free-living bacteria in their natural environments. Escherichia coli acquires zinc under conditions of

  2. The components of the unique Zur regulon of Cupriavidus metallidurans mediate cytoplasmic zinc handling.

    PubMed

    Bütof, Lucy; Schmidt-Vogler, Christopher; Herzberg, Martin; Große, Cornelia; Nies, Dietrich H

    2017-08-14

    Zinc is an essential trace element and at the same time it is toxic at high concentrations. In the beta-proteobacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans the highly efficient removal of surplus zinc from the periplasm is responsible for its outstanding metal resistance. Rather than having a typical Zur-dependent, high-affinity ATP-binding cassette transporter of the ABC protein superfamily for zinc uptake at low concentrations, C. metallidurans instead has the secondary zinc importer ZupT of the ZRT/IRT (ZIP) family. It is important to understand, therefore, how this zinc-resistant bacterium copes when it is exposed to low zinc concentrations. Members of the Zur regulon in C. metallidurans were identified by comparing the transcriptomes of a Δ zur mutant and its parent strain. The consensus sequence of the Zur-binding box was derived for the zupTp promoter-regulatory region using a truncation assay. The motif was used to predict possible Zur-boxes upstream of Zur regulon members. Binding of Zur to these boxes was confirmed. Two Zur-boxes upstream of the cobW 1 gene, encoding a putative zinc chaperone, proved to be required for complete repression of cobW 1 and its downstream genes in cells cultivated in mineral salts medium. A Zur box upstream of each of zur-cobW 2 , cobW 3 and zupT permitted low-expression level of these genes plus their up-regulation under zinc starvation conditions. This demonstrates a compartmentalization of zinc homeostasis in C. metallidurans with the periplasm being responsible for removal of surplus zinc and cytoplasmic components for management of zinc as an essential co-factor, with both compartments connected by ZupT. Importance Elucidating zinc homeostasis is necessary to understand both host-pathogen interactions and performance of free-living bacteria in their natural environment. Escherichia coli acquires zinc under low zinc concentrations by the Zur-controlled ZnuABC importer of the ABC superfamily, and this was also the paradigm for other

  3. Situational theory of leadership.

    PubMed

    Waller, D J; Smith, S R; Warnock, J T

    1989-11-01

    The situational theory of leadership and the LEAD instruments for determining leadership style are explained, and the application of the situational leadership theory to the process of planning for and implementing organizational change is described. Early studies of leadership style identified two basic leadership styles: the task-oriented autocratic style and the relationship-oriented democratic style. Subsequent research found that most leaders exhibited one of four combinations of task and relationship behaviors. The situational leadership theory holds that the difference between the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the four leadership styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to the particular situation in which it is used. The task maturity of the individual or group being led must also be accounted for; follower readiness is defined in terms of the capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness or ability to accept responsibility, and possession of the necessary education or experience for a specific task. A person's leadership style, range, and adaptability can be determined from the LEADSelf and LEADOther questionnaires. By applying the principles of the situational leadership theory and adapting their managerial styles to specific tasks and levels of follower maturity, the authors were successful in implementing 24-hour pharmacokinetic dosing services provided by staff pharmacists with little previous experience in clinical services. The situational leadership model enables a leader to identify a task, set goals, determine the task maturity of the individual or group, select an appropriate leadership style, and modify the style as change occurs. Pharmacy managers can use this model when implementing clinical pharmacy services.

  4. Situation Climatic Briefs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    F-7 CHILE -ARGENTINA SOUTH OF 40 DEGREES SOUTH .... ............. .. F-13 CHILE -PERU BORDER ................. ......................... F...34SITUATION CLIMATIC BRIEF CHILE -ARGENTINA SOUTH OF 40 DEGREES SOUTH ANNUAL 1. GENERAL. The weather is generally cloudy, windy, and cold year-round...conditions can occur for 3 or 4 hours following cold frontal passage during the winter. 4. TERMINAL WEATHER. Puerto Montt, Chile . Fair. Conditions are

  5. van der Waals-type forces in spontaneously broken supersymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radescu, E. E.

    1983-03-01

    In spontaneously broken rigid supersymmetry, Goldstone-fermion pair exchange should lead to a universal interaction between massive bodies uniquely fixed by the existing low-energy theorem. The resulting van der Waals-type potential is shown to be V(r)=-Mmπ-3F-4r-7+O(r-8), where M and m are the masses of the interacting bodies while F is the scale of the breaking. The change in the situation when the supersymmetry is promoted to a local symmetry is briefly discussed.

  6. Situational Behavior Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-30

    VIStology, Inc. June 30, 2009 Page 16 Figure 3. Situations and Perception Figure 3 shows four planes, each referring to a different level...the computer, as shown in the figure. The next layer is denoted as “ Perception .” The dots on this plane represent objects from the World that are...which then feeds the computer, which in turn generates the object representations. The label “ Perception ” represents the fact that this kind of

  7. Quantitative Analyse und Visualisierung der Herzfunktionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Anne; Schwarz, Tobias; Engel, Nicole; Seitel, Mathias; Kenngott, Hannes; Mohrhardt, Carsten; Loßnitzer, Dirk; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    Die computergestützte bildbasierte Analyse der Herzfunktionen ist mittlerweile Standard in der Kardiologie. Die verfügbaren Produkte erfordern meist ein hohes Maß an Benutzerinteraktion und somit einen erhöhten Zeitaufwand. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, der dem Kardiologen eine größtenteils automatische Analyse der Herzfunktionen mittels MRT-Bilddaten ermöglicht und damit Zeitersparnis schafft. Hierbei werden alle relevanten herzphysiologsichen Parameter berechnet und mithilfe von Diagrammen und Graphen visualisiert. Diese Berechnungen werden evaluiert, indem die ermittelten Werte mit manuell vermessenen verglichen werden. Der hierbei berechnete mittlere Fehler liegt mit 2,85 mm für die Wanddicke und 1,61 mm für die Wanddickenzunahme immer noch im Bereich einer Pixelgrösse der verwendeten Bilder.

  8. Sterblichkeit: der paradoxe Kunstgriff des Lebens - Eine Betrachtung vor dem Hintergrund der modernen Biologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeek, Bernhard

    Leben gibt es auf der Erde seit fast 4 Mio. Jahren, trotz allen Katastrophen. Die Idee des Lebens scheint unsterblich. Der Tod aber offenbar auch. Jedes Lebewesen ist davon bedroht, ja für Menschen und andere "höhere“ Lebewesen ist er im Lebensprogramm eingebaut - todsicher. Diese Tatsache ist alles andere als selbstverständlich. Ist sie überhaupt kompatibel mit dem Prinzip der Evolution, nach dem der am besten Angepasste überlebt?

  9. Information Fusion for Situational Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP021704 TITLE: Information Fusion for Situational Awareness DISTRIBUTION...component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP021634 thru ADP021736 UNCLASSIFIED Information Fusion for Situational Awareness Dr. John...Situation Assessment, or level 2 be applied to address Situational Awareness - the processing, the knowledge of objects, their goal of this paper

  10. An der Schwelle zur Zweisprachigkeit: Fremdsprachenunterricht fur Fortgeschrittene (On the Threshold of Bilingualism: Foreign Language Learning for Advanced Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubler, Silvia, Ed.; Portmann, Paul R., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This collection of articles on Bilingualism includes: "Fremdsprachenunterricht fur Fortgeschrittene: ein Uberblick" (Foreign Language Learning for Advanced Students: An Overview) (Paul R. Portmann); "Never Mind the Width, Feel the Quality: From Quantity to Quality in Language Teaching at Advanced Levels" (Mike Makosch); "Irren ist menschlich: Ein…

  11. The depressive situation

    PubMed Central

    A. Jacobs, Kerrin

    2013-01-01

    From a naturalistic perspective on mental illness, depression is often described in terms of biological dysfunctions, while a normative perspective emphasizes the lived experience of depression as a harmful condition. The paper relates a conceptual analysis of “depressive situation” to an analysis of the lived experience of depression. As such, it predominantly aims to specify depression as a harmful condition in lights of normative perspective on mental disorder, but partially refers to empirical research, i.e., naturalistic perspective on depression, to exemplarily stress on the methodological merits and limits of relating phenomenological considerations closer to empirical research. The depressive situation is further specified with an examination of the evaluative dynamics by which individuals meaningfully relate to themselves, others and the world. These evaluative dynamics emerge out of the interplay of pre-reflective and reflective processes, which are significantly altered in depression. Such alterations of the evaluative structure are inextricably intertwined with significant distortions of practical sense in depression. From a phenomenological perspective, these distortions of practical sense show in characteristic experiences of evaluative incoherence and impairments of agency. Finally, this paper focuses on an examination of “evaluative incapacity,” which has the integrative potential to capture a range of typical changes of meaningful relatedness that determine the depressive situation. PMID:23882238

  12. Der Einfluss der Digitalisierung auf die Organisation eines Unternehmens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Wolfram M.

    Die Digitalisierung schreitet mit großen Schritten voran. Dies wirkt sich nicht nur auf die Gesellschaft im Grundsatz, sondern auch auf das Verhalten der Kunden aus. Neue Kommunikationswege beschleunigen die Interaktion zwischen Unternehmen und Verbraucher. Im Vergleich mit großen Internetfirmen werden etablierte Dienstleistungsunternehmen - vom Energieversorger bis zu Versicherungen - stark unter Druck gesetzt, sich noch intensiver mit dem Kundenservice auseinanderzusetzen. Dies wird nur möglich sein, wenn sich die Organisationen entsprechend positionieren und sich frühzeitig auf die Veränderungen einstellen. Hieraus ergeben sich mehr Chancen als Risiken, zumal es nicht nur neue Prozesse, sondern auch neue Berufsbilder geben wird.

  13. Nutrition in conflict situations.

    PubMed

    Egal, Florence

    2006-08-01

    High prevalence of malnutrition is often linked to conflict situations. Conflicts affect local livelihoods, impair productive activities and limit access to safe foods and basic services. Strategies to protect and promote nutrition of affected households and communities must be based on an understanding of this impact. While nutrition rehabilitation and food aid are clearly essential to preserve lives in the short run, they cannot provide lasting solutions. Impaired nutritional status ultimately reflects livelihood degradation but anthropometric indicators cannot be used to target timely interventions. They should be combined with simple indicators of food consumption which react more quickly to both crisis and relief/rehabilitation interventions. Local institutions should be encouraged to share information and build causality models of malnutrition for the main vulnerable livelihood groups as a basis for an integrated response. A communication component will systematically be needed to allow people to make informed decisions in a context with which they are often not familiar.

  14. Sizing Up the Situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Hailstorm damage to the Space Shuttle's External Tank inspired a NASA innovation with extensive photography applications. In order to measure the defects caused by the storm, Kennedy Space Center used telephoto lenses to zoom in on the tank and view the damage clearly. However, since there was no reference object in the image, the engineers could not determine the scale of the damage. In photographic situations similar to this, an object, such as a ruler, is placed within the field of view. This allows a person to look at a photograph and have a visual indication of the scale of the objects in it. In the External Tank situation, however, this procedure was not possible. As a solution, Kennedy developed the Scaling and Measurement Device for Photographic Images, which provides a non-intrusive means of adding a scale to a photograph. In addition to meeting Kennedy's needs, scaling images is extremely important in crime and accident scene investigations, oil and chemical tank monitoring, and aerial photography. The innovation consists of a tool that attaches directly to a camera or charge coupled device using a standard screw. Two lasers fitted to the device provide parallel beams that are set 1 inch apart. These lasers enable the device to project a pattern into the field of view. When a photograph is taken, the image of the laser pattern appears, along with the image of the object under investigation, allowing the viewer quantifiable information as to the size of the object. The laser beams are accurate to approximately 200 feet. Windows-based software was developed to work with the scaling device tool. The software provides further techniques to measure objects in photographs and digital images. By using the software, any object in the image can be measured diagonally, vertically, and horizontally. The device and its software enable the user to determine two-dimensional measurements within a photograph.

  15. Cross-Situational Word Learning in the Right Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dautriche, Isabelle; Chemla, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Upon hearing a novel word, language learners must identify its correct meaning from a diverse set of situationally relevant options. Such referential ambiguity could be reduced through "repetitive" exposure to the novel word across diverging learning situations, a learning mechanism referred to as "cross-situational learning."…

  16. Genetics Home Reference: van der Woude syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is the prognosis of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency Van der Woude syndrome is believed to occur in 1 in 35,000 to 1 in 100,000 people, based on data from Europe and Asia. Van der Woude syndrome ...

  17. Heterologous Expression of Der Homologs in an Escherichia coli der Mutant and Their Functional Complementation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eunsil; Kang, Nalae; Jeon, Young; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The unique Escherichia coli GTPase Der (double Era-like GTPase), which contains tandemly repeated GTP-binding domains, has been shown to play an essential role in 50S ribosomal subunit biogenesis. The depletion of Der results in the accumulation of precursors of 50S ribosomal subunits that are structurally unstable at low Mg2+ concentrations. Der homologs are ubiquitously found in eubacteria. Conversely, very few are conserved in eukaryotes, and none is conserved in archaea. In the present study, to verify their conserved role in bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit biogenesis, we cloned Der homologs from two gammaproteobacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium; two pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae; and the extremophile Deinococcus radiodurans and then evaluated whether they could functionally complement the E. coli der-null phenotype. Only K. pneumoniae and S. Typhimurium Der proteins enabled the E. coli der-null strain to grow under nonpermissive conditions. Sucrose density gradient experiments revealed that the expression of K. pneumoniae and S. Typhimurium Der proteins rescued the structural instability of 50S ribosomal subunits, which was caused by E. coli Der depletion. To determine what allows their complementation, we constructed Der chimeras. We found that only Der chimeras harboring both the linker and long C-terminal regions could reverse the growth defects of the der-null strain. Our findings suggest that ubiquitously conserved essential GTPase Der is involved in 50S ribosomal subunit biosynthesis in various bacteria and that the linker and C-terminal regions may participate in species-specific recognition or interaction with the 50S ribosomal subunit. IMPORTANCE In Escherichia coli, Der (double Era-like GTPase) is an essential GTPase that is important for the production of mature 50S ribosomal subunits. However, to date, its precise role in ribosome biogenesis has not been

  18. Wirkungen biogener Amine auf die Erregungs-Sekretions-Kopplung in der Speicheldrüse von Periplaneta americana (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietdorf, Katja

    2003-07-01

    habe gefunden, dass die Aktivität der Na+-K+-ATPase wichtig für die Modifikation des DA-stimulierten Primärspeichels ist. Im Gegensatz dazu ist sie für die Modifikation des 5-HT-stimulierten Primärspeichels nicht von Bedeutung. Bezüglich der Flüssigkeitssekretion habe ich keinen Einfluss der Na+-K+-ATPase-Aktivität auf die DA-stimulierten Sekretionsraten gefunden, dagegen ist die 5-HT-stimulierte Sekretionsrate in Anwesenheit von Ouabain gesteigert. Die Aktivität des NKCC ist für beide sekretorische Prozesse, die Ionen- und die Flüssigkeitssekretion, wichtig. Eine Hemmung des NKCC bewirkt eine signifikante Verringerung der Raten der Flüssigkeitssekretion nach DA- und 5-HT-Stimulierung sowie in beiden Fällen einen signifikanten Abfall der Ionenkonzentrationen im Endspeichel. Im zweiten Teil meiner Arbeit habe ich versucht, Änderungen der intrazellulären Ionenkonzentrationen in den Acinuszellen während einer DA- oder 5-HT-Stimulierung zu messen. Diese Experimente sollten mit der Methode des "ratiometric imaging" durchgeführt werden. Messungen mit dem Ca2+-sensitiven Fluoreszenzfarbstoff Fura-2 zeigten keinen globalen Anstieg in der intrazellulären Ca2+-Konzentration der P-Zellen. Aufgrund von Problemen mit einer schlechten Beladung der Zellen, einer starken und sich während der Stimulierung ändernden Autofluoreszenz der Zellen sowie Änderungen im Zellvolumen wurden keine Messungen mit Na+- und K+-sensitiven Fluoreszenzfarbstoffen durchgeführt. Im dritten Teil dieser Arbeit habe ich die intrazellulären Signalwege untersucht, die zwischen einer 5-HT-Stimulierung der Drüse und der Proteinsekretion vermitteln. Dazu wurde der Proteingehalt im Endspeichel biochemisch mittels eines modifizierten Bradford Assay gemessen. Eine erstellte Dosis-Wirkungskurve zeigt, dass die Rate der Proteinsekretion von der zur Stimulierung verwendeten 5-HT-Konzentration abhängt. In einer Serie von Experimenten habe ich die intrazellulären Konzentrationen von Ca2+, c

  19. Solutions for Hot Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    From the company that brought the world an integral heating and cooling food service system after originally developing it for NASA's Apollo Program, comes yet another orbital offshoot: a product that can be as thin as paper and as strong as steel. Nextel Ceramic Textiles and Composites from 3M Company offer space-age protection and innovative solutions for hot situations, ranging from NASA to NASCAR. With superior thermal protection, Nextel fabrics, tape, and sleevings outperform other high temperature textiles such as aramids, carbon, glass, and quartz, permitting engineers and manufacturers to handle applications up to 2,500 F (1,371 C). The stiffness and strength of Nextel Continuous Ceramic Fibers make them a great match for improving the rigidity of aluminum in metal matrix composites. Moreover, the fibers demonstrate low shrinkage at operating temperatures, which allow for the manufacturing of a dimensionally stable product. These novel fibers also offer excellent chemical resistance, low thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, low porosity, and unique electrical properties.

  20. [Osteopathie bei gastroösophagealem Reflux mit Hiatushernie: Ein Fallbericht gemäß der CARE-Leitlinie].

    PubMed

    Rotter, Gabriele; Brinkhaus, Benno

    2017-01-01

    Hintergrund: Das Vorhandensein einer Hiatushernie kann das Auftreten einer gastroösophagealen Refluxerkrankung (GERD) als Komplikation bedingen. Konventionelle medizinische Therapiemaßnahmen können zu unerwünschten Ereignissen und Rezidiven führen. Bisher sind die Effekte von osteopathischen Behandlungen bei Hiatushernie und GERD nicht bekannt. Fallbericht: Eine 59-jährige Patientin mit endoskopisch diagnostizierter chronischer Gastritis, GERD und Hiatushernie beklagte einen persistierenden gastroösophagealen Reflux trotz konventionell-medizinischer konservativer Therapie. Die osteopathische Diagnostik ergab eine funktionelle Störung im Bereich des Magens und der Kardia mit einer Beteiligung zugehöriger Reflexzonen. Nach einer osteopathischen Behandlung als individuelle, befundorientierte Therapie ließen die Beschwerden erheblich nach. Die Hiatushernie war nach einer dieser Behandlung endoskopisch nicht mehr nachweisbar. Schlussfolgerungen: Dieser Fallbericht schildert die Symptomreduktion einer GERD nach osteopathischer Behandlung. In der endoskopischen Folgeuntersuchung fand sich die initial diagnostizierte Hiatushernie nicht mehr, diese Befund änderung könnte jedoch auf die unterschiedlichen Untersucher zurückgeführt werden. Prospektive kontrollierte klinische Studien sind notwendig, um den Stellenwert von osteopathischen Behandlungen bei GERD mit Hiatushernie zu untersuchen. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  1. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  2. Das Lektin aus der Erbse Pisum sativum : Bindungsstudien, Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht und Rückfaltung aus Fragmenten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küster, Frank

    2002-11-01

    Das Lektin aus Pisum sativum, der Gartenerbse, ist Teil der Familie der Leguminosenlektine. Diese Proteine haben untereinander eine hohe Sequenzhomologie, und die Struktur ihrer Monomere, ein all-ß-Motiv, ist hoch konserviert. Dagegen gibt es innerhalb der Familie eine große Vielfalt an unterschiedlichen Quartärstrukturen, die Gegenstand kristallographischer und theoretischer Arbeiten waren. Das Erbsenlektin ist ein dimeres Leguminosenlektin mit einer Besonderheit in seiner Struktur: Nach der Faltung in der Zelle wird aus einem Loop eine kurze Aminosäuresequenz herausgeschnitten, so dass sich in jeder Untereinheit zwei unabhängige Polypeptidketten befinden. Beide Ketten sind aber stark miteinander verschränkt und bilden eine gemeinsame strukturelle Domäne. Wie alle Lektine bindet Erbsenlektin komplexe Oligosaccharide, doch sind seine physiologische Rolle und der natürliche Ligand unbekannt. In dieser Arbeit wurden Versuche zur Entwicklung eines Funktionstests für Erbsenlektin durchgeführt und seine Faltung, Stabilität und Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht charakterisiert. Um die spezifische Rolle der Prozessierung für Stabilität und Faltung zu untersuchen, wurde ein unprozessiertes Konstrukt in E. coli exprimiert und mit der prozessierten Form verglichen. Beide Proteine zeigen die gleiche kinetische Stabilität gegenüber chemischer Denaturierung. Sie denaturieren extrem langsam, weil nur die isolierten Untereinheiten entfalten können und das Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht bei mittleren Konzentrationen an Denaturierungsmittel auf der Seite der Dimere liegt. Durch die extrem langsame Entfaltung zeigen beide Proteine eine apparente Hysterese im Gleichgewichtsübergang, und es ist nicht möglich, die thermodynamische Stabilität zu bestimmen. Die Stabilität und die Geschwindigkeit der Assoziation und Dissoziation in die prozessierten bzw. nichtprozessierten Untereinheiten sind für beide Proteine gleich. Darüber hinaus konnte gezeigt werden, dass auch unter

  3. Symmetriebrechung und Emergenz in der Kosmologie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, K.

    Seit der Antike wird der Aufbau des Universums mit einfachen und regulären (symmetrischen) Grundstrukturen verbunden. Diese Annahme liegt selbst noch den Standardmodellen der relativistischen Kosmologie zugrunde. Demgegenüber läßt sich die Emergenz neuer Strukturen von den Elementarteilchen über Moleküle bis zu den komplexen Systemen des Lebens als Symmetriebrechung verstehen. Symmetriebrechung und strukturelle Komplexität bestimmen die kosmische Evolution. Damit zeichnet sich ein fachübergreifendes Forschungsprogramm von Physik, Chemie und Biologie ab, in dem die Evolution des Universums untersucht werden kann.

  4. Stress situations in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, M; Baylard, J F

    1994-01-01

    Several studies indicate that stress is inherently present in dental practice. The present study was conducted to help identify the factors underlying this stress and the relative contribution of each factor. A questionnaire presented participating dentists with 52 potentially-stressful situations related to dental practice. Respondents were asked to rate each situation on a five-point scale, using a range of responses that varied from "not stressful" to "exceedingly stressful," and "I don't know" to "not applicable." The present data are based on the ratings given by the 1,332 dentists practicing in Québec who answered the questionnaire (52 per cent). Ten situations received a mean score of greater than 3.0, and were therefore considered as above average stress-producing situations. The majority of these situations could be classified as being related either to dental procedures and office organization or to interpersonal relationships involving patients and/or office personnel. It was found that the older age groups showed significantly less stress for six of the 10 most stressful situations. This study has indicated the specific situations that most frequently lead to stress in dentists. The precise identification of these situations could lead to reduced stress through the elimination of its vague and insidious character. Furthermore, an understanding of the most common stress-causing situations allows the practitioner to take preventive measures to eliminate its damaging effects in the dental practice.

  5. Zur (FurB) is a key factor in the control of the oxidative stress response in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Sein-Echaluce, Violeta C; González, Andrés; Napolitano, Mauro; Luque, Ignacio; Barja, Francisco; Peleato, M Luisa; Fillat, María F

    2015-06-01

    Iron and zinc are necessary nutrients whose homeostasis is tightly controlled by members of the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) superfamily in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120. Although the link between iron metabolism and oxidative stress management is well documented, little is known about the connection between zinc homeostasis and the oxidative stress response in cyanobacteria. Zinc homeostasis in Anabaena is controlled by Zur, also named FurB. When overexpressed in Escherichia coli, Zur (FurB) improved cell survival during oxidative stress. In order to investigate the possible correlation between Zur and the oxidative stress response in Anabaena, zur deletion and zur-overexpressing strains have been constructed, and the consequences of Zur imbalance evaluated. The lack of Zur increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), whereas an excess of Zur enhanced oxidative stress resistance. Both mutants displayed pleiotropic phenotypes, including alterations on the filament surfaces observable by scanning electron microscopy, reduced content of endogenous H2 O2 and altered expression of sodA, catalases and several peroxiredoxins. Transcriptional and biochemical analyses unveiled that the appropriate level of Zur is required for proper control of the oxidative stress response and allowed us to identify major antioxidant enzymes as novel members of the Zur regulon. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Eso's Situation in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    the purpose to do science and not to participate in polemics or litigations. For this reason, ESO has until now been silent in these matters, but we have now become obliged to make our opinion known". The ESO representative also made it clear, that "ESO does not question the rights of the claimants to recur to the Chilean Tribunals which must decide on the matter of ownership, and that ESO cannot be party to this lawsuit". He added that "ESO fully trusts that the Chilean Government will do whatever is necessary to defend the immunity of ESO". THE CURRENT SITUATION During the past few days, declarations from high officials at the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs have been made which clearly confirm ESO's immunity of jurisdiction from Chilean Courts. The same opinion has been ventured by Chilean experts in international law, quoted in various Chilean newspapers. On Friday, February 17, the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose M. Insulza, made a similar, very eloquent statement. ESO welcomes these articulate expressions that support its official position and trusts that the current situation will be speedily resolved by the competent Chilean authorities, so that the construction work at Paranal will not be stopped. During the past three decades, ESO's presence in Chile has been characterised by good relations to all sides. The development of astronomy in Chile during the past decades has reached such a level that it will now benefit from a new quality of cooperation. In addition to its past and numerous services to Chilean astronomy, ESO has recently considered to establish a "guaranteed" observing time for astronomers from this country, both at La Silla and the future VLT observatory on Paranal. With a proposed 10 percent quota for the VLT, Chilean astronomers will in fact have free access to the equivalent of 40 percent of one 8.2-metre telescope; the associated, not insignificant cost is entirely carried by ESO. ESO has also considered to incorporate

  7. Response to van der Meer.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Gail V; Barnes, David K A; Morley, Simon A; Peck, Lloyd S

    2017-12-18

    In our recent Current Biology paper [1], we describe an ocean warming experiment in which we manipulated the temperature of panels set on the seafloor to provide a realistic and relevant indication of how benthic communities may change under future ocean warming. We describe increases in growth associated with warming by 1°C, with growth rates up to doubled in some species. The definition of Q 10 is a measure of the temperature sensitivity of an enzymatic reaction rate or a physiological process due to an increase by 10°C; doubling of growth rates with a 1°C change gives Q 10 s around 1,000. In his correspondence, Jaap van der Meer [2] questions our methods and provides alternative analyses which lead him to conclude that our observed increases in growth rate were in fact much lower and in accordance with previous studies from temperate zones. We provide justification for our use of absolute growth rate, justification for not using instantaneous growth rate (or a measure of growth in proportion to previous growth) and encourage the on-going discussion of how to measure and compare growth rates. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The Language Situation in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoud, Mohamed

    2001-01-01

    Describes the current language situation in Tunisia while maintaining a historical perspective that is helpful in understanding how language-related changes have come about, and a prospective view that may illuminate future developments. (Author/VWL)

  9. Bacillus licheniformis Contains Two More PerR-Like Proteins in Addition to PerR, Fur, and Zur Orthologues

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Shin-Yeong; Yang, Yoon-Mo; Ryu, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Yumi; Won, Young-Bin; Lee, Yeh-Eun; Youn, Hwan; Lee, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family proteins include sensors of Fe (Fur), Zn (Zur), and peroxide (PerR). Among Fur family proteins, Fur and Zur are ubiquitous in most prokaryotic organisms, whereas PerR exists mainly in Gram positive bacteria as a functional homologue of OxyR. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus encode three Fur family proteins: Fur, Zur, and PerR. In this study, we identified five Fur family proteins from B. licheniformis: two novel PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) in addition to Fur (BL05249), Zur (BL03703), and PerR (BL00075) homologues. Our data indicate that all of the five B. licheniformis Fur homologues contain a structural Zn2+ site composed of four cysteine residues like many other Fur family proteins. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) as well as PerRBL (BL00075), but not FurBL (BL05249) and ZurBL (BL03703), can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation with different sensitivity. We also show that PerR2 (BL00690) has a PerR-like repressor activity for PerR-regulated genes in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that B. licheniformis contains three PerR subfamily proteins which can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation not by cysteine oxidation, in addition to Fur and Zur. PMID:27176811

  10. TÜV - Zertifizierungen in der Life Science Branche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaff, Peter; Gerbl-Rieger, Susanne; Kloth, Sabine; Schübel, Christian; Daxenberger, Andreas; Engler, Claus

    Life Sciences [1] (Lebenswissenschaften) sind ein globales Innovationsfeld mit Anwendungen der Bio- und Medizinwissenschaften, der Pharma-, Chemie-, Kosmetik- und Lebensmittelindustrie. Diese Branche zeichnet sich durch eine stark interdisziplinäre Ausrichtung aus, mit Anwendung wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse und Einsatz von Ausgangsstoffen aus der modernen Biologie, Chemie und Humanmedizin sowie gezielter marktwirtschaftlich orientierter Arbeit.

  11. The epidemiological situation in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    This article presents information on the health condition of the Iraqi population as well as the situation of the country's health care and education system over the course of recent decades. Author has discussed a number ofriskfactors which influence the incidence of diseases among the country " population paying particular attention to environmental factors. In the 1980's the epidemiological situation of Iraq and its citizens was comparable with the situation in average developed countries. Over the last two decades the country, rich in natural resources, having one of the worlds richest crude oil deposits, has been turned into an economic ruin. Warfare, famine and catastrophic sanitary conditions are now widespread and they all intensify the growth of incidence of infectious and non-infectious diseases.

  12. [Human dignity and terminal situations].

    PubMed

    Masiá, J

    2007-01-01

    Dignity should not be confused with the unbecoming conditions that a person can find himself in due to external situations or disease. The person/patient in a terminal situation has human dignity, which must be respected not because he/she is a terminal patient but simply because he/she is a person. But it is true that in terminal situations dignity can be particularly threatened. Nonetheless, one must not deduce from the criterion of respecting dignity the conclusion of prolonging biological life at all costs, but instead that of guaranteeing the best quality of living during the process of dying and of worthily accompanying the person who is approaching death by helping him to accept this.

  13. [Situational awareness: oversimplification of reality].

    PubMed

    Hamming, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Situational awareness appears to be an attractive term to describe attentiveness when performing complex tasks in an operating theatre, as its meaning seems clear and it is considered useful. It is embraced for describing human behaviour in the aftermath of incidents and appears to provide a clear explanation of what went wrong. But it actually describes a wide range of aspects of human behaviour and therefore comprises a risk of oversimplification. As a consequence, hasty and unwarranted conclusions may be drawn about a complex situation, especially where its outcome is known, leading to hindsight bias. To understand what happened, it is necessary to reconstruct the entire situation as it evolved at the time, considering all the activities, people, circumstances and equipment involved. People are always part of a system, so the proposed monitoring devices will be of only limited use in preventing adverse events.

  14. Cosmology with an interacting van der Waals fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, E.; Khurshudyan, M.

    A model for the late-time accelerated expansion of the Universe is considered where a van der Waals fluid interacting with matter plays the role of dark energy. The transition towards this phase in the cosmic evolution history is discussed in detail and, moreover, a complete classification of the future finite-time singularities is obtained for six different possible forms of the nongravitational interaction between dark energy (the van der Waals fluid) and dark matter. This study shows, in particular, that a Universe with a noninteracting three-parameter van der Waals fluid can evolve into a Universe characterized by a type IV (generalized sudden) singularity. On the other hand, for certain values of the parameters, exit from the accelerated expanding phase is possible in the near future, what means that the expansion of the Universe in the future could become decelerated - to our knowledge, this interesting situation is not commonplace in the literature. On the other hand, our study shows that space can be divided into different regions. For some of them, in particular, the nongravitational interactions Q = 3Hbρde, Q = 3Hbρdm and Q = 3Hb(ρde + ρde) may completely suppress future finite-time singularity formation, for sufficiently high values of b. On the other hand, for some other regions of the parameter space, the mentioned interactions would not affect the singularity type, namely the type IV singularity generated in the case of the noninteracting model would be preserved. A similar conclusion has been archived for the cases of Q = 3bHρdeρdm/(ρde + ρdm), Q = 3bHρdm2/(ρ de + ρdm) and Q = 3bHρde2/(ρ de + ρdm) nongravitational interactions, with only one difference: the Q = 3bHρdm2/(ρ de + ρdm) interaction will change the type IV singularity of the noninteracting model into a type II (the sudden) singularity.

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Meilensteine der Astronomie - Von Aristoteles bis Hawking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, J.

    2006-12-01

    A writer, more specific a writer on the history of astronomy, might from time to time look at the collected document folders with all the research material and reprints, and might wonder: has this been all? Especially at a time when recycling is in vogue? And, perhaps with a request or an invitation to submit something, he or she might consider re-using the material before its definitive disposal. Well, such are my feelings when I looked at Jurgen Hamel's new book Milestones of Astronomy - From Aristoteles to Hawking . A slight chance for survival of medium-sized publishers like Kosmos is to offer popular books, and a title must attract potential buyers: Aristoteles means the "old" times, and as concerns the "mad scientist" of modern times, Stephen Hawking has by now dethroned Einstein. In 1998, Hamel had published a Geschichte der Astronomie - Von den Anfangen bis zur Gegenwart (History of astronomy, from the beginnings to the present), which, of course, he could not simply copy. This time, he selected some stones from his research areas - milestones, touchstones, stumbling blocks in the long road of astronomical evolution - and put them between the covers of his new book. So let us look at these (mile)stones . The reader is informed about Aristoteles on 2 pages, but his medieval interpreter Johannes de Sacrobosco gets 8 pages! Copernicus' life and achievements are described on 9 pages, closely followed by his devotee and translator Rothmann with 8 pages; Copernicus' contemporary, Peter Apian, however, gets about 13! Bessel's and Herschel's lifes and works are described on well-deserved 13 and 15 pages, while the achievements of the two Lucasian professors, Isaac Newton and Stephen Hawking, are just outlined in a single paragraph! Thus, importance is sometimes inversely proportional to text length... But let us become serious now. Why should an active historian outline, for the hundreth time, the life of Copernicus, while there are so many interesting, and often

  16. The Forced van der Pol Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study of the forced van der Pol equation x + [epsilon](x[superscript 2] - 1)x + x = F cos[omega]t, by solving numerically the differential equation for a variety of values of the parameters [epsilon], F and [omega]. In doing so, many striking and interesting trajectories can be discovered and phenomena such as frequency entrainment,…

  17. Chancen und Visionen Der Modernen Mechanik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Wolfgang; Wriggers, Peter

    Die Gesellschaft des 21. Jahrhunderts wird ihre Anforderungen an Lebensqualität und Umweltstandards stetig erhöhen. Dies betrifft auch die Anforderungen an Qualität und Vorhersagegenauigkeit bei der Berechnung komplexer Probleme und umfasst insbesondere das Gesamtdesign von Produkten unserer unmittelbaren Umgebung wie Architektur- und Ingenieurbauwerken, aber auch von Industrieprodukten, die wir in unseremtäglichen Leben einsetzen.

  18. Primary Frequency Response with Aggregated DERs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guggilam, Swaroop S.; Dhople, Sairaj V.; Zhao, Changhong

    2017-03-03

    Power networks have to withstand a variety of disturbances that affect system frequency, and the problem is compounded with the increasing integration of intermittent renewable generation. Following a large-signal generation or load disturbance, system frequency is arrested leveraging primary frequency control provided by governor action in synchronous generators. In this work, we propose a framework for distributed energy resources (DERs) deployed in distribution networks to provide (supplemental) primary frequency response. Particularly, we demonstrate how power-frequency droop slopes for individual DERs can be designed so that the distribution feeder presents a guaranteed frequency-regulation characteristic at the feeder head. Furthermore, the droopmore » slopes are engineered such that injections of individual DERs conform to a well-defined fairness objective that does not penalize them for their location on the distribution feeder. Time-domain simulations for an illustrative network composed of a combined transmission network and distribution network with frequency-responsive DERs are provided to validate the approach.« less

  19. The Language Situation in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terborg, Roland; Landa, Laura Garcia; Moore, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    This monograph will cover the language situation in Mexico; a linguistically very complex country with 62 recognised indigenous languages, the "de facto" official language, Spanish, and some immigrant languages of lesser importance. Throughout the monograph, we will concentrate on three distinct challenges which we consider relevant for…

  20. Situations That Lead to Disqualification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavelas, Janet Beavin

    1983-01-01

    Tested, in five hypothetical paper-and-pencil experiments, subjects' use of disqualification (ambiguous, indirect, or evasive massages). Concluded that a disqualification is not a failed communication, but rather a reasonable response to an impossible situation, one that permits the communicator to leave the field gracefully. (PD)

  1. Career Development Guides: Situational English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Jeanette D.

    The guide provides lesson plans for a 12-week situational English course geared toward career development at the junior high school level. The course aims at increasing eighth- and ninth-grade student self-awareness, involving interested parents in classroom activities, and providing students with an opportunity to evaluate what they have learned…

  2. The Language Situation in Macao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Xi

    2017-01-01

    In postcolonial societies, forces associated with globalization operate along with local geopolitical changes. The complex and multifaceted interactions between local, national, and global forces may take different sociolinguistic shapes in postcolonial societies. This study provides an overview of the language situation in Macao. The Portuguese…

  3. Situational Awareness in Complex Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-31

    Conditions Jennifer L Dyck & Richard D. Gilson ......................................................... 251 •. Contents vii Aerospace Operations...human performance: Volume II, Cognitive processes and performance (pp.28-53 -28-57). New York: Wiley Interscience. Craik , F. 1. M. & Lockhart, R. S...O•• • Situation Awareness in Marginal Weather Conditions: Do Graphical Presentations Help? 0 Jennifer L. Dyck & Richard D. Gilson 0 University

  4. The Language Situation in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    This monograph examines the language situation in Cameroon, a Central African country where fewer than 20 million people speak close to 250 languages. Specifically, the monograph addresses the issues of language use and spread, language policy and planning, and language maintenance and prospects. The study is divided into five parts. The…

  5. The Language Situation in Luxembourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Kristine; Weber, Jean Jacques

    2008-01-01

    This monograph describes the overall language situation in Luxembourg, a highly multilingual country in Western Europe, from a language policy and planning perspective. The first part discusses the social and historical contexts, including major societal changes and uncertainties about the future, which are bound up with Europeanisation and the…

  6. Hearing on Space Situational Awareness:

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-06-22

    Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross, left, NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine, center, and Commander, U.S. Strategic Command, General John Hyten prepare to testify before the House Subcommittee on Strategic Forces during a hearing on Space Situational Awareness: Whole of Government Perspectives on Roles and Responsibilities, Friday, June 22, 2018 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Hearing on Space Situational Awareness:

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-06-22

    Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross, left, NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine, center, and Commander, U.S. Strategic Command, General John Hyten testify before the House Subcommittee on Strategic Forces during a hearing on Space Situational Awareness: Whole of Government Perspectives on Roles and Responsibilities, Friday, June 22, 2018 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Hearing on Space Situational Awareness:

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-06-22

    House Subcommittee on Strategic Forces holds a hearing on Space Situational Awareness: Whole of Government Perspectives on Roles and Responsibilities, Friday, June 22, 2018 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Witnesses: NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine; Commander, U.S. Strategic Command, General John Hyten; and Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Situated Learning: Conceptualization and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Lakshmi; Johnson, Norman; Junglas, Iris; Ives, Blake

    2010-01-01

    A focus on the interaction between cognitive schemas and context in situ has been suggested as fundamental in organizational decision making and information interpretation. Past research suggests that the situation and the social interaction that occur during learning at the cognitive level consist of factors that affect the process, but the…

  10. Hearing on Space Situational Awareness:

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-06-22

    NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine testifies before the House Subcommittee on Strategic Forces during a hearing on Space Situational Awareness: Whole of Government Perspectives on Roles and Responsibilities, Friday, June 22, 2018 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Hearing on Space Situational Awareness:

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-06-22

    Commander, U.S. Strategic Command, General John Hyten testifies before the House Subcommittee on Strategic Forces during a hearing on Space Situational Awareness: Whole of Government Perspectives on Roles and Responsibilities, Friday, June 22, 2018 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Hearing on Space Situational Awareness:

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-06-22

    Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross prepares to testify before the House Subcommittee on Strategic Forces during a hearing on Space Situational Awareness: Whole of Government Perspectives on Roles and Responsibilities, Friday, June 22, 2018 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Hearing on Space Situational Awareness:

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-06-22

    Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross testifies before the House Subcommittee on Strategic Forces during a hearing on Space Situational Awareness: Whole of Government Perspectives on Roles and Responsibilities, Friday, June 22, 2018 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Hearing on Space Situational Awareness:

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-06-22

    Rep. Mike Rogers, R-Alabama, Chairman of the Strategic Forces Subcommittee is seen during the House Subcommittee on Strategic Forces hearing on Space Situational Awareness: Whole of Government Perspectives on Roles and Responsibilities, Friday, June 22, 2018 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Hard Choices for Individual Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landon, Bruce

    This paper focuses on faculty use of a decision-making process for complex situations. The analysis part of the process describes and compares course management software focusing on: technical specifications, instructional design values,tools and features, ease of use, and standards compliance. The extensive comparisons provide faculty with…

  16. How To Consider the Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele

    Suggestions are offered to practitioners on how to consider situational variables in the assessment and remediation of childhood language disorders. Eight sociolinguistic principles, derived from research on normally developing children, are presented. Among the principles are those which state that sociocultural patterns may vary as a function of…

  17. Preparing Children for Situational Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiszinckas, Evelyn

    1982-01-01

    Provides guidelines for parents to help children to deal with anxiety and stress resulting from major changes or new situations in the child's life. Advocates truth, repetition and pacing, proper timing, dialog, fostering familiarity, honest expression of feelings, mobilization of anxiety, encouraging play, and support as strategies for reducing…

  18. [Support psychotherapy in traumatic situations].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sales, Pau; Vázquez Valverde, Carmelo

    2003-12-01

    It seems that a certain consensus exists to speak about a traumatic situation as an experience which is made up of a threat on the physical or psychological integrity of a person and against which one responds with fear, desperation and intensive horror. Different psychological phenomena are involved with the manner through which a human being confronts his/her past. In particular, the response to traumatic situations, mourning, and blame share their characteristic of being an irreversible living reality related to facts, loss or past impacts and it is necessary to integrate these in one's life in order to advance; these comprise a triangle frequently coexisting and interconnected. Aid for these three situations has, therefore, as common elements, two premises: an active task is required by the person who suffers this situation; this person must, in some form, desire to move ahead. One can not toil in mourning, in a traumatic experience, or in a life of blame if these have a positive symbolic value for this person; for example, mourning as a manner not to treason the dead person by forgetting that person, the reliving a trauma as an attempt to provide some sense to the actions which occurred, or blame as a desire to not forget an error or as a final punishment of this active task; the final objective of this active task is not usually to forget but to integrate in order to live. If a person does not perceive this clearly, this person may not become actively involved in the task to overcome a traumatic situation and to move ahead, nor will that person accept that a person who tries to help questions this person's realities or experiences.

  19. Situation awareness system for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Andrew

    1999-07-01

    Situation awareness encompasses a knowledge of orders, plans and current knowledge of friendly force actions. Knowing where you are and being able to transmit that information in near real-time to other friendly forces provides the ability to exercise precise command and control over those forces. With respect to current command and control using voice methods, between 40 percent and 60 percent of Combat Net Radio traffic relates to location reporting of some sort. Commanders at Battle Group and below spend, on average, 40 percent of their total time performing position and navigation related functions. The need to rapidly transfer own force location information throughout a force and to process the received information quickly, accurately and reliably provides the rationale for the requirement for an automated situation awareness system. This paper describes the Situation Awareness System (SAS) being developed by Computing Devices Canada for the Canadian Department of National Defence as a component of the Position Determination and Navigation for Land Forces program. The SAS is being integrated with the Iris Tactical Command, Control, Communications System, which is also being developed by Computing Devices. The SAS software provides a core operating environment onto which command and control functionality can be easily added to produce general and specialist battlefield management systems.

  20. Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 18)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2003-01-01

    The 18th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the sixth collection of essays on the history of astronomy ("Beitræge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 6"), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains eight major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 19th centuries. The first article by Michael Weichenhan (Berlin) deals with "the invention of the disk-shaped earth: a chapter of Copernican apologetics". The author shows that the concept of a "disc-shaped Earth" was by no means widespread in the middle ages, but restricted to the father of the church Lactantius and some adherents. Nevertheless, it was used by adherents of Copernicus to show the absurd consequences of a strictly literal biblical interpretation -- here concerning the Earth's shape, disc versus sphere, there the geocentric versus the heliocentric system. This thorough philosophical study is followed by two very short articles. "The measuring accuracy of Tycho's large sextant" by Johann Wünsch investigates O-C values of planet-star distances, as based on Tycho's observations as published in the Historia Coelestis (a compilation, which is also based on Tycho's manuscripts, and published in Regensburg in 1672). The result is that standard deviations are 80 arcseconds for Saturn and 89 arcseconds for Jupiter and Mars, an unexpectedly poor result in view of the general opinion that Tycho was famous for his precision work. "The astronomer Christoph Grienberger and the Galilei trial" by Franz Daxecker deals with a Jesuit astronomer who was both the disciple and successor of the mathematician-astronomer Christopher Clavius at the Collegium Romanum. While he was inclined to Galilei early on, he was forced to propagate Aristotelian doctrine. The brief article is very concise, but extremely tiresome to read (3 pages of pure text are embellished by

  1. Der Begriff mathematischer Schönheit in einer empirisch informierten Ästhetik der Mathematik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Hill, Eva; Spies, Susanne

    Dieses Zitat des britischen Mathematikers G. H. Hardy bringt pointiert die unter praktizierenden Mathematikern, aber auch unter Philosophen der Mathematik weithin akzeptierte Ansicht zum Ausdruck, dass mathematische Schönheit eine nicht zu vernachlässigende Rolle in der mathematischen Forschungspraxis spielt und sowohl interessante ästhetiktheoretische, epistemische als auch ontologische Aspekte aufweist. Danach beeinflusst also das Verständnis dessen, was mathematische Schönheit ist, auch das Verständnis dessen, was Mathematik ist: "Was sind die Träger mathematischer Schönheit?" ist die Frage nach der Art der Gegenstände, für deren Schönheit Mathematiker sich begeistern und nach der sie streben. "Was sind die Kriterien für mathematische Schönheit?" ist die Frage nach den Kategorien, unter denen Mathematiker ihre Arbeit bewerten. Egal, ob sich das Phänomen mathematischer Schönheit als Ausnahmemerkmal oder als ständiger Begleiter mathematischen Tuns erweist - ein adäquates allgemeines Mathematikverständnis sollte dieses Phänomen berücksichtigen und bestenfalls auch erklären können.

  2. On spectra of Lüders operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Gabriel

    2008-02-01

    We show that all the eigenvalues of certain generalized Lüders operations are non-negative real numbers in two cases of interest. In particular, given a commuting n-tuple A =(A1,…,An) consisting of positive operators on a Hilbert space H, satisfying ∑j =1nAj=I, we show that the spectrum of the Lüders operation: ΛA:B(H)∋X↦∑j =1nAj1/2XAj1/2∈B(H) is contained in [0,∞), so the only solution of the equation ΛA(X)=I-X is the "expected" one: X =1/2I.

  3. Geometrothermodynamics of Van der Waals black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yumin; Chen, Juhua; Wang, Yongjiu

    2017-12-01

    We study the geometrothermodynamics of a special asymptotically AdS black hole, i.e. Van der Waals ( VdW) black hole, in the extended phase space where the negative cosmological constant Λ can be regarded as thermodynamic pressure. Analysing some special conditions of this black hole with geometrothermodynamical method, we find a good correlation with ordinary cases according to the state equation.

  4. Update on the nutrition situation.

    PubMed

    Mason, J; Garcia, M

    1995-01-01

    The Update on the Nutrition Situation, 1994 was published in early 1995 by the United Nations Subcommittee on Nutrition. Thus, data available at the country level about estimates of the nutritional situation now provide trends of prevalences of underweight children in 35 countries for the 1990s. In Sub-Saharan Africa recent deterioration has occurred as a result of the general worsening of nutrition in Africa. However, in the Near East, North Africa, and South America the generally improving trends of the 1980s seem to be continuing with the likelihood of reaching the prevalences of the developed countries by the year 2000. A surveillance system in Bangladesh indicates improvement from 1990 to 1993; however, India data for 1991/92 indicate deterioration in 3 states and no significant change in 4, possibly connected the economic slowdown in the early 1990s. In many countries of southeast Asia, China, Middle America and the Caribbean, South America, the Near East and North Africa the improvement of rates could result in halving the prevalences of underweight children. The gross domestic product (GDP) is an important indicator of nutritional performance. During 1985-92 in Sub-Saharan Africa GDP declined by 0.8% and consequently the nutritional situation also deteriorated. In other areas of the world the GDP growth rates improved after 1990 and the underweight trends in the early 1990s were generally similar to those of the late 1980s. The nutritional improvement outside Sub-Saharan Africa and possibly India continued in the early 1990s. Rapid economic growth was associated with improving nutrition in Thailand and Vietnam in the 1980s and also to a smaller extent for Indonesia and China. Faster than average improvement is plausible for Jamaica, Sri Lanka, and Zimbabwe. Deteriorating cases are Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Rwanda. Economic growth, health, education, and community-based nutrition programs all contribute to improving nutrition.

  5. Mehr Mathematik Wagen in der Medizin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuflhard, Peter; Dössel, Olaf; Louis, Alfred K.; Zachow, Stefan

    In diesem Artikel wird an drei Erfolgsmodellen dargestellt, wie das Zusammenwirken von Mathematik und Medizin eine Entwicklung hin zu patientenspezifischen Modellen auf Basis moderner medizinischer Bildgebung angestoßen hat, die in naher Zukunft dynamisch weiter Raum greifen wird. Dabei existiert ein Gleichklang der Interessen von Medizin und Mathematik: Beide Disziplinen wollen die Resultate schnell und zuverlässig. Für die Klinik heißt dies, dass notwendige Rechnungen in möglichst kurzer Zeit, und zwar auf dem PC, ablaufen müssen und dass die Resultate so genau und belastbar sein müssen, dass medizinische Entscheidungen darauf aufbauen können. Für die Mathematik folgt daraus, dass höchste Anforderungen an die Effizienz der verwendeten Algorithmen und die darauf aufbauende Software in Numerik und Visualisierung zu stellen sind. Allerdings ist es noch ein weiter Weg, bis anatomische und medizinisch brauchbare funktionelle Modelle auch nur für die wichtigsten Körperteile und die häufigsten Krankheitsfälle verfügbar sein werden. Führende Universitätskliniken könnten, als Zentren einer interdisziplinären Kooperation von Medizinern, Ingenieuren und Mathematikern, eine Vorreiterrolle dabei übernehmen, mehr Mathematik in der Medizin zu wagen. Dies wäre zweifellos ein wichtiger Schritt in Richtung auf eine individuelle quantitative Medizin, bei dem Deutschland die besten Voraussetzungen hätte, die Rolle des "Schrittmachers“ zu übernehmen.

  6. Theory of coherent van der Waals matter.

    PubMed

    Kulić, Igor M; Kulić, Miodrag L

    2014-12-01

    We explain in depth the previously proposed theory of the coherent van der Waals (cvdW) interaction, the counterpart of van der Waals (vdW) force, emerging in spatially coherently fluctuating electromagnetic fields. We show that cvdW driven matter is dominated by many-body interactions, which are significantly stronger than those found in standard van der Waals (vdW) systems. Remarkably, the leading two- and three-body interactions are of the same order with respect to the distance (∝R(-6)), in contrast to the usually weak vdW three-body effects (∝R(-9)). From a microscopic theory we show that the anisotropic cvdW many-body interactions drive the formation of low-dimensional structures such as chains, membranes, and vesicles with very unusual, nonlocal properties. In particular, cvdW chains display a logarithmically growing stiffness with the chain length, while cvdW membranes have a bending modulus growing linearly with their size. We argue that the cvdW anisotropic many-body forces cause local cohesion but also a negative effective "surface tension." We conclude by deriving the equation of state for cvdW materials and propose experiments to test the theory, in particular the unusual three-body nature of cvdW.

  7. Theory of coherent van der Waals matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulić, Igor M.; Kulić, Miodrag L.

    2014-12-01

    We explain in depth the previously proposed theory of the coherent van der Waals (cvdW) interaction, the counterpart of van der Waals (vdW) force, emerging in spatially coherently fluctuating electromagnetic fields. We show that cvdW driven matter is dominated by many-body interactions, which are significantly stronger than those found in standard van der Waals (vdW) systems. Remarkably, the leading two- and three-body interactions are of the same order with respect to the distance (∝R-6) , in contrast to the usually weak vdW three-body effects (∝R-9 ). From a microscopic theory we show that the anisotropic cvdW many-body interactions drive the formation of low-dimensional structures such as chains, membranes, and vesicles with very unusual, nonlocal properties. In particular, cvdW chains display a logarithmically growing stiffness with the chain length, while cvdW membranes have a bending modulus growing linearly with their size. We argue that the cvdW anisotropic many-body forces cause local cohesion but also a negative effective "surface tension." We conclude by deriving the equation of state for cvdW materials and propose experiments to test the theory, in particular the unusual three-body nature of cvdW.

  8. Zum Wissenschaftsverständnis der modernen Evolutionsbiologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Ralf J.

    Die moderne Evolutionsbiologie hat ihren Ursprung in den Arbeiten von Charles Darwin und Alfred Wallace (Darwin 1963). Der gemeinsame Ausgangspunkt des Evolutionsgedanken ist dabei die Beobachtung, dass die biologische Welt nicht konstant ist. Biologische Systeme und alle darin lebenden Organismen unterliegen über längere Zeiträume hinweg einer stetigen Veränderung. Diese grundlegende Eigenschaft biologischer Systeme macht die Biologie zu einer historischen Wissenschaft und stellt einen wichtigen Gegensatz zu großen Teilen der Physik dar. Obwohl die Aussage von der Veränderlichkeit der Arten heute trivial klingt, war sie im 19. Jahrhundert eine Revolution, da die Konstanz der Arten und der Welt eine vorherrschende Stellung im damaligen Weltbild hatte (Amundson 2005).

  9. Efimov states near a Feshbach resonance and the limits of van der Waals universality at finite background scattering length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langmack, Christian; Schmidt, Richard; Zwerger, Wilhelm

    2018-03-01

    We calculate the spectrum of three-body Efimov bound states near a Feshbach resonance within a model which accounts both for the finite range of interactions and the presence of background scattering. The latter may be due to direct interactions in an open channel or a second overlapping Feshbach resonance. It is found that background scattering gives rise to substantial changes in the trimer spectrum as a function of the detuning away from a Feshbach resonance, in particular in the regime where the background channel supports Efimov states on its own. Compared to the situation with negligible background scattering, the regime where van der Waals universality applies is shifted to larger values of the resonance strength if the background scattering length is positive. For negative background scattering lengths, in turn, van der Waals universality extends to even small values of the resonance strength parameter, consistent with experimental results on Efimov states in 39K. Within a simple model, we show that short-range three-body forces do not affect van der Waals universality significantly. Repulsive three-body forces may, however, explain the observed variation between around -8 and -10 of the ratio between the scattering length where the first Efimov trimer appears and the van der Waals length.

  10. Enhancing situational interest in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Beck, Gary L; Finken, David A; Stoolman, Sharon R

    2012-01-01

    Individual interest, something that persists regardless of the situation, and situational interest, finding personal value in an educational context, have not been studied in medical student education. To determine if individualized case discussions enhance interest in pediatric medicine. During the 2008/2009 academic year, 88 clerkship students participated in clinical case discussions. At orientation, students completed an Interest in Pediatrics (IIP) questionnaire, responding 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree. Intervention and control groups were randomly assigned. The intervention group personalized cases to students' medical specialty interests. The control group discussed the case presentation. Groups met twice during the 8-week clerkships, completing a post-IIP at the end of the clerkship. Intervention group interest increased from pre-IIP, mean = 3.64, to post-IIP, mean = 4.22 (z = -2.994, p < 0.05, r = -0.44). On post-IIP, application of pediatric medicine increased for both groups; the intervention group was most significant from pre-IIP, mean = 1.09, to post-IIP, mean = 4.33 (z = -6.038, p < 0.05, r = -0.88). Enhanced interest in pediatrics from the intervention group indicates that creating a learning environment personally relevant to students' careers facilitates interest to learn.

  11. A traffic situation analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidla, Oliver; Rosner, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The observation and monitoring of traffic with smart visions systems for the purpose of improving traffic safety has a big potential. For example embedded vision systems built into vehicles can be used as early warning systems, or stationary camera systems can modify the switching frequency of signals at intersections. Today the automated analysis of traffic situations is still in its infancy - the patterns of vehicle motion and pedestrian flow in an urban environment are too complex to be fully understood by a vision system. We present steps towards such a traffic monitoring system which is designed to detect potentially dangerous traffic situations, especially incidents in which the interaction of pedestrians and vehicles might develop into safety critical encounters. The proposed system is field-tested at a real pedestrian crossing in the City of Vienna for the duration of one year. It consists of a cluster of 3 smart cameras, each of which is built from a very compact PC hardware system in an outdoor capable housing. Two cameras run vehicle detection software including license plate detection and recognition, one camera runs a complex pedestrian detection and tracking module based on the HOG detection principle. As a supplement, all 3 cameras use additional optical flow computation in a low-resolution video stream in order to estimate the motion path and speed of objects. This work describes the foundation for all 3 different object detection modalities (pedestrians, vehi1cles, license plates), and explains the system setup and its design.

  12. Bereits nach Ablauf der Halbwertszeit droht der vollständige Zerfall Die britische Atomic Scientists’ Association, die Ideologie der „objektiven” Wissenschaft und die H-Bombe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laucht, Christoph

    Präsident Harry Trumans Verlautbarung vom 31.1.1950, seine Regierung wolle die Entwicklung der Wasserstoffbombe vorantreiben, fand große Beachtung in den britischen Medien. Die illustrierte Zeitschrift Picture Post widmete der HBombe einen Artikel, der unter anderem kurze Stellungnahmen der britischen Atomwissenschaftler Eric Burhop, Kathleen Lonsdale, Harrie Massey, Rudolf Peierls und Maurice Pryce enthielt, die alle Mitglieder der Atomic Scientists' Association (ASA) waren.

  13. Die Grundlagen der Fernsehtechnik: Systemtheorie und Technik der Bildübertragung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Gerhard

    Umfassende Einführung in die Grundlagen der Bewegtbild-Übertragung von den Anfängen bis zum heutigen Stand des digitalen Fernsehens mit einer aus der Praxis entstandenen systemtheoretischen Analyse. Die kompakte und anschaulich bebilderte Darstellung mit elementaren mathematischen Beschreibungen macht es dem Leser leicht, sich in die Bildübertragungstechnik einzuarbeiten. Thematische Einheiten erweitern den Wissensstoff - u.a. zu den Themen visuelle Wahrnehmung, mehrdimensionale Signaldarstellung, Farbmetrik, Digitalisierung, Elektronenoptik - und zeigen deren Anwendung auf die elektronische Bildübertragung.

  14. Phänomenologische Grundlagen der Wärmelehre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintze, Joachim

    Die Physik der Wärme lässt sich auf zweierlei Weise formulieren: Einmal als Mechanik eines Systems, das eine enorm große Zahl von Teilchen enthält (statistische Mechanik), und einmal mit Hilfe von ad hoc eingeführten Größen, den sogenannten Zustandsgrößen, die geeignet sind, das Verhalten eines solchen Systems zu beschreiben, ohne dass man die Teilchen selbst und ihre Bewegungen betrachten muss (Thermodynamik). Wir werden beide Ansätze in ihrer einfachsten und anschaulichsten Ausprägung in Kap. 5 (kinetische Gastheorie) bzw. in Kap. 8 (Grundbegriffe der Thermodynamik) behandeln. Obgleich sich die volle Durchführung des Programms als begrifflich und mathematisch recht schwierig erweist - die Vorlesung "Thermodynamik und Statistik" steht gewöhnlich am Ende der Kursvorlesungen über theoretische Physik - werden wir doch auf der Grundlage der Kap. 5 und 8 eine Menge über die Physik der Wärme lernen können. Den Ausgangspunkt der Wärmelehre bilden jedoch allemal die Naturerscheinungen, die wir hier in Kap. 4 behandeln wollen: Wärme, Kälte, Temperaturausgleich. Wir werden untersuchen, wie man diese Begriffe quantifizieren kann, und was bei der Erwärmung oder Abkühlung eines Körpers vor sich geht. Dabei werden wir auf den I. und II. Hauptsatz der Wärmelehre stoßen.

  15. Elastolysen und Hauterkrankungen mit Verlust der elastischen Fasern.

    PubMed

    Tronnier, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Die elastischen Fasern sind neben den kollagenen Fasern der wichtigste Bestandteil des Bindegewebsgerüstes der Haut. Eine Verminderung oder ein Verlust der elastischen Fasern ist bei einer Vielzahl von klinisch sich unterschiedlich präsentierenden Erkrankungen, hereditär oder erworben, beschrieben. Bei den Erkrankungen, die mit einer Entzündung einhergehen ist die Elastophagozytose ein wichtiges histologisches Merkmal. Die Therapie der Erkrankungen dieser Gruppe ist grundsätzlich schwierig. © 2018 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Information Interaction Study for DER and DMS Interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haitao; Lu, Yiming; Lv, Guangxian; Liu, Peng; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Xinhui

    The Common Information Model (CIM) is an abstract data model that can be used to represent the major objects in Distribution Management System (DMS) applications. Because the Common Information Model (CIM) doesn't modeling the Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), it can't meet the requirements of DER operation and management for Distribution Management System (DMS) advanced applications. Modeling of DER were studied based on a system point of view, the article initially proposed a CIM extended information model. By analysis the basic structure of the message interaction between DMS and DER, a bidirectional messaging mapping method based on data exchange was proposed.

  17. Task-oriented situation recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Alexander; Fischer, Yvonne

    2010-04-01

    From the advances in computer vision methods for the detection, tracking and recognition of objects in video streams, new opportunities for video surveillance arise: In the future, automated video surveillance systems will be able to detect critical situations early enough to enable an operator to take preventive actions, instead of using video material merely for forensic investigations. However, problems such as limited computational resources, privacy regulations and a constant change in potential threads have to be addressed by a practical automated video surveillance system. In this paper, we show how these problems can be addressed using a task-oriented approach. The system architecture of the task-oriented video surveillance system NEST and an algorithm for the detection of abnormal behavior as part of the system are presented and illustrated for the surveillance of guests inside a video-monitored building.

  18. The Zinc-Responsive Regulator Zur Controls a Zinc Uptake System and Some Ribosomal Proteins in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)▿

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Ho; Oh, So-Young; Kim, Soon-Jong; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2007-01-01

    In various bacteria, Zur, a zinc-specific regulator of the Fur family, regulates genes for zinc transport systems to maintain zinc homeostasis. It has also been suggested that Zur controls zinc mobilization by regulating some ribosomal proteins. The antibiotic-producing soil bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor contains four genes for Fur family regulators, and one (named zur) is located downstream of the znuACB operon encoding a putative zinc uptake transporter. We found that zinc specifically repressed the level of znuA transcripts and that this level was derepressed in a Δzur mutant. Purified Zur existing as homodimers bound to the znuA promoter region in the presence of zinc, confirming the role of Zur as a zinc-responsive repressor. We analyzed transcripts for paralogous forms of ribosomal proteins L31 (RpmE1 and RpmE2) and L33 (RpmG2 and RpmG3) for their dependence on Zur and found that RpmE2 and RpmG2 with no zinc-binding motif of conserved cysteines (C's) were negatively regulated by Zur. C-negative RpmG3 and C-positive RpmE1 were not regulated by Zur. Instead, they were regulated by the sigma factor σR as predicted from their promoter sequences. The rpmE1 and rpmG3 genes were partially induced by EDTA in a manner dependent on σR, suggesting that zinc depletion may stimulate the σR regulatory system. This finding reflects a link between thiol-oxidizing stress and zinc depletion. We determined the Zur-binding sites within znuA and rpmG2 promoter regions by footprinting analyses and identified a consensus inverted repeat sequence (TGaaAatgatTttCA, where uppercase letters represent the nucleotides common to all sites analyzed). This sequence closely matches that for mycobacterial Zur and allows the prediction of more genes in the Zur regulon. PMID:17416659

  19. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft in der Weimarer Republik und während der Nazidiktatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Jürgen

    Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten durch den 1. Weltkrieg erlangte die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) unter dem renommierten Statistiker und Vorsitzenden der DStatG, Friedrich Zahn, durch eine Vielzahl von Aktivitäten hohes Ansehen. Es gab Bestrebungen, Statistiker aus allen Arbeitsfeldern der Statistik in die DStatG zu integrieren, wobei die "Mathematische Statistik" nur zögerlich akzeptiert wurde (Konjunkturforschung, Zeitreihenanalyse). Nach der Machtübernahme 1933 durch Adolf Hitler geriet die DStatG in das Fahrwasser nationalsozialistischer Ideologie und Politik (Führerprinzip, Gleichschaltung des Vereinswesens). Damit war eine personelle Umstrukturierung in der DStatG verbunden. Politisch Missliebige und rassisch Verfolgte mussten die DStatG verlassen (Bernstein, Freudenberg, Gumbel u.a.). Unter den Statistikern gab es alle Abstufungen im Verhalten zum Regime von Ablehnung und zwangsweiser Anpassung über bereitwilliges Mitläufertum bis zu bewusster Täterschaft. Besonders die Bevölkerungsstatistik wurde durch die NS- Rassenpolitik auf lange Sicht diskreditiert. Im Rahmen von Wirtschaftsplanung und Aufrüstung wurden neue zukunftsträchtige statistische Modelle (Grünig, Bramstedt, Leisse) entwickelt.

  20. Crystal Structures of Mite Allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1 Reveal Differences in Surface-Exposed Residues that May Influence Antibody Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Chapman, Martin D.; Vailes, Lisa D.

    2009-12-01

    The Group 1 mite allergens, Der f 1 and Der p 1, are potent allergens excreted by Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, respectively. The human IgE antibody responses to the Group 1 allergens show more cross-reactivity than the murine IgG antibody responses which are largely species-specific. Here, we report the crystal structure of the mature form of Der f 1, which was isolated from its natural source, and a new, high-resolution structure of mature recombinant Der p 1. Unlike Der p 1, Der f 1 is monomeric both in the crystalline state and in solution. Moreover, no metal binding ismore » observed in the structure of Der f 1, despite the fact that all amino acids involved in Ca{sup 2+} binding in Der p 1 are completely conserved in Der f 1. Although Der p 1 and Der f 1 share extensive sequence identity, comparison of the crystal structures of both allergens revealed structural features which could explain the differences in murine and human IgE antibody responses to these allergens. There are structural differences between Der f 1 and Der p 1 which are unevenly distributed on the allergens' surfaces. This uneven spatial arrangement of conserved versus altered residues could explain both the specificity and cross-reactivity of antibodies against Der f 1 and Der p 1.« less

  1. Nutritional situation in the world.

    PubMed

    Bengoa, J M

    1976-03-01

    The paper describes the international nutrition problem, with references to previous crisis in the world. It is stated that the present situation cannot be compared to the historical famines in the past. The causes and magnitude of the problem are quite different. The information available on the nutritional situation in the world at present is scanty, erratic and contradictory. The criteria used for such evaluation is not uniform, and this is the reason of the differences in the estimation of the magnitude of the problem. According to the analysis of 101 surveys conducted in 59 developing countries during the last 10 years, in which more than 260,000 children below 5 years were examined the percentage of cases of severe forms of malnutrition was of 2.3% and of moderate forms of 18.8%. However there are some areas where severe forms represent 10 or 20% of children examined. Taking only the most representative surveys (25 out of 59) a rough estimation of the total number of malnoursihed children in developing countries gives the figure of 10 millions of severe forms and 90 millions of moderate forms. The paper makes references to mortality trends in developing countries compared with the trends observed in developed countries. It is the view of the author that the recent dramatic decline on mortality in developing countries is due more to public health action, particularly the existence of new drugs, than to any significant improvement in the standard of living, including nutrition. A distinction is made on the differences between the biological needs of nutrients and the social satisfaction produced by food intake. In fact the biological needs are much less than the average consumption of the affluent society. It is suggested that in order to raise the standards of nutrition in developing countries it would perhaps be necessary to moderate the excessive consumption among other things, of proteins of animal origin in developed countries. Finally the author strongly

  2. Kanban - der Weg ist das Ziel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aull, Florian; Berlak, Joachim; Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Fischäder, Holm; Gerlach, Joachim; Henneberg, Jens; Kapalla, Klaus; Kress, Oliver; Kuttler, Robert; Schneider, Herfried M.; Schürle, Philipp; Stellpflug, Franz-Josef; Wannenwetsch, Ralph; Wulz, Johannes; Zäh, Michael F.

    Wenn man aktuell Produktionsbereiche in Deutschland und Europa besucht, fallen im Zusammenhang mit modernen Produktionsmethoden immer öfter die Begriffe Kanban (jap. Karte, Signal) und Pull-Produktion, und dies nicht ohne Stolz, da diese mit dem schillernden Vorbild des Toyota Produktionssystems in Zusammenhang stehen. Tatsächlich ist Kanban ein integraler Bestandteil moderner Produktionssysteme. Blickt man aber im Rahmen von Prozessanalysen hinter die Fassaden", d. h. in die tägliche Praxis der Arbeitsprozesse, wird man schnell desillusioniert - die viel gepriesenen klassischen Kanban-Regeln werden im Tagesgeschäft nicht eingehalten.

  3. Probleme bei der Digitalisierung analoger Messwerte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    Messwerte liegen häufig in analoger Form als Spannungswerte vor. Sie werden in eine digital kodierte Form umgesetzt, wenn eine (nahezu) fehlerfreie Übertragung erforderlich ist, wenn Signalverläufe gespeichert werden sollen, wenn eine Weiterverarbeitung erfolgen soll oder wenn Messungen mit sehr geringem Messfehler notwendig sind. Hier soll auf einige Probleme, die durch die Umsetzung entstehen, aus messtechnischer Sicht eingegangen werden. Stichworte: Fehler bei der Digitalisierung; Signal-Quantisierungsgeräusch-Abstand; Verbesserung des Signal-Rausch-Verhältnisses; Abtast-Halte-Glied; Aliasing; Erfassung von Momentanwerten.

  4. Physik gestern und heute: Visualisierung mit der Schlierenmethode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Der Name des österreichischen Forschers Ernst Mach ist heute noch mit der Schallgeschwindigkeit verbunden. Diese Auszeichnung resultiert aus Machs Untersuchungen, wie sich Projektile mit Überschallgeschwindigkeit durch die Luft bewegen. Gerade in jüngster Zeit hat die Anwendung derartiger Methoden durch technische Modifikationen wieder einen Aufschwung erfahren.

  5. Disruptive Ideas for Power Grid Security and Resilience With DER

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Erfan

    This presentation by Erfan Ibrahim was prepared for NREL's 2017 Cybersecurity and Reslience Workshop on distributed energy resource (DER) best practices. The presentation provides an overview of NREL's Cyber-Physical Systems Security and Resilience R&D Center, the Center's approach to cybersecurity, and disruptive ideas for power grid security and resilience with DER.

  6. School and Situated Knowledge: Travel or Tourism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damarin, Suzanne K.

    1993-01-01

    Examines issues related to situated cognition and learning, both in the classroom and in the world. Topics discussed include educational theories; the situated nature of knowledge; the perception of experts; and the role of technology in situated learning, including virtual reality, hypertext, and telecommunications. (26 references) (LRW)

  7. Managing Situation Awareness on the Flight Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Connell, Linda (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Awareness is required of the plane, the path and the people, both now and in the future. The steps to situation awareness are to monitor and evaluate the current situation. Anticipate the future to stay ahead of the airplane and consider contingencies, having a plan for 'what if situations. Continually update and modify the plan and share it with all crew members.

  8. Situated Learning in Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theories of learning such as Wenger and Lave's situated learning have been suggested as alternatives to cognitive theories of learning like constructivism. This article examines situated learning within the context of computer science (CS) education. Situated learning accurately describes some CS communities like open-source software…

  9. Situational therapy for Wernicke's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, Eric Lewin; Multari, Alicia; Hirstein, William; Ramachandran, V S

    2006-01-01

    Patients with Wernicke's or expressive aphasia are able to produce fluent speech, however, this speech may be complete gibberish sounds and totally incomprehensible, or even when comprehensible to a degree is often laced with severe errors and abnormalities such as verbal and phonemic paraphasias and neologisms. Furthermore, patient's with Wernicke's aphasia have poor to no understanding of speech or language. There is no proven method for rehabilitation of Wernicke's aphasia, or even much guidance for physicians or speech therapists to treat Wernicke's aphasia patients. In contrast to their poor to non-existent communication skills using speech or other forms of language, it has long been appreciated informally and formally that Wernicke's aphasia patients are able to communicate well, even normally, using non-verbal means such as actions, movements, props, gestures, facials expressions, and affect. Furthermore, in non-language domains Wernicke's aphasia patients can show normal memory and learning abilities. Thus, we here suggest that the non-language communication channels of Wernicke's aphasia patients be channeled and utilized in their functional rehabilitation: Specifically, we suggest that therapy for Wernicke's aphasia patients should consist of placing patients in real or simulated important functional situations--e.g., buying food, taking transport--and let the patients train and learn to use and hone their non-language communication means and skills for improved practical functioning.

  10. Scaling laws for van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Gobre, Vivekanand V; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Van der Waals interactions have a fundamental role in biology, physics and chemistry, in particular in the self-assembly and the ensuing function of nanostructured materials. Here we utilize an efficient microscopic method to demonstrate that van der Waals interactions in nanomaterials act at distances greater than typically assumed, and can be characterized by different scaling laws depending on the dimensionality and size of the system. Specifically, we study the behaviour of van der Waals interactions in single-layer and multilayer graphene, fullerenes of varying size, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. As a function of nanostructure size, the van der Waals coefficients follow unusual trends for all of the considered systems, and deviate significantly from the conventionally employed pairwise-additive picture. We propose that the peculiar van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials could be exploited to control their self-assembly.

  11. Sharing Space Situational Awareness Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, D.

    2010-09-01

    The Commander, United States Strategic Command (CDRUSSTRATCOM) accepted responsibility for sharing space situational awareness (SSA) information/services with commercial & foreign entities from the US Air Force on 22 Dec 09 (formerly the Commercial & Foreign Entities Pilot Program). The requirement to share SSA services with non-US Government (USG) entities is derived from Title 10, United States Code, Section 2274 (2010) and is consistent with the new National Space Policy. US Strategic Command’s (USSTRATCOM’s) sharing of SSA services consists of basic services (Two-Line Elements, decay data and satellite catalog details) available on www.space-track.org and advanced services (conjunction assessment, launch support, etc) available with a signed agreement. USSTRATCOM has requested USG permission to enter into international agreements to enable SSA data exchange with our foreign partners. USSTRATCOM recently authorized Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC SPACE) to share Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs) with satellite owner/operators whose satellites have been identified as closely approaching another space object. CSMs contain vector and covariance data computed using Special Perturbations theory. To facilitate the utility of the CSMs, USSTRATCOM has and is hosting CSM Workshops to ensure satellite operators fully understand the data contained in the CSM in order to provide an informed recommendation to their leadership. As JFCC SPACE matures its ability to accept ephemeris data from a satellite operator, it will be necessary to automatically transfer that data from one security level to another. USSTRATCOM and Air Force Space Command are coordinating the integration of a cross domain solution that will allow JFCC SPACE to do just that. Finally, USSTRATCOM is also working with commercial and governmental organizations to develop an internationally-accepted conjunction assessment message. The United States Government (USG), specifically the

  12. Wissensstrukturierung im Unterricht: Neuere Forschung zur Wissensreprasentation und ihre Anwendung in der Didaktik (Knowledge Structuring in Instruction: Recent Research on Knowledge Representation and Its Application in the Classroom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einsiedler, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    Asks whether theories of knowledge representation provide a basis for the development of theories of knowledge structuring in instruction. Discusses codes of knowledge, surface versus deep structures, semantic networks, and multiple memory systems. Reviews research on teaching, external representation of cognitive structures, hierarchical…

  13. Zur Frage der Textauswahl in einem Lesekurs fuer die Sozialwissenschaften (On the Question of the Choice of Textbooks in a Course in the Social Sciences)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apelt, Hans-Peter

    1974-01-01

    Passages from three selected samples of textbooks are used to show what requirements are made of textbooks in the social sciences. Some hints are given to the teacher for converting reading suggestions into instructional material. Short texts from Karl Marx are also suggested. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  14. Briefkasten oder Brieftaube? Zur Auswahl der Lexik in amerikanischen Deutschlehrwerken fuer die Grundstufe. ("Mailbox" or "Carrier Pigeon"? Selecting Vocabulary for American College-Level Elementary German Textbooks).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Sibylle

    A comparison of four college-level elementary German textbooks reveals significant differences in the numbers of vocabulary entries in each textbook. Further comparison of three of the textbooks with the basic German vocabulary lists provided in "Kontaktschwelle Deutsch als Fremdsprache" and in "Das Zertificat Deutsch als Fremdsprache" reveal in…

  15. Bildung und bildungstheoretische Ueberlegungen zur Grundung der Republik (Education and the Republic--Educational Theorists Reflections on the Foundation of the Republic).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellekamps, Stephanie

    1996-01-01

    Draws on Wilhelm von Humboldt's typology of the active human being to debate the questions whether and how individuals can produce their social and political world. Discusses, with reference to Marie Condorcet and Immanuel Kant, procedures of the public that are necessary prerequisites for actions aimed at forming the world. (DSK)

  16. Zur Afuwertung der Kultur- und Landeskunde. Ein Literaturbericht (Toward an Evaluation of Culture Studies and Other Area Studies. A Survey of the Literature)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartig, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Eight recent monographs and collections on area and culture study in foreign language teaching are discussed and compared. The focus is on the various authors' definitions of the topic (culture, civilization, realia, etc.). Mentioned also is the function of area study in the course. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  17. Learning situation models in a smart home.

    PubMed

    Brdiczka, Oliver; Crowley, James L; Reignier, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of learning situation models for providing context-aware services. Context for modeling human behavior in a smart environment is represented by a situation model describing environment, users, and their activities. A framework for acquiring and evolving different layers of a situation model in a smart environment is proposed. Different learning methods are presented as part of this framework: role detection per entity, unsupervised extraction of situations from multimodal data, supervised learning of situation representations, and evolution of a predefined situation model with feedback. The situation model serves as frame and support for the different methods, permitting to stay in an intuitive declarative framework. The proposed methods have been integrated into a whole system for smart home environment. The implementation is detailed, and two evaluations are conducted in the smart home environment. The obtained results validate the proposed approach.

  18. elecTUM: Umsetzung der eLearning-Strategie der Technischen Universität München

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathmayer, Sabine; Gergintchev, Ivan

    An der TUM wurde ein umfassendes und integriertes eLearning-Konzept umgesetzt, welches Präsenzstudium und eLearning in allen Leistungsbereichen der Universität miteinander verzahnt. Ein besonderer Schwerpunkt lag dabei in der Schaffung einer effizienten und wettbewerbsfähigen integrierten eLearning Infrastruktur in Hinblick auf die noch weiter steigenden Studienanfängerzahlen ab dem Jahr 2011 sowie die Umsetzung von eBologna. Die Etablierung einer hochschulweiten Lernplattform stellte eine wesentliche Basis für die Umsetzung der eLearning-Strategie dar. Die wissenschaftliche und wirtschaftliche Anschlussfähigkeit im Hinblick auf eine Verwertung der Projektergebnisse wurde durch die aktive Beteiligung an einer Vielzahl hochschulübergreifender Arbeitskreise, Fachtagungen und Kooperationen, vor allem über Organisations- und Dienstleistungsmodelle sowie innovative technische Entwicklungen, sichergestellt.

  19. Situation Change: Stability and Change of Situation Variables between and within Persons

    PubMed Central

    Rauthmann, John F.; Sherman, Ryne A.

    2016-01-01

    When, how, and why situations flow into one another is important for understanding dynamic personality processes, but the topic of situation change has traditionally been a thorny issue in personality/social psychology. We explore conceptual and methodological issues in research on situation change: (1) What is situation change, which variables could we measure, and how can situation change be methodologically captured and analyzed (at between- and within-person levels)? (2) Which person-situation transaction mechanisms (situation management strategies) could entail stability and change of situations in daily life? (3) How do single or repeated instances of situation change impact short-, middle-, and long-term outcomes (e.g., intra- and interpersonal adjustment)? Besides laying out a research program for situation change, we present preliminary data from participants who wore mini-video cameras recording their situations so that they could be rated later in the lab. We demonstrate rater consensus on when situations change, mean-level changes of situation characteristics across situations, similarity of situation characteristics across adjacent situations, and inter-individual differences in intra-individual situation change in change networks. PMID:26779068

  20. [Evaluation of sensitization to Der p 1 and Der p 2 in a pediatric population of the North of Portugal].

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Sara; Soares, Joana; Monteiro, Tânia; Carvalho, Marisa; Santos, Marinela; Simões, Carla; Quaresma, Márcia

    2017-12-28

    In Portugal, data on the role of Der p 1 and Der p 2 in patients with house dust mite (HDM) allergy are scarce. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (sIT) is the only treatment that improves symptoms, reduces the need for pharmacological therapy and modifies the natural history of the disease. With this study, the authors aim to understand the local epidemiology and to clarify if the molecular assay of major allergens is advantageous in deciding and/or modifying the decision to initiate sIT in children with clinical indication which are sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Retrospective study with analysis of patients with asthma and/or rhinitis. January/2013-December/2016. 1) positive prick-test to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; and 2) clinically relevant disease under treatment. Assay Der p 1 and Der p 2 values ≥0.35 kUA/L were considered positive. Statistical significance was set at P<.05. The clinical files of 279 patients. Mean ages 9.55 years (min.4-max.17). Asthma was present in 199 children (71.3%) and rhinitis in 245 (87.8%). Der p 1 and Der p 2 was <0.35kUA/L in 29 (10,4%) patients. The value of Der p 1/Der p 2 correlated with the size of the prick-test papule, the value of the eosinophils and the total IgE. Der p 1 and Der p 2 are dominant allergens in our population and there may be benefits in determining these molecular allergen levels in patients with a positive prick-test and a clinical indication for sIT prior to a decision of initiating sIT or not. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  1. Collaborative Commercial Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T. S.; Hendrix, D.; Sibert, D.; Hall, R. A.; Therien, W.

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing recognition by commercial and civil space operators of the need for space situational awareness (SSA) data to support ongoing conjunction analysis, maneuver planning, and radio frequency interference mitigation as part of daily operations. While some SSA data is available from the Joint Space Operations Center via the Space Track web site, access to raw observations and photometric data is limited due to national security considerations. These data, however, are of significant value in calibrating intra- and inter-operator orbit determination results, determining inter-system biases, and assessing operating profiles in the geostationary orbit. This paper details an ongoing collaborative effort to collect and process optical observations and photometric data using a network of low-cost telescope installations and shows how these data are being used to support ongoing operations in the Space Data Center. This presentation will demonstrate how by leveraging advance photometric processing algorithms developed for Missile Defense Agency and the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) mission ExoAnalytic and AGI have been able to provide actionable SSA for satellite operators from small telescopes in less than optimal viewing conditions. Space has become an increasingly cluttered environment requiring satellite operators to remain forever vigilant in order to prevent collisions to preserve their assets and prevent further cluttering the space environment. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which tracks all objects in earth orbit, reports possible upcoming conjunctions to operators by providing Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs). However due to large positional uncertainties in the forward predicted position of space objects at the time closest approach the volume of CSMs is excessive to the point that maneuvers in response to CSMs without additional screening is cost prohibitive. CSSI and the Space Data Association have been able to screen most

  2. Electron acceleration at localized wave structures in the solar corona (German Title: Elektronenbeschleunigung an lokalen Wellenstrukturen in der Sonnenkorona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miteva, Rositsa Stoycheva

    2007-07-01

    , und in der Nähe von Stoßwellen, die infolge von Flares erzeugt werden, auf. Generell werden die Elektronen als Testteilchen behandelt. Sie werden durch ihre Wechselwirkung mit den elektrischen und magnetischen Feldern, die mit den Plasmawellen verbunden sind, beschleunigt. Infolge der magnetischen Rekonnektion als Grundlage des Flares werden starke Plasmaströmungen (sogenannte Jets) erzeugt. Solche Jets werden im Licht der weichen Röntgenstrahlung, wie z.B. durch den japanischen Satelliten YOHKOH, beobachtet. Mit solchen Jets sind solare Typ III Radiobursts als Signaturen von energiereichen Elektronenstrahlen in der Sonnenkorona verbunden. Durch die Wechselwirkung eines Jets mit dem umgebenden Plasma werden lokal elektrische Felder erzeugt, die ihrerseits Elektronen beschleunigen können. Dieses hier vorgestellte Szenarium kann sehr gut die Röntgen- und Radiobeobachtungen von Jets und den damit verbundenen Elektronenstrahlen erklären. An koronalen Stoßwellen, die infolge Flares entstehen, werden Elektronen beschleunigt, deren Signatur man in der solaren Radiostrahlung in Form von sogenannten Typ II Bursts beobachten kann. Stoßwellen in kosmischen Plasmen können mit Whistlerwellen (ein spezieller Typ von Plasmawellen) verbunden sein. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Szenarium vorgestellt, das aufzeigt, wie solche Whistlerwellen an koronalen Stoßwellen erzeugt werden und durch ihre resonante Wechselwirkung mit den Elektronen dieselben beschleunigen. Dieser Prozess ist effizienter als bisher vorgeschlagene Mechanismen und kann deshalb auch auf andere Stoßwellen im Kosmos, wie z.B. an Supernova-Überresten, zur Erklärung der dort erzeugten Radio- und Röntgenstrahlung dienen.

  3. A Study of User's Acceptance on Situational Mashups in Situational Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Angus F. M.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Liaw, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Situational awareness and mashups are two key factors influencing the success of situational language teaching. However, traditional situational language teaching cannot smoothly conduct relevant learning activities in changing learning context. This study developed a situational mashups system for detecting users' context and proposed a research…

  4. Werner-Syndrom. Eine prototypische Form der segmentalen Progerie

    PubMed Central

    Lessel, D.; Oshima, J.; Kubisch, C.

    2013-01-01

    Das Werner-Syndrom ist eine segmental progeroide Erkrankung mit Beginn in der Adoleszenz oder im frühen Erwachsenenalter. Typische Symptome, die zum vorgealterten Phänotyp beitragen, sind ein post-pubertär auftretender Kleinwuchs, Katarakte, eine vorzeitige Ergrauung/Ausdünnung des Haupthaars, sklerodermieähnliche Hautveränderungen und eine regionale Atrophie des subkutanen Fettgewebes. Darüber hinaus kommt es früh und gehäuft zu „Alterserkrankungen“ wie z. B. einem Diabetes mellitus Typ 2, einer Osteoporose, einer Atherosklerose sowie verschiedenen malignen Tumoren. Das Werner-Syndrom wird autosomal- rezessiv vererbt und ist durch Mutationen im Werner-Gen (WRN) bedingt. Es wurden bis heute mehr als 70 über das gesamte Gen verteilte Mutationen identifiziert, die typischerweise zu einem Verlust der Genfunktion führen. WRN kodiert für eine RecQ-Typ- Helikase, die u. a. an der DNA-Reparatur und der Aufrechterhaltung der DNA-Integrität beteiligt ist, was sich in einer erhöhten genetischen Instabilität in Patientenzellen wider-spiegelt. Trotz der relativen Seltenheit ist die Analyse des Werner-Syndroms von allgemeiner Bedeutung, um die Rolle der DNA-Stabilität und Integrität für das Altern sowie die Entwicklung altersassoziierter Erkrankungen besser zu verstehen. PMID:25309043

  5. Entwicklung von umwelt- und naturschutzgerechten Verfahren der landwirtschaftlichen Landnutzung für das Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Aurich, Andreas

    1999-11-01

    Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit werden exemplarisch Chancen und Grenzen der Integration von Umwelt- und Naturschutz in Verfahren der ackerbaulichen Landnutzung aufgezeigt. Die Umsetzung von Zielen des Umwelt- und Naturschutzes in Verfahren der Landnutzung ist mit verschiedenen Schwierigkeiten verbunden. Diese liegen zum einen in der Konkretisierung der Ziele, um diese umsetzen zu können, zum anderen in vielfach unzulänglichem Wissen über den Zusammenhang zwischen unterschiedlichen Formen der Landnutzung und insbesondere den biotischen Naturschutzzielen. Zunächst wird die Problematik der Zielfestlegung und Konkretisierung erörtert. Das Umweltqualitätszielkonzept von Fürst et al. (1992) stellt einen Versuch dar, Ziele des Umwelt- und Naturschutzes zu konkretisieren. Dieses Konzept haben Heidt et al. (1997) auf einen Landschaftsausschnitt von ca. 6000 ha im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin im Nordosten Brandenburgs angewendet. Eine Auswahl der von Heidt et al. (1997) formulierten Umweltqualitätsziele bildet die Basis dieser Arbeit. Für die ausgewählten Umweltqualitätsziele wurden wesentliche Einflussfaktoren der Landnutzung identifiziert und ein Bewertungssystem entwickelt, mit dem die Auswirkungen von landwirtschaftlichen Anbauverfahren auf diese Umweltqualitätsziele abgebildet werden können. Die praktizierte Landnutzung von 20 Betrieben im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin wurde von 1994 bis 1997 hinsichtlich ihrer Auswirkungen auf die Umweltqualitätsziele analysiert. Die Analyse ergab ein sehr differenziertes Bild, das zum Teil Unterschiede in der Auswirkung auf die Umweltqualitätsziele für den Anbau einzelner Kulturen oder für bestimmte Betriebstypen zeigte. Es zeigte sich aber auch, dass es bei der Gestaltung des Anbaus einzelner Kulturarten große Unterschiede gab, die für Umweltqualitätsziele Bedeutung haben. Neben der Analyse der Landnutzung im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin wurde ein System entwickelt, mit dem die modellhafte

  6. Appearing truthful generalizes across different deception situations.

    PubMed

    Frank, Mark G; Ekman, Paul

    2004-03-01

    The authors investigated whether the ability to appear truthful is specific to deception situations. Male participants were interrogated after they took part in 2 high-stake deception situations, one involving a mock crime and another involving a false opinion. The videotaped interrogations from each situation were shown to independent groups of undergraduate observers. The proportion of observers who judged each participant as truthful in one situation correlated highly with the proportion of observers who judged the same participant as truthful in the other situation. This was not correlated with physiognomy judgments. Follow-up studies revealed that although the participants showed consistency in their facial, body, and paralinguistic behaviors across situations, observers' judgments seemed to be driven only by the consistency of the dynamic facial behaviors. These results are discussed in terms of the evolutionary importance of the face in communication.

  7. Implantate und Verfahren in der Augenheilkunde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhann, Tobias H.

    Das in der Medizin mit am häufigsten verwendete Implantat weltweit ist die Intraokulare Linse (IOL). Die Gründe hierfür sind vielschichtig: einmal haben die Operationstechniken in den letzten 30 Jahren eine wesentliche Steigerung an Gleichmäßigkeit, Erfolg und Effizienz erfahren, zum anderen verursachen die gestiegenen Anforderungen des Alltags in den Industrienationen und im Berufsleben den höheren Anspruch an das Sehvermögen. Ist die menschliche Linse Ursache für schlechtes Sehvermögen, besteht meist eine Trübung des Linsenproteins. Diese Trübung nennt wird Volksmund Grauer Star genannt, wissenschaftlich die Katarakt (cataracta). Es gibt unterschiedliche Formen wie angeborene (congenita) oder erworbene, traumatische, krankheitsoder altersbedingte Formen [45]. Wird die eingetrübte Linse nun mittels moderner Operationsverfahren entfernt, muss für Ersatz dieses lichtbrechenden Mediums gesorgt werden [2].

  8. Trends in der IT-Sicherheit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Claudia

    Ich möchte Ihnen einen Überblick geben über Trends, Challenges, offene Fragestellungen sowie Lösungsansätze aus dem Bereich der IT-Sicherheit. Meine Vorredner haben mir schon eine wunderbare Basis dafür geschaffen, indem sie wichtige Trends im Bereich IT bereits angesprochen haben. Deshalb werde ich auf diese Trends, nämlich das Internet of Things and Services nur noch einmal kurz eingehen, um daran dann die IT-Sicherheitsthemen, die sich aus diesen IT-Trends ergeben, zu skizzieren und anschließend Lösungen vorstellen, die insbesondere im Forschungsumfeld entwickelt werden, aber schon reif sind, auch in die unternehmerische Praxis übernommen zu werden.

  9. The design of a tactical situation display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuperman, Gilbert G.; Wilson, Denise L.

    The design and demonstration of a dynamic tactical situation display applicable to an advanced conceptual bomber crew system is discussed. The display is the primary source of mission pacing and situational awareness information in the Strategic Avionics Battle-Management Evaluation and Research (SABER) simulator. Aspects of the display design are described, including primary data items, horizontal situation display, point of interest indication, terrain data, graphics overlay, text window, and presentation modes.

  10. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  11. Optimizing DER Participation in Inertial and Primary-Frequency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Dall-Anese, Emiliano; Zhao, Changhong; Guggilam, Swaroop

    This paper develops an approach to enable the optimal participation of distributed energy resources (DERs) in inertial and primary-frequency response alongside conventional synchronous generators. Leveraging a reduced-order model description of frequency dynamics, DERs' synthetic inertias and droop coefficients are designed to meet time-domain performance objectives of frequency overshoot and steady-state regulation. Furthermore, an optimization-based method centered around classical economic dispatch is developed to ensure that DERs share the power injections for inertial- and primary-frequency response in proportion to their power ratings. Simulations for a modified New England test-case system composed of ten synchronous generators and six instances of the IEEEmore » 37-node test feeder with frequency-responsive DERs validate the design strategy.« less

  12. Isotope separation by photodissociation of Van der Waal's molecules

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Yuan T.

    1977-01-01

    A method of separating isotopes based on the dissociation of a Van der Waal's complex. A beam of molecules of a Van der Waal's complex containing, as one partner of the complex, a molecular species in which an element is present in a plurality of isotopes is subjected to radiation from a source tuned to a frequency which will selectively excite vibrational motion by a vibrational transition or through electronic transition of those complexed molecules of the molecular species which contain a desired isotope. Since the Van der Waal's binding energy is much smaller than the excitational energy of vibrational motion, the thus excited Van der Waal's complex dissociate into molecular components enriched in the desired isotope. The recoil velocity associated with vibrational to translational and rotational relaxation will send the separated molecules away from the beam whereupon the product enriched in the desired isotope can be separated from the constituents of the beam.

  13. Situation criticality and basketball officials' stress levels.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Jason; Basevitch, Itay; Rodenberg, Ryan; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2017-11-01

    Officials are expected to perform impeccably despite the wide range of stressors they experience. A stressor that officials frequently report is situation criticality. Situation criticality is comprised of score differential (i.e., more pressure in close games) and time remaining in a game (i.e., more pressure as time expires), which affects athletes' stress levels. The present study explored the effect of situation criticality on officials' stress levels. High school basketball officials (n = 108) with an average of 18.1 (SD = 11.2) years of officiating experience were given a survey packet containing game situations that varied in criticality. For each game situation (n = 9) officials completed the overall stress and appraisal portions of the Stress Appraisal Measure (SAM). Results revealed that situation criticality has an effect on officials' perceived stress levels. Both threat and challenge appraisals were positively correlated with perceived stress. Overall, these findings indicate that officials' stress levels fluctuate within games depending on score differential and time of game. The findings encourage officials to recognise and manage their stress, possibly through their appraisals. Additionally, the findings can affect the training of officials in the management of stress, as well as prompt the consideration of potential rule changes that reflect the increased situational demands on officials in critical situations (e.g., expanded instant replay).

  14. Artificial Experience: Situation Awareness Training in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Janine E.

    2011-01-01

    The quasi-experimental research study developed and tested an education process to reduce and trap medication errors. The study was framed by Endsley's (1995a) model of situation awareness in dynamic decision making. Situation awareness improvement strategies were practiced during high-fidelity clinical simulations. Harmful medication errors occur…

  15. Assessment of Situated Learning Using Computer Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that, based on a theory of situated learning, assessment must emphasize process as much as product. Several assessment examples are given, including a computer-based planning assistant for a mathematics and science video, suggestions for computer-based portfolio assessment, and speculations about embedded assessment of virtual situations.…

  16. The Language Planning Situation in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coperahewa, Sandagomi

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines the language planning situation in Sri Lanka with particular emphasis on the planning of Sinhala as an official language of the country. It explores the historical, social, ideological and political processes, changes in language policy decisions, as well as the complexities of the language policy and planning situation in…

  17. Investigating Situational Interest in Primary Science Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukomies, Anni; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Pupils' interest has been one of the major concerns in science education research because it can be seen as a gateway to more personalised forms of interest and motivation. However, methods to investigate situational interest in science teaching and learning are not broadly examined. This study compares the pupils' observed situational interest…

  18. Practicing discernment: pastoral care in crisis situations.

    PubMed

    Landes, Scott D

    2010-01-01

    This article correlates a particular experience of providing pastoral care for a person in a crisis situation with a particular understanding of the practice of pastoral care. Through engaging in correlative practical theology, it highlights the need for practicing discernment when providing pastoral care for persons utilizing narratives to work through crisis situations.

  19. 14 CFR 99.5 - Emergency situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency situations. 99.5 Section 99.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.5 Emergency situations. In an...

  20. Situational Influences on Reactions to Observed Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Leonard

    1986-01-01

    Examines data on what situational factors influence people's desire to view violent television programming. Surveys research on the effects on viewer's behavior of the presence of other observers, the nature of the available target, situational features operating as retrieval cues, the viewers' interpretations of the violent scenes, and the…

  1. Management by Grid Principles or Situationalism: Which?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Robert R.; Mouton, Jane S.

    1981-01-01

    Attempts to resolve the leadership theory controversy between situationalism and the one-best-way approach. Indicates the validity of the latter and the lack of predictive value of the former. Results indicated administrators chose the 9,9 alternative and rejected situationally prescribed answers, reflecting a management by principles (behavioral…

  2. Die physikalischen Umweltwissenschaften und das Militär Zur Erforschung Grönlands im Kalten Krieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heymann, Matthias

    Die modernen Umweltwissenschaften stehen heute im Mittelpunkt von Forschungsförderung und öffentlicher Aufmerksamkeit. Im Zuge des seit den 1970er Jahren erwachten Interesses am globalen Wandel der Umwelt und den damit verknüpften Problemen, ist ihre Bedeutung rasch gestiegen. Viele Wurzeln der modernen Umweltwissenschaften liegen jedoch im Kalten Krieg.

  3. Modified Van der Waals equation and law of corresponding states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wei; Xiao, Changming; Zhu, Yongkai

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that the Van der Waals equation is a modification of the ideal gas law, yet it can be used to describe both gas and liquid, and some important messages can be obtained from this state equation. However, the Van der Waals equation is not a precise state equation, and it does not give a good description of the law of corresponding states. In this paper, we expand the Van der Waals equation into its Taylor's series form, and then modify the fourth order expansion by changing the constant Virial coefficients into their analogous ones. Via this way, a more precise result about the law of corresponding states has been obtained, and the law of corresponding states can then be expressed as: in terms of the reduced variables, all fluids should obey the same equation with the analogous Virial coefficients. In addition, the system of 3 He with quantum effects has also been taken into consideration with our modified Van der Waals equation, and it is found that, for a normal system without quantum effect, the modification on ideal gas law from the Van der Waals equation is more significant than the real case, however, for a system with quantum effect, this modification is less significant than the real case, thus a factor is introduced in this paper to weaken or strengthen the modification of the Van der Waals equation, respectively.

  4. Paediatric Virology as a new educational initiative: An interview with Nobelist Professor of Virology Harald zur Hausen.

    PubMed

    Mammas, Ioannis N; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2017-10-01

    Born in Gelsenkirchen-Buer in Germany on March 11th, 1936, Professor Harald zur Hausen, Emeritus Professor of Virology at the University of Freiburg and 2008 Nobel Prize Laureate in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV), which causes cervical cancer, believes that good knowledge of virological methods and diagnostic possibilities are an asset for all young paediatricians. Professor zur Hausen considers that the creation of an educational platform on Paediatric Virology is definitely very beneficial for young paediatricians, as this will greatly enhance their knowledge in the field of Virology. He very actively advocates the vaccination of boys for the eradication of HPV infection and emphasises that male HPV vaccination should be included into the current vaccination programmes. He would have certainly considered Dr George N. Papanicolaou (Kyme, Island of Euboea, Greece, 1883 - Miami, Florida, USA, 1962) as an excellent candidate for the Nobel Prize, stating that the contribution of Dr Papanicolaou did not find sufficient recognition in the past. In the context of the 3rd Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which will be held in Athens, Greece, on October 7th, 2017, Professor zur Hausen will give his plenary lecture on 'Paediatric Virology and Oncology: Virus persistence and the important first years of life'.

  5. Paediatric Virology as a new educational initiative: An interview with Nobelist Professor of Virology Harald zur Hausen

    PubMed Central

    Mammas, Ioannis N.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2017-01-01

    Born in Gelsenkirchen-Buer in Germany on March 11th, 1936, Professor Harald zur Hausen, Emeritus Professor of Virology at the University of Freiburg and 2008 Nobel Prize Laureate in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV), which causes cervical cancer, believes that good knowledge of virological methods and diagnostic possibilities are an asset for all young paediatricians. Professor zur Hausen considers that the creation of an educational platform on Paediatric Virology is definitely very beneficial for young paediatricians, as this will greatly enhance their knowledge in the field of Virology. He very actively advocates the vaccination of boys for the eradication of HPV infection and emphasises that male HPV vaccination should be included into the current vaccination programmes. He would have certainly considered Dr George N. Papanicolaou (Kyme, Island of Euboea, Greece, 1883 - Miami, Florida, USA, 1962) as an excellent candidate for the Nobel Prize, stating that the contribution of Dr Papanicolaou did not find sufficient recognition in the past. In the context of the 3rd Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which will be held in Athens, Greece, on October 7th, 2017, Professor zur Hausen will give his plenary lecture on ‘Paediatric Virology and Oncology: Virus persistence and the important first years of life’. PMID:29042913

  6. An Assessment of ELINT Exploitation for Situational Awareness Visualisations on Operator Situational Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    C L A S I F I C A T I O N An Assessment of ELINT Exploitation for Situational Awareness Visualisations on Operator Situational...environment. The An Assessment of ELINT Exploitation for Situational Awareness Visualisations on Operator Situational Awareness EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...1. ELEXSA’s Process of Sequential Enrichment. 2 Figure 2. Sample ELEXSA Visualisation . 3 Figure 3. Example Llama/Cheetah Network Layout. 5

  7. Towards an ethical theory in disaster situations.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Health Care professionals working in disaster situations have to face urgent choices which diverge from their normal deontological ethos and are more utilitarian. Such is the triage system used to choose whom to treat. Instead of entering a crisis these professionals should be thought that ethics is not harmonizable to all situations and that there are situations in which saving as many lives as possible mean sacrificing others. This calls for defining a perimeter zone in which such choices occur, and a time frame (a space-time niche) in which it ought to be considered ethical and legitimate to use such value laden choices.

  8. Van der Waals Interactions Involving Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Charles M.; Neal, Brian L.; Lenhoff, Abraham M.

    1996-01-01

    Van der Waals (dispersion) forces contribute to interactions of proteins with other molecules or with surfaces, but because of the structural complexity of protein molecules, the magnitude of these effects is usually estimated based on idealized models of the molecular geometry, e.g., spheres or spheroids. The calculations reported here seek to account for both the geometric irregularity of protein molecules and the material properties of the interacting media. Whereas the latter are found to fall in the generally accepted range, the molecular shape is shown to cause the magnitudes of the interactions to differ significantly from those calculated using idealized models. with important consequences. First, the roughness of the molecular surface leads to much lower average interaction energies for both protein-protein and protein-surface cases relative to calculations in which the protein molecule is approximated as a sphere. These results indicate that a form of steric stabilization may be an important effect in protein solutions. Underlying this behavior is appreciable orientational dependence, one reflection of which is that molecules of complementary shape are found to exhibit very strong attractive dispersion interactions. Although this has been widely discussed previously in the context of molecular recognition processes, the broader implications of these phenomena may also be important at larger molecular separations, e.g., in the dynamics of aggregation, precipitation, and crystal growth.

  9. Strain engineering of van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Paul A; Mulder, Jefta; Momand, Jamo; Kooi, Bart J

    2018-01-18

    Modifying the strain state of solids allows control over a plethora of functional properties. The weak interlayer bonding in van der Waals (vdWaals) materials such as graphene, hBN, MoS 2 , and Bi 2 Te 3 might seem to exclude strain engineering, since strain would immediately relax at the vdWaals interfaces. Here we present direct observations of the contrary by showing growth of vdWaals heterostructures with persistent in-plane strains up to 5% and we show that strain relaxation follows a not yet reported process distinctly different from strain relaxation in three-dimensionally bonded (3D) materials. For this, 2D bonded Bi 2 Te 3 -Sb 2 Te 3 and 2D/3D bonded Bi 2 Te 3 -GeTe multilayered films are grown using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) and their structure is monitored in situ using Reflective High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED) and post situ analysis is performed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Strain relaxation is modeled and found to solely depend on the layer being grown and its initial strain. This insight demonstrates that strain engineering of 2D bonded heterostructures obeys different rules than hold for epitaxial 3D materials and opens the door to precise tuning of the strain state of the individual layers to optimize functional performance of vdWaals heterostructures.

  10. Van der Waals Interactions in Aspirin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Anthony; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    The ability of molecules to yield multiple solid forms, or polymorphs, has significance for diverse applications ranging from drug design and food chemistry to nonlinear optics and hydrogen storage. In particular, aspirin has been used and studied for over a century, but has only recently been shown to have an additional polymorphic form, known as form II. Since the two observed solid forms of aspirin are degenerate in terms of lattice energy, kinetic effects have been suggested to determine the metastability of the less abundant form II. Here, first-principles calculations provide an alternative explanation based on free-energy differences at room temperature. The explicit consideration of many-body van der Waals interactions in the free energy demonstrates that the stability of the most abundant form of aspirin is due to a subtle coupling between collective electronic fluctuations and quantized lattice vibrations. In addition, a systematic analysis of the elastic properties of the two forms of aspirin rules out mechanical instability of form II as making it metastable.

  11. Stufenweise Integration von eLearning an der Technischen Universität München

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pätzold, Sebastian; Graf, Stephan; Gergintchev, Ivan; Pongratz, Hans; Rathmayer, Sabine

    Der vorliegende Beitrag beschreibt als Best Practice Beispiel die stufenweise Integration eines Learning Management Systems (LMS) in die Infrastruktur von Information und Kommunikation (IuK) der Technischen Universität München (TUM). Dabei wird sowohl die Konsolidierung mehrfach angebotener Funktionalitäten und Dienste in den verschiedenen Portalen der Universität als auch die sukzessive Optimierung der Abläufe aufgezeigt. Gleichzeitig wird auf zukünftige weitere Entwicklungen hin zu einer vollständigen Integration der IuK, aber auch auf die Probleme in den unterschiedlichen Stadien der Entwicklung eingegangen.

  12. The Situation Oriented Approach to Preschool Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oertel, Frithjof M.

    1987-01-01

    Describes preschool education in West Germany in terms of the various aspects of reform that changed function-oriented classrooms to situation-oriented learning environments. Argues for the priority of social education in early childhood. (BSR)

  13. Guidance for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document addresses the types of asbestos issues that may arise during catastrophic events and how EPA has addressed such issues. It replaces the Guidelines for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos which was issued in 1992.

  14. [Clinical interview in psychiatric difficult situations].

    PubMed

    Lorettu, Liliana; Nivoli, Gian Carlo; Milia, Paolo; Depalmas, Cristiano; Clerici, Massimo; Nivoli, Alessandra M A

    2017-01-01

    There are here described a number of basic principles underlying an effective clinical interview in psychiatric difficult situations (violent or suicidal patients, victims of serious physical and psychological damages, authors of inadequate or anti-social requests to the therapist). The aim of the present study is to provide the psychiatric operator with useful skills for the optimal management of the interview in difficult situations both at diagnostically and therapeutically level. The methodology was based on examination of the literature and personal experience of the authors. The authors highlighted 18 working hypothesis that may represent beneficial instruments in situations of difficult psychiatric interview. Further studies will deepen under the clinical, actuarial and statistical validity the principles covered in various clinical and crisis situations with difficulty to the interview, in relation also to specific types of patients for a more updated training of the operators in the field of mental health.

  15. Situational leadership and persons with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Cubero, Christopher G

    2007-01-01

    Does situational leadership style impact workers with disabilities? Situational leadership as a model and style of organizational management is defined. With a concentration on workers with disabilities, employer and employee perceptions of the workplace environment are analyzed as a contributing factor to the choice of leadership styles. Leadership style and its potential impact on workers with disabilities are included. Advantages of situational leadership style as an organizational model for managers that matches the intricate needs of workers with disabilities are argued. Methods for increasing awareness of the needs of persons with disabilities in the workplace and improving leadership models are discussed. Implications and potential outcomes for workers with disabilities based on the use of situational leadership by managers are discussed.

  16. The Employment Situation of Vietnam Era Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelotti, Kopp; Gover, Kathryn R.

    1972-01-01

    Annual review of the employment situation of male Vietnam Era veterans shows employment gains during the year ending June 1972 and includes, for the first time, data on occupations, residence, and reasons for being unemployed. (MF)

  17. 48 CFR 805.205 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Special situations. (a) A contracting officer may procure paid advertising in a daily newspaper circulated... procure paid advertising in a daily newspaper circulated in the local area or in professional journals to...

  18. A streamlined software environment for situated skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Sophia T.; Slack, Marc G.; Miller, David P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper documents a powerful set of software tools used for developing situated skills. These situated skills form the reactive level of a three-tiered intelligent agent architecture. The architecture is designed to allow these skills to be manipulated by a task level engine which is monitoring the current situation and selecting skills necessary for the current task. The idea is to coordinate the dynamic activations and deactivations of these situated skills in order to configure the reactive layer for the task at hand. The heart of the skills environment is a data flow mechanism which pipelines the currently active skills for execution. A front end graphical interface serves as a debugging facility during skill development and testing. We are able to integrate skills developed in different languages into the skills environment. The power of the skills environment lies in the amount of time it saves for the programmer to develop code for the reactive layer of a robot.

  19. A Model for Situation and Threat Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    CUBRC , Inc.) 8151 Needwood #T103 Derwood, MD 20855 UNITED STATES steinberg@cubrc.org A model is presented for situation and threat assessment...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Subject Matter Expert (SME) Calspan-UB Research Center ( CUBRC , Inc.) 8151 Needwood #T103 Derwood, MD...1 A Model for Situation and Threat Assessment Alan Steinberg CUBRC , Inc. steinberg@cubrc.org November, 2005 2 Objectives • Advance the state-of

  20. Decoupling, situated cognition and immersion in art.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Situated cognition seems incompatible with strong decoupling, where representations are deployed in the absence of their targets and are not oriented toward physical action. Yet, in art consumption, the epitome of a strongly decoupled cognitive process, the artwork is a physical part of the environment and partly controls the perception of its target by the audience, leading to immersion. Hence, art consumption combines strong decoupling with situated cognition.

  1. Advanced Communication and Control Solutions of Distributed Energy Resources (DER)

    SciTech Connect

    Asgeirsson, Haukur; Seguin, Richard; Sherding, Cameron

    2007-01-10

    This report covers work performed in Phase II of a two phase project whose objective was to demonstrate the aggregation of multiple Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and to offer them into the energy market. The Phase I work (DE-FC36-03CH11161) created an integrated, but distributed, system and procedures to monitor and control multiple DERs from numerous manufacturers connected to the electric distribution system. Procedures were created which protect the distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. Using the web as the communication medium for control and monitoring of the DERs, the integration of information and security wasmore » accomplished through the use of industry standard protocols such as secure SSL,VPN and ICCP. The primary objective of Phase II was to develop the procedures for marketing the power of the Phase I aggregated DERs in the energy market, increase the number of DER units, and implement the marketing procedures (interface with ISOs) for the DER generated power. The team partnered with the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO), the local ISO, to address the energy market and demonstrate the economic dispatch of DERs in response to market signals. The selection of standards-based communication technologies offers the ability of the system to be deployed and integrated with other utilities’ resources. With the use of a data historian technology to facilitate the aggregation, the developed algorithms and procedures can be verified, audited, and modified. The team has demonstrated monitoring and control of multiple DERs as outlined in phase I report including procedures to perform these operations in a secure and safe manner. In Phase II, additional DER units were added. We also expanded on our phase I work to enhance communication security and to develop the market model of having DERs, both customer and utility owned, participate in the energy market. We are proposing a two-part DER energy market model

  2. Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R.; Ek, Asa; Akselsson, Roland

    2007-01-01

    In high-risk environments such as air traffic control, leadership on different levels plays a certain role in establishing, promoting, and maintaining a good safety culture. The current study aimed to investigate how leadership styles, leadership style adaptability, and over and under task leadership behavior differed across situations, operative conditions, leadership structures, and working tasks in an air traffic control setting. Study locations were two air traffic control centers in Sweden with different operational conditions and leadership structures, and an administrative air traffic management unit. Leadership was measured with a questionnaire based on Leader Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD; Blanchard, Zigarmi & Zigarmi, 2003; Hersey & Blanchard, 1988). The results showed that the situation had strong impact on the leadership in which the leadership behavior was more relationship oriented in Success and Group situations than in Hardship and Individual situations. The leadership adaptability was further superior in Success and Individual situations compared with Hardship and Group situations. Operational conditions, leadership structures and working tasks were, on the other hand, not associated with leadership behavior.

  3. Structure-based design and screening of inhibitors for an essential bacterial GTPase, Der.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jihwan; Tseitin, Vladimir; Ramnarayan, Kal; Shenderovich, Mark D; Inouye, Masayori

    2012-05-01

    Der is an essential and widely conserved GTPase that assists assembly of a large ribosomal subunit in bacteria. Der associates specifically with the 50S subunit in a GTP-dependent manner and the cells depleted of Der accumulate the structurally unstable 50S subunit, which dissociates into an aberrant subunit at a lower Mg(2+) concentration. As Der is an essential and ubiquitous protein in bacteria, it may prove to be an ideal cellular target against which new antibiotics can be developed. In the present study, we describe our attempts to identify novel antibiotics specifically targeting Der GTPase. We performed the structure-based design of Der inhibitors using the X-ray crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima Der (TmDer). Virtual screening of commercially available chemical library retrieved 257 small molecules that potentially inhibit Der GTPase activity. These 257 chemicals were tested for their in vitro effects on TmDer GTPase and in vivo antibacterial activities. We identified three structurally diverse compounds, SBI-34462, -34566 and -34612, that are both biologically active against bacterial cells and putative enzymatic inhibitors of Der GTPase homologs. We also presented the possible interactions of each compound with the Der GTP-binding site to understand the mechanism of inhibition. Therefore, our lead compounds inhibiting Der GTPase provide scaffolds for the development of novel antibiotics against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria.

  4. Conjugation of nitrated acetaminophen to Der p1 amplifies peripheral blood monocyte response to Der p1.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ryan G; Rivera Reyes, Brenda M; Gaston, Benjamin M; Rivera Acosta, Nelki B; Bederman, Ilya R; Smith, Laura A; Sutton, Morgan T; Wang, Benlian; Hunt, John F; Bonfield, Tracey L

    2017-01-01

    An association of acetaminophen use and asthma was observed in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study. However there are no clear mechanisms to explain an association between acetaminophen use and immunologic pathology. In acidic conditions like those in the stomach and inflamed airway, tyrosine residues are nitrated by nitrous and peroxynitrous acids. The resulting nitrotyrosine is structurally similar to 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, known haptens that enhance immune responses by covalently binding proteins. Nitrated acetaminophen shares similar molecular structure. We hypothesized the acetaminophen phenol ring undergoes nitration under acidic conditions, producing 3-nitro-acetaminophen which augments allergic responses by acting as a hapten for environmental allergens. 3-nitro-acetaminophen was formed from acetaminophen in the presence of acidified nitrite, purified by high performance liquid chromatography, and assayed by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry. Purified 3-nitro-acetaminophen was reacted with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p1) and analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify the modification site. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation response was measured in response to 3-nitro-acetaminophen and to 3-nitro-acetaminophen-modified Der p1. Acetaminophen was modified by nitrous acid forming 3-nitro-acetaminophen over a range of different acidic conditions consistent with airway inflammation and stomach acidity. The Der p1 protein-hapten adduct creation was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry proteomics modifying cysteine 132. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to 3-nitro-acetaminophen-modified Der p1 had increased proliferation and cytokine production compared to acetaminophen and Der p1 alone (n = 7; p < 0.05). These data suggests 3-nitro-acetaminophen formation and reaction with Der p1 provides a mechanism by which stomach acid or infection-induced low airway

  5. Van der Waals interaction in uniaxial anisotropic media.

    PubMed

    Kornilovitch, Pavel E

    2013-01-23

    Van der Waals interactions between flat surfaces in uniaxial anisotropic media are investigated in the nonretarded limit. The main focus is the effect of nonzero tilt between the optical axis and the surface normal on the strength of the van der Waals attraction. General expressions for the van der Waals free energy are derived using the surface mode method and the transfer-matrix formalism. To facilitate numerical calculations a temperature-dependent three-band parameterization of the dielectric tensor of the liquid crystal 5CB is developed. A solid slab immersed in a liquid crystal experiences a van der Waals torque that aligns the surface normal relative to the optical axis of the medium. The preferred orientation is different for different materials. Two solid slabs in close proximity experience a van der Waals attraction that is strongest for homeotropic alignment of the intervening liquid crystal for all the materials studied. The results have implications for the stability of plate-like colloids in liquid crystal hosts.

  6. Materials perspective on Casimir and van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, L. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Tkatchenko, A.; Rodriguez-Lopez, P.; Rodriguez, A. W.; Podgornik, R.

    2016-10-01

    Interactions induced by electromagnetic fluctuations, such as van der Waals and Casimir forces, are of universal nature present at any length scale between any types of systems. Such interactions are important not only for the fundamental science of materials behavior, but also for the design and improvement of micro- and nanostructured devices. In the past decade, many new materials have become available, which has stimulated the need for understanding their dispersive interactions. The field of van der Waals and Casimir forces has experienced an impetus in terms of developing novel theoretical and computational methods to provide new insights into related phenomena. The understanding of such forces has far reaching consequences as it bridges concepts in materials, atomic and molecular physics, condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, chemistry, and biology. This review summarizes major breakthroughs and emphasizes the common origin of van der Waals and Casimir interactions. Progress related to novel ab initio modeling approaches and their application in various systems, interactions in materials with Dirac-like spectra, force manipulations through nontrivial boundary conditions, and applications of van der Waals forces in organic and biological matter are examined. The outlook of the review is to give the scientific community a materials perspective of van der Waals and Casimir phenomena and stimulate the development of experimental techniques and applications.

  7. Materials perspective on Casimir and van der Waals interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, L. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Tkatchenko, A.

    Interactions induced by electromagnetic fluctuations, such as van der Waals and Casimir forces, are of universal nature present at any length scale between any types of systems. In such interactions these are important not only for the fundamental science of materials behavior, but also for the design and improvement of micro- and nanostructured devices. In the past decade, many new materials have become available, which has stimulated the need for understanding their dispersive interactions. The field of van der Waals and Casimir forces has experienced an impetus in terms of developing novel theoretical and computational methods to provide new insightsmore » into related phenomena. The understanding of such forces has far reaching consequences as it bridges concepts in materials, atomic and molecular physics, condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, chemistry, and biology. Our review summarizes major breakthroughs and emphasizes the common origin of van der Waals and Casimir interactions. Progress related to novel ab initio modeling approaches and their application in various systems, interactions in materials with Dirac-like spectra, force manipulations through nontrivial boundary conditions, and applications of van der Waals forces in organic and biological matter are examined. Finally, the outlook of the review is to give the scientific community a materials perspective of van der Waals and Casimir phenomena and stimulate the development of experimental techniques and applications.« less

  8. Materials perspective on Casimir and van der Waals interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Woods, L. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Tkatchenko, A.; ...

    2016-11-02

    Interactions induced by electromagnetic fluctuations, such as van der Waals and Casimir forces, are of universal nature present at any length scale between any types of systems. In such interactions these are important not only for the fundamental science of materials behavior, but also for the design and improvement of micro- and nanostructured devices. In the past decade, many new materials have become available, which has stimulated the need for understanding their dispersive interactions. The field of van der Waals and Casimir forces has experienced an impetus in terms of developing novel theoretical and computational methods to provide new insightsmore » into related phenomena. The understanding of such forces has far reaching consequences as it bridges concepts in materials, atomic and molecular physics, condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, chemistry, and biology. Our review summarizes major breakthroughs and emphasizes the common origin of van der Waals and Casimir interactions. Progress related to novel ab initio modeling approaches and their application in various systems, interactions in materials with Dirac-like spectra, force manipulations through nontrivial boundary conditions, and applications of van der Waals forces in organic and biological matter are examined. Finally, the outlook of the review is to give the scientific community a materials perspective of van der Waals and Casimir phenomena and stimulate the development of experimental techniques and applications.« less

  9. Working memory, situation models, and synesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Gibson, Bradley S.; McNerney, M. Windy

    Research on language comprehension suggests a strong relationship between working memory span measures and language comprehension. However, there is also evidence that this relationship weakens at higher levels of comprehension, such as the situation model level. The current study explored this relationship by comparing 10 grapheme–color synesthetes who have additional color experiences when they read words that begin with different letters and 48 normal controls on a number of tests of complex working memory capacity and processing at the situation model level. On all tests of working memory capacity, the synesthetes outperformed the controls. Importantly, there was no carryover benefitmore » for the synesthetes for processing at the situation model level. This reinforces the idea that although some aspects of language comprehension are related to working memory span scores, this applies less directly to situation model levels. As a result, this suggests that theories of working memory must take into account this limitation, and the working memory processes that are involved in situation model construction and processing must be derived.« less

  10. Working memory, situation models, and synesthesia

    DOE PAGES

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Gibson, Bradley S.; McNerney, M. Windy

    2013-03-04

    Research on language comprehension suggests a strong relationship between working memory span measures and language comprehension. However, there is also evidence that this relationship weakens at higher levels of comprehension, such as the situation model level. The current study explored this relationship by comparing 10 grapheme–color synesthetes who have additional color experiences when they read words that begin with different letters and 48 normal controls on a number of tests of complex working memory capacity and processing at the situation model level. On all tests of working memory capacity, the synesthetes outperformed the controls. Importantly, there was no carryover benefitmore » for the synesthetes for processing at the situation model level. This reinforces the idea that although some aspects of language comprehension are related to working memory span scores, this applies less directly to situation model levels. As a result, this suggests that theories of working memory must take into account this limitation, and the working memory processes that are involved in situation model construction and processing must be derived.« less

  11. [Ethical considerations in mass casualty situation].

    PubMed

    Priel, I E; Dolev, E

    2001-07-01

    Mass casualty is a situation, in which, the physician is compelled to make critical decisions under heavy pressure load, due to severe shortage in time, personnel and information. This task is extremely difficult to fulfill, as the physician has to consider not only professional tools, but needs also to utilize ethical principles, in order to provide the best possible care to most of the casualties who might benefit from it. By definition, in the mass casualty situation the medical facility lacks temporarily the ability to deliver effective therapy to all, as the injured outnumber the medical capacity for a given time. The ethical conflicts and dilemmas that arise during such an event are enormous. Amazingly, only a few articles have addressed the issue of ethical considerations during mass casualty situation. Ethical decision making is based on four principles: beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy and justice. Compassion, trustworthiness, discernment and integrity are the four qualities required from those practicing medicine. These virtues should be manifested in mass casualty situations, one of the most demanding situations a physician may face.

  12. Kommunale Energieversorger als wesentliche Akteure der Digitalisierung - Strategien und Handlungsoptionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, Katherina

    Die Digitalisierung erfasst sämtliche Bereiche des Lebens und Wirtschaftens. Auch die Kommunalwirtschaft - insbesondere die kommunale Energiewirtschaft - sieht sich perspektivisch disruptiven Entwicklungen gegenüber. Stadtwerke haben bereits viele Herausforderungen erfolgreich gemeistert und stehen auch der Digitalisierung positiv gegenüber. Vielerorts gestalten kommunale Unternehmen den digitalen Wandel bereits aktiv mit. Dieser Artikel arbeitet die Assets kommunaler Unternehmen heraus und zeigt Strategien und Handlungsoptionen zum Umgang mit der digitalen Transformation für kommunale Energieversorgungsunternehmen auf. Dabei zeigt sich, dass das politische und regulatorische Umfeld für das positive Gelingen der Digitalisierung entscheidend sind. Kommunale Unternehmen benötigen die gleichen Marktzugangsbedingungen wie andere Akteure. Ferner profitieren kommunale Unternehmen von einigen Wettbewerbsvorteilen, etwa hohen Vertrauenswerten ihrer Kunden und umfangreiches Know-how im Datenmanagement.

  13. A schema-based model of situation awareness: Implications for measuring situation awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fracker, Martin L.

    1988-01-01

    Measures of pilot situation awareness (SA) are needed in order to know whether new concepts in display design help pilots keep track of rapidly changing tactical situations. In order to measure SA, a theory of situation assessment is needed. Such a theory is summarized, encompassing both a definition of SA and a model of situation assessment. SA is defined as the pilot's knowledge about a zone of interest at a given level of abstraction. Pilots develop this knowledge by sampling data from the environment and matching the sampled data to knowledge structures stored in long-term memory. Matched knowledge structures then provide the pilot's assessment of the situation and serve to guide his attention. A number of cognitive biases that result from the knowledge matching process are discussed, as are implications for partial report measures of situation awareness.

  14. The Economics of van der Waals Force Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    As micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) fabrication continues on an ever-decreasing scale, new technological challenges must be successfully negotiated if Moore's Law is to be an even approximately valid model of the future of device miniaturization. Among the most significant obstacles is the existence of strong surface forces related to quantum mechanical van der Waals interatomic interactions, which rapidly diverge as the distance between any two neutral boundaries decreases. The van der Waals force is a contributing factor in several device failures and limitations, including, for instance, stiction and oscillator non-linearities. In the last decade, however, it has been conclusively shown that van der Waals forces are not just a MEMS limitation but can be engineered in both magnitude and sign so as to enable classes of proprietary inventions which either deliver novel capabilities or improve upon existing ones. The evolution of van der Waals force research from an almost exclusively theoretical field in quantum-electro-dynamics to an enabling nanotechnology discipline represents a useful example of the ongoing paradigm shift from government-centered to private-capital funded R&D in cutting-edge physics leading to potentially profitable products. In this paper, we discuss the reasons van der Waals force engineering may lead to the creation of thriving markets both in the short and medium terms by highlighting technical challenges that can be competitively addressed by this novel approach. We also discuss some notable obstacles to the cultural transformation of the academic research community required for the emergence of a functional van der Waals force engineering industry worldwide.

  15. B-Zell-Lymphome der Haut - Pathogenese, Diagnostik und Therapie.

    PubMed

    Nicolay, Jan P; Wobser, Marion

    2016-12-01

    Primär kutane B-Zell-Lymphome (PCBCL) beschreiben reifzellige lymphoproliferative Erkrankungen der B-Zell-Reihe, die primär die Haut betreffen. Die Biologie und der klinische Verlauf der einzelnen PCBCL-Subtypen variieren untereinander stark und unterscheiden sich grundsätzlich von primär nodalen und systemischen B-Zell-Lymphomen. Primär kutane Marginalzonenlymphome (PCMZL) und primäre kutane follikuläre Keimzentrumslymphome (PCFCL) werden auf Grund ihres unkomplizierten Verlaufs und ihrer exzellenten Prognose zu den indolenten PCBCL gezählt. Demgegenüber stellen die diffus großzelligen B-Zell-Lymphome, hauptsächlich vom Beintyp (DLBCL, LT) die aggressiveren PCBCL-Varianten mit schlechterer Prognose dar. Für die Ausbreitungsdiagnostik und die Therapieentscheidung sind eine genaue histologische und immunhistochemische Klassifizierung sowie der Ausschluss einer systemischen Beteiligung in Abgrenzung zu nodalen oder systemischen Lymphomen notwendig. Die Diagnostik sollte dabei durch molekularbiologische Untersuchungen unterstützt werden. Therapeutisch stehen für die indolenten PCBCL primär operative und radioonkologische Maßnahmen im Vordergrund sowie eine Systemtherapie mit dem CD20-Antikörper Rituximab bei disseminiertem Befall. Die aggressiveren Varianten sollten in erster Linie mit Kombinationen aus Rituximab und Polychemotherapieschemata wie z. B. dem CHOP-Schema oder Modifikationen davon behandelt werden. Auf Grund der in allen seinen Einzelheiten noch nicht vollständig verstandenen Pathogenese und Biologie sowie des begrenzten Therapiespektrums der PCBCL besteht hier, speziell beim DLBCL, LT, noch erheblicher Forschungsbedarf. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Situational Awareness Geospatial Application (iSAGA)

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, Benjamin

    Situational Awareness Geospatial Application (iSAGA) is a geospatial situational awareness software tool that uses an algorithm to extract location data from nearly any internet-based, or custom data source and display it geospatially; allows user-friendly conduct of spatial analysis using custom-developed tools; searches complex Geographic Information System (GIS) databases and accesses high resolution imagery. iSAGA has application at the federal, state and local levels of emergency response, consequence management, law enforcement, emergency operations and other decision makers as a tool to provide complete, visual, situational awareness using data feeds and tools selected by the individual agency or organization. Feeds may bemore » layered and custom tools developed to uniquely suit each subscribing agency or organization. iSAGA may similarly be applied to international agencies and organizations.« less

  17. Did You Know – Transactive Energy Provides the Next Big Step in DER Integration

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Thomas E.

    This is an invited blog article for the Utility Variable Generation Integration Group (UVIG) on the topic of distributed energy resource (DER) integration. Summarizes DER progress since 2004, which signifies a maturing industry. Proposes transactive energy as a means of integrating more DER without special incentives or mitigation techniques.

  18. Effective field theories for van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambilla, Nora; Shtabovenko, Vladyslav; Tarrús Castellà, Jaume; Vairo, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Van der Waals interactions between two neutral but polarizable systems at a separation R much larger than the typical size of the systems are at the core of a broad sweep of contemporary problems in settings ranging from atomic, molecular and condensed matter physics to strong interactions and gravity. In this paper, we reexamine the dispersive van der Waals interactions between two hydrogen atoms. The novelty of the analysis resides in the usage of nonrelativistic effective field theories of quantum electrodynamics. In this framework, the van der Waals potential acquires the meaning of a matching coefficient in an effective field theory, dubbed van der Waals effective field theory, suited to describe the low-energy dynamics of an atom pair. It may be computed systematically as a series in R times some typical atomic scale and in the fine-structure constant α . The van der Waals potential gets short-range contributions and radiative corrections, which we compute in dimensional regularization and renormalize here for the first time. Results are given in d space-time dimensions. One can distinguish among different regimes depending on the relative size between 1 /R and the typical atomic bound-state energy, which is of order m α2. Each regime is characterized by a specific hierarchy of scales and a corresponding tower of effective field theories. The short-distance regime is characterized by 1 /R ≫m α2 and the leading-order van der Waals potential is the London potential. We also compute next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order corrections. In the long-distance regime we have 1 /R ≪m α2. In this regime, the van der Waals potential contains contact terms, which are parametrically larger than the Casimir-Polder potential that describes the potential at large distances. In the effective field theory, the Casimir-Polder potential counts as a next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order effect. In the intermediate-distance regime, 1 /R ˜m α2, a significantly more complex

  19. Human-computer interaction in multitask situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Human-computer interaction in multitask decisionmaking situations is considered, and it is proposed that humans and computers have overlapping responsibilities. Queueing theory is employed to model this dynamic approach to the allocation of responsibility between human and computer. Results of simulation experiments are used to illustrate the effects of several system variables including number of tasks, mean time between arrivals of action-evoking events, human-computer speed mismatch, probability of computer error, probability of human error, and the level of feedback between human and computer. Current experimental efforts are discussed and the practical issues involved in designing human-computer systems for multitask situations are considered.

  20. [Labor monitoring in high-risk situations].

    PubMed

    Houfflin-Debarge, V; Closset, E; Deruelle, P

    2008-02-01

    Intrapartum asphyxia is increased in several situations such as intrauterine growth retardation, preterm labor, postdate pregnancy or maternal diabetes. In all these cases, fetal heart rate monitoring should be preferred to intermittent auscultation. Fetal scalp blood pH or lactates can be used to identify fetuses at risk of intrapartum asphyxia. However, fetal scalp blood sampling should not delay delivery in case of severe abnormal fetal heart rate as fetal asphyxia could occur rapidly in theses high-risk pregnancies. Data is insufficient to recommend fetal pulse oximetry or ECG analysis. Research should be undertaken to evaluate their performance in these situations.

  1. Comment: On the World's Energy Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouzminow, V. A.

    1979-01-01

    Reviewed, in this editorial, are the present world energy situation and estimates of the prospects of supplying mankind with the amount of energy necessary for future socioeconomic development. Stressed is the role of different energy sources in the present and future energy balance of the world. (BT)

  2. Situational Marketing: Application for Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Raymond E.; Reed, Rosetta R.

    1995-01-01

    Marketing higher education has been criticized for its consumer (interpreted as student) orientation. An alternative concept, situational marketing, considers the student as one of a number of environmental forces on which the marketing mix focuses. Other forces include funding and regulatory agencies, businesses, alumni, faculty, parents, the…

  3. Experiences with the Situation Approach in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Jurgen

    This paper relates the experiences of an early childhood professor from the Freie University of Berlin on a trip through East Asia to provide advice and assistance on the situational approach to preschool education. Impressions of the sociopolitical and educational environment and needs of Thailand, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, and…

  4. Situational and Social Factors in Leisure Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John R.

    This report examines the use of leisure time in North America. Some conclusions are as follows. Situational factors of association, frequency, location, and scheduling were found more highly correlated with the kinds of leisure chosen by adults than either census-data or immediate community variables. The type of activity is one significant…

  5. Evaluating Business School Undergraduates' Situation Analytical Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Ghee-Soon

    2002-01-01

    An instrument to test students' ability to analyze business situations was administered to 120 undergraduates. Level of study, achievement in business curriculum, and stress resilience were associated with test performance. Gender, age, family income, and high school results were not related to performance. (Contains 44 references.) (SK)

  6. Exploring Situated Ambiguity in Students' Entrepreneurial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubberød, Elin; Pettersen, Inger Beate

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Building on entrepreneurial learning research, the purpose of this paper is to argue that the students participating in foreign entrepreneurial education programmes can have realistic entrepreneurial learning experiences. This research addresses two specific questions: how situated ambiguity induced by a foreign culture may contribute to…

  7. A Typology of Relapse Promoting Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Saul

    Outcome data on smoking cessation has emphasized that most people have difficulty not in quitting smoking, but in maintaining cessation. An attempt was made to develop a more meaningful typology of relapse-promoting situations using a sample of 183 exsmokers who called a telephone hotline seeking help to stay away from cigarettes. Two higher order…

  8. 48 CFR 5.205 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... interest in potential R&D programs whenever market research does not produce a sufficient number of... PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Synopses of Proposed Contract Actions 5.205 Special situations. (a) Research and... subsequent solicitation. Advanced notices must be entitled “Research and Development Sources Sought” and...

  9. Prediction errors in wildland fire situation analyses.

    Treesearch

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Peter Noordijk

    2005-01-01

    Wildfires consume budgets and put the heat on fire managers to justify and control suppression costs. To determine the appropriate suppression strategy, land managers must conduct a wildland fire situation analysis (WFSA) when:A wildland fire is expected to or does escape initial attack,A wildland fire managed for resource benefits...

  10. Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Brandt, Summer L.; Bacon, Paige; Kraut, Josh; Nguyen, Jimmy; Minakata, Katsumi; Raza, Hamzah; Rozovski, David; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts. The Concepts varied in terms of the allocation of traffic avoidance responsibility between the pilot on the flight deck, the air traffic controllers, and a conflict resolution automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to fully handle the responsibility of weather avoidance and maintaining separation between ownship and surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, pilots were not responsible for traffic separation, but were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but conflict detection tools were disabled. In this concept pilots were dependent on ground based automation for conflict detection and resolution. Situation awareness of the pilots was measured using online probes. Results showed that individual situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that for conflict resolution tasks, situation awareness is improved when pilots remain in the decision-making loop.

  11. PROFESSIONAL AND CLIENT CHOICES IN CRITICAL SITUATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEVITON, GLORIA L.

    THIS REPORT DESCRIBES A STUDY OF PROFESSIONAL--CLIENT RELATIONSHIPS IN THE REHABILITATION OF THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED. THE PURPOSES WERE--(1) TO INVESTIGATE VIEWS HELD BY PROFESSIONALS AND CLIENTS ABOUT "CRITICAL SITUATIONS" STEMMING FROM A CLIENT'S DISABILITY, (2) TO DETERMINE CONDITIONS UNDERLYING THESE VIEWS, AND (3) TO PROVIDE HELPFUL…

  12. Children's Language Assessment--Situational Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Eva E.; And Others

    The Children's Language Assessment-Situational Tasks (CLA-ST) was developed to collect language samples within a normally operating classroom. The language is taken on a cassette tape recorder, which is placed at the foot of a small table. At this table, in a committee setting, four children are engaged with a teacher in an activity similar to…

  13. Antecedents and Consequences of Situational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Patall, Erika A.; Messersmith, Emily E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a growing body of research on situational interest (SI). Yet, we still know relatively little about how SI is supported in the classroom and the academic benefits of SI. Aim: The current study investigated (1) contextual antecedents of SI; (2) potential benefits of SI for academic outcomes; and (3) SI as a mediator of…

  14. 48 CFR 5.205 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Synopses of Proposed Contract Actions 5.205 Special situations. (a) Research and... interest in potential R&D programs whenever market research does not produce a sufficient number of... subsequent solicitation. Advanced notices must be entitled “Research and Development Sources Sought” and...

  15. 48 CFR 305.205 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... situations. (a) An OPDIV may issue an advance notice, entitled “Research and Development Sources Sought,” in Federal Business Opportunities (FedBizOpps), in accordance with the requirements of FAR 5.205(a). The... requirement. The notice is not intended to solicit technical, scientific, or business information for project...

  16. Situation Awareness Information Dominance & Information Warfare.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-02-01

    Information warfare and its primary objective of achieving information dominance over enemy forces have arisen as a major area of emphasis for future...military actions. The concept of information dominance and the issues involved in attaining it are explored through a model of situation awareness...directions for the development of systems to support the goal of information dominance can be established.

  17. Two Replicable Suppressor Situations in Personality Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulhus, Delroy L.; Robins, Richard W.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Tracy, Jessica L.

    2004-01-01

    Suppressor situations occur when the simultaneous inclusion of two predictors improves one or both validities. A common allegation is that suppressor effects rarely replicate and have little substantive import. We present substantive examples from two established research domains to counter this skepticism. In the first domain, we show how…

  18. Situation Report [--Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and Philippines].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This is a series of four situation reports prepared by the International Planned Parenthood Federation for informational and consultative purposes. The countries reported on are Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and the Philippines. Some of the latest statistical figures for each country are listed. They are area, population and growth rate, birth, death,…

  19. Biology-inspired Architecture for Situation Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Lodding, Kenneth N.; Olariu, Stephan; Wilson, Larry; Xin, Chunsheng

    2006-01-01

    Situation Management is a rapidly developing science combining new techniques for data collection with advanced methods of data fusion to facilitate the process leading to correct decisions prescribing action. Current research focuses on reducing increasing amounts of diverse data to knowledge used by decision makers and on reducing time between observations, decisions and actions. No new technology is more promising for increasing the diversity and fidelity of observations than sensor networks. However, current research on sensor networks concentrates on a centralized network architecture. We believe this trend will not realize the full potential of situation management. We propose a new architecture modeled after biological ecosystems where motes are autonomous and intelligent, yet cooperate with local neighborhoods. Providing a layered approach, they sense and act independently when possible, and cooperate with neighborhoods when necessary. The combination of their local actions results in global effects. While situation management research is currently dominated by military applications, advances envisioned for industrial and business applications have similar requirements. NASA has requirements for intelligent and autonomous systems in future missions that can benefit from advances in situation management. We describe requirements for the Integrated Vehicle Health Management program where our biology-inspired architecture provides a layered approach and decisions can be made at the proper level to improve safety, reduce costs, and improve efficiency in making diagnostic and prognostic assessments of the structural integrity, aerodynamic characteristics, and operation of aircraft.

  20. Situational Strategies for Self-Control

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Exercising self-control is often difficult, whether declining a drink in order to drive home safely, passing on the chocolate cake to stay on a diet, or ignoring text messages to finish reading an important paper. But enacting self-control isn’t always difficult, particularly when it takes the form of proactively choosing or changing situations in ways that weaken undesirable impulses or potentiate desirable ones. Examples of situational self-control include the partygoer who chooses a seat far from where drinks are being poured, the dieter who asks the waiter not to bring around the dessert cart, and the student who goes to the library without a cell phone. Using the process model of self-control, we argue that the full range of self-control strategies can be organized by considering the timeline of the developing tempting impulse. Because impulses tend to grow stronger over time, situational self-control strategies—which can nip a tempting impulse in the bud— may be especially effective in preventing undesirable action. Ironically, we may underappreciate situational self-control for the same reason it is so effective, namely that by manipulating our circumstances to advantage we are often able to minimize the in-the-moment experience of intrapsychic struggle typically associated with exercising self-control. The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting.—Sun Tzu, The Art of War PMID:26817725

  1. Intergroup Anxiety: A Person X Situation Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Thomas W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Offers a person X situation approach to the study of intergroup anxiety in which anxiety in intergroup encounters is viewed as a transaction between the individual and the environment. An individual difference measure of intergroup anxiety toward African Americans is developed. Presents studies assessing the scale's reliability and validity.…

  2. [Drawing with children in situations of war].

    PubMed

    Dozio, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    In situations of conflict, children are subjected to or witness acts of violence and traumatic events. In the care systems put in place in this context, drawing is an effective means of enabling children to express their emotions and favours a process of restoration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The State Fiscal Situation: The Lost Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors Association, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The fiscal condition of states deteriorated dramatically over the last two years because of the depth and length of the economic downturn, and state officials do not expect this situation to improve any time soon. Previous downturns have proven that the worst budget years for a state are the two years after the national recession is declared over.…

  4. Biological Analogs for Language Contact Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seliger, Herbert W.

    1977-01-01

    This article proposes that language contact can be best understood if the entire range of such situations from second language learning to evolution of dialects and creoles is studied within a framework analogical to the symbiosis of living organisms. Language contact is viewed in terms of dynamic evolutionary stages. (CHK)

  5. IMS/Satellite Situation Center report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Services planned by the Satellite Situation Center during the International Magnetospheric Study are briefly described. User requirements are emphasized. The following data are presented: orbital parameters for ISIS 2, ESRO 4, and HEOS 2; entry exit times for highly elliptical satellites; plots for highly elliptical earth satellites; and plots and flux tube intersection for low altitude satellites.

  6. 20 CFR 404.1058 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1058 Special situations. (a... as a home worker in a common-law employment relationship (see § 404.1007) count as wages regardless...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1058 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1058 Special situations. (a... as a home worker in a common-law employment relationship (see § 404.1007) count as wages regardless...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1058 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1058 Special situations. (a... as a home worker in a common-law employment relationship (see § 404.1007) count as wages regardless...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1058 - Special situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1058 Special situations. (a... as a home worker in a common-law employment relationship (see § 404.1007) count as wages regardless...

  10. The Role of the Situation in Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroom, Victor H.; Jago, Arthur G.

    2007-01-01

    Leadership depends on the situation. Few social scientists would dispute the validity of this statement. But the statement can be interpreted in many different ways, depending, at least in part, on what one means by leadership. This article begins with a definition of leadership and a brief description of 3 historically important theories of…

  11. Attaining Situational Understanding in the Space Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiff, B.; Foster, J.; McShane, W.; Simon, K.

    The information available today in the space domain consists primarily of basic positional, mission, and status data for ground and space based assets. This data provides a necessary, but not sufficient, basis for understanding the true situation of the overall space domain. Experts analyze this information, put it into context with other ongoing events, and then make assessments of the risks posed to allied assets. The potential for unknown, unexpected, and unprecedented situations to overwhelm this manual process is increasing as the number of space faring nations and orbiting objects increases. This paper describes a product family called iSpace that Lockheed has created, and continues to invest in, to help tackle the problems of attaining space information more timely, deriving deeper space situational understanding from the data, and integrating components and tools generated throughout the world-wide industry to contribute towards a comprehensive space solution. We will also update the group on iSpace’s usage in the USSTRATCOM Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Table Top Exercises (TTX), used to explore future SSA cooperation concepts and procedures among allied nations.

  12. The Sign Language Situation in Mali

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyst, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This article gives a first overview of the sign language situation in Mali and its capital, Bamako, located in the West African Sahel. Mali is a highly multilingual country with a significant incidence of deafness, for which meningitis appears to be the main cause, coupled with limited access to adequate health care. In comparison to neighboring…

  13. Situated Language Learning: Concept, Significance and Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a shift in language learning from the "acquisition" metaphor to the "participation" metaphor. This involves viewing learners as active constructors of knowledge who can collaborate together to create meaningful language learning situations and contextualised practices. Thus, this worksheet aims at exploring…

  14. Individual and Situational Influences on Men's Responses to Dating and Social Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Tim; Yeater, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    This study employed multilevel modeling to evaluate individual and situational influences on men's responses to hypothetical dating and social situations. Three hundred and fifty college men completed measures assessing their propensity for sexual aggression and provided written responses to 10 written vignettes, each of which was followed by four…

  15. Person/Situation Selection Research: The Problem of Identifying Salient Situational Dimensions. Research Report No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Benjamin

    The study was concerned with the persistent problem in conducting person/situation research--the identification of relevant dimensions or features of the situation. Since the usual strategy for discovering relevant perceptual dimension of organizational life is to ask organizational employees to respond to a set of predetermined questions, this…

  16. Situations in 140 Characters: Assessing Real-World Situations on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Serfass, David G.; Sherman, Ryne A.

    2015-01-01

    Over 20 million Tweets were used to study the psychological characteristics of real-world situations over the course of two weeks. Models for automatically and accurately scoring individual Tweets on the DIAMONDS dimensions of situations were developed. Stable daily and weekly fluctuations in the situations that people experience were identified. Predicted temporal trends were found, providing validation for this new method of situation assessment. On weekdays, Duty peaks in the midmorning and declines steadily thereafter while Sociality peeks in the evening. Negativity is highest during the workweek and lowest on the weekends. pOsitivity shows the opposite pattern. Additionally, gender and locational differences in the situations shared on Twitter are explored. Females share both more emotionally charged (pOsitive and Negative) situations, while no differences were found in the amount of Duty experienced by males and females. Differences in the situations shared from Rural and Urban areas were not found. Future applications of assessing situations using social media are discussed. PMID:26566125

  17. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL (1982-2002), MEDLINE (1990-2001), SPORT Discus (1949-2002), ERIC (1966-2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. DATA SYNTHESIS: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession.

  18. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. Data Sources: CINAHL (1982–2002), MEDLINE (1990–2001), SPORT Discus (1949–2002), ERIC (1966–2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. Data Synthesis: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. Conclusions/Recommendations: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession. PMID:12937555

  19. Van der Waals forces in pNRQED

    SciTech Connect

    Shtabovenko, Vladyslav

    2016-01-22

    We report on the calculation of electromagnetic van der Waals forces [1] between two hydrogen atoms using non-relativistic effective field theories (EFTs) of QED for large and small momentum transfers with respect to the intrinsic energy scale of the hydrogen atom. Our results reproduce the well known London and Casimir-Polder forces.

  20. van der Pauw's Theorem on Sheet Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The sheet resistance of a conducting material of uniform thickness is analogous to the resistivity of a solid material and provides a measure of electrical resistance. In 1958, L. J. van der Pauw found an effective method for computing sheet resistance that requires taking two electrical measurements from four points on the edge of a simply…

  1. Applying DER-CAM for IIT Microgrid Explansion Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Li, Zuyi; Wang, Jianhui

    The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is an economic and environmental model of customer DER adoption. This model has been in development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory since 2000. The objective of the model is to find optimal DER investments while minimizing total energy costs or carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, or achieving a weighted objective that simultaneously considers both criteria. The Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Microgrid project started in August 2008, and the majority of the project was completed in May 2013. IIT Microgrid, funded mostly by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy asmore » well as State and philanthropic contributions, empowers the campus consumers with the objective of establishing a smart microgrid that is highly reliable, economically viable, environmentally friendly, fuel-efficient, and resilient in extreme circumstances with a self-healing capability. In this project, we apply DER-CAM to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid. First, the load data, environmental data, utility data, and technology data for the IIT Microgrid are gathered and organized to follow the DER-CAM input requirements. Then, DERCAM is applied to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid for different cases, where different objectives in DER-CAM and different utility conditions are tested. Case 1 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with fixed utility rates and 100% electric utility availability. Case 2 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with real-time utility rates and 4 emergency weeks when the IIT Microgrid does not have access to the electric utility grid and has to operate in island mode. In Case 3, the utility rates are restored to fixed values and 100% electric utility availability is assumed, but a weighted multi-objective (Obj: a × costs + b × CO2 emissions, where a and b are weights for cost minimization and CO2 emissions minimization) is

  2. Satellite situation report, volume 33, number 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Satellite Situation Report is a listing of those satellites (objects) currently in orbit and those which have previously orbited the Earth. Some objects are too small or too far from the Earth's surface to be detected; therefore, the Satellite Situation Report does not include all manmade objects orbiting the Earth. Generally, satellites are classified as follows: (1) Payloads may contain one or more functioning or nonfunctioning experiments. Usually only the owners of the satellites know if the experiments are functioning, and there is no one source which indicates the operational status of all payloads and/or experiments. Payloads are normally the first listed in the Satellite Situation Report, i.e., 1982 087A, unless there are multiple payloads for the launch. In which case, the first objects cataloged are usually all payloads, unless a subsequent payload is later identified after objects other than payloads have been cataloged. (2) Platforms are used to support a payload while it is being placed into orbit. A platform may remain in orbit long after its purpose is served, usually longer than rocket bodies. It is usually the first object identified in the Satellite Situation Report listing after the payload(s), i.e., 1982 087B (when a platform is not used, the first object after the payload(s) is usually the rocket body). (3) Rocket bodies are used to place the payload and platform (if one is used) into orbit. Some launches may have more than one rocket body because of the payload weight or the type of orbit or experiment. Most rocket bodies decay within a short time after the payload (and platform) have achieved orbit. Rocket bodies are usually the third object listed in the Satellite Situation Report after the payload(s), i.e., 1982 087C. (4) Debris in orbit occurs when parts (nose cone shrouds, lens or hatch covers) are separated from the payload, when rocket bodies or payloads disintegrate or explode, or when objects are placed into free space from manned

  3. Ein Entscheidungsmodell zur Weitergabe persönlicher Daten im Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiblmaier, Horst

    In den vergangenen zwei Jahrzehnten wandelte sich das Internet von einer Spielwiese für technikbegeisterte Computerspezialisten zu einem vielseitig einsetzbaren weltweiten Netzwerk für Privatpersonen und Unternehmen. Maßgeblichen Anteil daran besaß die rasante Entwicklung des World Wide Web (WWW), das, durch die Möglichkeit multimediale Inhalte zu vermitteln, für einen großen Teil der Bevölkerung industrialisierter Länder zu einem wesentlichen Bestandteil des täglichen Lebens wurde. Dass diese Entwicklung noch lange nicht abgeschlossen ist, zeigt die derzeitige Diskussion zum Thema Web 2.0 bzw. 3.0. Waren es in den letzten Jahren die hohen Umsatzzuwächse im E-Commerce und multimedial gestaltete Webseiten in Kombination mit aufwändigen Applikationen, die für ständig steigende Nutzerzahlen im World Wide Web sorgten, so wird dieser Innovationsschub nunmehr durch eine Vielzahl von Anwendungen fortgesetzt, die sich durch die zunehmende Vernetzung der Nutzer untereinander auszeichnen.

  4. Re-Imagining "Bildung Zur Humanität": How I Developed the Dialogos Approach to Practical Philosophy through Action Inquiry Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helskog, Guro Hansen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an account of how I developed the Dialogos approach to practical philosophy through action inquiry research. The process of development is understood as a contribution to the reconstruction of the notion "Bildung zur Humanität" as an ideal in education. Core perspectives, traditions and purposes involved in the action…

  5. Situation Model for Situation-Aware Assistance of Dementia Patients in Outdoor Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Yordanova, Kristina; Koldrack, Philipp; Heine, Christina; Henkel, Ron; Martin, Mike; Teipel, Stefan; Kirste, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dementia impairs spatial orientation and route planning, thus often affecting the patient’s ability to move outdoors and maintain social activities. Situation-aware deliberative assistive technology devices (ATD) can substitute impaired cognitive function in order to maintain one’s level of social activity. To build such a system, one needs domain knowledge about the patient’s situation and needs. We call this collection of knowledge situation model. Objective: To construct a situation model for the outdoor mobility of people with dementia (PwD). The model serves two purposes: 1) as a knowledge base from which to build an ATD describing the mobility of PwD; and 2) as a codebook for the annotation of the recorded behavior. Methods: We perform systematic knowledge elicitation to obtain the relevant knowledge. The OBO Edit tool is used for implementing and validating the situation model. The model is evaluated by using it as a codebook for annotating the behavior of PwD during a mobility study and interrater agreement is computed. In addition, clinical experts perform manual evaluation and curation of the model. Results: The situation model consists of 101 concepts with 11 relation types between them. The results from the annotation showed substantial overlapping between two annotators (Cohen’s kappa of 0.61). Conclusion: The situation model is a first attempt to systematically collect and organize information related to the outdoor mobility of PwD for the purposes of situation-aware assistance. The model is the base for building an ATD able to provide situation-aware assistance and to potentially improve the quality of life of PwD. PMID:29060937

  6. Situation Awareness and Workload Measures for SAFOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe; Hart, Sandra G.; Allen, Ed (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The present research was conducted in support of the NASA Safe All-Weather Flight Operations for Rotorcraft (SAFOR) program. The purpose of the work was to investigate the utility of two measurement tools developed by the British Defense Evaluation Research Agency. These tools were a subjective workload assessment scale, the DRA Workload Scale (DRAWS), and a situation awareness measurement tool in which the crews self-evaluation of performance is compared against actual performance. These two measurement tools were evaluated in the context of a test of an innovative approach to alerting the crew by way of a helmet mounted display. The DRAWS was found to be usable, but it offered no advantages over extant scales, and it had only limited resolution. The performance self-evaluation metric of situation awareness was found to be highly effective.

  7. Gamification for Measuring Cyber Security Situational Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Best, Daniel M.; Manz, David O.

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. This paper describes how one regional competition, the PRCCDC, a participant in the national CCDC program, conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the annual competition for later analysis. The intent is to create an ongoing research agenda that expands on this current work and incorporatesmore » augmented cognition and gamification methods for measuring cybersecurity situational awareness under the stress of cyber attack.« less

  8. The role of the situation in leadership.

    PubMed

    Vroom, Victor H; Jago, Arthur G

    2007-01-01

    Leadership depends on the situation. Few social scientists would dispute the validity of this statement. But the statement can be interpreted in many different ways, depending, at least in part, on what one means by leadership. This article begins with a definition of leadership and a brief description of 3 historically important theories of leadership. The most recent of these, contingency theories, is argued to be most consistent with existing evidence and most relevant to professional practice. The Vroom, Yetton, and Jago contingency models of participation in decision making are described in depth, and their work provides the basis for identifying 3 distinct ways in which situational or contextual variables are relevant to both research on and the practice of leadership. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved)

  9. Situation Awareness of Onboard System Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreckenghost, Debra; Thronesbery, Carroll; Hudson, Mary Beth

    2005-01-01

    We have developed intelligent agent software for onboard system autonomy. Our approach is to provide control agents that automate crew and vehicle systems, and operations assistants that aid humans in working with these autonomous systems. We use the 3 Tier control architecture to develop the control agent software that automates system reconfiguration and routine fault management. We use the Distributed Collaboration and Interaction (DCI) System to develop the operations assistants that provide human services, including situation summarization, event notification, activity management, and support for manual commanding of autonomous system. In this paper we describe how the operations assistants aid situation awareness of the autonomous control agents. We also describe our evaluation of the DCI System to support control engineers during a ground test at Johnson Space Center (JSC) of the Post Processing System (PPS) for regenerative water recovery.

  10. Oceanic Situational Awareness Over the Pacific Corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the oceans impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the Pacific Ocean. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over oceans where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the Pacific Corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.

  11. Space Situational Awareness: Difficult, Expensive and Necessary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Senior Leader Perspective November–December 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 6 Space Situational Awareness Difficult, Expensive—and Necessary Dr...authors thank Gen William Shelton for his thoughtful and insightful comments. Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed or implied in the Journal ...permission. If it is reproduced, the Air and Space Power Journal requests a courtesy line. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188

  12. A Visual Language for Situational Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    listening. The arrival of the information age has delivered the ability to transfer larger volumes of data at far greater rates. Wireless digital... wireless infrastructure for use in large-scale events where domestic power and private wireless networks are overloaded or unavailable. States should...lacking by responders using ANSI INCITS 415 symbols sets.226 When combined with the power of a wireless network, a situational awareness metalanguage is

  13. Network Structures for Distributed Situation Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    name a few-can contribute to the study of DAI. Presumably, DAI will advance these fields as well by providing a modeling technology suitable for precise...moreover, current SA sys- tems are highly centralized and vulnerable. Technological advances in cheap sen- sors, microprocessors, packet radio...communications, and artificial intelligence offer promising alternatives for performing military surveillance in many situations. A new approach now being

  14. Understanding the Situation in the Urban Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-15

    second type of information, termed executable information, communciates a clearly understood vision of the operation and desired outcome after a decision...information necessary for the commander as situational awareness information which creates understanding and execution information which communciates a...technological advances yet to take place in such fields as computers or remotely controlled sensors, ൿ DOrner, 39. 56 Creveld, 265. 22 will be less opaque

  15. Preparedness for radiological emergency situations in Austria.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Manfred

    2012-02-01

    This article presents the Austrian system of emergency preparedness for nuclear and radiological emergency situations. It demonstrates, in particular, the legal basis, the roles and competencies of the competent authorities, international and bilateral conventions on early notification of nuclear accidents, the Austrian emergency plans, the Austrian radiation monitoring system, the operated prognosis and decision support systems and the results of an estimation of possible impacts of nuclear power plant disasters on Austria.

  16. Situations of car-to-pedestrian contact.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Hitosugi, Masahito; Takahashi, Kunio; Doi, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the severity of injuries and the number of pedestrian deaths in traffic accidents, active safety devices providing pedestrian detection are considered effective countermeasures. The features of car-to-pedestrian collisions need to be known in detail to develop such safety devices. Because information on real-world accidents is limited, this study investigated near-miss situations captured by drive recorders installed in passenger cars. We showed similarities of the contact situation between near-miss incidents and real-world fatal pedestrian accidents in Japan. We analyzed the near-miss incident data via video capturing pedestrians crossing the road in front of forward-moving cars. Using a video frame captured by a drive recorder, the time to collision (TTC) was calculated from the car velocity and the distance between the car and pedestrian at the moment that the pedestrian initially appeared. The average TTC in the cases where pedestrians were not using a pedestrian crossing was shorter than that in the cases where pedestrians were using a pedestrian crossing. The average TTC in the cases where pedestrians emerged from behind obstructions was shorter than that in the cases where drivers had unobstructed views of the pedestrians. We propose that the specifications of the safety device for pedestrian detection and automatic braking should reflect the severe approach situation for a pedestrian and car including the TTC observed for near-miss incidents.

  17. [Adolescents, risk situations and road safety].

    PubMed

    Meneses Falcón, Carmen; Gil García, Eugenia; Romo Avilés, Nuria

    2010-09-01

    Describe the risk behaviour relationships with road safety in adolescents. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Madrid and Andalusia Regions, representative samples. The sample included 3,612 in secondary school pupils from Madrid (n=1708) and Andalusia (n=1904). The survey was carried out during May and June 2007. The data collected included sociodemographic areas (age, sex, grade, father's profession, birth place, etc.) and risk situation and behaviour (risk behaviour as driver or passenger). 16.2% of the adolescents have been involved in a dangerous situation with motorcycles during the last year. 16.7% never use a helmet when riding a motorcycle and 62% do not wear one when riding a bicycle on the road; 17.4% frequently ride a motorcycle over the speed limit and 24.5% when driving a car. There are significant differences regarding sex, grade and region (Madrid or Andalusia). There are four factors which explain 62% of the variance: drug factor, speed factor, security factor and passenger factor. Two of these have twice the probability of having a dangerous situation when riding a motorcycle: drug factor (OR=1.96; 95% CI, 1.77-2.18) and the speed factor ((OR=2.13; 95% CI, 1.92-2.36). Adolescents in higher grades and living in Andalusia were less road safety conscious. This pattern should be taken into account when designing preventive actions in Road Safety Education. 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Big data for space situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Pugh, Mark; Sheaff, Carolyn; Raquepas, Joe; Rocci, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Recent advances in big data (BD) have focused research on the volume, velocity, veracity, and variety of data. These developments enable new opportunities in information management, visualization, machine learning, and information fusion that have potential implications for space situational awareness (SSA). In this paper, we explore some of these BD trends as applicable for SSA towards enhancing the space operating picture. The BD developments could increase in measures of performance and measures of effectiveness for future management of the space environment. The global SSA influences include resident space object (RSO) tracking and characterization, cyber protection, remote sensing, and information management. The local satellite awareness can benefit from space weather, health monitoring, and spectrum management for situation space understanding. One area in big data of importance to SSA is value - getting the correct data/information at the right time, which corresponds to SSA visualization for the operator. A SSA big data example is presented supporting disaster relief for space situation awareness, assessment, and understanding.

  19. Modifying Evaluations and Decisions in Risky Situations.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Antonio; Serra, Sara; Catena, Andrés; Cándido, Antonio; Megías, Alberto

    2016-09-20

    The main aim of this research was to investigate the decision making process in risky situations. We studied how different types of feedback on risky driving behaviors modulate risk evaluation and risk-taking. For a set of risky traffic situations, participants had to make evaluative judgments (judge the situation as risky or not) and urgent decisions (brake or not). In Experiment 1, participants received feedback with and without negative emotional content when they made risky behaviors. In Experiment 2 we investigated the independent effects of feedback and negative emotional stimuli. The results showed three important findings: First, urgent decisions were faster [F(1, 92) = 6.76, p = .01] and more cautious [F(1, 92) = 17.16, p < .001] than evaluative judgments. These results suggest that evaluative judgments of risk and actual risk-taking may not always coincide, and that they seem to be controlled by two different processing systems as proposed by dual process theories. Second, feedback made participants' responses even faster [F(1, 111) = 71.53, p < .001], allowing greater risk sensitivity [F(1, 111) = 22.12, p < .001] and skewing towards more cautious responses [F(1, 111) = 14.09, p < .001]. Finally, emotional stimuli had an effect only when they were presented as feedback. The results of this research increase our understanding of the processes involved in risky driving behavior and suggest efficient ways to control risk taking through the use of feedback.

  20. Zinc-Responsive Regulation of Alternative Ribosomal Protein Genes in Streptomyces coelicolor Involves Zur and σR▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Gillian A.; Pascoe, Ben; Kallifidas, Dimitris; Paget, Mark S. B.

    2007-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor contains paralogous versions of seven ribosomal proteins (S14, S18, L28, L31, L32, L33, and L36), which differ in their potential to bind structural zinc. The paralogues are termed C+ or C− on the basis of the presence or absence of putative cysteine ligands. Here, mutational studies suggest that the C− version of L31 can functionally replace its C+ paralogue only when expressed at an artificially elevated level. We show that the level of expression of four transcriptional units encoding C− proteins is elevated under conditions of zinc deprivation. Zur controls the expression of three transcriptional units (including rpmG2, rpmE2, rpmB2, rpsN2, rpmF2, and possibly rpsR2). Zur also controls the expression of the znuACB operon, which is predicted to encode a high-affinity zinc transport system. Surprisingly, the zinc-responsive control of the rpmG3-rpmJ2 operon is dictated by σR, a sigma factor that was previously shown to control the response to disulfide stress in S. coelicolor. The induction of σR activity during zinc limitation establishes an important link between thiol-disulfide metabolism and zinc homeostasis. PMID:17400736

  1. Zinc-responsive regulation of alternative ribosomal protein genes in Streptomyces coelicolor involves zur and sigmaR.

    PubMed

    Owen, Gillian A; Pascoe, Ben; Kallifidas, Dimitris; Paget, Mark S B

    2007-06-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor contains paralogous versions of seven ribosomal proteins (S14, S18, L28, L31, L32, L33, and L36), which differ in their potential to bind structural zinc. The paralogues are termed C(+) or C(-) on the basis of the presence or absence of putative cysteine ligands. Here, mutational studies suggest that the C(-) version of L31 can functionally replace its C(+) paralogue only when expressed at an artificially elevated level. We show that the level of expression of four transcriptional units encoding C(-) proteins is elevated under conditions of zinc deprivation. Zur controls the expression of three transcriptional units (including rpmG2, rpmE2, rpmB2, rpsN2, rpmF2, and possibly rpsR2). Zur also controls the expression of the znuACB operon, which is predicted to encode a high-affinity zinc transport system. Surprisingly, the zinc-responsive control of the rpmG3-rpmJ2 operon is dictated by sigma(R), a sigma factor that was previously shown to control the response to disulfide stress in S. coelicolor. The induction of sigma(R) activity during zinc limitation establishes an important link between thiol-disulfide metabolism and zinc homeostasis.

  2. Expression, purification and characterization of Der f 27, a new allergen from dermatophagoides farinae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jianli; Li, Meng; Liu, Yulin; Jiang, Congli; Wu, Yulan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Anjian; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    The house dust mite (HDM), Dermatophagoidesfarinae (D. farina), is one of the most important indoor allergen sources and a major elicitor of allergic asthma; itscharacterization is important in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of mite allergen-relevant diseases. This study aims to characterize a novel allergen, the D. farinae-derived serpin (Der f 27). In this study, the total RNA of D. farinae was extracted, and the Der f 27 gene was cloned and expressed. The allergenicity of recombinant Der f 27 protein was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western-blotting with the sera of asthma patients, and skin prick test (SPT) in allergic human subjects. A r-Der f 27 allergic asthma mouse model was established. The cloned Der f 27 gene has been presented at the Gene Bank with an accession number of KM009995. The IgE levels of r-Der f 27 in the serum from r-Der f 27 SPT positive allergic patients were 3 folds more than healthy subjects. The Der f 27 SPT positive ratewas 42.1% in 19 DM-SPT positive patients. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE, and levels of interleukin-4 in the spleen cell culture supernatant were significantly increased in allergic asthma mice sensitized to r-Der f 27. In conclusion, Der f 27 is a new subtype of house mite allergen. PMID:26328010

  3. Zu einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie des Lernens und Lehrens der biologischen Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, Anita

    Der Zweck dieser Studie (zwecks Überblick siehe dazu Abb. 9.1) war zu untersuchen, wie die Schüler der Sekundarstufe II ein Verständnis von der Theorie der biologischen Evolution entwickeln. Vom Ausgangspunkt "Vorurteile der Schüler“ ausgehend wurden Unterrichtssequenzen entwickelt und drei verschiedene Lernexperimente in einem zyklischen Prozess durchgeführt. Das Wissen der Schüler wurde vor, während und nach den Unterrichtssequenzen mit Hilfe von schriftlichen Tests, Interviews und Diskussionsrunden in kleinen Gruppen abgefragt. Etwa 80 % der Schüler hatten vor dem Unterricht alternative Vorstellungen von Evolution, und in dem Nachfolgetest erreichten circa 75 % ein wissenschaftliches Niveau. Die Argumentation der Schüler in den verschiedenen Tests wurde sorgfältig unter Rücksichtnahme auf Vorurteile, der konzeptionellen Struktur der Theorie der Evolution und den Zielen des Unterrichts analysiert. Daraus konnten Einsichten in solche Anforderungen an Lehren und Lernen gewonnen werden, die Herausforderungen an Schüler und Lehrer darstellen, wenn sie anfangen, evolutionäre Biologie zu lernen oder zu lehren. Ein wichtiges Ergebnis war, dass das Verständnis existierender Variation in einer Population der Schlüssel zum Verständnis von natürlicher Selektion ist. Die Ergebnisse sind in einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie zusammengefasst, welche aus drei verschiedenen Aspekten besteht: 1) den inhaltsspezifischen Aspekten, die einzigartig für jedes wissenschaftliche Feld sind; 2) den Aspekten, die die Natur der Wissenschaft betreffen; und 3) den allgemeinen Aspekten. Diese Theorie kann in neuen Experimenten getestet und weiter entwickelt werden.

  4. Romanistik ohne Latein? Zu einer Empfehlung der Konferenz der Romanischen Seminare (Romance Studies without Latin? On a Recommendation from the Conference of Romance Seminars)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumeister, Sebastian

    1973-01-01

    Reaction to a February 19, 1972 recommendation of the Konferenz der Romanischen Seminare der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und West-Berlins in Deutschen Romanistenverband'' (Conference of Romance Seminars of the Federal Republic of Germany and West Berlin of the German Association of Romance Philologists) to discontinue the Latin prerequisite for…

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) DERS-6 & DERS-5- Revised (in an Iranian Clinical Sample.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Mina

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity and reliability of the two forms of the Persian version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS-6 & DERS-5-revised) in a clinical sample. The clinical sample consisted of 181 patients diagnosed with Functional GI Disorders (FGID) who referred to the digestive psychosomatic clinic in Isfahan in 2012. They were selected by census method (In a given period of time). The Persian version of the DERS, the short form of the DASS, and the TAS-20 were used to collect data. The results of the factor structure or construct validity using principal components analysis with varimax rotation recognized 7 factors for the DERS-6 (Goals, Awarness, Impalse, Non Acceptance, Strategy, Clarity, Recognition), and 6 factors for the DERS-5- revised (Non Acceptance, Goals, Impalse, Strategy, Clarity, Recognition) in the clinical sample. They showed the common variance of 59.51% and 59.15%, respectively. Also, the results showed that the concurrent validity of both forms of the DERS and most of their factors, and their reliability in terms of Cronbach-Alpha were favorable. Considering the factor structure and favorable psychometric properties of the two scales of DERS-6 & DERS-5-revised, the scales can be used in clinical samples.

  6. 7 CFR 3431.5 - Solicitation of veterinarian shortage situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Solicitation of veterinarian shortage situations... Shortage Situations § 3431.5 Solicitation of veterinarian shortage situations. (a) General. The Secretary will follow the procedures described in this part to solicit veterinarian shortage situations as the...

  7. 7 CFR 3431.5 - Solicitation of veterinarian shortage situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Solicitation of veterinarian shortage situations... Shortage Situations § 3431.5 Solicitation of veterinarian shortage situations. (a) General. The Secretary will follow the procedures described in this part to solicit veterinarian shortage situations as the...

  8. 7 CFR 3431.5 - Solicitation of veterinarian shortage situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Solicitation of veterinarian shortage situations... Shortage Situations § 3431.5 Solicitation of veterinarian shortage situations. (a) General. The Secretary will follow the procedures described in this part to solicit veterinarian shortage situations as the...

  9. 21 CFR 290.10 - Definition of emergency situation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of emergency situation. 290.10 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL CONTROLLED DRUGS General Provisions § 290.10 Definition of emergency situation. For the... Controlled Substances Act, the term emergency situation means those situations in which the prescribing...

  10. Resource Management in Constrained Dynamic Situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seok, Jinwoo

    Resource management is considered in this dissertation for systems with limited resources, possibly combined with other system constraints, in unpredictably dynamic environments. Resources may represent fuel, power, capabilities, energy, and so on. Resource management is important for many practical systems; usually, resources are limited, and their use must be optimized. Furthermore, systems are often constrained, and constraints must be satisfied for safe operation. Simplistic resource management can result in poor use of resources and failure of the system. Furthermore, many real-world situations involve dynamic environments. Many traditional problems are formulated based on the assumptions of given probabilities or perfect knowledge of future events. However, in many cases, the future is completely unknown, and information on or probabilities about future events are not available. In other words, we operate in unpredictably dynamic situations. Thus, a method is needed to handle dynamic situations without knowledge of the future, but few formal methods have been developed to address them. Thus, the goal is to design resource management methods for constrained systems, with limited resources, in unpredictably dynamic environments. To this end, resource management is organized hierarchically into two levels: 1) planning, and 2) control. In the planning level, the set of tasks to be performed is scheduled based on limited resources to maximize resource usage in unpredictably dynamic environments. In the control level, the system controller is designed to follow the schedule by considering all the system constraints for safe and efficient operation. Consequently, this dissertation is mainly divided into two parts: 1) planning level design, based on finite state machines, and 2) control level methods, based on model predictive control. We define a recomposable restricted finite state machine to handle limited resource situations and unpredictably dynamic environments

  11. Applying Cognitive Fusion to Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, S.; Shaw, M.; Chan, M.

    With recent increases in capability and frequency of rocket launches from countries across the world, maintaining a state-of-the-art Space Situational Awareness model is all the more necessary. We propose a fusion of real-time, natural language processing capability provided by IBM cognitive services with ground-based sensor data of positions and trajectories of satellites in all earth orbits. We believe such insight provided by cognitive services could help determine context to missile launches, help predict when a satellite of interest could be in danger, either by accident or by intent, and could alert interested parties to the perceived threat. We seek to implement an improved Space Situational Awareness model by developing a dynamic factor graph model informed by the fusion of ground-based ”structured” sensor data with ”unstructured” data from the public domain, such as news articles, blogs, and social media, in real time. To this end, we employ IBM’s Cognitive services, specifically, Watson Discovery. Watson Discovery allows real-time natural language processing of text including entity extraction, keyword search, taxonomy classification, concept tagging, relation extraction, sentiment analysis, and emotion analysis. We present various scenarios that demonstrate the utility of this new Space Situational Awareness model, each of which combine past structured information with related open source data. We demonstrate that should the model come to estimate a satellite is ”of interest”, it will indicate it as so, based on the most pertinent data, such as a reading from a sensor or by information available online. We present and discuss the most recent iterations of the model for satellites currently available on Space-Track.org.

  12. Cross-situational word learning in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Mirman, Daniel; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Martin, Nadine; Laine, Matti; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2017-08-01

    Human learners can resolve referential ambiguity and discover the relationships between words and meanings through a cross-situational learning (CSL) strategy. Some people with aphasia (PWA) can learn word-referent pairings under referential uncertainty supported by online feedback. However, it remains unknown whether PWA can learn new words cross-situationally and if such learning ability is supported by statistical learning (SL) mechanisms. The present study examined whether PWA can learn novel word-referent mappings in a CSL task without feedback. We also studied whether CSL is related to SL in PWA and neurologically healthy individuals. We further examined whether aphasia severity, phonological processing and verbal short-term memory (STM) predict CSL in aphasia, and also whether individual differences in verbal STM modulate CSL in healthy older adults. Sixteen people with chronic aphasia underwent a CSL task that involved exposure to a series of individually ambiguous learning trials and a SL task that taps speech segmentation. Their learning ability was compared to 18 older controls and 39 young adults recruited for task validation. CSL in the aphasia group was below the older controls and young adults and took place at a slower rate. Importantly, we found a strong association between SL and CSL performance in all three groups. CSL was modulated by aphasia severity in the aphasia group, and by verbal STM capacity in the older controls. Our findings indicate that some PWA can preserve the ability to learn new word-referent associations cross-situationally. We suggest that both PWA and neurologically intact individuals may rely on SL mechanisms to achieve CSL and that verbal STM also influences CSL. These findings contribute to the ongoing debate on the cognitive mechanisms underlying this learning ability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Operating complex plants is an increasingly demanding task for human operators. Diagnosis of and reaction to on-line events requires the interpretation of real time data. Vast amounts of sensor data as well as operational knowledge about the state and design of the plant are necessary to deduct reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator’s task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools for designing robust systems, the models become too complex when considering the interactions on a plant-wide level. The alarm systems meant to support human operators in the diagnosis of the plant-wide situation on the other hand fail regularly in situations where these interactions of systems lead to many related alarms overloading the operator with alarm floods. Functional modelling can provide a middle way to reduce the complexity of plant-wide models by abstracting from physical details to more general functions and behaviours. Based on functional models the propagation of failures through the interconnected systems can be inferred and alarm floods can potentially be reduced to their root-cause. However, the desired behaviour of a complex system changes due to operating procedures that require more than one physical and functional configuration. In this paper a consistent representation of possible configurations is deduced from the analysis of an exemplary start-up procedure by functional models. The proposed interpretation of the modelling concepts simplifies the functional modelling of distinct modes. The analysis further reveals relevant links between the quantitative sensor data and the qualitative perspective of the diagnostics tool based on functional models. This will form the basis for the ongoing development of a novel real-time diagnostics system based

  14. The Gravity of the Situation. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles; Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William

    2006-01-01

    Prolonged exposure in humans to a microgravity environment can lead to significant loss of bone and muscle mass, cardiovascular and sensory-motor deconditioning, and hormonal changes. These adaptive changes to weightlessness present a formidable obstacle to human exploration of space, particularly for missions requiring travel times of several months or more, such as on a trip to Mars. Countermeasures that address each of these body systems separately show only limited success. One possible remedy for this situation is artificial gravity, because it tackles all these systems across the board.

  15. [The European migration situation and its perspectives].

    PubMed

    Mesic, M

    1988-01-01

    "The present migration situation is analysed in regard to the labour market, the legal status of migrants, return flows and reintegration, and the position of second generation migrants.... In the second part of the paper the author attempts to discern the future of migration in Europe on the basis of existing demographic trends in Europe and the world, present trends [in] the labour market, and current technological changes. In this context he offers an outline for the Yugoslav migration perspective." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  16. Providing Situational Awareness for Pipeline Control Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butts, Jonathan; Kleinhans, Hugo; Chandia, Rodrigo; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    A SCADA system for a single 3,000-mile-long strand of oil or gas pipeline may employ several thousand field devices to measure process parameters and operate equipment. Because of the vital tasks performed by these sensors and actuators, pipeline operators need accurate and timely information about their status and integrity. This paper describes a realtime scanner that provides situational awareness about SCADA devices and control operations. The scanner, with the assistance of lightweight, distributed sensors, analyzes SCADA network traffic, verifies the operational status and integrity of field devices, and identifies anomalous activity. Experimental results obtained using real pipeline control traffic demonstrate the utility of the scanner in industrial settings.

  17. Assessing Situational Awareness in Task Force XXI.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    information dominance over the enemy and that units equipped with greater situational awareness will fight more successfully than units without the added capability. In an effort to test this hypothesis the Army conducted an Advanced Warfighter Experiment (AWE) which began at Ft. Hood, TX and culminated in a focused rotation at the National Training Center, Ft. Irwin, CA. Although many initiatives in the area of information dominance were tested in the AWE, the centerpiece of the program was a test case unit designated as Task Force Twenty-One (TF

  18. Location of geographical objects in crisis situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybansky, M.; Kratochvil, V.

    2014-02-01

    This article summarizes the various expressions of object positioning using different coordinate data and different methods, such as use of maps, exploiting the properties of digital Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) networks, Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS), Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), Inertial Measurement Systems (IMS), hybrid methods and non-contact (remote sensing) methods; all with varying level of accuracy. Furthermore, the article describes some geographical identifiers and verbal means to describe location of geographical objects such as settlements, rivers, forest, roads, etc. All of the location methods have some advantages and disadvantages, especially in emergency situations, when usually the crisis management has a lack of time in a decision process.

  19. Realizing situation awareness within a cyber environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadda, George; Salerno, John J.; Boulware, Douglas; Hinman, Michael; Gorton, Samuel

    2006-04-01

    Situation Awareness (SA) problems all require an understanding of current activities, an ability to anticipate what may happen next, and techniques to analyze the threat or impact of current activities and predictions. These processes of SA are common regardless of the domain and can be applied to the detection of cyber attacks. This paper will describe the application of a SA framework to implementing Cyber SA, describe some metrics for measuring and evaluating systems implementing Cyber SA, and discuss ongoing work in this area. We conclude with some ideas for future activities.

  20. Aqueous gating of van der Waals materials on bilayer nanopaper.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wenzhong; Fang, Zhiqiang; Wan, Jiayu; Dai, Jiaqi; Zhu, Hongli; Han, Xiaogang; Yang, Xiaofeng; Preston, Colin; Hu, Liangbing

    2014-10-28

    In this work, we report transistors made of van der Waals materials on a mesoporous paper with a smooth nanoscale surface. The aqueous transistor has a novel planar structure with source, drain, and gate electrodes on the same surface of the paper, while the mesoporous paper is used as an electrolyte reservoir. These transistors are enabled by an all-cellulose paper with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) on the top surface that leads to an excellent surface smoothness, while the rest of the microsized cellulose fibers can absorb electrolyte effectively. Based on two-dimensional van der Waals materials, including MoS2 and graphene, we demonstrate high-performance transistors with a large on-off ratio and low subthreshold swing. Such planar transistors with absorbed electrolyte gating can be used as sensors integrated with other components to form paper microfluidic systems. This study is significant for future paper-based electronics and biosensors.

  1. Accurate van der Waals coefficients from density functional theory

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jianmin; Perdew, John P.; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn

    2012-01-01

    The van der Waals interaction is a weak, long-range correlation, arising from quantum electronic charge fluctuations. This interaction affects many properties of materials. A simple and yet accurate estimate of this effect will facilitate computer simulation of complex molecular materials and drug design. Here we develop a fast approach for accurate evaluation of dynamic multipole polarizabilities and van der Waals (vdW) coefficients of all orders from the electron density and static multipole polarizabilities of each atom or other spherical object, without empirical fitting. Our dynamic polarizabilities (dipole, quadrupole, octupole, etc.) are exact in the zero- and high-frequency limits, and exact at all frequencies for a metallic sphere of uniform density. Our theory predicts dynamic multipole polarizabilities in excellent agreement with more expensive many-body methods, and yields therefrom vdW coefficients C6, C8, C10 for atom pairs with a mean absolute relative error of only 3%. PMID:22205765

  2. Photovoltaic Effect in an Electrically Tunable van der Waals Heterojunction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor heterostructures form the cornerstone of many electronic and optoelectronic devices and are traditionally fabricated using epitaxial growth techniques. More recently, heterostructures have also been obtained by vertical stacking of two-dimensional crystals, such as graphene and related two-dimensional materials. These layered designer materials are held together by van der Waals forces and contain atomically sharp interfaces. Here, we report on a type-II van der Waals heterojunction made of molybdenum disulfide and tungsten diselenide monolayers. The junction is electrically tunable, and under appropriate gate bias an atomically thin diode is realized. Upon optical illumination, charge transfer occurs across the planar interface and the device exhibits a photovoltaic effect. Advances in large-scale production of two-dimensional crystals could thus lead to a new photovoltaic solar technology. PMID:25057817

  3. Van der Waals interaction mediated by an optically uniaxial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šarlah, A.; Žumer, S.

    2001-11-01

    We study the van der Waals interaction between macroscopic bodies separated by a thin anisotropic film with a uniaxial permittivity tensor. We describe the effect of anisotropy of the media on the magnitude and sign of the interaction. The resulting differences in the van der Waals interaction are especially important for the stability of strongly confined liquid crystals, and nanostructures characterized by highly uniaxial macroscopic molecular arrangement, such as in self-assemblies of long organic molecules forming films, membranes, colloids, etc. We introduce an improved expression for the Hamaker constant which takes into account the uniaxial symmetry of a medium. In special cases neglecting the optical anisotropy even leads to an incorrect sign of the interaction.

  4. Spin-Flavor van der Waals Forces and NN interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Alvaro Calle Cordon, Enrique Ruiz Arriola

    A major goal in Nuclear Physics is the derivation of the Nucleon-Nucleon (NN) interaction from Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In QCD the fundamental degrees of freedom are colored quarks and gluons which are confined to form colorless strongly interacting hadrons. Because of this the resulting nuclear forces at sufficiently large distances correspond to spin-flavor excitations, very much like the dipole excitations generating the van der Waals (vdW) forces acting between atoms. We study the Nucleon-Nucleon interaction in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation at second order in perturbation theory including the Delta resonance as an intermediate state. The potential resembles strongly chiral potentials computedmore » either via soliton models or chiral perturbation theory and has a van der Waals like singularity at short distances which is handled by means of renormalization techniques. Results for the deuteron are discussed.« less

  5. Strong van der Waals attractive forces in nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimers, Jeffrey

    The Dobson classification scheme for failure of London-like expressions for describing dispersion is reviewed. New ways to measure using STM data and calculate by first principles free energies of organic self-assembly processes from solution will be discussed, considering tetraalkylporphyrins on graphite. How strong van der Waals forces can compete against covalent bonding to produce new molecular isomers and reaction pathways will also be demonstrated, focusing on golds-sulfur bonds for sensors and stabilizing nanoparticles.

  6. Grippers Based on Opposing Van Der Waals Adhesive Pads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron (Inventor); Kennedy, Brett A. (Inventor); Heverly, Matthew C (Inventor); Cutkosky, Mark R. (Inventor); Hawkes, Elliot Wright (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Novel gripping structures based on van der Waals adhesive forces are disclosed. Pads covered with fibers can be activated in pairs by opposite forces, thereby enabling control of the adhesive force in an ON or OFF state. Pads can be used in groups, each comprising a group of opposite pads. The adhesive structures enable anchoring forces that can resist adverse forces from different directions. The adhesive structures can be used to enable the operation of robots on surfaces of space vehicles.

  7. EOS situational data shared service mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, L.; Xu, Q.; Lan, C. Z.; Shi, Q. S.; Lu, W. J.; Wu, W. Q.

    2016-11-01

    With the rapid development of aerospace and remote sensing technology, various high-resolution Earth Observation Systems (EOS) are widely used in economic, social, military and other fields and playing an increasingly prominent role in the construction of Digital Earth and national strategic planning. The normal operation of the system is the premise of high quality data acquisition. Compared with the ground observation mode, EOS itself and the surrounding environment are more complex, and its operation control mainly depends on all kinds of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data acquisition and analysis. SSA data has more extensive sources, larger volume, stronger time-effectiveness and more complicated structure than traditional geographical spatial data. For effective data sharing and utilization, combined with the analysis of data types and structures, a SSA data sharing identity language SSDSML is designed based on the extensible mark-up language XML, which realizes a comprehensive description of satellites and their attributes, space environment, ground stations, etc. Then EOS situational data shared service mechanism is established and provides a powerful data support for the normal operation of the system.

  8. Modeling Being "Lost": Imperfect Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Victor E.

    2011-01-01

    Being "lost" is an exemplar of imperfect Situation Awareness/Situation Understanding (SA/SU) -- information/knowledge that is uncertain, incomplete, and/or just wrong. Being "lost" may be a geo-spatial condition - not knowing/being wrong about where to go or how to get there. More broadly, being "lost" can serve as a metaphor for uncertainty and/or inaccuracy - not knowing/being wrong about how one fits into a larger world view, what one wants to do, or how to do it. This paper discusses using agent based modeling (ABM) to explore imperfect SA/SU, simulating geo-spatially "lost" intelligent agents trying to navigate in a virtual world. Each agent has a unique "mental map" -- its idiosyncratic view of its geo-spatial environment. Its decisions are based on this idiosyncratic view, but behavior outcomes are based on ground truth. Consequently, the rate and degree to which an agent's expectations diverge from ground truth provide measures of that agent's SA/SU.

  9. Biosimilars in Dermatology: Current Situation (Part I).

    PubMed

    Puig, L; Carretero, G; Daudén, E; Ferrándiz, C; Marrón, S E; Martorell, A; Pérez-Suárez, B; Rodriguez-Cerdeira, C; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Sánchez-Carazo, J L; Velasco, M

    2015-09-01

    The first biosimilar version of a biologic agent used to treat psoriasis (infliximab) entered the Spanish market on February 16 of this year, and more biosimilars can be expected to follow in the coming months and years. Logically, this new situation will have economic repercussions and alter prescribing patterns among dermatologists. In this article, we review regulatory issues related to the approval of biosimilars, with a particular focus on the situation in the European Union. We will examine analytical characterization studies and special considerations for clinical trials with biosimilars, and also look at several somewhat contentious issues, such as the extrapolation of indications, interchangeability, and automatic substitution. Finally, we will review the biosimilars with indications for psoriasis currently in the clinical development pipeline and assess their potential to offer comparable efficacy and safety to the reference product while contributing to the sustainability of the public health care system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic situation assessment and prediction (DSAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisti, Alex F.

    2003-09-01

    The face of war has changed. We no longer have the luxury of planning campaigns against a known enemy operating under a well-understood doctrine, using conventional weapons and rules of engagement; all in a well-charted region. Instead, today's Air Force faces new, unforeseen enemies, asymmetric combat situations and unconventional warfare (Chem/Bio, co-location of military assets near civilian facilities, etc.). At the same time, the emergence of new Air Force doctrinal notions (e.g., Global Strike Task Force, Effects-Based Operations, the desire to minimize or eliminate any collateral damage, etc.)- while propounding the benefits that can be expected with the adoption of such concepts - also impose many new technical and operational challenges. Furthermore, future mission/battle commanders will need to assimilate a tremendous glut of available information, and still be expected to make quick-response decisions - and to quantify the effects of those decisions - all in the face of uncertainty. All these factors translate to the need for dramatic improvements in the way we plan, rehearse, execute and dynamically assess the status of military campaigns. This paper addresses these crucial and revolutionary requirements through the pursuit of a new simulation paradigm that allows a user to perform real-time dynamic situation assessment and prediction.

  11. Geosynchronous Patrol Orbit for Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, B.; Kelecy, T.; Kubancik, T.; Flora, T.; Chylla, M.; Rose, D.

    Applying eccentricity to a geosynchronous orbit produces both longitudinal and radial motion when viewed in Earth-fixed coordinates. An interesting family of orbits emerges, useful for “neighborhood patrol” space situational awareness and other missions. The basic result is a periodic (daily), quasielliptical, closed path around a fixed region of the geosynchronous (geo) orbit belt, keeping a sensor spacecraft in relatively close vicinity to designated geo objects. The motion is similar, in some regards, to the relative motion that may be encountered during spacecraft proximity operations, but on a much larger scale. The patrol orbit does not occupy a fixed slot in the geo belt, and the east-west motion can be combined with north-south motion caused by orbital inclination, leading to even greater versatility. Some practical uses of the geo patrol orbit include space surveillance (including catalog maintenance), and general space situational awareness. The patrol orbit offers improved, diverse observation geometry for angles-only sensors, resulting in faster, more accurate orbit determination compared to simple inclined geo orbits. In this paper, we analyze the requirements for putting a spacecraft in a patrol orbit, the unique station keeping requirements to compensate for perturbations, repositioning the patrol orbit to a different location along the geo belt, maneuvering into, around, and out of the volume for proximity operations with objects within the volume, and safe end-of-life disposal requirements.

  12. Self-Aligned van der Waals Heterojunction Diodes and Transistors.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Vinod K; Beck, Megan E; Henning, Alex; Luo, Jiajia; Bergeron, Hadallia; Kang, Junmo; Balla, Itamar; Inbar, Hadass; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Hersam, Mark C

    2018-02-14

    A general self-aligned fabrication scheme is reported here for a diverse class of electronic devices based on van der Waals materials and heterojunctions. In particular, self-alignment enables the fabrication of source-gated transistors in monolayer MoS 2 with near-ideal current saturation characteristics and channel lengths down to 135 nm. Furthermore, self-alignment of van der Waals p-n heterojunction diodes achieves complete electrostatic control of both the p-type and n-type constituent semiconductors in a dual-gated geometry, resulting in gate-tunable mean and variance of antiambipolar Gaussian characteristics. Through finite-element device simulations, the operating principles of source-gated transistors and dual-gated antiambipolar devices are elucidated, thus providing design rules for additional devices that employ self-aligned geometries. For example, the versatility of this scheme is demonstrated via contact-doped MoS 2 homojunction diodes and mixed-dimensional heterojunctions based on organic semiconductors. The scalability of this approach is also shown by fabricating self-aligned short-channel transistors with subdiffraction channel lengths in the range of 150-800 nm using photolithography on large-area MoS 2 films grown by chemical vapor deposition. Overall, this self-aligned fabrication method represents an important step toward the scalable integration of van der Waals heterojunction devices into more sophisticated circuits and systems.

  13. Messen, Kalibrieren, Eichen in der Radiologie: Prinzipien und Praxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Siegfried R.

    Nach einleitender Erläuterung der unterschiedlichen Meßbedingungen in der Strahlentherapie und im Strahlenschutz werden die metrologischen Probleme am Beispiel der Größenkategorie Äquivalentdosis diskutiert. Als spezielle Größen werden effektive Äquivalentdosis und Umgebungs-Äquivalentdosis eingeführt. Es wird gezeigt, wie richtiges Messen durch ein konsistentes System von Bauartanforderungen an Meßgeräte, durch Kalibrieren und durch Eichen gewährleistet werden kann. Die Bedeutung von Meßunsicherheiten und Fehlergrenzen wird erläutert und ihre Auswirkung auf die Interpretation von Meßergebnissen behandelt.Translated AbstractMeasurements, Calibration, Verification in Radiology: Principles and PracticeThe different measuring conditions in radiotherapy and in radiation protection are discussed in the introduction. Then, the metrological problems are discussed exemplarily with the dose equivalent as a category of quantity. Effective dose equivalent and ambient dose equivalent are introduced as special quantities. It is demonstrated, how correct measurements can be secured by a consistent system of instrument pattern requirements, by calibration and verification. The importance of uncertainties of measurements and of error limits is illustrated and their influence on the interpretation of the results of measurements is treated.

  14. Digital map and situation surface: a team-oriented multidisplay workspace for network enabled situation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Geisler, Jürgen; Bader, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    System concepts for network enabled image-based ISR (intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance) is the major mission of Fraunhofer IITB's applied research in the area of defence and security solutions. For the TechDemo08 as part of the NATO CNAD POW Defence against terrorism Fraunhofer IITB advanced a new multi display concept to handle the shear amount and high complexity of ISR data acquired by networked, distributed surveillance systems with the objective to support the generation of a common situation picture. Amount and Complexity of ISR data demands an innovative man-machine interface concept for humans to deal with it. The IITB's concept is the Digital Map & Situation Surface. This concept offers to the user a coherent multi display environment combining a horizontal surface for the situation overview from the bird's eye view, an attached vertical display for collateral information and so-called foveatablets as personalized magic lenses in order to obtain high resolved and role-specific information about a focused areaof- interest and to interact with it. In the context of TechDemo08 the Digital Map & Situation Surface served as workspace for team-based situation visualization and analysis. Multiple sea- and landside surveillance components were connected to the system.

  15. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften> " Jahrgang 1987/88 Sitzungsber.Heidelberg 87/88 " Aktive Galaxien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsässer, Hans

    Die Aktivität von Galaxien ist eine relativ seltene und offenbar kurzlebige Erscheinung, die sich vor allem durch eine verstärkte Abstrahlung, oft über das ganze Spektrum hinweg, vom Röntgen- bis zum Radiobereich, bemerkbar macht. Dabei wird auf neue Befunde an Infrarotgalaxien eingegangen, die dafür sprechen, daß die gravitative Wechselwirkung zwischen Galaxien eine wesentliche Rolle spielt. Das Buch ist eine zusammenfassende Darstellung des heutigen Kenntnisstandes über "Aktive Galaxien", ein Thema, das gegenwärtig im Zentrum des astronomischen Interesses und der aktuellen Forschung steht. Nach einem Überblick über die seit längerem bekannten Phänomene und die Probleme ihrer Deutung wird auf neue, am Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie mit den Teleskopen der Calar Alto Sternwarte (Südspanien) gewonnene, Ergebnisse eingegangen.

  16. Resonance oscillations of nonreciprocal long-range van der Waals forces between atoms in electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherkunov, Yury

    2018-03-01

    We study theoretically the van der Waals interaction between two atoms out of equilibrium with an isotropic electromagnetic field. We demonstrate that at large interatomic separations, the van der Waals forces are resonant, spatially oscillating, and nonreciprocal due to resonance absorption and emission of virtual photons. We suggest that the van der Waals forces can be controlled and manipulated by tuning the spectrum of artificially created random light.

  17. A notable difference between ideal gas and infinite molar volume limit of van der Waals gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q. H.; Shen, Y.; Bai, R. L.; Wang, X.

    2010-05-01

    The van der Waals equation of state does not sufficiently represent a gas unless a thermodynamic potential with two proper and independent variables is simultaneously determined. The limiting procedures under which the behaviour of the van der Waals gas approaches that of an ideal gas are letting two van der Waals coefficients be zero rather than letting the molar volume become infinitely large; otherwise, the partial derivative of internal energy with respect to pressure at a fixed temperature does not vanish.

  18. Application of Diffusion Monte Carlo to Materials Dominated by van der Waals Interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Benali, Anouar; Shulenburger, Luke; Romero, Nichols A.; ...

    2014-06-12

    Van der Waals forces are notoriously difficult to account for from first principles. We perform extensive calculation to assess the usefulness and validity of diffusion quantum Monte Carlo when applied to van der Waals forces. We present results for noble gas solids and clusters - archetypical van der Waals dominated assemblies, as well as a relevant pi-pi stacking supramolecular complex: DNA + intercalating anti-cancer drug Ellipticine.

  19. USAF Academy Center for Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearborn, M.; Chun, F.; Liu, J.; Tippets, R.

    2011-09-01

    Since the days of Sputnik, the Air Force has maintained the surveillance of space and a position catalog of objects that can be tracked by primarily ground-based radars and optical systems. Recent events in space such as the test of the Chinese anti-satellite weapon in 2007 and the collision between an Iridium and Russian Cosmo satellite have demonstrated the great need to have a more comprehensive awareness of the situation in space. Hence space situational awareness (SSA) has become an increasingly important mission to the Air Force and to the security of the United States. To help meet the need for future leaders knowledgeable about SSA, the Air Force Academy formally stood up the Center for Space Situational Awareness (CSSAR). The goal of the CSSAR is to provide a unique combination of educational operational experience as well as a world-class research capability for hands-on education in SSA. In order to meet this goal, the CSSAR is implementing an array of sensors, operations center, and associated software, and analysis tools. For example we have radar receivers for bi-static returns from the VHF space fence, a network of small aperture telescopes, AFSPC astro standards software, and Joint Mission System software. This paper focuses on the observational capabilities of our telescopes. In general, the preferable method for characterizing a satellite is to obtain a high-resolution image. However, high-resolution images from groundbased telescopes are only achievable if the satellite is large and close in range. Thus small satellites in low-earth orbits and large satellites in geosynchronous orbits are essentially unresolved in the focal plane of a ground-based telescope. Building ever larger telescopes capable of tracking fast enough for satellites at high resolution requires tremendous resources and funding. Cost is one of the reasons we decided to develop a network of small, commercially available telescopes spatially diverse and networked together. We call

  20. Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model Plus (DER-CAM+), Version 1.0.0

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Cardorso, Goncalo; Mashayekh, Salman

    DER-CAM+ v1.0.0 is internally referred to as DER-CAM v5.0.0. Due to fundamental changes from previous versions, a new name (DER-CAM+) will be used for DER-CAM version 5.0.0 and above. DER-CAM+ is a Decision Support Tool for Decentralized Energy Systems that has been tailored for microgrid applications, and now explicitly considers electrical and thermal networks within a microgrid, ancillary services, and operating reserve. DER-CAM was initially created as an exclusively economic energy model, able to find the cost minimizing combination and operation profile of a set of DER technologies that meet energy loads of a building or microgrid for a typicalmore » test year. The previous versions of DER-CAM were formulated without modeling the electrical/thermal networks within the microgrid, and hence, used aggregate single-node approaches. Furthermore, they were not able to consider operating reserve constraints, and microgrid revenue streams from participating in ancillary services markets. This new version DER-CAM+ considers these issues by including electrical power flow and thermal flow equations and constraints in the microgrid, revenues from various ancillary services markets, and operating reserve constraints.« less

  1. Health promotion capacity mapping: the Korean situation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Eun Woo; Engelhardt, Katrin

    2007-06-01

    Ten years ago the Republic of Korea enacted the National Health Promotion Act, setting the stage for health promotion action in the country. A National Health Promotion Fund was established, financed through tobacco taxes, which is now one of the largest in the world. However, despite abundant financial resources, the infrastructure needed to plan, implement, coordinate and evaluate health promotion efforts is still underdeveloped. Currently, health promotion capacity mapping efforts are emerging in Korea. Two international capacity mapping tools have been used to assess the Korean situation, namely HP-Source and the Health Promotion Capacity Profile, which was developed prior to the sixth Global Conference of Health Promotion, held in August 2005 in Bangkok, Thailand. The article summarizes and discusses the results of the capacity mapping exercise, highlights its challenges and suggest ways to improve the accuracy of health promotion capacity mapping.

  2. [Current situation of acupuncture in New Zealand].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoji; Hu, Youping

    2017-04-12

    The beginning of TCM acupuncture in New Zealand dates back to the middle of 19th century. After self-improvement for more than 100 years, TCM acupuncture has gained a considerable development. From the perspective of history and current situation, the development of acupuncture in New Zealand was elaborated in this article; in addition, the sustainable development of acupuncture was discussed from the perspective of education and training. In New Zealand, the TCM acupuncture and dry needling have played a dominant role in acupuncture treatments, which are practiced by TCM practitioners and physical therapists. The TCM acupuncture is widely applied in department of internal medicine, surgery, gynecology, and pediatrics, etc., while the dry needling is li-mited for traumatology and pain disorder. Therefore, including TCM acupuncture into the public medical and educational system in New Zealand should be an essential policy of Ministry of Health to provide welfare for the people.

  3. Situation Awareness and Levels of Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.

    1999-01-01

    During the first year of this project, a taxonomy of theoretical levels of automation (LOAs) was applied to the advanced commercial aircraft by categorizing actual modes of McDonald Douglas MD-11 autoflight system operation in terms of the taxonomy. As well, high LOAs included in the taxonomy (e.g., supervisory control) were modeled in the context of MD-11 autoflight systems through development of a virtual flight simulator. The flight simulator was an integration of a re-configurable simulator developed by the Georgia Institute Technology and new software prototypes of autoflight system modules found in the MD-11 cockpit. In addition to this work, a version of the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) was developed for application to commercial piloting tasks. A software package was developed to deliver the SAGAT and was integrated with the virtual flight simulator.

  4. Infrared Imaging Sharpens View in Critical Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Innovative Engineering and Consulting (IEC) Infrared Systems, a leading developer of thermal imaging systems and night vision equipment, received a Glenn Alliance for Technology Exchange (GATE) award, half of which was in the form of additional NASA assistance for new product development. IEC Infrared Systems worked with electrical and optical engineers from Glenn's Diagnostics and Data Systems Branch to develop a commercial infrared imaging system that could differentiate the intensity of heat sources better than other commercial systems. The research resulted in two major thermal imaging solutions: NightStalkIR and IntrudIR Alert. These systems are being used in the United States and abroad to help locate personnel stranded in emergency situations, defend soldiers on the battlefield abroad, and protect high-value facilities and operations. The company is also applying its advanced thermal imaging techniques to medical and pharmaceutical product development with a Cleveland-based pharmaceutical company.

  5. Situating Cyberzone: Black lesbian identity in comics.

    PubMed

    Howard, Sheena C

    2018-04-25

    Cyberzone is a fitting place to start any discussion around Black lesbian identity in comics, as it is the first comic book that this researcher could find which features a Black lesbian female lead superheroine. Cyberzone was self-published by Jimmie Robinson in 1994 and later re-vamped into a mini-comic series called Amanda and Gunn with Image Comics. First, this article deconstructs Cyberzone through the lens of Cultural Prism Theory (CPT). Second, this article situates Cyberzone within the framework of CPT to address Cyberzone's place within the comic book ecosystem. Finally, this essay offers a close reading of Cyberzone, issues #1-#4, against the backdrop of the intersectional framework Black Queer Identity Matrix. During this process, the researcher demonstrates how Cyberzone is a powerful site of resistant cultural commentary.

  6. Cockpit System Situational Awareness Modeling Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, John; Lebiere, Christian; Shay, Rick; Latorella, Kara

    2004-01-01

    This project explored the possibility of predicting pilot situational awareness (SA) using human performance modeling techniques for the purpose of evaluating developing cockpit systems. The Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT) was combined with the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive modeling architecture to produce a tool that can model both the discrete tasks of pilots and the cognitive processes associated with SA. The techniques for using this tool to predict SA were demonstrated using the newly developed Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) system. By providing an SA prediction tool to cockpit system designers, cockpit concepts can be assessed early in the design process while providing a cost-effective complement to the traditional pilot-in-the-loop experiments and data collection techniques.

  7. Current Taxonomical Situation of Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Okura, Masatoshi; Osaki, Makoto; Nomoto, Ryohei; Arai, Sakura; Osawa, Ro; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Takamatsu, Daisuke

    2016-06-24

    Streptococcus suis, a major porcine pathogen and an important zoonotic agent, is considered to be composed of phenotypically and genetically diverse strains. However, recent studies reported several "S. suis-like strains" that were identified as S. suis by commonly used methods for the identification of this bacterium, but were regarded as distinct species from S. suis according to the standards of several taxonomic analyses. Furthermore, it has been suggested that some S. suis-like strains can be assigned to several novel species. In this review, we discuss the current taxonomical situation of S. suis with a focus on (1) the classification history of the taxon of S. suis; (2) S. suis-like strains revealed by taxonomic analyses; (3) methods for detecting and identifying this species, including a novel method that can distinguish S. suis isolates from S. suis-like strains; and (4) current topics on the reclassification of S. suis-like strains.

  8. Current Taxonomical Situation of Streptococcus suis

    PubMed Central

    Okura, Masatoshi; Osaki, Makoto; Nomoto, Ryohei; Arai, Sakura; Osawa, Ro; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Takamatsu, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis, a major porcine pathogen and an important zoonotic agent, is considered to be composed of phenotypically and genetically diverse strains. However, recent studies reported several “S. suis-like strains” that were identified as S. suis by commonly used methods for the identification of this bacterium, but were regarded as distinct species from S. suis according to the standards of several taxonomic analyses. Furthermore, it has been suggested that some S. suis-like strains can be assigned to several novel species. In this review, we discuss the current taxonomical situation of S. suis with a focus on (1) the classification history of the taxon of S. suis; (2) S. suis-like strains revealed by taxonomic analyses; (3) methods for detecting and identifying this species, including a novel method that can distinguish S. suis isolates from S. suis-like strains; and (4) current topics on the reclassification of S. suis-like strains. PMID:27348006

  9. Maritime Situational Awareness: The MARISS Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarit, G.; Tabasco, A.; Gomez, C.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents the operational solution developed by GMV to provide support to maritime situational awareness via Earth Observation (EO) technologies. The concept falls on integrating the information retrieved from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and transponder-based polls (AIS and similar) in an advanced GeoPortal web. The service has been designed in the framework of the MARISS project, a project conceived to help improving ship monitoring with the support of a large user segment. In this context, the interaction with official agencies has provided good feedback about system performance and its usefulness in supporting monitoring and surveillance tasks. Some representative samples are analyzed along the paper in order to validate key kernel utilities, such as ship and coastline detection, and ship classification. They justify the promotion of extended R&D activities to increase monitoring performance and to include advanced added- value tools, such as decision making and route tracking.

  10. Increasing Space Situational Awareness for NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, Daniel J. G. J.; Eggl, Siegfried; Thuillot, William

    2015-05-01

    Over the past years, Europe has strengthened its commitment to foster space situational awareness. Apart from the current efforts in tracking space weather, artificial satellites and space debris, Near Earth Asteroid threat assessment is a key task. NEOshield has been part of this European effort. We will give an overview over national projects and European programs with French participation such as PoDET, ESTERS, FRIPON, NEOShield, Gaia-FUN-SSO and Stardust. Future plans regarding Near Earth Object threat assessment and mitigation are described. The role of the IMCCE in this framework is discussed using the example of the post mitigation impact risk analyis of Gravity Tractor and Kinetic Impactor based asteroid deflection demonstration mission designs.

  11. [Applying situational leadership in emergency nursing].

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Grasiela; Galvão, Cristina Maria; Galvão, Maria Cristina

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the correspondence of opinions between nurses and nursing staff members who work at the emergency unit regarding the leadership style performed by nurses and the style nurses must adopt considering the maturity level of nursing staff members and the care provided at the unit. Situational Leadership was adopted as a theoretical reference framework. In order to achieve these goals, instruments were elaborated and applied to 24 research participants. Results demonstrated that the leadership style nurses most frequently perform was E3 (participating), and that nurses should adopt leadership style E4 (delegating) in view of the nursing staff's level of maturity, suggesting that staff members present a high level of maturity (M4).

  12. Situational Interest in Engineering Design Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonderup Dohn, Niels

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present mixed-method study was to investigate task-based situational interest of sixth grade students (n = 46), between 12 and 14 years old, during an eight-week engineering design programme in a Science & Technology-class. Students' interests were investigated by means of a descriptive interpretative analysis of qualitative data from classroom observations and informal interviews. The analysis was complemented by a self-report survey to validate findings and determine prevalence. The analysis revealed four main sources of interest: designing inventions, trial-and-error experimentation, achieved functionality of invention, and collaboration. These sources differ in terms of stimuli factors, such as novelty, autonomy (choice), social involvement, self-generation of interest, and task goal orientation. The study shows that design tasks stimulated interest, but only to the extent that students were able to self-regulate their learning strategies.

  13. Situational Awareness of Network System Roles (SANSR)

    SciTech Connect

    Huffer, Kelly M; Reed, Joel W

    In a large enterprise it is difficult for cyber security analysts to know what services and roles every machine on the network is performing (e.g., file server, domain name server, email server). Using network flow data, already collected by most enterprises, we developed a proof-of-concept tool that discovers the roles of a system using both clustering and categorization techniques. The tool's role information would allow cyber analysts to detect consequential changes in the network, initiate incident response plans, and optimize their security posture. The results of this proof-of-concept tool proved to be quite accurate on three real data sets. Wemore » will present the algorithms used in the tool, describe the results of preliminary testing, provide visualizations of the results, and discuss areas for future work. Without this kind of situational awareness, cyber analysts cannot quickly diagnose an attack or prioritize remedial actions.« less

  14. Knowledge-based public health situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Richesson, Rachel L.; Smith, Jack W.

    2004-09-01

    There have been numerous efforts to create comprehensive databases from multiple sources to monitor the dynamics of public health and most specifically to detect the potential threats of bioterrorism before widespread dissemination. But there are not many evidences for the assertion that these systems are timely and dependable, or can reliably identify man made from natural incident. One must evaluate the value of so called 'syndromic surveillance systems' along with the costs involved in design, development, implementation and maintenance of such systems and the costs involved in investigation of the inevitable false alarms1. In this article we will introduce a new perspective to the problem domain with a shift in paradigm from 'surveillance' toward 'awareness'. As we conceptualize a rather different approach to tackle the problem, we will introduce a different methodology in application of information science, computer science, cognitive science and human-computer interaction concepts in design and development of so called 'public health situation awareness systems'. We will share some of our design and implementation concepts for the prototype system that is under development in the Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research, in the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The system is based on a knowledgebase containing ontologies with different layers of abstraction, from multiple domains, that provide the context for information integration, knowledge discovery, interactive data mining, information visualization, information sharing and communications. The modular design of the knowledgebase and its knowledge representation formalism enables incremental evolution of the system from a partial system to a comprehensive knowledgebase of 'public health situation awareness' as it acquires new knowledge through interactions with domain experts or automatic discovery of new knowledge.

  15. The sanitation situation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ali, S

    1993-10-15

    In India, interviews with and observations of members of 100 households with a latrine were done in the towns of Satna and Khandwa, in Madhya Pradesh State, to examine the sanitation situation, to evaluate the maintenance and performance of the 2 pit pour-flush water seal (PF) latrines of poor households, and to recommend actions to improve the sanitation situation. The upper caste Hindus and Muslims tended to use the PF latrines, while the low caste Hindus tended not to use them. Few dry latrines existed in Satna. More than 75% of the households used the PF latrines, especially in Khandwa. The latrines generally were in disrepair, because more families did not receive either instruction or back-up latrine maintenance. Other apparent reasons for poor maintenance were limited water, illiteracy, limited knowledge of how the PF latrine works, poor construction, excreta adhering to the squatting pan, rain entering the leach pits through the squatting pan causing overflow of the pits contents, clogged outlets and Y-junctions, difficulty in emptying the pits, and collapsed brick drains. Children did not use the latrines in more than 50% of households were the latrines were used. Uncomfortable seats were the reason the children chose to defecate in the open. These findings led the author to recommend that the government adopt laws addressing sanitation in low-cost housing settlements, slums, and other areas. A PF latrine must be constructed for each new building. Dry or bucket latrines must be connected to sewers, if available. Leach pits must be constructed for converting latrines into PF latrines. There should be a ban on new dry or bucket latrines. The government should provide the local authorities the power to enforce these regulations. PF latrines should be free for the poor.

  16. Origine Historique de la Situation Linguistique Quebecoise (Historical Origins of the Language Situation in Quebec)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbeil, Jean Claude

    1976-01-01

    The language situation in Quebec is discussed from the point of view of the influence of the British conquest, the history of education in the province, the make-up of the working class, and the position of Quebec in the North American continent. (Text is in French.) (CDSH/CLK)

  17. In Defence of Situational Morality: Genetic, Dispositional and Situational Determinants of Children's Donating to Charity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Pannebakker, Fieke; Out, Dorothee

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we argue that moral behaviour is largely situation-specific. Genetic make-up, neurobiological factors, attachment security and rearing experiences have only limited influence on individual differences in moral performance. Moral behaviour does not develop in a linear and cumulative fashion and individual morality is not stable across…

  18. FAWKES Information Management for Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spetka, S.; Ramseyer, G.; Tucker, S.

    2010-09-01

    Current space situational awareness assets can be fully utilized by managing their inputs and outputs in real time. Ideally, sensors are tasked to perform specific functions to maximize their effectiveness. Many sensors are capable of collecting more data than is needed for a particular purpose, leading to the potential to enhance a sensor’s utilization by allowing it to be re-tasked in real time when it is determined that sufficient data has been acquired to meet the first task’s requirements. In addition, understanding a situation involving fast-traveling objects in space may require inputs from more than one sensor, leading to a need for information sharing in real time. Observations that are not processed in real time may be archived to support forensic analysis for accidents and for long-term studies. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) requires an extremely robust distributed software platform to appropriately manage the collection and distribution for both real-time decision-making as well as for analysis. FAWKES is being developed as a Joint Space Operations Center (JSPOC) Mission System (JMS) compliant implementation of the AFRL Phoenix information management architecture. It implements a pub/sub/archive/query (PSAQ) approach to communications designed for high performance applications. FAWKES provides an easy to use, reliable interface for structuring parallel processing, and is particularly well suited to the requirements of SSA. In addition to supporting point-to-point communications, it offers an elegant and robust implementation of collective communications, to scatter, gather and reduce values. A query capability is also supported that enhances reliability. Archived messages can be queried to re-create a computation or to selectively retrieve previous publications. PSAQ processes express their role in a computation by subscribing to their inputs and by publishing their results. Sensors on the edge can subscribe to inputs by appropriately authorized

  19. The Challenge of Aviation Emergency and Abnormal Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burian, Barbara K.; Barshi, Immanuel; Dismukes, Key

    2005-01-01

    Emergency and abnormal situations occur on flights everyday around the world. They range from minor situations readily managed to extremely serious and highly time-critical situations that deeply challenge the skills of even the most effective crews. How well crews respond to these situations is a function of several interacting sets of issues: (1) the design of non-normal procedures and checklists, (2) design of aircraft systems and automation, (3) specific aspects of the non-normal situation, such as time criticality and complexity of the situation, (4) human performance capabilities and cognitive limitations under high workload and stress, (5) design of training for non-normal situations, (6) philosophies, policies and practices within the industry, and (7) economic and regulatory constraints. Researchers and pilots working on NASA's Emergency and Abnormal Situations project are addressing these issues in a long-range study. In this paper we discuss these issues and illustrate them with examples from recent incidents and accidents.

  20. The Farm Credit Situation: Implications for Agricultural Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, J. Bruce

    1986-01-01

    Examines issues regarding current farm finance situation from a public policy perspective: origins and causes of current situation, available policy options for dealing with the problems, and impacts of policy options. (NEC)

  1. Situation awareness information requirements for en route air traffic control.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-12-01

    Situation awareness is presented as a fundamental requirement for effective air traffic control, forming the basis for controller decision making and performance. To develop a better understanding of the role of situation awareness in air traffic con...

  2. The drink driving situation in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, Luu Bich; Thieng, Nguyen Thi; Huong, Nguyen Lan

    2012-01-01

    To identify the extent and nature of the problem and the main contributing factors to drink driving crashes; determine the current mechanisms in place, particularly in terms of legislation and its enforcement; and identify baseline data and relevant stakeholders. The situational assessment was based on the collection of secondary data from available reports and documents, in-depth interviews with key representatives at a central level, and field surveys in provinces. Vietnam has experienced phenomenal growth in motor vehicles, especially motorcycles, in the last decade (400%). This initially led to an increase in deaths from road crashes, but since 2006 the number has stayed fairly level according to police statistics. However, comparisons with health data suggest that the number of deaths is much higher and there are clearly a number of problems with the relevant data systems. Data on the percentage of drivers exceeding legal limits are not available, but police statistics indicated that drinking alcohol was a contributory factor in 7 percent of motor vehicle crashes. This is likely to be an underestimate, because the police and health services do not have the equipment to measure the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels of all drivers in crashes. Motorcycle riders and young people are in the high-risk groups. There are strict BAC limits starting at over zero and severe punishments for drunk drivers involved in serious crashes. However, the police do not have adequate manpower or equipment to conduct regular and frequent roadside checking for drivers who have been drinking. There have also been a number of education programs on road safety including drinking and driving, but these have not included sustained and intensive campaigns targeting the high-risk groups. The National Traffic Safety Committee (NTSC) is responsible for coordinating the relevant agencies but there is still a problem with lack of information sharing between agencies. This study completed

  3. Sensitivity Analysis of Situational Awareness Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. J.; Davison, H. J.; Burdick, M. D.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A great deal of effort has been invested in attempts to define situational awareness, and subsequently to measure this construct. However, relatively less work has focused on the sensitivity of these measures to manipulations that affect the SA of the pilot. This investigation was designed to manipulate SA and examine the sensitivity of commonly used measures of SA. In this experiment, we tested the most commonly accepted measures of SA: SAGAT, objective performance measures, and SART, against different levels of SA manipulation to determine the sensitivity of such measures in the rotorcraft flight environment. SAGAT is a measure in which the simulation blanks in the middle of a trial and the pilot is asked specific, situation-relevant questions about the state of the aircraft or the objective of a particular maneuver. In this experiment, after the pilot responded verbally to several questions, the trial continued from the point frozen. SART is a post-trial questionnaire that asked for subjective SA ratings from the pilot at certain points in the previous flight. The objective performance measures included: contacts with hazards (power lines and towers) that impeded the flight path, lateral and vertical anticipation of these hazards, response time to detection of other air traffic, and response time until an aberrant fuel gauge was detected. An SA manipulation of the flight environment was chosen that undisputedly affects a pilot's SA-- visibility. Four variations of weather conditions (clear, light rain, haze, and fog) resulted in a different level of visibility for each trial. Pilot SA was measured by either SAGAT or the objective performance measures within each level of visibility. This enabled us to not only determine the sensitivity within a measure, but also between the measures. The SART questionnaire and the NASA-TLX, a measure of workload, were distributed after every trial. Using the newly developed rotorcraft part-task laboratory (RPTL) at NASA Ames

  4. Situated Learning in Adult Education. ERIC Digest No. 195.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, David

    In the situated learning approach, knowledge and skills are learned in contexts that reflect how knowledge is obtained and applied in everyday situations. As an instructional strategy, situated cognition is a means for relating subject matter to learners' needs and concerns. Four major premises guide the development of classroom activities for…

  5. Children's Comprehension Monitoring of Multiple Situational Dimensions of a Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassenburg, Stephanie I.; Beker, Katinka; van den Broek, Paul; van der Schoot, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Narratives typically consist of information on multiple aspects of a situation. In order to successfully create a coherent representation of the described situation, readers are required to monitor all these situational dimensions during reading. However, little is known about whether these dimensions differ in the ease with which they can be…

  6. 10 CFR 835.1302 - Emergency exposure situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency exposure situations. 835.1302 Section 835.1302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1302 Emergency exposure situations. (a) The risk of injury to those individuals involved in rescue and recovery...

  7. 10 CFR 835.1302 - Emergency exposure situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency exposure situations. 835.1302 Section 835.1302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1302 Emergency exposure situations. (a) The risk of injury to those individuals involved in rescue and recovery...

  8. 10 CFR 835.1302 - Emergency exposure situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency exposure situations. 835.1302 Section 835.1302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1302 Emergency exposure situations. (a) The risk of injury to those individuals involved in rescue and recovery...

  9. 10 CFR 835.1302 - Emergency exposure situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency exposure situations. 835.1302 Section 835.1302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1302 Emergency exposure situations. (a) The risk of injury to those individuals involved in rescue and recovery...

  10. 10 CFR 835.1302 - Emergency exposure situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency exposure situations. 835.1302 Section 835.1302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1302 Emergency exposure situations. (a) The risk of injury to those individuals involved in rescue and recovery...

  11. The Development of Situational Interest during a Digital Mathematics Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez-Aflecht, G.; Jaakkola, T.; Pongsakdi, N.; Hannula-Sormunen, M.; Brezovszky, B.; Lehtinen, E.

    2018-01-01

    The present study focused on 212 fifth graders' situational interest trajectories during an intervention with a digital mathematics game called Number Navigation. Our aims were to explore the development of situational interest whilst playing the game and to investigate the relationship between situational interest and individual math interest.…

  12. Reflective Questions, Self-Questioning and Managing Professionally Situated Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malthouse, Richard; Watts, Mike; Roffey-Barentsen, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    Reflective self-questioning arises within the workplace when people are confronted with professional problems and situations. This paper focuses on reflective and "situated reflective" questions in terms of self-questioning and professional workplace problem solving. In our view, the situational context, entailed by the setting, social…

  13. Characterizing Age-Related Positivity Effects in Situation Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Molly; Livingstone, Kimberly M.; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2018-01-01

    Situation selection--choosing to enter or avoid situations based on how they will likely make you feel--is theorized to be a useful emotion regulation strategy, especially in older age. However, research on the use of situation selection for emotion regulation is limited, and the existing findings about age differences are mixed, with some studies…

  14. Situational awareness of a coordinated cyber attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael

    2005-03-01

    As technology continues to advance, services and capabilities become computerized, and an ever increasing amount of business is conducted electronically the threat of cyber attacks gets compounded by the complexity of such attacks and the criticality of the information which must be secured. A new age of virtual warfare has dawned in which seconds can differentiate between the protection of vital information and/or services and a malicious attacker attaining their goal. In this paper we present a novel approach in the real-time detection of multistage coordinated cyber attacks and the promising initial testing results we have obtained. We introduce INFERD (INformation Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision-making), an adaptable information fusion engine which performs fusion at levels zero, one, and two to provide real-time situational assessment and its application to the cyber domain in the ECCARS (Event Correlation for Cyber Attack Recognition System) system. The advantages to our approach are fourfold: (1) The complexity of the attacks which we consider, (2) the level of abstraction in which the analyst interacts with the attack scenarios, (3) the speed at which the information fusion is presented and performed, and (4) our disregard for ad-hoc rules or a priori parameters.

  15. Guidelines for catastrophic emergency situations involving asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    These guidelines are intended to assist regional, state, and local agencies in managing potential asbestos hazards resulting from a catastrophic accident or disaster. The guidelines may be used as a reference for advanced planning or, once the emergency presents itself, to help ensure that, to the extent feasible and compatible with other emergency measures, all appropriate steps are taken to safely handle and dispose of all asbestos, while avoiding unnecessary exposures to asbestos. The guidelines provide information that may be helpful to EPA Regional offices and delegated NESHAP agencies that must respond to emergencies involving asbestos. The guidelines review themore » experiences of EPA Regional and state enforcement agencies in dealing with asbestos during recent emergencies. Information is included on statutes and regulations that may be applicable in emergency situations, including the emergency provisions of the asbestos NESHAP. Lines of communication within EPA and between EPA and emergency management agencies are discussed. A list of contacts responsible at the state level for emergency and disaster activities is provided. Information is provided to help identify potential sources of asbestos releases, and factors are identified that should be considered in planning for the cleanup and disposal of asbestos.« less

  16. Situational and dispositional determinants of intentional deceiving.

    PubMed

    Panasiti, Maria Serena; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Merla, Arcangelo; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2011-04-29

    Does opportunity make the thief or are people dispositionally prone to deceive? The interaction between personality and the circumstances surrounding deception is crucial to understand what promotes dishonesty in our society. Due to its inherent spontaneity and sociality, deceptive behaviour may be hardly reproducible in experimental settings. We developed a novel paradigm in the form of an interactive game where participants can choose whether to lie to another person in situations of loss vs. gain, and of no-reputation-risk vs. reputation-risk linked to the disclosure of their deceptive behaviour to others. Thus, our ecological paradigm allowed subjects to spontaneously decide when to lie and face the challenge of deceiving others. In the case of loss, participants lied to reverse the outcome in their favour. Deception was lower in the reputation-risk condition where personality traits concerning social interactions also played an important role. The results suggest that deception is definitely promoted by unfavourable events, and that maintaining one's own reputation encourages honesty, particularly in socially inclined individuals.

  17. Culture moderates children's responses to ostracism situations.

    PubMed

    Over, Harriet; Uskul, Ayse K

    2016-05-01

    Across a series of studies, we investigated cultural differences in children's responses to ostracism situations. Working with the children of farmers and herders, we focused on how painful children estimate ostracism to be. Study 1a showed that 4- to 8-year-old children from a socially interdependent farming community estimated ostracism to be less painful than did children from an independent herding community. Study 1b showed that this cultural difference was specific to social pain and did not apply to physical pain. Study 2 replicated the results of Study 1a and showed that individual differences in parents' level of social interdependence mediated the relationship between cultural group and how painful children estimate ostracism to be. Study 3 replicated this effect again and showed that children's tendency to recommend seeking social support following ostracism mediated the relationship between cultural group and the perceived pain of being excluded. Finally, Study 4 investigated cultural differences in moral responses to ostracism and showed that children from the farming community punished an individual who ostracized someone else less harshly than did children from the independent herding community. Thus different economic cultures are associated with striking differences in social interdependence and responses to ostracism from early in development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Australian Space Situational Awareness Capability Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morreale, B.; Bessell, T.; Rutten, M.; Cheung, B.

    Australia is increasing its contribution to the global space situational awareness (SSA) problem by committing to acquire and operate SSA sensors. Over the last year, a series of collaborative SSA experiments have been undertaken to demonstrate the capabilities of Australian sensors. These experiments aimed to demonstrate how existing Australian sensors could perform in a surveillance of space role, prove passive radar’s capability to observe low earth orbit (LEO) satellites and perform SSA handoffs to optical sensors. The trials established a data sharing and communications protocol that bridged defence, academia, and industry partners. Geographically dispersed optical assets, including the Falcon telescope in Canberra, Raven telescopes in Exmouth (Western Australia) and Defence Science and Technology (DST) Telescopes in Adelaide (South Australia) collected on LEO satellites and established cueing protocols. The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) located in Western Australia, demonstrated the capability of passive radar as an SSA asset after successfully observing LEO satellites based on reflected terrestrial radio signals. The combination of radar and optical SSA assets allows for the exploitation of each sensors unique advantages and locations across the Australian continent. This paper outlines the capabilities and diversity of Australian optical and radar sensors as demonstrated by field trials in 2016 and 2017. It suggests future potential for harnessing novel radar and optical integration techniques to supplement high-value assets such as the Space Surveillance Telescope as part of the Space Surveillance Network.

  19. Analysis of Potassium Superoxide/Kerosene Situation

    SciTech Connect

    J. S. Bullock

    2001-01-16

    A general picture of the processes that could occur in an initiated KO{sub 2}-kerosene reaction with excess kerosene and in contact with K metal has been created. A worst-case estimate of explosion of the dispersed kerosene overlayer has also been created, with a probable value of average pressure surge in the current storage room of less than 0.4 psi. more probable scenarios would put the peak value of pressure surge somewhat lower, with ignition of the K metal and burning of the excess kerosene at a rate between smooth burning and a slow deflagration. The enthalpy release from the combustionmore » of kerosene in this situation 9478,440 cal is much larger than that for the reaction between KO{sub 2} and kerosene (between 2346 and 4589 cal). Thus, kerosene combustion is potentially much more significant than the KO{sub 2} reaction and may provide 99.05 to 99.51% of the total energy of possible explosions. Hence, there is a good reason to separate bulk amounts of flammable or combustible hydrocarbons from explosive material. For this case, in the limit that absolutely all hydrocarbons were removed from the system, there should no longer be an explosive hazard.« less

  20. The Educational Situation Quality Model: Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Doménech-Betoret, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to present an educational model developed in recent years entitled the "The Educational Situation Quality Model" (MOCSE, acronym in Spanish). MOCSE can be defined as an instructional model that simultaneously considers the teaching-learning process, where motivation plays a central role. It explains the functioning of an educational setting by organizing and relating the most important variables which, according to the literature, contribute to student learning. Besides being a conceptual framework, this model also provides a methodological procedure to guide research and to promote reflection in the classroom. It allows teachers to implement effective research-action programs to improve teacher-students satisfaction and learning outcomes in the classroom context. This work explains the model's characteristics and functioning, recent advances, and how teachers can use it in an educational setting with a specific subject. This proposal integrates approaches from several relevant psycho-educational theories and introduces a new perspective into the existing literature that will allow researchers to make progress in studying educational setting functioning. The initial MOCSE configuration has been refined over time in accordance with the empirical results obtained from previous research, carried out within the MOCSE framework and with the subsequent reflections that derived from these results. Finally, the contribution of the model to improve learning outcomes and satisfaction, and its applicability in the classroom, are also discussed.

  1. Visual communication in the psychoanalytic situation.

    PubMed

    Kanzer, M

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between verbal and visual aspects of the analytic proceedings shows them blended integrally in the experiences of both patient and analyst and in contributing to the insights derived during the treatment. Areas in which the admixture of the verbal and visual occur are delineated. Awareness of the visual aspects gives substance to the operations of empathy, intuition, acting out, working through, etc. Some typical features of visual 'language" are noted and related to the analytic situation. As such they can be translated with the use of logic and consciousness on the analyst's part, not mere random eruptions of intuition. The original significance of dreams as a royal road to the unconscious is confirmed-but we also find in them insights to be derived with higher mental processes. Finally, dyadic aspects of the formation and aims of dreams during analysis are pointed out, with important implications for the analyst's own self-supervision of his techniques and 'real personality" and their effects upon the patient. how remarkable that Dora's dreams, all too belatedly teaching Freud about their transference implications, still have so much more to communicate that derives from his capacity to record faithfully observations he was not yet ready to explain.

  2. Creating Affording Situations: Coaching through Animate Objects

    PubMed Central

    Khattab, Ahmad; Russell, Martin; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Wing, Alan

    2017-01-01

    We explore the ways in which animate objects can be used to cue actions as part of coaching in Activities of Daily Living (ADL). In this case, changing the appearance or behavior of a physical object is intended to cue actions which are appropriate for a given context. The context is defined by the intention of the users, the state of the objects and the tasks for which these objects can be used. We present initial design prototypes and simple user trials which explore the impact of different cues on activity. It is shown that raising the handle of a jug, for example, not only cues the act of picking up the jug but also encourages use of the hand adjacent to the handle; that combinations of lights (on the objects) and auditory cues influence activity through reducing uncertainty; and that cueing can challenge pre-learned action sequences. We interpret these results in terms of the idea that the animate objects can be used to create affording situations, and discuss implications of this work to support relearning of ADL following brain damage or injury, such as might arise following a stroke. PMID:29019939

  3. Enhanced situational technologies applied to ship channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgeson, Michael A.; Wacker, Roger A.

    1997-06-01

    The Houston Ship Channel ranks as America's number one port in foreign tonnage by welcoming more than 50,000 cargo ships and barges annually. Locally 196,000 jobs, 5.5 billion dollars in business revenue and 213 million dollars in taxes are generated. Unfortunately, 32 days of each year vessel traffic stops for hours due to fog causing an estimated 40- 100 million dollars loss as ships idly wait in the channel for weather to clear. In addition, poor visibility has contributed to past vessel collisions which have resulted in channel closure, and associated damage to property and the environment. Today's imaging technology for synthetic vision systems and enhanced situational awareness systems offers a new solution to this problem. Whereas, typically these systems have been targeted at aircraft landing systems the channel navigation application provides a peripheral ground based market. This paper describes two imaging solutions to the problem. One using an active 35 GHz scanning radar and the other using a 94 GHz passive millimeter wave camera.

  4. Creating Affording Situations: Coaching through Animate Objects.

    PubMed

    Baber, Chris; Khattab, Ahmad; Russell, Martin; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Wing, Alan

    2017-10-11

    We explore the ways in which animate objects can be used to cue actions as part of coaching in Activities of Daily Living (ADL). In this case, changing the appearance or behavior of a physical object is intended to cue actions which are appropriate for a given context. The context is defined by the intention of the users, the state of the objects and the tasks for which these objects can be used. We present initial design prototypes and simple user trials which explore the impact of different cues on activity. It is shown that raising the handle of a jug, for example, not only cues the act of picking up the jug but also encourages use of the hand adjacent to the handle; that combinations of lights (on the objects) and auditory cues influence activity through reducing uncertainty; and that cueing can challenge pre-learned action sequences. We interpret these results in terms of the idea that the animate objects can be used to create affording situations, and discuss implications of this work to support relearning of ADL following brain damage or injury, such as might arise following a stroke.

  5. Situational awareness in public health preparedness settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Michea, Yanko F.; Zhang, Jiajie; Casscells, Samuel W.

    2005-05-01

    September 11 2001 attacks and following Anthrax mailings introduced emergent need for developing technologies that can distinguish between man made and natural incidents in the public health level. With this objective in mind, government agencies started a funding effort to foster the design, development and implementation of such systems on a wide scale. But the outcomes have not met the expectations set by the resources invested. Multiple elements explain this phenomenon: As it has been frequent with technology, introduction of new surveillance systems to the workflow equation has occurred without taking into consideration the need for understanding and inclusion of deeper personal, psychosocial, organizational and methodological concepts. The environment, in which these systems are operating, is complex, highly dynamic, uncertain, risky, and subject to intense time pressures. Such 'difficult' environments are very challenging to the human as a decision maker. In this paper we will challenge these systems from the perspective of human factors design. We will propose employment of systematic situational awareness research for design and implementation of the next generation public health preparedness infrastructures. We believe that systems designed based on results of such analytical definition of the domain enable public health practitioners to effectively collect the most important cues from the environment, process, interpret and understand the information in the context of organizational objectives and immediate tasks at hand, and use that understanding to forecast the short term and long term impact of the events in the safety and well being of the community.

  6. Enabling GEODSS for Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootton, S.

    2016-09-01

    The Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) System has been in operation since the mid-1980's. While GEODSS has been the Space Surveillance Network's (SSN's) workhorse in terms of deep space surveillance, it has not undergone a significant modernization since the 1990's. This means GEODSS continues to operate under a mostly obsolete, legacy data processing baseline. The System Program Office (SPO) responsible for GEODSS, SMC/SYGO, has a number of advanced Space Situational Awareness (SSA)-related efforts in progress, in the form of innovative optical capabilities, data processing algorithms, and hardware upgrades. Each of these efforts is in various stages of evaluation and acquisition. These advanced capabilities rely upon a modern computing environment in which to integrate, but GEODSS does not have one—yet. The SPO is also executing a Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) to modernize the various subsystems within GEODSS, along with a parallel effort to implement a complete, modern software re-architecture. The goal is to use a modern, service-based architecture to provide expedient integration as well as easier and more sustainable expansion. This presentation will describe these modernization efforts in more detail and discuss how adopting such modern paradigms and practices will help ensure the GEODSS system remains relevant and sustainable far beyond 2027.

  7. Current Situation of Medication Adherence in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Vrijens, Bernard; Antoniou, Sotiris; Burnier, Michel; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Volpe, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Despite increased awareness, poor adherence to treatments for chronic diseases remains a global problem. Adherence issues are common in patients taking antihypertensive therapy and associated with increased risks of coronary and cerebrovascular events. Whilst there has been a gradual trend toward improved control of hypertension, the number of patients with blood pressure values above goal has remained constant. This has both personal and economic consequences. Medication adherence is a multifaceted issue and consists of three components: initiation, implementation, and persistence. A combination of methods is recommended to measure adherence, with electronic monitoring and drug measurement being the most accurate. Pill burden, resulting from free combinations of blood pressure lowering treatments, makes the daily routine of medication taking complex, which can be a barrier to optimal adherence. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations simplify the habit of medication taking and improve medication adherence. Re-packing of medication is also being utilized as a method of improving adherence. This paper presents the outcomes of discussions by a European group of experts on the current situation of medication adherence in hypertension.

  8. International Collaboration in Space Weather Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boteler, David; Trichtchenko, Larisa; Danskin, Donald

    Space weather is a global phenomena so interntional collaboration is necessary to maintain awareness of potentially dangerous conditions. The Regional Warning Centres (RWCs) of the International Space Environment Service were set up during the International Geophysical Year to alert the scientific community to conditions requiring special measurements. The information sharing continues to this day with URSIGRAM messages exchanged between RWCs to help them produce space weather forecasts. Venturing into space, especially with manned missions, created a need to know about the space environment and particularly radiation dangers to man in space. Responding to this need led to the creation of a network of stations around the world to provide continuous monitoring of solar activity. Solar wind monitoring is now provided by the ACE satellite, operated by one country, but involving international collaborators to bring the information down in real time. Disturbances in the Earth's magnetic field are monitored by many magnetic observatories that are collaborating through INTERMAGNET to provide reliable data. Space weather produces effects on the ionosphere that can interfere with a variety of systems: the International GNSS Service provides information about effects on positioning systems, and the International Space Environment Service is providing information about iono-spheric absorption, particularly for trans-polar airline operations. The increasing availability of internet access, even at remote locations, is making it easier to obtain the raw information. The challenge now is how to integrate that information to provide effective international situational awareness of space weather.

  9. [The current situation surrounding pharmacies and pharmacists].

    PubMed

    Kushida, K

    1998-12-01

    As Japan's society continues to age, the Medical Insurance System has been substantially reviewed. As a result, 1. The medical care system has been separated from the custodial care system with the allocation of medical and custodial care insurance benefits. 2. The basis has been laid in terms of the legal provisions and the medical remuneration requirements for the establishment of a home care system. Amidst the major transformation of Japan's social order in the wake of these moves, the pharmacy and pharmacist are called upon to play a positive role in:1. Fostering the correct use of drugs through the sale of drugs and by filling prescriptions. 2. Assisting patients in self-medication. 3. Being involved in, and supporting, custodial medical care for the elderly and home care. While some 9,000 pharmacists join the profession each year, the situation regarding the training of pharmacists is marked by a serious dilemma between the demand for pharmacists as a medical resource and the practical conditions for obtaining the qualifications of a pharmacist. The system for training pharmacists is about to enter a new era with the review of the university and graduate school courses and the introduction of clinical training in the course. These changes are expected to produce very positive results.

  10. Grounding explanations in evolving, diagnostic situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannesen, Leila J.; Cook, Richard I.; Woods, David D.

    1994-01-01

    Certain fields of practice involve the management and control of complex dynamic systems. These include flight deck operations in commercial aviation, control of space systems, anesthetic management during surgery or chemical or nuclear process control. Fault diagnosis of these dynamic systems generally must occur with the monitored process on-line and in conjunction with maintaining system integrity.This research seeks to understand in more detail what it means for an intelligent system to function cooperatively, or as a 'team player' in complex, dynamic environments. The approach taken was to study human practitioners engaged in the management of a complex, dynamic process: anesthesiologists during neurosurgical operations. The investigation focused on understanding how team members cooperate in management and fault diagnosis and comparing this interaction to the situation with an Artificial Intelligence(AI) system that provides diagnoses and explanations. Of particular concern was to study the ways in which practitioners support one another in keeping aware of relevant information concerning the state of the monitored process and of the problem solving process.

  11. Students’ Creativity: Problem Posing in Structured Situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalina, I. K.; Amirudin, M.; Budiarto, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    This is a qualitative research concerning on students’ creativity on problem posing task. The study aimed at describing the students’ creative thinking ability to pose the mathematics problem in structured situations with varied condition of given problems. In order to find out the students’ creative thinking ability, an analysis of mathematics problem posing test based on fluency, novelty, and flexibility and interview was applied for categorizing students’ responses on that task. The data analysis used the quality of problem posing and categorized in 4 level of creativity. The results revealed from 29 secondary students grade 8, a student in CTL (Creative Thinking Level) 1 met the fluency. A student in CTL 2 met the novelty, while a student in CTL 3 met both fluency and novelty and no one in CTL 4. These results are affected by students’ mathematical experience. The findings of this study highlight that student’s problem posing creativity are dependent on their experience in mathematics learning and from the point of view of which students start to pose problem.

  12. The Educational Situation Quality Model: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Doménech-Betoret, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to present an educational model developed in recent years entitled the “The Educational Situation Quality Model” (MOCSE, acronym in Spanish). MOCSE can be defined as an instructional model that simultaneously considers the teaching-learning process, where motivation plays a central role. It explains the functioning of an educational setting by organizing and relating the most important variables which, according to the literature, contribute to student learning. Besides being a conceptual framework, this model also provides a methodological procedure to guide research and to promote reflection in the classroom. It allows teachers to implement effective research-action programs to improve teacher–students satisfaction and learning outcomes in the classroom context. This work explains the model’s characteristics and functioning, recent advances, and how teachers can use it in an educational setting with a specific subject. This proposal integrates approaches from several relevant psycho-educational theories and introduces a new perspective into the existing literature that will allow researchers to make progress in studying educational setting functioning. The initial MOCSE configuration has been refined over time in accordance with the empirical results obtained from previous research, carried out within the MOCSE framework and with the subsequent reflections that derived from these results. Finally, the contribution of the model to improve learning outcomes and satisfaction, and its applicability in the classroom, are also discussed. PMID:29593623

  13. Competition and Sensemaking in Ethical Situations.

    PubMed

    Caughron, Jay J; Antes, Alison L; Stenmark, Cheryl K; Thiel, Chaise E; Wang, Xiaoqian; Mumford, Michael D

    2013-07-01

    Intra-organizational competition was examined in relation to ethicality. The effect of a competitor being an in-group versus and out-group member, competitor offering uncorroborated or corroborated information, and the impact of the competitor expressing selfish, pro-group, or pro-organizational level goals were examined. Findings suggest that the way competition is presented has an important influence on how well individuals are able to make sense of an ethically ambiguous situation and render an ethical decision. A main effect for information sharing was found, such that when a competitor offers uncorroborated information participants made less ethical decisions and used pro-ethical reasoning strategies less often. An additional main effect was found suggesting that participants made more ethical decisions when working with an in-group competitor rather than an out-group competitor. Complex interactive effects were also found and discussed suggesting that pro-ethical reasoning strategies may be used less often depending on information corroboration, the competitor's relative group membership status, and the motives expressed by the competitor.

  14. Competition and Sensemaking in Ethical Situations

    PubMed Central

    Caughron, Jay J.; Antes, Alison L.; Stenmark, Cheryl K.; Thiel, Chaise E.; Wang, Xiaoqian; Mumford, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Intra-organizational competition was examined in relation to ethicality. The effect of a competitor being an in-group versus and out-group member, competitor offering uncorroborated or corroborated information, and the impact of the competitor expressing selfish, pro-group, or pro-organizational level goals were examined. Findings suggest that the way competition is presented has an important influence on how well individuals are able to make sense of an ethically ambiguous situation and render an ethical decision. A main effect for information sharing was found, such that when a competitor offers uncorroborated information participants made less ethical decisions and used pro-ethical reasoning strategies less often. An additional main effect was found suggesting that participants made more ethical decisions when working with an in-group competitor rather than an out-group competitor. Complex interactive effects were also found and discussed suggesting that pro-ethical reasoning strategies may be used less often depending on information corroboration, the competitor’s relative group membership status, and the motives expressed by the competitor. PMID:26778850

  15. Cyber situational awareness and differential hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Anurag; Tebben, Dan

    2012-06-01

    The advent of cyber threats has created a need for a new network planning, design, architecture, operations, control, situational awareness, management, and maintenance paradigms. Primary considerations include the ability to assess cyber attack resiliency of the network, and rapidly detect, isolate, and operate during deliberate simultaneous attacks against the network nodes and links. Legacy network planning relied on automatic protection of a network in the event of a single fault or a very few simultaneous faults in mesh networks, but in the future it must be augmented to include improved network resiliency and vulnerability awareness to cyber attacks. Ability to design a resilient network requires the development of methods to define, and quantify the network resiliency to attacks, and to be able to develop new optimization strategies for maintaining operations in the midst of these newly emerging cyber threats. Ways to quantify resiliency, and its use in visualizing cyber vulnerability awareness and in identifying node or link criticality, are presented in the current work, as well as a methodology of differential network hardening based on the criticality profile of cyber network components.

  16. Mixed Dimensional Van der Waals Heterostructures for Opto-Electronics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jariwala, Deep

    The isolation of a growing number of two-dimensional (2D) materials has inspired worldwide efforts to integrate distinct 2D materials into van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures. While a tremendous amount of research activity has occurred in assembling disparate 2D materials into ``all-2D'' van der Waals heterostructures, this concept is not limited to 2D materials alone. Given that any passivated, dangling bond-free surface will interact with another via vdW forces, the vdW heterostructure concept can be extended to include the integration of 2D materials with non-2D materials that adhere primarily through noncovalent interactions. In the first part of this talk I will present our work on emerging mixed-dimensional (2D + nD, where n is 0, 1 or 3) heterostructure devices performed at Northwestern University. I will present two distinct examples of gate-tunable p-n heterojunctions 1. Single layer n-type MoS2\\ (2D) combined with p-type semiconducting single walled carbon nanotubes (1D) and 2. Single layer MoS2 combined with 0D molecular semiconductor, pentacene. I will present the unique electrical properties, underlying charge transport mechanisms and photocurrent responses in both the above systems using a variety of scanning probe microscopy techniques as well as computational analysis. This work shows that van der Waals interactions are robust across different dimensionalities of materials and can allow fabrication of semiconductor devices with unique geometries and properties unforeseen in bulk semiconductors. Finally, I will briefly discuss our recent work from Caltech on near-unity absorption in atomically-thin photovoltaic devices. This work is supported by the Materials Research Center at Northwestern University, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF DMR-1121262) and the Resnick Sustainability Institute at Caltech.

  17. Van der Waals pressure sensors using reduced graphene oxide composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ju Ra; Ahn, Sung Il

    2018-04-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) films intercalated with various polymers were fabricated by reaction-based self-assembly, and their characteristics as vacuum pressure sensors based on van der Waals interactions were studied. At low temperature, the electrical resistances of the samples decrease linearly with increasing vacuum pressure, whereas at high temperature the variation of the electrical resistance shows secondary order curves. Among all samples, the poly vinyl alcohol intercalated RGO shows the highest sensitivity, being almost two times more sensitive than reference RGO. All samples show almost the same signal for repetitive sudden pressure changes, indicating reasonable reproducibility and durability.

  18. Spherical and hyperspherical harmonics representation of van der Waals aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, Andrea; Palazzetti, Federico; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Grossi, Gaia; Albernaz, Alessandra F.; Barreto, Patricia R. P.; Cruz, Ana Claudia P. S.

    2016-12-01

    The representation of the potential energy surfaces of atom-molecule or molecular dimers interactions should account faithfully for the symmetry properties of the systems, preserving at the same time a compact analytical form. To this aim, the choice of a proper set of coordinates is a necessary precondition. Here we illustrate a description in terms of hyperspherical coordinates and the expansion of the intermolecular interaction energy in terms of hypersherical harmonics, as a general method for building potential energy surfaces suitable for molecular dynamics simulations of van der Waals aggregates. Examples for the prototypical case diatomic-molecule-diatomic-molecule interactions are shown.

  19. Nonadditivity of van der Waals forces on liquid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataram, Prashanth S.; Whitton, Jeremy D.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.

    2016-09-01

    We present an approach for modeling nanoscale wetting and dewetting of textured solid surfaces that exploits recently developed, sophisticated techniques for computing exact long-range dispersive van der Waals (vdW) or (more generally) Casimir forces in arbitrary geometries. We apply these techniques to solve the variational formulation of the Young-Laplace equation and predict the equilibrium shapes of liquid-vacuum interfaces near solid gratings. We show that commonly employed methods of computing vdW interactions based on additive Hamaker or Derjaguin approximations, which neglect important electromagnetic boundary effects, can result in large discrepancies in the shapes and behaviors of liquid surfaces compared to exact methods.

  20. Van der Woude syndrome: Management in the mixed dentition.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sonahita; Dinesh, M R; Dharma, R M; Amarnath, B C

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the case of a patient with Van der Woude syndrome treated with orthodontic and orthopedic intervention in the mixed dentition stage. The patient had a bilateral cleft of the lip and alveolus accompanied by lip pits on the lower lip. Intra-orally, there was bilateral anterior and posterior cross-bite with a collapsed maxilla. The maxillary transverse deficiency was managed with orthopedic expansion and the second phase of treatment involved secondary alveolar bone grafting followed by retention with functional regulator-3. The mild maxillary retrognathia and deficient lip support was managed with dental compensation.

  1. Van der Woude syndrome: Management in the mixed dentition

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sonahita; Dinesh, M. R.; Dharma, R. M.; Amarnath, B. C.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the case of a patient with Van der Woude syndrome treated with orthodontic and orthopedic intervention in the mixed dentition stage. The patient had a bilateral cleft of the lip and alveolus accompanied by lip pits on the lower lip. Intra-orally, there was bilateral anterior and posterior cross-bite with a collapsed maxilla. The maxillary transverse deficiency was managed with orthopedic expansion and the second phase of treatment involved secondary alveolar bone grafting followed by retention with functional regulator-3. The mild maxillary retrognathia and deficient lip support was managed with dental compensation. PMID:23853466

  2. Schönheit und andere Provokationen - Eine neue evolutionsbiologische Theorie der Kunst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, Thomas

    Die Evolution hat viele spektakuläre Phänomene hervorgebracht - von der Eleganz des Vogelflugs über die gigantischen Körper der Dinosaurier und die farbenprächtige Vielfalt der Korallenriffe bis hin zu ihrem jüngsten Geniestreich - der menschlichen Kunst. Die schönen Künste - Malerei, Bildhauerei und Architektur, Theater, Tanz, Oper und Filmkunst, Musik und Literatur - Produkte der Evolution? Diese Vorstellung mutet vielen Menschen fremd an, aber wie könnte es anders sein? Denn wenn Charles Darwin recht hat, dann sind nicht nur die körperlichen Merkmale der Menschen als Antworten auf die Erfordernisse des Lebens entstanden, sondern auch ihre geistigen Fähigkeiten und Verhaltensweisen. Im Jahr 1859 hatte er auf den letzten Seiten seines berühmten Buches über die Entstehung der Arten eine kühne Prophezeiung gemacht: Durch die Evolutionstheorie werde es "zu einer bemerkenswerten Revolution in der Naturwissenschaft kommen […]. Die Psychologie wird auf die neue Grundlage gestellt, dass jede geistige Kraft und Fähigkeit notwendigerweise durch graduelle Übergänge erworben wird“ (Darwin 1859, S. 484, 488; Junker 2008).

  3. Situational Awareness in Aerospace Operations (La Perception de la Situation au cours des Operations Aeriennes)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    addition to a detailed description of the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT). SAGAT was developed as an objective measure of a... developed aircraft designs and training programs hinges on en objective evaluation program that considers the global SA reqluirements of the pilot. Bsy...roll-attitudae recovery [323, and that thickened negative pitch lines (simulating lirm grad-ents) are particularly effective in improving

  4. [Breast feeding in Spain. Current situation].

    PubMed

    Morán Rey, J

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the ages, breast-feeding as a biological need has been the most used method on infant feeding during the first year of life. Because of its nutritional and protective characteristics, it is still the best system of feeding in spite of the present advances in the composition of formulated milks. In order to know the present situation of natural feeding in Spain we have performed a study in which the fieldwork consisted of the participation of 1,061 mothers and 152 pediatricians. The most important results are detailed in the present work. At birth, 73.5% of the mothers began to nurse their babies, a 19.2% used formula, and 7.3% used the feeding methods. The decision related to the type of feeding was taken by the mother in the majority of the cases (92.6%) with a surprisingly low incidence of prenatal advice (1.8%). Of the mothers, 90.7% clearly had positive opinions about breast-feeding. Negative opinions included concerns about their jobs or social obligations (18.5%). The most normal reason for not nursing was related to hypogalactia (61.2%). At 90 days of age, 22.8% of the breast-feed babies were still being suckled, whereas only 28.0% those receiving mixed nutrition were being nursed at 30 days of age. Supplementation of breastmilk is established early since at one month of age 32.1% of the infants were receiving mixed nutrition after beginning with only breast-feeding. The decision to give up the natural lactation corresponded equally to the mother (45.2%) and the pediatrician (54.2%) with the general motive being hypogalactia (74.2%). After giving up natural lactation, 8.4% of the mothers introduced the beikost.

  5. Antecedents and Consequences of Situational Interest

    PubMed Central

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Patall, Erika A.; Messersmith, Emily E.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of research on situational interest (SI). Yet, we still know relatively little about how SI is supported in the classroom and the academic benefits of SI. Aims The current study investigated (1) contextual antecedents of SI, (2) potential benefits of SI for academic outcomes, and (3) SI as a mediator of classroom practices to academic outcomes. Sample Participants were 126 male and female adolescents (mean age = 14.6 years) who took part in a science course during a 3-week residential summer program for talented adolescents. Method Participants completed self-report measures prior to the start of the summer program and at the end of the program. Summer program instructors completed ratings of students’ engagement during the program. Results Multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the three study aims. After controlling for initial individual interest, perceived choice, instructor approachability, and course connections to real life were statistically significant predictors of SI during the summer program, with varying relations observed based on the form of SI (triggered, maintained-feeling, maintained-value). SI was positively related to individual interest and perceived competence in science at the end of the program as well as teacher-rated engagement; SI also mediated the relations of classroom practices to these outcomes. Conclusion Results suggest that classroom practices shape SI. In turn, SI supports motivation and engagement. Moreover, differentiated antecedents and outcomes of the three subcomponents of SI were identified, highlighting the utility of this three-component approach for studying SI. PMID:24175684

  6. Reachability Analysis Applied to Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzinger, M.; Scheeres, D.

    Several existing and emerging applications of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) relate directly to spacecraft Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, and Docking (RPOD) and Formation / Cluster Flight (FCF). When multiple Resident Space Ob jects (RSOs) are in vicinity of one another with appreciable periods between observations, correlating new RSO tracks to previously known objects becomes a non-trivial problem. A particularly difficult sub-problem is seen when long breaks in observations are coupled with continuous, low- thrust maneuvers. Reachability theory, directly related to optimal control theory, can compute contiguous reachability sets for known or estimated control authority and can support such RSO search and correlation efforts in both ground and on-board settings. Reachability analysis can also directly estimate the minimum control authority of a given RSO. For RPOD and FCF applications, emerging mission concepts such as fractionation drastically increase system complexity of on-board autonomous fault management systems. Reachability theory, as applied to SSA in RPOD and FCF applications, can involve correlation of nearby RSO observations, control authority estimation, and sensor track re-acquisition. Additional uses of reachability analysis are formation reconfiguration, worst-case passive safety, and propulsion failure modes such as a "stuck" thruster. Existing reachability theory is applied to RPOD and FCF regimes. An optimal control policy is developed to maximize the reachability set and optimal control law discontinuities (switching) are examined. The Clohessy-Wiltshire linearized equations of motion are normalized to accentuate relative control authority for spacecraft propulsion systems at both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO). Several examples with traditional and low thrust propulsion systems in LEO and GEO are explored to illustrate the effects of relative control authority on the time-varying reachability set surface. Both

  7. Treemap Visualizations for Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianni, J.; Gorrell, Z.

    Making sense of massive data sets is a problem for many military domains including space. With unwieldy big data sets used for space situational awareness (SSA), important trends and outliers may not be easy to spot especially not at-a-glance. One method being explored to visualize SSA data sets is called treemapping. Treemaps fill screen space with nested rectangles (tiles) of various sizes and colors to represent multiple dimensions of hierarchical data sets. By mapping these dimensions effectively with a tiling algorithm that maintains an appropriate aspect ratio, patterns can emerge that often would have gone unnoticed. The ability to interactively perform range filtering (in our case with sliders) and object drill-downs (hyperlinking the tiles) make this technology powerful for in-depth analyses in addition to at-a-glance awareness. For one SSA analysis, the tiles could represent satellites that are grouped by country, sized by apogee, and colored/shaded by the launch date. Filter sliders could allow apogee range or launch dates to be narrowed for better resolution of a smaller data set. The application of this technology for the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) is being explored on a DARPA Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) effort as a plug-in to the existing User-Defined Operational Picture (UDOP). In addition, visualization of DARPA OrbitOutlook small telescope data will be demonstrated. This research will investigate what SSA analyses are best served by treemaps, the best tiling algorithms for these problems, and how the treemaps should be integrated into the existing JMS UDOP workflow. Finally, we introduce a variation of treemaps that help leaders allocate their time to tasks based on importance and urgency.

  8. Antecedents and consequences of situational interest.

    PubMed

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Patall, Erika A; Messersmith, Emily E

    2013-12-01

    There is a growing body of research on situational interest (SI). Yet, we still know relatively little about how SI is supported in the classroom and the academic benefits of SI. The current study investigated (1) contextual antecedents of SI; (2) potential benefits of SI for academic outcomes; and (3) SI as a mediator of classroom practices to academic outcomes. Participants were 126 male and female adolescents (mean age = 14.6 years) who took part in a science course during a 3-week residential summer programme for talented adolescents. Participants completed self-report measures prior to the start of the summer programme and at the end of the programme. Summer programme instructors completed ratings of students' engagement during the programme. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the three study aims. After controlling for initial individual interest, perceived choice, instructor approachability, and course connections to real life were statistically significant predictors of SI during the summer programme, with varying associations observed based on the form of SI (triggered, maintained-feeling, and maintained-value). SI was positively related to individual interest and perceived competence in science at the end of the programme as well as teacher-rated engagement; SI also mediated the associations of classroom practices with these outcomes. Results suggest that classroom practices shape SI. In turn, SI supports motivation and engagement. Moreover, differentiated antecedents and outcomes of the three sub-components of SI were identified, highlighting the utility of this three-component approach for studying SI. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  9. A New Method for Suppressing Periodic Narrowband Interference Based on the Chaotic van der Pol Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jia; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Xiong, Hao

    The chaotic van der Pol oscillator is a powerful tool for detecting defects in electric systems by using online partial discharge (PD) monitoring. This paper focuses on realizing weak PD signal detection in the strong periodic narrowband interference by using high sensitivity to the periodic narrowband interference signals and immunity to white noise and PD signals of chaotic systems. A new approach to removing the periodic narrowband interference by using a van der Pol chaotic oscillator is described by analyzing the motion characteristic of the chaotic oscillator on the basis of the van der Pol equation. Furthermore, the Floquet index for measuring the amplitude of periodic narrowband signals is redefined. The denoising signal processed by the chaotic van der Pol oscillators is further processed by wavelet analysis. Finally, the denoising results verify that the periodic narrowband and white noise interference can be removed efficiently by combining the theory of the chaotic van der Pol oscillator and wavelet analysis.

  10. Implication of Two-Coupled Differential Van der Pol Duffing Oscillator in Weak Signal Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hang-hang; Xu, Xue-mei; Yang, Bing-chu; Yin, Lin-zi

    2016-04-01

    The principle of the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator for state transition and for determining critical value is described, which has been studied to indicate that the application of the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator in weak signal detection is feasible. On the basis of this principle, an improved two-coupled differential Van der Pol Duffing oscillator is proposed which can identify signals under any frequency and ameliorate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The analytical methods of the proposed model and the construction of the proposed oscillator are introduced in detail. Numerical experiments on the properties of the proposed oscillator compared with those of the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator are carried out. Our numerical simulations have confirmed the analytical treatment. The results demonstrate that this novel oscillator has better detection performance than the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator.

  11. Situation Awareness Information Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endsley, Mica R.; Farley, Todd C.; Jones, William M.; Midkiff, Alan H.; Hansman, R. John

    1998-01-01

    Situation awareness is presented as a fundamental requirement for good airmanship, forming the basis for pilot decision making and performance. To develop a better understanding of the role of situation awareness in flying, an analysis was performed to determine the specific situation awareness information requirements for commercial aircraft pilots. This was conducted as a goal-directed task analysis in which pilots' major goals, subgoals, decisions, and associated situation awareness information requirements were delineated based on elicitation from experienced commercial airline pilots. A determination of the major situation awareness information requirements for visual and instrument flight was developed from this analysis, providing a foundation for future system development which seeks to enhance pilot situation awareness and provide a basis for the development of situation awareness measures for commercial flight.

  12. Reinvigorating the concept of situation in social psychology.

    PubMed

    Reis, Harry T

    2008-11-01

    The concept of situation has a long and venerable history in social psychology. The author argues that recent approaches to the concept of situation have confused certain important elements. Herein, the author proposes that attention to three of these elements will reinvigorate the concept of situation in social psychology: (a) that the analysis of situations should begin with their objective features; (b) that situations should be conceptualized as affordances; and (c) that the interpersonal core of situations, in particular the extent to which they are influenced by relationships, is the proper and most profitable focus for social psychology. These elements are consistent with recent developments in the study of situated social cognition and may help better define social psychology's position within the sciences.

  13. Generalization of the van der Pauw relationship derived from electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2011-08-01

    In an earlier paper, this author, along with two others Weiss et al. (2008) [1], demonstrated that the original van der Pauw relationship could be derived from three-dimensional electrostatics, as opposed to van der Pauw's use of conformal mapping. The earlier derivation was done for a conducting material of rectangular cross section with contacts placed at the corners. Presented here is a generalization of the previous work involving a square sample and a square array of electrodes that are not confined to the corners, since this measurement configuration could be a more convenient one. As in the previous work, the effects of non-zero sample thickness and contact size have been investigated. Buehler and Thurber derived a similar relationship using an infinite series of current images on a large and thin conducting sheet to satisfy the conditions at the boundary of the sample. The results presented here agree with theirs numerically, but analytic agreement could not be shown using any of the perused mathematical literature. By simply equating the two solutions, it appears that, as a byproduct of this work, a new mathematical relationship has been uncovered. Finally, the application of this methodology to the Hall Effect is discussed.

  14. van der Waals epitaxy of Ge films on mica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlejohn, A. J.; Xiang, Y.; Rauch, E.; Lu, T.-M.; Wang, G.-C.

    2017-11-01

    To date, many materials have been successfully grown on substrates through van der Waals epitaxy without adhering to the constraint of lattice matching as is required for traditional chemical epitaxy. However, for elemental semiconductors such as Ge, this has been challenging and therefore it has not been achieved thus far. In this paper, we report the observation of Ge epitaxially grown on mica at a narrow substrate temperature range around 425 °C. Despite the large lattice mismatch (23%) and the lack of high in-plane symmetry in the mica surface, an epitaxial Ge film with [111] out-of-plane orientation is observed. Crystallinity and electrical properties degrade upon deviation from the ideal growth temperature, as shown by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Hall effect measurements. X-ray pole figure analysis reveals that there exist multiple rotational domains in the epitaxial Ge film with dominant in-plane orientations between Ge [" separators="|1 ¯10 ] and mica[100] of (20 n )°, where n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. A superlattice area mismatch model was used to account for the likelihood of the in-plane orientation formation and was found to be qualitatively consistent with the observed dominant orientations. Our observation of Ge epitaxy with one out-of-plane growth direction through van der Waals forces is a step toward the growth of single crystal Ge films without the constraint in the lattice and symmetry matches with the substrates.

  15. Interlayer excitons in a bulk van der Waals semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Arora, Ashish; Drüppel, Matthias; Schmidt, Robert; Deilmann, Thorsten; Schneider, Robert; Molas, Maciej R; Marauhn, Philipp; Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Steffen; Potemski, Marek; Rohlfing, Michael; Bratschitsch, Rudolf

    2017-09-21

    Bound electron-hole pairs called excitons govern the electronic and optical response of many organic and inorganic semiconductors. Excitons with spatially displaced wave functions of electrons and holes (interlayer excitons) are important for Bose-Einstein condensation, superfluidity, dissipationless current flow, and the light-induced exciton spin Hall effect. Here we report on the discovery of interlayer excitons in a bulk van der Waals semiconductor. They form due to strong localization and spin-valley coupling of charge carriers. By combining high-field magneto-reflectance experiments and ab initio calculations for 2H-MoTe 2 , we explain their salient features: the positive sign of the g-factor and the large diamagnetic shift. Our investigations solve the long-standing puzzle of positive g-factors in transition metal dichalcogenides, and pave the way for studying collective phenomena in these materials at elevated temperatures.Excitons, quasi-particles of bound electron-hole pairs, are at the core of the optoelectronic properties of layered transition metal dichalcogenides. Here, the authors unveil the presence of interlayer excitons in bulk van der Waals semiconductors, arising from strong localization and spin-valley coupling of charge carriers.

  16. Observing Imperfection in Atomic Interfaces for van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Aidan P; Kozikov, Aleksey; Rudenko, Alexander N; Prestat, Eric; Hamer, Matthew J; Withers, Freddie; Cao, Yang; Novoselov, Kostya S; Katsnelson, Mikhail I; Gorbachev, Roman; Haigh, Sarah J

    2017-09-13

    Vertically stacked van der Waals heterostructures are a lucrative platform for exploring the rich electronic and optoelectronic phenomena in two-dimensional materials. Their performance will be strongly affected by impurities and defects at the interfaces. Here we present the first systematic study of interfaces in van der Waals heterostructure using cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) imaging. By measuring interlayer separations and comparing these to density functional theory (DFT) calculations we find that pristine interfaces exist between hBN and MoS 2 or WS 2 for stacks prepared by mechanical exfoliation in air. However, for two technologically important transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) systems, MoSe 2 and WSe 2 , our measurement of interlayer separations provide the first evidence for impurity species being trapped at buried interfaces with hBN interfaces that are flat at the nanometer length scale. While decreasing the thickness of encapsulated WSe 2 from bulk to monolayer we see a systematic increase in the interlayer separation. We attribute these differences to the thinnest TMDC flakes being flexible and hence able to deform mechanically around a sparse population of protruding interfacial impurities. We show that the air sensitive two-dimensional (2D) crystal NbSe 2 can be fabricated into heterostructures with pristine interfaces by processing in an inert-gas environment. Finally we find that adopting glovebox transfer significantly improves the quality of interfaces for WSe 2 compared to processing in air.

  17. Der deutsche Röntgensatellit ABRIXAS: Mission und wissenschaftliche Zielsetzung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predehl, P.

    ABRIXAS (A BRoad band Imaging X-ray All-sky Survey) ist ein Röntgensatellit mit sieben 27-fach genesteten Wolterteleskopen, die sich in ihren Brennpunkten eine pn-CCD Kamera teilen. ABRIXAS soll im Frühjahr 1999 auf einer russischen Cosmos-Rakete gestartet werden und die erste abbildende Himmelsdurchmusterung oberhalb von 2.4 keV durchführen. Man erwartet während der dreijährigen Mission wenigstens 10.000 neue Röntgenquellen zu entdecken. Dies sind vor allem solche Quellen, die durch vorgelagerte Staub- und Gasschichten für den ABRIXAS-Vorgänger ROSAT unsichtbar blieben. Darüber hinaus wird ABRIXAS hervorragend geeignet sein, ausgedehnte, diffuse Quellen spektroskopisch zu studieren und Intensitätsvariationen von Röntgenquellen auf sehr unterschiedlichen Zeitskalen zu untersuchen. Das Projekt ist eine wissenschaftliche Zusammenarbeit zwischen dem Astrophysikalischen Institut Potsdam (AIP), dem Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik der Universität Tübingen (IAAT) und dem Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE).

  18. Vom Big Business zum Smart Business in der Energiewirtschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Jürgen; Anthonijsz, Jos

    Kaum eine Branche hat in den letzten zehn Jahren einen tiefgreifenderen Wandel erfahren als die Energiewirtschaft. Einstmals geprägt durch Großkonzerne, die flächendeckend alle Formen von Energiedienstleistungen erbracht haben, stellt sich heute eine gänzlich veränderte Landschaft dar. Nicht nur das es heute eine Vielzahl von Erzeugern gibt, die zunehmend dezentral aufgestellt sind, auch die klassischen Marktrollen wechseln: Erzeuger werden zu Händlern, Verbraucher werden zu Erzeugern. Darüber hinaus drängen heute neue, vormals branchenfremde, Marktteilnehmer in die Energiewirtschaft. Leicht nachzuvollziehen, dass es eine neue Art der Kommunikation braucht. Ziel ist alle Akteure zu vernetzen, um so neuartige Geschäftsmodelle zu ermöglichen. Das Internet of Things (IoT) und die Serviceplattformen bieten hierzu die geeignete Grundlage und Lösungen für neue und zukünftige Prozesse in der Energiebranche. Hierbei stehen auch Themen, wie Big Data, Datenformate, Datennutzung und -sicherheit im Fokus.

  19. Franckeite as a naturally occurring van der Waals heterostructure

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J.; Giovanelli, Emerson; Paz, Wendel S.; Niño, Miguel Angel; Island, Joshua O.; Evangeli, Charalambos; Aballe, Lucía; Foerster, Michael; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Palacios, J. J.; Pérez, Emilio M.; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-01-01

    The fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures, artificial materials assembled by individual stacking of 2D layers, is among the most promising directions in 2D materials research. Until now, the most widespread approach to stack 2D layers relies on deterministic placement methods, which are cumbersome and tend to suffer from poor control over the lattice orientations and the presence of unwanted interlayer adsorbates. Here, we present a different approach to fabricate ultrathin heterostructures by exfoliation of bulk franckeite which is a naturally occurring and air stable van der Waals heterostructure (composed of alternating SnS2-like and PbS-like layers stacked on top of each other). Presenting both an attractive narrow bandgap (<0.7 eV) and p-type doping, we find that the material can be exfoliated both mechanically and chemically down to few-layer thicknesses. We present extensive theoretical and experimental characterizations of the material's electronic properties and crystal structure, and explore applications for near-infrared photodetectors. PMID:28194037

  20. Evaluation of van der Waals density functionals for layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Sherif Abdulkader; Gould, Tim; Stampfl, Catherine; Ford, Michael J.

    2018-03-01

    In 2012, Björkman et al. posed the question "Are we van der Waals ready?" [T. Björkman et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24, 424218 (2012), 10.1088/0953-8984/24/42/424218] about the ability of ab initio modeling to reproduce van der Waals (vdW) dispersion forces in layered materials. The answer at that time was no, however. Here we report on a new generation of vdW dispersion models and show that one, i.e., the fractionally ionic atom theory with many-body dispersions, offers close to quantitative predictions for layered structures. Furthermore, it does so from a qualitatively correct picture of dispersion forces. Other methods, such as D3 and optB88vdW, also work well, albeit with some exceptions. We thus argue that we are nearly vdW ready and that some modern dispersion methods are accurate enough to be used for nanomaterial prediction, albeit with some caution required.

  1. Quantum Monte Carlo Simulation of condensed van der Waals Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benali, Anouar; Shulenburger, Luke; Romero, Nichols A.; Kim, Jeongnim; Anatole von Lilienfeld, O.

    2012-02-01

    Van der Waals forces are as ubiquitous as infamous. While post-Hartree-Fock methods enable accurate estimates of these forces in molecules and clusters, they remain elusive for dealing with many-electron condensed phase systems. We present Quantum Monte Carlo [1,2] results for condensed van der Waals systems. Interatomic many-body contributions to cohesive energies and bulk modulus will be discussed. Numerical evidence is presented for crystals of rare gas atoms, and compared to experiments and methods [3]. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DoE's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.[4pt] [1] J. Kim, K. Esler, J. McMinis and D. Ceperley, SciDAC 2010, J. of Physics: Conference series, Chattanooga, Tennessee, July 11 2011 [0pt] [2] QMCPACK simulation suite, http://qmcpack.cmscc.org (unpublished)[0pt] [3] O. A. von Lillienfeld and A. Tkatchenko, J. Chem. Phys. 132 234109 (2010)

  2. Toward Microsatellite Based Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, L.; Wallace, B.; Sale, M.; Thorsteinson, S.

    2013-09-01

    The NEOSSat microsatellite is a dual mission space telescope which will perform asteroid detection and Space Situational Awareness (SSA) observation experiments on deep space, earth orbiting objects. NEOSSat was launched on 25 February 2013 into a 800 dawn-dusk sun synchronous orbit and is currently undergoing satellite commissioning. The microsatellite consists of a small aperture optical telescope, GPS receiver, high performance attitude control system, and stray light rejection baffle designed to reject stray light from the Sun while searching for asteroids with elongations 45 degrees along the ecliptic. The SSA experimental mission, referred to as HEOSS (High Earth Orbit Space Surveillance), will focus on objects in deep space orbits. The HEOSS mission objective is to evaluate the utility of microsatellites to perform catalog maintenance observations of resident space objects in a manner consistent with the needs of the Canadian Forces. The advantages of placing a space surveillance sensor in low Earth orbit are that the observer can conduct observations without the day-night interruption cycle experienced by ground based telescopes, the telescope is insensitive to adverse weather and the system has visibility to deep space resident space objects which are not normally visible from ground based sensors. Also, from a photometric standpoint, the microsatellite is able to conduct observations on objects with a rapidly changing observer position. The possibility of spin axis estimation on geostationary satellites may be possible and an experiment characterize spin axis of distant resident space objects is being planned. Also, HEOSS offers the ability to conduct observations of satellites at high phase angles which can potentially extend the trackable portion of space in which deep space objects' orbits can be monitored. In this paper we describe the HEOSS SSA experimental data processing system and the preliminary findings of the catalog maintenance experiments

  3. Nutritional situation of elderly nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Pauly, L; Stehle, P; Volkert, D

    2007-02-01

    Malnutrition in institutionalized elderly is of individual and public concern since it negatively affects health outcome and quality of life and is often preventable. Over the past years several studies have examined the prevalence of malnutrition in institutionalized elderly and reported greatly diverse results. The purpose of the present literature review is to give an overview of the current knowledge about the nutritional situation of institutionalized elderly having specific regard to the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition and nutrition-related problems. Based on a literature search and additional articles from the files of the authors, observational studies with relatively unselected populations reporting figures for the prevalence of malnutrition and/or the prevalence of nutrition-related problems (e. g. poor appetite, chewing or swallowing problems, eating dependency or poor intake) and published between 1990 and 2006 were considered. Relevant information was extracted and compiled. A total of 42 eligible studies with 41 to 6832 participants were found. BMI was the most frequently used parameter for nutritional assessment with mean values mostly between 21 and 24 kg/m(2). Eight studies applied a cut-off value of 20 kg/m(2) and reported between 10% and 50% low values. Weight loss was reported in 7 studies with prevalence rates between 5 and 41%, reduced serum albumin (< 35 g/L) in 10 studies with prevalence rates between 0 and 50%. According to the MNA (12 studies) malnutrition was observed in 2 to 38% and a risk of malnutrition in 37 to 62%. Nutritional problems were reported in 17 studies, again with great variability between the studies. In physically and mentally capable study populations malnutrition was relatively unfrequent. Prevalence rates were highest in studies with great proportions of disabled and severely impaired residents. It can be concluded that malnutrition is generally widespread in institutionalized elderly. Prevalence rates vary

  4. The drink driving situation in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    To describe and analyze the drink driving situation in Colombia. The assessment was based on semistructured interviews of key stakeholders and analysis of secondary data. Road traffic crashes caused 5704 deaths and injured 39,318 people in 2010. The 3 main sources of crash data-forensic authorities, traffic authorities, and motor vehicle insurance agencies-provide different information about crashes, drivers, and victims, but they cannot be routinely merged. This together with the problem of identifying alcohol as the cause of a crash makes it difficult to estimate the role of drink driving in road crashes. In addition, reliable figures for the incidence of drink driving are not available from the random breath test programs because of sampling issues, underreporting, and missing data on negative results. However, it can be argued that alcohol plays a role in fatalities, because the proportion of crashes involving fatalities rises on weekends and between 12:00 a.m. and 05:59 a.m. when drink driving is likely to occur. Colombia has strict drink-drive laws that specify 3 levels of offense and sanctions (level I: 40- 99 mg/100 mL, level II: 100-149 mg/100 mL, and level III: 150 mg/100 mL or above). Drivers responsible for causing crashes with fatalities and injuries can be imprisoned under criminal law and sentences are increased by 50 to 100 percent if they test positive for alcohol. Enforcement includes random breath testing for alcohol, but its impact is weakened by the lack of a legal requirement to submit to a test and poor implementation of sanctions. There have been mass media campaigns against drink driving including one linked to a major enforcement initiative in 2008. However, there was a consensus that most campaigns were not focused sufficiently on increasing drivers' perceived risk of being caught. According to those interviewed, campaigns aimed at responsible consumption and the use of designated drivers appear to have had a growing positive effect, but

  5. Learning Situations in Nursing Education: A Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shahsavari, Hooman; Zare, Zahra; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Griffiths, Pauline; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba

    2018-02-01

    The nursing student requires opportunities to learn within authentic contexts so as to enable safe and competent practice. One strategy to facilitate such learning is the creation of learning situations. A lack of studies on the learning situation in nursing and other health care fields has resulted in insufficient knowledge of the characteristics of the learning situation, its antecedents, and consequences. Nurse educators need to have comprehensive and practical knowledge of the definition and characteristics of the learning situation so as to enable their students to achieve enhanced learning outcomes. The aim of this study was to clarify the concept of the learning situation as it relates to the education of nurses and improve understanding of its characteristics, antecedents, and consequences. The Bonis method of concept analysis, as derived from the Rodgers' evolutionary method, provided the framework for analysis. Data collection and analysis were undertaken in two phases: "interdisciplinary" and "intra-disciplinary." The data source was a search of the literature, encompassing nursing and allied health care professions, published from 1975 to 2016. No agreement on the conceptual phenomenon was discovered in the international literature. The concept of a learning situation was used generally in two ways and thus classified into the themes of: "formal/informal learning situation" and "biologic/nonbiologic learning situation." Antecedents to the creation of a learning situation included personal and environmental factors. The characteristics of a learning situation were described in terms of being complex, dynamic, and offering potential and effective learning opportunities. Consequences of the learning situation included enhancement of the students' learning, professionalization, and socialization into the professional role. The nurse educator, when considering the application of the concept of a learning situation in their educational planning, must

  6. Situation analysis of prenatal diagnosis technology utilization in China: current situation, main issues, and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingyao; Qian, Xu; Tang, Zhiliu; Banta, H David; Hu, Fangfang; Cao, Jianwen; Huang, Jiayan; Wang, Qian; Lv, Jun; Ying, Xianghua; Chen, Jie

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the situation with the distribution and utilization of prenatal diagnosis technology in China, to identify some important barriers to prenatal diagnosis use, and to suggest changes to improve the present situation. The study uses cross-sectional surveys to capture quantitative data from both providers and consumers. Qualitative information based on focus group discussions is also presented. A mail survey of the provincial Bureaus of Health (BOHs) reveals that sixteen provincial prenatal diagnosis centers and twelve city level centers were accredited by the BOHs by July of 2001. These centers were located in thirteen provinces, of thirty in all of China. Of 147 selected institutions surveyed separately, 90.5 percent offer ultrasound examination, 72.1 percent provide pathogen tests (mainly Toxoplasma, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex or TORCH), 57.1 percent do biochemical tests, 21.8 percent have genetic counseling, 13.6 percent do karyotype testing, 7.5 percent do enzymology testing, and 5.4 percent carry out molecular genetic testing. Chromosome diseases, congenital diseases, and several gene diseases are the target diseases. According to qualitative data, macromanagement for prenatal diagnosis, supplier provision of tests, and population demand are the main influences on prenatal diagnosis use. From the quantitative and qualitative analysis, it is clear that the technology of prenatal diagnosis is not diffusing well throughout China and is apparently not appropriately used. The situation of prenatal diagnosis has implications for policy-makers, including identification of priorities, regulation of prenatal diagnosis, strategic planning, development of guidelines based on health technology assessment, and consumer orientation.

  7. Enhanced situational awareness in the maritime domain: an agent-based approach for situation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brax, Christoffer; Niklasson, Lars

    2009-05-01

    Maritime Domain Awareness is important for both civilian and military applications. An important part of MDA is detection of unusual vessel activities such as piracy, smuggling, poaching, collisions, etc. Today's interconnected sensorsystems provide us with huge amounts of information over large geographical areas which can make the operators reach their cognitive capacity and start to miss important events. We propose and agent-based situation management system that automatically analyse sensor information to detect unusual activity and anomalies. The system combines knowledge-based detection with data-driven anomaly detection. The system is evaluated using information from both radar and AIS sensors.

  8. Understanding situation awareness and its importance in patient safety.

    PubMed

    Gluyas, Heather; Harris, Sarah-Jane

    2016-04-20

    Situation awareness describes an individual's perception, comprehension and subsequent projection of what is going on in the environment around them. The concept of situation awareness sits within the group of non-technical skills that include teamwork, communication and managing hierarchical lines of communication. The importance of non-technical skills has been recognised in safety-critical industries such as aviation, the military, nuclear, and oil and gas. However, health care has been slow to embrace the role of non-technical skills such as situation awareness in improving outcomes and minimising the risk of error. This article explores the concept of situation awareness and the cognitive processes involved in maintaining it. In addition, factors that lead to a loss of situation awareness and strategies to improve situation awareness are discussed.

  9. Wie verstehen Schülerinnen und Schüler den Begriff der Unendlichkeit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmöller, Tabea

    Wie Hilbert bereits feststellte, wirkt die Idee der Unendlichkeit, wie keine andere, schon seit Zeiten sehr anregend und fruchtbar auf den Verstand und bewegt das Gemüt der Menschen. Der Begriff der Unendlichkeit bedarf aber auch, wie kein anderer, der Aufklärung, denn mit ihm eröffnet sich ein weites Feld, welches nicht nur aus vielen verschiedenen Definitionen besteht, sondern auch aus völlig unterschiedlichen Disziplinen. Physiker suchen immer dringender nach einer "Theorie für Alles" oder einer "Weltformel", Kosmologen beschäftigen sich unter anderem mit der Ewigkeit des Universums, Theologen interessiert eher die Unendlichkeit Gottes, Philosophen diskutieren unter anderem Grenzfragen zwischen Naturwissenschaft und Philosophie und die Mathematiker versuchen den Paradoxien des Unendlichen einen Sinn zu geben. Und so wird ersichtlich, dass nichts abstrakter ist als das Unendliche: Obwohl die Unendlichkeit für die unterschiedlichsten Wissenschaften von großer Bedeutung ist, "[ist] in der Wirklichkeit das Unendliche nirgends zu finden, [egal] was für Erfahrungen und Beobachtungen und welcherlei Wissenschaft wir auch heranziehen".

  10. Situation awareness - A critical but ill-defined phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarter, Nadine B.; Woods, David D.

    1991-01-01

    The significance of the temporal dimension of situation awareness is examined. Its study requires the staging of complex dynamic situations and the development of less intrusive in-flight probing techniques to assess the pilot's ability to adequately and rapidly retrieve and integrate flight-related information. The cognitive basis of the concept is analyzed, embedding it in the context of related psychological concepts. Methodological approaches to the investigation of situation awareness are discussed on this basis.

  11. Intervening as a passenger in drinking/driving situations.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mary Jane; Kennison, Monica; Gamble, Susan; Loudin, Barbara

    2004-08-01

    This study sought to query adolescents about drinking/driving situations and interventions used in these circumstances. A human science qualitative method was used to analyze descriptions of situations and interventions to gain the perspective of the life world of the young person. Findings include the drinking/driving situations of entangled, endangered, and stranded. Passenger interventions included persuading, interfering, planning ahead, and threatening. Practice, education, and research implications for those who work with adolescents are offered.

  12. Van der Waals Epitaxy of Functional Oxide Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ying-Hao

    In the diligent pursuit of low-power consumption, multifunctional, and environmentally friendly electronics, more sophisticated requirements on functional materials are on demand. Recently, the discovery of 2D layered materials has created a revolution to this field. Pioneered by graphene, these new 2D materials exhibit abundant unusual physical phenomena that is undiscovered in bulk forms. These materials are characterized with their layer form and almost pure 2D electronic behavior. The confinement of charge and heat transport at such ultrathin planes offers possibilities to overcome the bottleneck of present device development in thickness limitation, and thus push the technologies into next generation. Van der Waals epitaxy, an epitaxial growth method to combine 2D and 3D materials, is one of current reliable manufacturing processes to fabricate 2D materials by growing these 2D materials epitaxially on 3D materials. Then, transferring the 2D materials to the substrates for practical applications. In the mean time, van der Waals epitaxy has also been used to create free-standing 3D materials by growing 3D materials on 2D materials and then removing them from 2D materials since the interfacial boding between 2D and 3D materials should be weak van der Waals bonds. In this study, we intend to take the same concept, but to integrate a family of functional materials in order to open new avenue to flexible electronics. Due to the interplay of lattice, charge, orbital, and spin degrees of freedom, correlated electrons in oxides generate a rich spectrum of competing phases and physical properties. Recently, lots of studies have suggested that oxide heterostructures provide a powerful route to create and manipulate the degrees of freedom and offer new possibilities for next generation devices, thus create a new playground for researchers to investigate novel physics and the emergence of fascinating states of condensed matter. In this talk, we use a 2D layered material as

  13. Situation resolution with context-sensitive fuzzy relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobson, Gabriel; Buford, John; Lewis, Lundy

    2009-05-01

    Context plays a significant role in situation resolution by intelligent agents (human or machine) by affecting how the situations are recognized, interpreted, acted upon or predicted. Many definitions and formalisms for the notion of context have emerged in various research fields including psychology, economics and computer science (computational linguistics, data management, control theory, artificial intelligence and others). In this paper we examine the role of context in situation management, particularly how to resolve situations that are described by using fuzzy (inexact) relations among their components. We propose a language for describing context sensitive inexact constraints and an algorithm for interpreting relations using inexact (fuzzy) computations.

  14. Enriching Mental Health Mobile Assessment and Intervention with Situation Awareness.

    PubMed

    Soares Teles, Ariel; Rocha, Artur; José da Silva E Silva, Francisco; Correia Lopes, João; O'Sullivan, Donal; Van de Ven, Pepijn; Endler, Markus

    2017-01-10

    Current mobile devices allow the execution of sophisticated applications with the capacity for identifying the user situation, which can be helpful in treatments of mental disorders. In this paper, we present SituMan , a solution that provides situation awareness to MoodBuster , an ecological momentary assessment and intervention mobile application used to request self-assessments from patients in depression treatments. SituMan has a fuzzy inference engine to identify patient situations using context data gathered from the sensors embedded in mobile devices. Situations are specified jointly by the patient and mental health professional, and they can represent the patient's daily routine (e.g., "studying", "at work", "working out"). MoodBuster requests mental status self-assessments from patients at adequate moments using situation awareness. In addition, SituMan saves and displays patient situations in a summary, delivering them for consultation by mental health professionals. A first experimental evaluation was performed to assess the user satisfaction with the approaches to define and identify situations. This experiment showed that SituMan was well evaluated in both criteria. A second experiment was performed to assess the accuracy of the fuzzy engine to infer situations. Results from the second experiment showed that the fuzzy inference engine has a good accuracy to identify situations.

  15. Representing and reasoning about program in situation calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo; Zhang, Ming-yi; Wu, Mao-nian; Xie, Gang

    2011-12-01

    Situation calculus is an expressive tool for modeling dynamical system in artificial intelligence, changes in a dynamical world is represented naturally by the notions of action, situation and fluent in situation calculus. Program can be viewed as a discrete dynamical system, so it is possible to model program with situation calculus. To model program written in a smaller core programming language CL, notion of fluent is expanded for representing value of expression. Together with some functions returning concerned objects from expressions, a basic action theory of CL programming is constructed. Under such a theory, some properties of program, such as correctness and termination can be reasoned about.

  16. CURRENT SITUATION OF MEDICINE III AND CHALLENGES.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    Describe the current situation of the area Medicine III of CAPES and detect challenges for the next four years of evaluation. The area's documents and reports of meetings were read from 2004 to 2013 Medicine III Capes as well as reports and evaluation form of each Postgraduate Program (PPG) of the area and the sub-page of the area from the Capes website. The data relating to the evaluation process, the assessment form and faculty, student and scientific production data of all of Post-Graduate Programs of Medicine III were computed and analyzed. From these data were detected the challenges of the area for the next four years (2013-2016). Among the 3,806 PPG, Medicine III had 41 PPG during last triennial evaluation and progressed from 18% to 43% of PPG very good or more concept (triennium 2001-2003 and 2010-2012). Most PPG were located in the South-East region (32), three in the South and two in the North-East. There was no PPG in North or Central-West regions. In 2013 and 2014 there were four approved Professional Master Degree Programs and one Master (M) and Doctorate (PhD). The average of permanent professors was 558 teachers with about three students/professor. The number of PhD graduates has increased as well as the reason PhD/MD. The proportion of in high impact periodicals (A1, A2, B1 and B2) jumped from 30% to 50% demonstrating positive community response to the policy area. The challenges identified were: decrease regional asymmetry, increase the number of masters and doctors of excellence, reassessment of Brazilian journals, stimulate and set internationalization indicators, including post-doctors and definition of its indicators, the PPG nucleation analysis, PPG 3x3, include primary and secondary education, professional master and indicators of technological scientific production and solidarity. Medicine III has been scientifically consolidated and their scientific researchers demonstrated maturity reaching a high level and matched to areas of greatest

  17. Quantum synchronization of quantum van der Pol oscillators with trapped ions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tony E; Sadeghpour, H R

    2013-12-06

    The van der Pol oscillator is the prototypical self-sustained oscillator and has been used to model nonlinear behavior in biological and other classical processes. We investigate how quantum fluctuations affect phase locking of one or many van der Pol oscillators. We find that phase locking is much more robust in the quantum model than in the equivalent classical model. Trapped-ion experiments are ideally suited to simulate van der Pol oscillators in the quantum regime via sideband heating and cooling of motional modes. We provide realistic experimental parameters for 171Yb+ achievable with current technology.

  18. Dynamical property analysis of fractionally damped van der pol oscillator and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Qiuhui; Zhang, Chunrui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the fractionally damped van der pol equation was studied. Firstly, the fractionally damped van der pol equation was transformed into a set of integer order equations. Then the Lyapunov exponents diagram was given. Secondly, it was transformed into a set of fractional integral equations and solved by a predictor-corrector method. The time domain diagrams and phase trajectory were used to describe the dynamic behavior. Finally, the fractionally damped van der pol equation was used to detect a weak signal.

  19. Jacobus Schroeder van der Kolk (1797-1862): his resistance against materialism.

    PubMed

    Eling, P

    1998-07-01

    Schroeder van der Kolk is regarded as the founder of Dutch psychiatry and neurology. This paper describes his vitalistic views on the relation between body and soul, as formulated by him in a series of lectures. These lectures were intended to counteract the materialistic tendencies of some of Schroeder van der Kolk's French and German contemporaries. It is argued that Schroeder van der Kolk can be regarded as the transition in Holland from the "Naturphilosophie" approach to the modern experimental approach in physiology. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  20. van der Waals Heterostructures with High Accuracy Rotational Alignment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyounghwan; Yankowitz, Matthew; Fallahazad, Babak; Kang, Sangwoo; Movva, Hema C P; Huang, Shengqiang; Larentis, Stefano; Corbet, Chris M; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Banerjee, Sanjay K; LeRoy, Brian J; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2016-03-09

    We describe the realization of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures with accurate rotational alignment of individual layer crystal axes. We illustrate the approach by demonstrating a Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene formed using successive transfers of monolayer graphene flakes. The Raman spectra of this artificial bilayer graphene possess a wide 2D band, which is best fit by four Lorentzians, consistent with Bernal stacking. Scanning tunneling microscopy reveals no moiré pattern on the artificial bilayer graphene, and tunneling spectroscopy as a function of gate voltage reveals a constant density of states, also in agreement with Bernal stacking. In addition, electron transport probed in dual-gated samples reveals a band gap opening as a function of transverse electric field. To illustrate the applicability of this technique to realize vdW heterostructuctures in which the functionality is critically dependent on rotational alignment, we demonstrate resonant tunneling double bilayer graphene heterostructures separated by hexagonal boron-nitride dielectric.

  1. Infrared hyperbolic metasurface based on nanostructured van der Waals materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peining; Dolado, Irene; Alfaro-Mozaz, Francisco Javier; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.; Liu, Song; Edgar, James H.; Nikitin, Alexey Y.; Vélez, Saül; Hillenbrand, Rainer

    2018-02-01

    Metasurfaces with strongly anisotropic optical properties can support deep subwavelength-scale confined electromagnetic waves (polaritons), which promise opportunities for controlling light in photonic and optoelectronic applications. We developed a mid-infrared hyperbolic metasurface by nanostructuring a thin layer of hexagonal boron nitride that supports deep subwavelength-scale phonon polaritons that propagate with in-plane hyperbolic dispersion. By applying an infrared nanoimaging technique, we visualize the concave (anomalous) wavefronts of a diverging polariton beam, which represent a landmark feature of hyperbolic polaritons. The results illustrate how near-field microscopy can be applied to reveal the exotic wavefronts of polaritons in anisotropic materials and demonstrate that nanostructured van der Waals materials can form a highly variable and compact platform for hyperbolic infrared metasurface devices and circuits.

  2. Nonlinearity of resistive impurity effects on van der Pauw measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, D. W.

    2006-09-01

    The dependence of van der Pauw resistivity measurements on local macroscopic inhomogeneities is shown to be nonlinear. A resistor grid network models a square laminar specimen, enabling the investigation of both positive and negative local perturbations in resistivity. The effect of inhomogeneity is measured both experimentally, for an 11×11 grid, and computationally, for both 11×11 and 101×101 grids. The maximum "shortlike" perturbation produces 3.1±0.2 times the effect predicted by the linear approximation, regardless of its position within the specimen, while all "openlike" perturbations produce a smaller effect than predicted. An empirical nonlinear correction for f(x ,y) is presented which provides excellent fit over the entire range of both positive and negative perturbations for the entire specimen.

  3. Characterization of rarefaction waves in van der Waals fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Albert; Barnard, John J.

    2015-12-01

    We calculate the isentropic evolution of an instantaneously heated foil, assuming a van der Waals equation of state with the Maxwell construction. The analysis by Yuen and Barnard [Phys. Rev. E 92, 033019 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.033019] is extended for the particular case of three degrees of freedom. We assume heating to temperatures in the vicinity of the critical point. The self-similar profiles of the rarefaction waves describing the evolution of the foil display plateaus in density and temperature due to a phase transition from the single-phase to the two-phase regime. The hydrodynamic equations are expressed in a dimensionless form and the solutions form a set of universal curves, depending on a single parameter: the dimensionless initial entropy. We characterize the rarefaction waves by calculating how the plateau length, density, pressure, temperature, velocity, internal energy, and sound speed vary with dimensionless initial entropy.

  4. Engineering Low Dimensional Materials with van der Waals Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chenhao

    Two-dimensional van der Waals materials grow into a hot and big field in condensed matter physics in the past decade. One particularly intriguing thing is the possibility to stack different layers together as one wish, like playing a Lego game, which can create artificial structures that do not exist in nature. These new structures can enable rich new physics from interlayer interaction: The interaction is strong, because in low-dimension materials electrons are exposed to the interface and are susceptible to other layers; and the screening of interaction is less prominent. The consequence is rich, not only from the extensive list of two-dimensional materials available nowadays, but also from the freedom of interlayer configuration, such as displacement and twist angle, which creates a gigantic parameter space to play with. On the other hand, however, the huge parameter space sometimes can make it challenging to describe consistently with a single picture. For example, the large periodicity or even incommensurability in van der Waals systems creates difficulty in using periodic boundary condition. Worse still, the huge superlattice unit cell and overwhelming computational efforts involved to some extent prevent the establishment of a simple physical picture to understand the evolution of system properties in the parameter space of interlayer configuration. In the first part of the dissertation, I will focus on classification of the huge parameter space into subspaces, and introduce suitable theoretical approaches for each subspace. For each approach, I will discuss its validity, limitation, general solution, as well as a specific example of application demonstrating how one can obtain the most important effects of interlayer interaction with little computation efforts. Combining all the approaches introduced will provide an analytic solution to cover majority of the parameter space, which will be very helpful in understanding the intuitive physical picture behind

  5. The history of Werner Spalteholz's Handatlas der Anatomie des Menschen.

    PubMed

    Williams, D J

    1999-12-01

    Werner Spalteholz's Handatlas der Anatomie des Menschen is one of the most elegantly illustrated anatomical atlases of all time. Originally published in Leipzig as three volumes from 1895 to 1903, the atlas is still widely used and remains highly regarded by many. The atlas was remarkably popular during the first half of the 20th century, especially the English version in North America and the UK. Unfortunately, the original illustrations and printing plates for the work disappeared following the Second World War and their fate remains a mystery. And, in spite of the atlas's popularity, little is known to the men who prepared the artwork for Spalteholz. It is commonly believed that Max Brödel contributed illustrations to the atlas, but a close examination of the work does not confirm this. A century after its inception, Spalteholz's atlas remains a classic milestone in the history of anatomical illustration.

  6. The impact of ancillary services in optimal DER investment decisions

    DOE PAGES

    Cardoso, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Mashayekh, Salman; ...

    2017-04-25

    Microgrid resource sizing problems typically include the analysis of a combination of value streams such as peak shaving, load shifting, or load scheduling, which support the economic feasibility of the microgrid deployment. However, microgrid benefits can go beyond these, and the ability to provide ancillary grid services such as frequency regulation or spinning and non-spinning reserves is well known, despite typically not being considered in resource sizing problems. This paper proposes the expansion of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), a state-of-the-art microgrid resource sizing model, to include revenue streams resulting from the participation in ancillary service markets.more » Results suggest that participation in such markets may not only influence the optimum resource sizing, but also the operational dispatch, with results being strongly influenced by the exact market requirements and clearing prices.« less

  7. Flexible ferroelectric element based on van der Waals heteroepitaxy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Bitla, Yugandhar; Huang, Chun-Wei; Do, Thi Hien; Liu, Heng-Jui; Hsieh, Ying-Hui; Ma, Chun-Hao; Jang, Chi-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Hong; Chiu, Po-Wen; Wu, Wen-Wei; Chen, Yi-Chun; Zhou, Yi-Chun; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2017-06-01

    We present a promising technology for nonvolatile flexible electronic devices: A direct fabrication of epitaxial lead zirconium titanate (PZT) on flexible mica substrate via van der Waals epitaxy. These single-crystalline flexible ferroelectric PZT films not only retain their performance, reliability, and thermal stability comparable to those on rigid counterparts in tests of nonvolatile memory elements but also exhibit remarkable mechanical properties with robust operation in bent states (bending radii down to 2.5 mm) and cycling tests (1000 times). This study marks the technological advancement toward realizing much-awaited flexible yet single-crystalline nonvolatile electronic devices for the design and development of flexible, lightweight, and next-generation smart devices with potential applications in electronics, robotics, automotive, health care, industrial, and military systems.

  8. Flexible ferroelectric element based on van der Waals heteroepitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jie; Bitla, Yugandhar; Huang, Chun-Wei; Do, Thi Hien; Liu, Heng-Jui; Hsieh, Ying-Hui; Ma, Chun-Hao; Jang, Chi-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Hong; Chiu, Po-Wen; Wu, Wen-Wei; Chen, Yi-Chun; Zhou, Yi-Chun; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2017-01-01

    We present a promising technology for nonvolatile flexible electronic devices: A direct fabrication of epitaxial lead zirconium titanate (PZT) on flexible mica substrate via van der Waals epitaxy. These single-crystalline flexible ferroelectric PZT films not only retain their performance, reliability, and thermal stability comparable to those on rigid counterparts in tests of nonvolatile memory elements but also exhibit remarkable mechanical properties with robust operation in bent states (bending radii down to 2.5 mm) and cycling tests (1000 times). This study marks the technological advancement toward realizing much-awaited flexible yet single-crystalline nonvolatile electronic devices for the design and development of flexible, lightweight, and next-generation smart devices with potential applications in electronics, robotics, automotive, health care, industrial, and military systems. PMID:28630922

  9. The impact of ancillary services in optimal DER investment decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoso, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Mashayekh, Salman

    Microgrid resource sizing problems typically include the analysis of a combination of value streams such as peak shaving, load shifting, or load scheduling, which support the economic feasibility of the microgrid deployment. However, microgrid benefits can go beyond these, and the ability to provide ancillary grid services such as frequency regulation or spinning and non-spinning reserves is well known, despite typically not being considered in resource sizing problems. This paper proposes the expansion of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), a state-of-the-art microgrid resource sizing model, to include revenue streams resulting from the participation in ancillary service markets.more » Results suggest that participation in such markets may not only influence the optimum resource sizing, but also the operational dispatch, with results being strongly influenced by the exact market requirements and clearing prices.« less

  10. A Scalable Implementation of Van der Waals Density Functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun; Gygi, Francois

    2010-03-01

    Recently developed Van der Waals density functionals[1] offer the promise to account for weak intermolecular interactions that are not described accurately by local exchange-correlation density functionals. In spite of recent progress [2], the computational cost of such calculations remains high. We present a scalable parallel implementation of the functional proposed by Dion et al.[1]. The method is implemented in the Qbox first-principles simulation code (http://eslab.ucdavis.edu/software/qbox). Application to large molecular systems will be presented. [4pt] [1] M. Dion et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004).[0pt] [2] G. Roman-Perez and J. M. Soler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 096102 (2009).

  11. A crossover in anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of van der Waals crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Misawa, Masaaki; Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Vashishta, Priya

    2015-12-01

    In nanoscale mechanochemistry, mechanical forces selectively break covalent bonds to essentially control chemical reactions. An archetype is anisotropic detonation of layered energetic molecular crystals bonded by van der Waals (vdW) interactions. Here, quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a crossover of anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of vdW crystal. Within 10-13 s from the passage of shock front, lateral collision produces NO2 via twisting and bending of nitro-groups and the resulting inverse Jahn-Teller effect, which is mediated by strong intra-layer hydrogen bonds. Subsequently, as we transition from heterogeneous to homogeneous mechanochemical regimes around 10-12 s, shock normal to multilayers becomes more reactive, producing H2O assisted by inter-layer N-N bond formation. These time-resolved results provide much needed atomistic understanding of nanomechanochemistry that underlies a wider range of technologies.

  12. Personality-situation transactions from adolescence to old age.

    PubMed

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela

    2016-05-01

    People presumably choose and create their daily environments according to their personality. Prior research shows that, for example, more extraverted people engage more often in social situations, and more conscientious people engage more often in work-related activities compared with less extraverted or less conscientious people, respectively. The current study examined such personality-situation transactions in people's daily life. Based on the assumption that older people know themselves and their personality better than younger people, we investigated whether momentary and proximate personality-situation associations (i.e., changing from 1 type of situation into another) increase with older age. Three-hundred and 78 people aged 14 to 82 years described their Big Five traits and took part in a 3-week experience-sampling phase. Using mobile-phone based assessments in daily life, participants reported on average 55 times on their momentary situation. Multilevel modeling results showed that personality-situation associations varied with the age of participants. Some of the "established" personality-situation associations, such as for extraversion and time spent with friends or conscientiousness and time spent with work activities, were only observed in adolescence and young adulthood. In contrast, other personality-situation associations appeared only in late adulthood, such as for openness and time spent with friends. Yet most personality-situation associations did not vary significantly with people's age. In addition, personality traits predicted maintaining or entering personality-congruent situations. The latter results point to the active role of personality in shaping one's environment. The findings imply that some personality-situation transactions may be largely similarly across the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 15th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the fifth collection of essays on the history of astronomy (Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains 11 major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 20th centuries. The first article, on the analysis and interpretation of historical horoscopes as a source of the history of science, is based on the inaugural lecture of its author, Guenther Oestmann. After a general introduction, which deals with the principles of horoscope making, the author discusses the horoscope of Count Heinrich Ranzau (1526-1598), the Danish governor of Schleswig-Holstein, who was a friend of Tycho Brahe. Oestmann shows that the astronomical-mathematical basis of such a horoscope can be reconstructed and interpreted. However, it is hardly possible to gain an insight in the process how the interpretation of a horoscope was done in detail. The second and third articles, by Franz Daxecker, deal with Athanasius Kircher and Christoph Scheiner, two catholic astronomers of the 17th century. Kircher's Organum Mathematicum is a calculating device that can be used in the fields of arithmetic, geometry, chronology, astronomy, astrology and others. The author provides extracts of the description of the Organum taken from a book by Caspar Schott, which deal with chronology and astronomy. A photograph of the Organum indicates that this tool consists of a set of tables glued on wooden or cardboard, but details of its contents and applications remain pretty obscure for the reader - a few elaborated examples would have been helpful. The second paper deals with the life of Christoph Scheiner SJ, the co-discoverer of sunspots (next to Galileo), after leaving Rome in 1633 - the year of the Galileo trial. Scheiner spent his later years in the Austrian and

  14. Birth Order, Gender and Affiliation in Various Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Shaul

    1981-01-01

    Administered two questionnaires to 800 Israeli subjects which examine the affiliation need in four groups of situations. No differences were found between first and later-borns in their tendency to associate with others. Results showed significant interaction between sex and specific situational factors. (Author/RC)

  15. Situated Literacies: Reading and Writing in Context. Literacies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, David, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Ivanic, Roz, Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on situated literacies and reading and writing in context. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Denny Taylor); "Introduction: Exploring Situated Literacies"; "Literacy Practices" (David Barton, Mary Hamilton); "Expanding the New Literacy Studies: Using Photographs To Explore…

  16. Situational Leadership and Innovation in the EFL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osburne, Andrea G.

    A case-study approach is presented to demonstrate how to use situational leadership (a management theory model developed by Hersey and Blanchard) to make students in teacher education programs more receptive to educational innovation in second language learning. Situational leadership theory defines a leader as anyone trying to influence another…

  17. Establishing the situated features associated with perceived stress

    PubMed Central

    Lebois, Lauren A.M.; Hertzog, Christopher; Slavich, George M.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2016-01-01

    We propose that the domain general process of categorization contributes to the perception of stress. When a situation contains features associated with stressful experiences, it is categorized as stressful. From the perspective of situated cognition, the features used to categorize experiences as stressful are the features typically true of stressful situations. To test this hypothesis, we asked participants to evaluate the perceived stress of 572 imagined situations, and to also evaluate each situation for how much it possessed 19 features potentially associated with stressful situations and their processing (e.g., self-threat, familiarity, visual imagery, outcome certainty). Following variable reduction through factor analysis, a core set of 8 features associated with stressful situations—expectation violation, self-threat, coping efficacy, bodily experience, arousal, negative valence, positive valence, and perseveration—all loaded on a single Core Stress Features factor. In a multilevel model, this factor and an Imagery factor explained 88% of the variance in judgments of perceived stress, with significant random effects reflecting differences in how individual participants categorized stress. These results support the hypothesis that people categorize situations as stressful to the extent that typical features of stressful situations are present. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to establish a comprehensive set of features that predicts perceived stress. PMID:27288834

  18. Cockpit resources management and the theory of the situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolman, L.

    1984-01-01

    The cockpit resource management (CRM) and hypothetical cockpit situations are discussed. Four different conditions which influence pilot action are outlined: (1) wrong assumptions about a situation; (2) stress and workload; (3) frustration and delays to cause risk taking; and (4) ambigious incomplete or contradicting information. Human factors and behavior, and pilot communication and management in the simulator are outlined.

  19. Using Situational Factors to Predict Types of Prison Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Pamela

    1991-01-01

    Tested situational factors as predictors of types of individual aggressive incidents in male prison population. Categorized incidents of violence by whether occurrence of infraction involved aggressive behavior directed at staff, another inmate, self, or property. Found that situational variables did serve as predictors of these categories of…

  20. Situation Report - El Salvador, Republic of Korea, and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in three foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are El Salvador, Republic of Korea, and South Africa. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers…

  1. Bullying, Cheating, Deceiving: Teachers' Perception of Deceitful Situations at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marksteiner, Tamara; Reinhard, Marc-­André; Lettau, Florian; Dickhäuser, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated in which situations teachers (would) investigate whether a student was lying or telling the truth and how these situations were perceived. Results of Study 1 indicate that teachers (would) interview students when it comes to use of unfair means, aggressive behavior, theft, absence without permission, bullying, and…

  2. Empirical Evidence for Niss' "Implemented Anticipation" in Mathematising Realistic Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillman, Gloria; Brown, Jill P.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematisation of realistic situations is an on-going focus of research. Classroom data from a Year 9 class participating in a program of structured modelling of real situations was analysed for evidence of Niss's theoretical construct, implemented anticipation, during mathematisation. Evidence was found for two of three proposed aspects. In…

  3. An Inquiry into the Structure of Situational Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Flávio S.

    2018-01-01

    I advance theoretically and empirically grounded arguments for broadening how we frame and understand situational interests. A situational interest refers to the short-term spike in a person's attention and participation in an activity and it is triggered in the interactions between the person and environment features (e.g., novelty and surprise).…

  4. Learning to Fly--The Progressive Development of Situation Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melander, Helen; Sahlstrom, Fritjof

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to argue learning as interaction, and how processes of learning a content as constituted in interaction, can be approached analytically and theoretically. Within aviation, the concept of situation awareness (SA) is used to describe a pilot's capability of correctly perceiving and interpreting a situation, and of…

  5. The Neglected Situation: Assessment Performance and Interaction in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Informed by Goffman's influential essay on "The neglected situation" this paper examines the contextual and interactive dimensions of performance in large-scale educational assessments. The paper applies Goffman's participation framework and associated theory in linguistic anthropology to examine how testing situations are framed and…

  6. The Situated Nature of Preschool Children's Conflict Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the peer conflict strategies of preschool children are situated and therefore vary across different conflict situations. Hypothetical conflict interviews were administered through a series of puppet shows. Participants were 178 preschool children. Results indicate that preschool children's conflict…

  7. Exploring Situational Interest Sources in the French Physical Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roure, Cédric; Pasco, Denis

    2018-01-01

    Based on the framework of interest, studies have shown that situational interest possesses strong motivation potential for students in physical education. Understanding how teachers can use situational interest in a classroom context is critical to motivate students. However, such investigations have been exclusively conducted in the United States…

  8. Situation Reports--Guadeloupe, Italy, Nigeria, and Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning are presented in these situation reports for four foreign countries: Guadeloupe, Italy, Nigeria, and Norway. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background covers ethnic groups, language, religion,…

  9. Situation Reports--Cuba, Guyana, St. Vincent, and Surinam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Cuba, Guyana, St. Vincent, and Surinam. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background covers ethnic groups,…

  10. Situation Report--Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers ethnic…

  11. Situation Report--Ghana, India, and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in three foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Ghana, India, and South Africa. Information is provided under two topics: general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers ethnic groups,…

  12. Situated Analysis of Team Handball Players' Decisions: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenzen, Benoit; Theunissen, Catherine; Cloes, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed to investigate elements involved in decision making in team handball live situations and to provide coaches and educators with teaching recommendations. The study was positioned within the framework of the situated-action paradigm of which two aspects were of particular interest for this project: (a) the relationship…

  13. Distance Education and Situated Learning: Paradox or Partnership?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Hans G. K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the possibilities of using situated learning theory in distance education and describes the instructional design of a course on soil and the environment offered at the Open University of the Netherlands that incorporates situated learning. The use of interactive videodisk is described. (Contains 49 references.) (LRW)

  14. 29 CFR 785.35 - Home to work; ordinary situation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Home to work; ordinary situation. 785.35 Section 785.35... Principles Traveltime § 785.35 Home to work; ordinary situation. An employee who travels from home before his regular workday and returns to his home at the end of the workday is engaged in ordinary home to work...

  15. 29 CFR 785.35 - Home to work; ordinary situation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Home to work; ordinary situation. 785.35 Section 785.35... Principles Traveltime § 785.35 Home to work; ordinary situation. An employee who travels from home before his regular workday and returns to his home at the end of the workday is engaged in ordinary home to work...

  16. 29 CFR 785.35 - Home to work; ordinary situation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Home to work; ordinary situation. 785.35 Section 785.35... Principles Traveltime § 785.35 Home to work; ordinary situation. An employee who travels from home before his regular workday and returns to his home at the end of the workday is engaged in ordinary home to work...

  17. 29 CFR 785.35 - Home to work; ordinary situation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Home to work; ordinary situation. 785.35 Section 785.35... Principles Traveltime § 785.35 Home to work; ordinary situation. An employee who travels from home before his regular workday and returns to his home at the end of the workday is engaged in ordinary home to work...

  18. 29 CFR 785.35 - Home to work; ordinary situation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Home to work; ordinary situation. 785.35 Section 785.35... Principles Traveltime § 785.35 Home to work; ordinary situation. An employee who travels from home before his regular workday and returns to his home at the end of the workday is engaged in ordinary home to work...

  19. Participation and Gender in Circle-Time Situations in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emilson, Anette; Johansson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to investigate participatory values in relation to gender, as expressed in interactions between teachers and children in circle-time situations in Swedish and Norwegian preschools. This paper reports evidence from three research questions: How is children's participation conditioned in circle-time situations? How are…

  20. Treating Estimation and Mental Computation as Situated Mathematical Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Edward A.

    This paper discusses the central thesis that new research on estimation and mental computation will benefit from more focused attention on the situations in which they are used. In the first section of the paper, a brief discussion of cognitive theory, with special attention to the emerging notion of situated cognition is presented. Three sources…