BOOK REVIEW: Symmetry Breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryder, L. H.
2005-11-01
One of the most fruitful and enduring advances in theoretical physics during the last half century has been the development of the role played by symmetries. One needs only to consider SU(3) and the classification of elementary particles, the Yang Mills enlargement of Maxwell's electrodynamics to the symmetry group SU(2), and indeed the tremendous activity surrounding the discovery of parity violation in the weak interactions in the late 1950s. This last example is one of a broken symmetry, though the symmetry in question is a discrete one. It was clear to Gell-Mann, who first clarified the role of SU(3) in particle physics, that this symmetry was not exact. If it had been, it would have been much easier to discover; for example, the proton, neutron, Σ, Λ and Ξ particles would all have had the same mass. For many years the SU(3) symmetry breaking was assigned a mathematical form, but the importance of this formulation fell away when the quark model began to be taken seriously; the reason the SU(3) symmetry was not exact was simply that the (three, in those days) quarks had different masses. At the same time, and in a different context, symmetry breaking of a different type was being investigated. This went by the name of `spontaneous symmetry breaking' and its characteristic was that the ground state of a given system was not invariant under the symmetry transformation, though the interactions (the Hamiltonian, in effect) was. A classic example is ferromagnetism. In a ferromagnet the atomic spins are aligned in one direction only—this is the ground state of the system. It is clearly not invariant under a rotation, for that would change the ground state into a (similar but) different one, with the spins aligned in a different direction; this is the phenomenon of a degenerate vacuum. The contribution of the spin interaction, s1.s2, to the Hamiltonian, however, is actually invariant under rotations. As Coleman remarked, a little man living in a ferromagnet would
Symmetry breaking by bifundamentals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schellekens, A. N.
2018-03-01
We derive all possible symmetry breaking patterns for all possible Higgs fields that can occur in intersecting brane models: bifundamentals and rank-2 tensors. This is a field-theoretic problem that was already partially solved in 1973 by Ling-Fong Li [1]. In that paper the solution was given for rank-2 tensors of orthogonal and unitary group, and U (N )×U (M ) and O (N )×O (M ) bifundamentals. We extend this first of all to symplectic groups. When formulated correctly, this turns out to be straightforward generalization of the previous results from real and complex numbers to quaternions. The extension to mixed bifundamentals is more challenging and interesting. The scalar potential has up to six real parameters. Its minima or saddle points are described by block-diagonal matrices built out of K blocks of size p ×q . Here p =q =1 for the solutions of Ling-Fong Li, and the number of possibilities for p ×q is equal to the number of real parameters in the potential, minus 1. The maximum block size is p ×q =2 ×4 . Different blocks cannot be combined, and the true minimum occurs for one choice of basic block, and for either K =1 or K maximal, depending on the parameter values.
Fermion mass without symmetry breaking
Catterall, Simon
2016-01-20
We examine a model of reduced staggered fermions in three dimensions interacting through an SO (4) invariant four fermion interaction. The model is similar to that considered in a recent paper by Ayyer and Chandrasekharan. We present theoretical arguments and numerical evidence which support the idea that the system develops a mass gap for sufficiently strong four fermi coupling without producing a symmetry breaking fermion bilinear condensate. As a result, massless and massive phases appear to be separated by a continuous phase transition.
Naturalness of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Espinosa, J. R.
2007-02-01
After revisiting the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model and its implications for the scale of New Physics, I consider the fine tuning problem of electroweak symmetry breaking in two main scenarios beyond the Standard Model: SUSY and Little Higgs models. The main conclusions are that New Physics should appear on the reach of the LHC; that some SUSY models can solve the hierarchy problem with acceptable residual fine tuning and, finally, that Little Higgs models generically suffer from large tunings, many times hidden.
History of electroweak symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kibble, T. W. B.
2015-07-01
In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.
Nonlinear symmetry breaking in photometamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorlach, Maxim A.; Dobrykh, Dmitry A.; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P.; Belov, Pavel A.; Lapine, Mikhail
2018-03-01
We design and analyze theoretically photometamaterials with each meta-atom containing both photodiode and light-emitting diode. Illumination of the photodiode by the light-emitting diode gives rise to an additional optical feedback within each unit cell, which strongly affects resonant properties and nonlinear response of the meta-atom. In particular, we demonstrate that inversion symmetry breaking occurs upon a certain threshold magnitude of the incident wave intensity resulting in an abrupt emergence of second-harmonic generation, which was not originally available, as well as in the reduced third-harmonic signal.
Rotational Symmetry Breaking in Baby Skyrme Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karliner, Marek; Hen, Itay
We discuss one of the most interesting phenomena exhibited by baby skyrmions - breaking of rotational symmetry. The topics we will deal with here include the appearance of rotational symmetry breaking in the static solutions of baby Skyrme models, both in flat as well as in curved spaces, the zero-temperature crystalline structure of baby skyrmions, and finally, the appearance of spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in rotating baby skyrmions.
Symmetry breaking in tensor models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benedetti, Dario; Gurau, Razvan
2015-11-01
In this paper we analyze a quartic tensor model with one interaction for a tensor of arbitrary rank. This model has a critical point where a continuous limit of infinitely refined random geometries is reached. We show that the critical point corresponds to a phase transition in the tensor model associated to a breaking of the unitary symmetry. We analyze the model in the two phases and prove that, in a double scaling limit, the symmetric phase corresponds to a theory of infinitely refined random surfaces, while the broken phase corresponds to a theory of infinitely refined random nodal surfaces. At leading order in the double scaling limit planar surfaces dominate in the symmetric phase, and planar nodal surfaces dominate in the broken phase.
A parametric symmetry breaking transducer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eichler, Alexander; Heugel, Toni L.; Leuch, Anina; Degen, Christian L.; Chitra, R.; Zilberberg, Oded
2018-06-01
Force detectors rely on resonators to transduce forces into a readable signal. Usually, these resonators operate in the linear regime and their signal appears amidst a competing background comprising thermal or quantum fluctuations as well as readout noise. Here, we demonstrate a parametric symmetry breaking transduction method that leads to a robust nonlinear force detection in the presence of noise. The force signal is encoded in the frequency at which the system jumps between two phase states which are inherently protected against phase noise. Consequently, the transduction effectively decouples from readout noise channels. For a controlled demonstration of the method, we experiment with a macroscopic doubly clamped string. Our method provides a promising paradigm for high-precision force detection.
Gauge Theories and Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking.
1980-11-01
This report summarizes attempts to understand in what way spontaneous symmetry breaking arose in the context of guage field theories of elementary...gauge field theories. It was felt that the symmetry breaking used by the physicists (a procedure known as the Higgs mechanism) is not precisely a
Some Quantum Symmetries and Their Breaking II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selesnick, S. A.
2013-04-01
We consider symmetry breaking in the context of vector bundle theory, which arises quite naturally not only when attempting to "gauge" symmetry groups, but also as a means of localizing those global symmetry breaking effects known as spontaneous. We review such spontaneous symmetry breaking first for a simplified version of the Goldstone scenario for the case of global symmetries, and then in a localized form which is applied to a derivation of some of the phenomena associated with superconduction in both its forms, type I and type II. We then extend these procedures to effect the Higgs mechanism of electroweak theory, and finally we describe an extension to the flavor symmetries of the lightest quarks, including a brief discussion of CP-violation in the neutral kaon system. A largely self-contained primer of vector bundle theory is provided in Sect. 4, which supplies most of the results required thereafter.
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Mingkai; Powell, David A.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Lapine, Mikhail; Kivshar, Yuri S.
2014-07-01
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking underpins a variety of areas such as subatomic physics and biochemistry, and leads to an impressive range of fundamental phenomena. Here we show that this prominent effect is now available in artificial electromagnetic systems, enabled by the advent of magnetoelastic metamaterials where a mechanical degree of freedom leads to a rich variety of strong nonlinear effects such as bistability and self-oscillations. We report spontaneous symmetry breaking in torsional chiral magnetoelastic structures where two or more meta-molecules with opposite handedness are electromagnetically coupled, modifying the system stability. Importantly, we show that chiral symmetry breaking can be found in the stationary response of the system, and the effect is successfully demonstrated in a microwave pump-probe experiment. Such symmetry breaking can lead to a giant nonlinear polarization change, energy localization and mode splitting, which provides a new possibility for creating an artificial phase transition in metamaterials, analogous to that in ferrimagnetic domains.
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in metamaterials.
Liu, Mingkai; Powell, David A; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Lapine, Mikhail; Kivshar, Yuri S
2014-07-18
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking underpins a variety of areas such as subatomic physics and biochemistry, and leads to an impressive range of fundamental phenomena. Here we show that this prominent effect is now available in artificial electromagnetic systems, enabled by the advent of magnetoelastic metamaterials where a mechanical degree of freedom leads to a rich variety of strong nonlinear effects such as bistability and self-oscillations. We report spontaneous symmetry breaking in torsional chiral magnetoelastic structures where two or more meta-molecules with opposite handedness are electromagnetically coupled, modifying the system stability. Importantly, we show that chiral symmetry breaking can be found in the stationary response of the system, and the effect is successfully demonstrated in a microwave pump-probe experiment. Such symmetry breaking can lead to a giant nonlinear polarization change, energy localization and mode splitting, which provides a new possibility for creating an artificial phase transition in metamaterials, analogous to that in ferrimagnetic domains.
Symmetry breaking patterns for inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Remko; Roest, Diederik; Stefanyszyn, David
2018-06-01
We study inflationary models where the kinetic sector of the theory has a non-linearly realised symmetry which is broken by the inflationary potential. We distinguish between kinetic symmetries which non-linearly realise an internal or space-time group, and which yield a flat or curved scalar manifold. This classification leads to well-known inflationary models such as monomial inflation and α-attractors, as well as a new model based on fixed couplings between a dilaton and many axions which non-linearly realises higher-dimensional conformal symmetries. In this model, inflation can be realised along the dilatonic direction, leading to a tensor-to-scalar ratio r ˜ 0 .01 and a spectral index n s ˜ 0 .975. We refer to the new model as ambient inflation since inflation proceeds along an isometry of an anti-de Sitter ambient space-time, which fully determines the kinetic sector.
Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Nonrelativistic Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Haruki
The subject of condensed matter physics is very rich --- there are an infinite number of parameters producing a diversity of exciting phenomena. As a theorist, my goal is to distill general principles out of this complexity --- to construct theories that can coherently explain many known examples altogether. This thesis is composed of several attempts to develop such theories in topics related to spontaneously symmetry breaking. A remarkable feature of many-body interacting systems is that although they are described by equations respecting various symmetries, they may spontaneously organize into a state that explicitly breaks symmetries. Examples are numerous: various types of crystalline and magnetic orders, Bose-Einstein condensates of cold atoms, superfluids of liquid helium, chiral symmetry in QCD, neutron stars, and cosmic inflation. These systems with spontaneously broken continuous symmetries have gapless excitations, so called Nambu-Goldstone bosons (NGBs). Although the properties of NGBs are well understood in Lorentz-invariant systems, surprisingly, some basic properties of NGBs such as their number and dispersion in nonrelativistic systems have not been discussed from a general perspective. In the first part of this thesis, we solve this issue by developing and analyzing an effective Lagrangian that coherently captures the low-energy, long-distance physics of many different symmetry-breaking states all at once. Next, we examine whether these NGBs originating from spontaneous symmetry breaking remain to be well-defined excitations inside a metal, where low-energy electrons near Fermi surface can collide with them. Our result is a one equation criterion that specifies whether the interactions between electrons and NGBs can be ignored, or whether it completely changes their character. In the latter case, unusual phases of matter such as non-Fermi liquids may arise; in that case, NGBs are overdamped and cannot form particle-like excitations in spite of the
Steering particles by breaking symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bet, Bram; Samin, Sela; Georgiev, Rumen; Burak Eral, Huseyin; van Roij, René
2018-06-01
We derive general equations of motions for highly-confined particles that perform quasi-two-dimensional motion in Hele-Shaw channels, which we solve analytically, aiming to derive design principles for self-steering particles. Based on symmetry properties of a particle, its equations of motion can be simplified, where we retrieve an earlier-known equation of motion for the orientation of dimer particles consisting of disks (Uspal et al 2013 Nat. Commun. 4), but now in full generality. Subsequently, these solutions are compared with particle trajectories that are obtained numerically. For mirror-symmetric particles, excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical solutions is found. For particles lacking mirror symmetry, the analytic solutions provide means to classify the motion based on particle geometry, while we find that taking the side-wall interactions into account is important to accurately describe the trajectories.
Optomechanically induced spontaneous symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Verhagen, Ewold; Alú, Andrea
2017-05-01
We explore the dynamics of spontaneous breakdown of mirror symmetry in a pair of identical optomechanical cavities symmetrically coupled to a waveguide. Large optical intensities enable optomechanically induced nonlinear detuning of the optical resonators, resulting in a pitchfork bifurcation. We investigate the stability of this regime and explore the possibility of inducing multistability. By injecting proper trigger pulses, the proposed structure can toggle between two asymmetric stable states, thus serving as a low-noise nanophotonic all-optical switch or memory element.
Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Supernova Neutrinos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raffelt, Georg G.
2015-08-01
Some recent developments in supernova neutrino physics are introduced where spontaneous symmetry breaking is a common theme. The physics of self-induced flavor conversion has acquired a new complication in that a new class of instabilities breaks axial symmetry of a neutrino stream, the multi-azimuth angle (MAA) instability. A completely different new phenomenon, discovered in the first realistic three-dimensional (3D) simulations, is the Lepton-Emission Self-sustained Asymmetry (LESA) during the accretion phase. Here, a neutrino-hydrodynamical instability breaks global spherical symmetry in that the lepton-number flux (νe minus ν‾e) develops a stable dipole pattern such that the lepton flux is almost exclusively emitted in one hemisphere.
Mutual information and spontaneous symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamma, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.
2016-01-01
We show that the metastable, symmetry-breaking ground states of quantum many-body Hamiltonians have vanishing quantum mutual information between macroscopically separated regions and are thus the most classical ones among all possible quantum ground states. This statement is obvious only when the symmetry-breaking ground states are simple product states, e.g., at the factorization point. On the other hand, symmetry-breaking states are in general entangled along the entire ordered phase, and to show that they actually feature the least macroscopic correlations compared to their symmetric superpositions is highly nontrivial. We prove this result in general, by considering the quantum mutual information based on the two-Rényi entanglement entropy and using a locality result stemming from quasiadiabatic continuation. Moreover, in the paradigmatic case of the exactly solvable one-dimensional quantum X Y model, we further verify the general result by considering also the quantum mutual information based on the von Neumann entanglement entropy.
Natural electroweak breaking from a mirror symmetry.
Chacko, Z; Goh, Hock-Seng; Harnik, Roni
2006-06-16
We present "twin Higgs models," simple realizations of the Higgs boson as a pseudo Goldstone boson that protect the weak scale from radiative corrections up to scales of order 5-10 TeV. In the ultraviolet these theories have a discrete symmetry which interchanges each standard model particle with a corresponding particle which transforms under a twin or a mirror standard model gauge group. In addition, the Higgs sector respects an approximate global symmetry. When this global symmetry is broken, the discrete symmetry tightly constrains the form of corrections to the pseudo Goldstone Higgs potential, allowing natural electroweak symmetry breaking. Precision electroweak constraints are satisfied by construction. These models demonstrate that, contrary to the conventional wisdom, stabilizing the weak scale does not require new light particles charged under the standard model gauge groups.
Symmetry-breaking oscillations in membrane optomechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wurl, C.; Alvermann, A.; Fehske, H.
2016-12-01
We study the classical dynamics of a membrane inside a cavity in the situation where this optomechanical system possesses a reflection symmetry. Symmetry breaking occurs through supercritical and subcritical pitchfork bifurcations of the static fixed-point solutions. Both bifurcations can be observed through variation of the laser-cavity detuning, which gives rise to a boomerang-like fixed-point pattern with hysteresis. The symmetry-breaking fixed points evolve into self-sustained oscillations when the laser intensity is increased. In addition to the analysis of the accompanying Hopf bifurcations we describe these oscillations at finite amplitudes with an ansatz that fully accounts for the frequency shift relative to the natural membrane frequency. We complete our study by following the route to chaos for the membrane dynamics.
Mechanochemical Symmetry Breaking in Hydra Aggregates
Mercker, Moritz; Köthe, Alexandra; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna
2015-01-01
Tissue morphogenesis comprises the self-organized creation of various patterns and shapes. Although detailed underlying mechanisms are still elusive in many cases, an increasing amount of experimental data suggests that chemical morphogen and mechanical processes are strongly coupled. Here, we develop and test a minimal model of the axis-defining step (i.e., symmetry breaking) in aggregates of the Hydra polyp. Based on previous findings, we combine osmotically driven shape oscillations with tissue mechanics and morphogen dynamics. We show that the model incorporating a simple feedback loop between morphogen patterning and tissue stretch reproduces a wide range of experimental data. Finally, we compare different hypothetical morphogen patterning mechanisms (Turing, tissue-curvature, and self-organized criticality). Our results suggest the experimental investigation of bigger (i.e., multiple head) aggregates as a key step for a deeper understanding of mechanochemical symmetry breaking in Hydra. PMID:25954896
Charmed states and flavour symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horsley, R.; Koumi, Z.; Nakamura, Y.; Perlt, H.; Rakow, P. E. L.; Schierholz, G.; Schiller, A.; Stüben, H.; Young, R. D.; Zanotti, J. M.
2018-03-01
Extending the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion from up, down and strange sea quark masses to partially quenched valence quark masses allows an extrapolation to the charm quark mass. This approach leads to a determination of charmed quark hadron masses and decay constants. We describe our recent progress and give preliminary results in particular with regard to the recently discovered doubly charmed baryon (the Ξcc++) by the LHCb Collaboration.
Charge symmetry breaking in light Λ hypernuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gal, Avraham; Gazda, Daniel
2018-02-01
Charge symmetry breaking (CSB) is particularly strong in the A = 4 mirror hypernuclei {}14\\text{H}-Λ 4\\text{He}. Recent four-body no-core shell model calculations that confront this CSB by introducing Λ-Σ0 mixing to leading-order chiral effective field theory hyperon-nucleon potentials are reviewed, and a shell-model approach to CSB in p-shell Λ hypernuclei is outlined.
Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in Historical Perspective
Quigg, Chris
2015-10-01
The discovery of the Higgs boson is a major milestone in our progress toward understanding the natural world. A particular aim of my review is to show how diverse ideas came together in the conception of electroweak symmetry breaking that led up to the discovery. Furthermore, I survey what we know now that we did not know before, what properties of the Higgs boson remain to be established, and what new questions we may now hope to address.
Higgsless approach to electroweak symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grojean, Christophe
2007-11-01
Higgsless models are an attempt to achieve a breaking of the electroweak symmetry via boundary conditions at the end-points of a fifth dimension compactified on an interval, as an alternative to the usual Higgs mechanism. There is no physical Higgs scalar in the spectrum and the perturbative unitarity violation scale is delayed via the exchange of massive spin-1 KK resonances. The correct mass spectrum is reproduced in a model in warped space, which inherits a custodial symmetry from a left-right gauge symmetry in the bulk. Phenomenological challenges as well as collider signatures are presented. From the AdS/CFT perspective, this model appears as a weakly coupled dual to walking technicolour models. To cite this article: C. Grojean, C. R. Physique 8 (2007).
Golden probe of electroweak symmetry breaking
Chen, Yi; Lykken, Joe; Spiropulu, Maria
The ratio of the Higgs couplings tomore » $WW$ and $ZZ$ pairs, $$\\lambda_{WZ}$$, is a fundamental parameter in electroweak symmetry breaking as well as a measure of the (approximate) custodial symmetry possessed by the gauge boson mass matrix. We show that Higgs decays to four leptons are sensitive, via tree level/1-loop interference effects, to both the magnitude and, in particular, overall sign of $$\\lambda_{WZ}$$. Determining this sign requires interference effects, as it is nearly impossible to measure with rate information. Furthermore, simply determining the sign effectively establishes the custodial representation of the Higgs boson. We find that $$h\\to4\\ell$$ ($$4\\ell \\equiv 2e2\\mu, 4e, 4\\mu$$) decays have excellent prospects of directly establishing the overall sign at a high luminosity 13 TeV LHC. We also examine the ultimate LHC sensitivity in $$h\\to4\\ell$$ to the magnitude of $$\\lambda_{WZ}$$. Our results are independent of other measurements of the Higgs boson couplings and, in particular, largely free of assumptions about the top quark Yukawa couplings which also enter at 1-loop. Furthermore, this makes $$h\\to4\\ell$$ a unique and independent probe of the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism and custodial symmetry.« less
Golden probe of electroweak symmetry breaking
Chen, Yi; Lykken, Joe; Spiropulu, Maria; ...
2016-12-09
The ratio of the Higgs couplings tomore » $WW$ and $ZZ$ pairs, $$\\lambda_{WZ}$$, is a fundamental parameter in electroweak symmetry breaking as well as a measure of the (approximate) custodial symmetry possessed by the gauge boson mass matrix. We show that Higgs decays to four leptons are sensitive, via tree level/1-loop interference effects, to both the magnitude and, in particular, overall sign of $$\\lambda_{WZ}$$. Determining this sign requires interference effects, as it is nearly impossible to measure with rate information. Furthermore, simply determining the sign effectively establishes the custodial representation of the Higgs boson. We find that $$h\\to4\\ell$$ ($$4\\ell \\equiv 2e2\\mu, 4e, 4\\mu$$) decays have excellent prospects of directly establishing the overall sign at a high luminosity 13 TeV LHC. We also examine the ultimate LHC sensitivity in $$h\\to4\\ell$$ to the magnitude of $$\\lambda_{WZ}$$. Our results are independent of other measurements of the Higgs boson couplings and, in particular, largely free of assumptions about the top quark Yukawa couplings which also enter at 1-loop. Furthermore, this makes $$h\\to4\\ell$$ a unique and independent probe of the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism and custodial symmetry.« less
Translational Symmetry-Breaking for Spiral Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LeBlanc, V. G.; Wulff, C.
2000-10-01
Spiral waves are observed in numerous physical situations, ranging from Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) chemical reactions, to cardiac tissue, to slime-mold aggregates. Mathematical models with Euclidean symmetry have recently been developed to describe the dynamic behavior (for example, meandering) of spiral waves in excitable media. However, no physical experiment is ever infinite in spatial extent, so the Euclidean symmetry is only approximate. Experiments on spiral waves show that inhomogeneities can anchor spirals and that boundary effects (for example, boundary drifting) become very important when the size of the spiral core is comparable to the size of the reacting medium. Spiral anchoring and boundary drifting cannot be explained by the Euclidean model alone. In this paper, we investigate the effects on spiral wave dynamics of breaking the translation symmetry while keeping the rotation symmetry. This is accomplished by introducing a small perturbation in the five-dimensional center bundle equations (describing Hopf bifurcation from one-armed spiral waves) which is SO(2)-equivariant but not equivariant under translations. We then study the effects of this perturbation on rigid spiral rotation, on quasi-periodic meandering and on drifting.
Domain wall fermion and CP symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujikawa, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hiroshi
2003-02-01
We examine the CP properties of chiral gauge theory defined by a formulation of the domain wall fermion, where the light field variables q and q¯ together with Pauli-Villars fields Q and Q¯ are utilized. It is shown that this domain wall representation in the infinite flavor limit N=∞ is valid only in the topologically trivial sector, and that the conflict among lattice chiral symmetry, strict locality and CP symmetry still persists for finite lattice spacing a. The CP transformation generally sends one representation of lattice chiral gauge theory into another representation of lattice chiral gauge theory, resulting in the inevitable change of propagators. A modified form of lattice CP transformation motivated by the domain wall fermion, which keeps the chiral action in terms of the Ginsparg-Wilson fermion invariant, is analyzed in detail; this provides an alternative way to understand the breaking of CP symmetry at least in the topologically trivial sector. We note that the conflict with CP symmetry could be regarded as a topological obstruction. We also discuss the issues related to the definition of Majorana fermions in connection with the supersymmetric Wess-Zumino model on the lattice.
Breaking Symmetry Effects on Heavy Tetraquarks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vijande, J.; Valcarce, A.; Richard, J.-M.
In this contribution we present symmetry arguments that can be applied to study the stability of four-quark systems with two different masses. The role played by different symmetry breaking effects and the non-Abelian algebra of color forces is discussed in detail. In the particular case of hidden-flavor all-heavy four-quark states, QQQ¯Q¯, the system becomes unstable for standard color-additive models. Differences and similarities between QqQ¯q¯ and QQq¯q¯ configurations are presented. In the latter case, its stability when the mass ratio M/m increases was established almost forty years ago. In the former case, we find a kind of metastability between the lowest threshold, (QQ¯) ‑ (qq¯) and the highest one, (Qq¯) ‑ (Q¯q).
Spontaneous spherical symmetry breaking in atomic confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sveshnikov, Konstantin; Tolokonnikov, Andrey
2017-07-01
The effect of spontaneous breaking of initial SO(3) symmetry is shown to be possible for an H-like atom in the ground state, when it is confined in a spherical box under general boundary conditions of "not going out" through the box surface (i.e. third kind or Robin's ones), for a wide range of physically reasonable values of system parameters. The most novel and nontrivial result, which has not been reported previously, is that such an effect takes place not only for attractive, but also for repulsive interactions of atomic electrons with the cavity environment. Moreover, in the limit of a large box size R ≫ aB the regime of an atom, soaring over a plane with boundary condition of "not going out", is reproduced, rather than a spherically symmetric configuration, which would be expected on the basis of the initial SO(3) symmetry of the problem.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in quasi one dimension
Satpathi, Urbashi, E-mail: urbashi@bose.res.in; Deo, P. Singha
2015-06-24
Electronic charge and spin separation leading to charge density wave and spin density wave is well established in one dimension in the presence and absence of Coulomb interaction. We start from quasi one dimension and show the possibility of such a transition in quasi one dimension as well as in two dimensions by going to a regime where it can be shown for electrons that just interact via Fermi statistics. Such density waves arise due to internal symmetry breaking in a many fermion quantum system. We can extend this result to very wide rings with infinitely many electrons including Coulombmore » interaction.« less
Cosmology of biased discrete symmetry breaking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gelmini, Graciela B.; Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.
1988-01-01
The cosmological consequences of spontaneous breaking of an approximate discrete symmetry are studied. The breaking leads to formation of proto-domains of false and true vacuum separated by domain walls of thickness determined by the mass scale of the model. The cosmological evolution of the walls is extremely sensitive to the magnitude of the biasing; several scenarios are possible, depending on the interplay between the surface tension on the walls and the volume pressure from the biasing. Walls may disappear almost immediately after they form, or may live long enough to dominate the energy density of the Universe and cause power-law inflation. Limits are obtained on the biasing that characterizes each possible scenario.
Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Interdependent Networked Game
Jin, Qing; Wang, Lin; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Wang, Zhen
2014-01-01
Spatial evolution game has traditionally assumed that players interact with direct neighbors on a single network, which is isolated and not influenced by other systems. However, this is not fully consistent with recent research identification that interactions between networks play a crucial rule for the outcome of evolutionary games taking place on them. In this work, we introduce the simple game model into the interdependent networks composed of two networks. By means of imitation dynamics, we display that when the interdependent factor α is smaller than a threshold value αC, the symmetry of cooperation can be guaranteed. Interestingly, as interdependent factor exceeds αC, spontaneous symmetry breaking of fraction of cooperators presents itself between different networks. With respect to the breakage of symmetry, it is induced by asynchronous expansion between heterogeneous strategy couples of both networks, which further enriches the content of spatial reciprocity. Moreover, our results can be well predicted by the strategy-couple pair approximation method. PMID:24526076
Passive appendages generate drift through symmetry breaking
Lācis, U.; Brosse, N.; Ingremeau, F.; Mazzino, A.; Lundell, F.; Kellay, H.; Bagheri, S.
2014-01-01
Plants and animals use plumes, barbs, tails, feathers, hairs and fins to aid locomotion. Many of these appendages are not actively controlled, instead they have to interact passively with the surrounding fluid to generate motion. Here, we use theory, experiments and numerical simulations to show that an object with a protrusion in a separated flow drifts sideways by exploiting a symmetry-breaking instability similar to the instability of an inverted pendulum. Our model explains why the straight position of an appendage in a fluid flow is unstable and how it stabilizes either to the left or right of the incoming flow direction. It is plausible that organisms with appendages in a separated flow use this newly discovered mechanism for locomotion; examples include the drift of plumed seeds without wind and the passive reorientation of motile animals. PMID:25354545
Symmetry breaking in linear multipole traps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedregosa-Gutierrez, J.; Champenois, C.; Kamsap, M. R.; Hagel, G.; Houssin, M.; Knoop, M.
2018-03-01
Radiofrequency multipole traps have been used for some decades in cold collision experiments and are gaining interest for precision spectroscopy due to their low micromotion contribution and the predicted unusual cold-ion structures. However, the experimental realisation is not yet fully controlled, and open questions in the operation of these devices remain. We present experimental observations of symmetry breaking of the trapping potential in a macroscopic octupole trap with laser-cooled ions. Numerical simulations have been performed in order to explain the appearance of additional local potential minima and be able to control them in a next step. We characterise these additional potential minima, in particular with respect to their position, their potential depth and their probability of population as a function of the radial and angular displacement of the trapping rods.
Lorentz symmetry breaking in a cosmological context
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gresham, Moira I.
This thesis is comprised primarily of work from three independent papers, written in collaboration with Sean Carroll, Tim Dulaney, and Heywood Tam. The original motivation for the projects undertaken came from revisiting the standard assumption of spatial isotropy during inflation. Each project relates to the spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry---in early Universe cosmology or in the context of effective field theory, in general. Chapter 1 is an introductory chapter that provides context for the thesis. Chapter 2 is an investigation of the stability of theories in which Lorentz invariance is spontaneously broken by fixed-norm vector "aether" fields. It is shown that models with generic kinetic terms are plagued either by ghosts or by tachyons, and are therefore physically unacceptable. Chapter 3 is an investigation of the phenomenological properties of the one low-energy effective theory of spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking found in the previous chapter to have a globally bounded Hamiltonian and a perturbatively stable vacuum---the theory in which the Lagrangian takes the form of a sigma model. In chapter 4 cosmological perturbations in a dynamical theory of inflation in which an Abelian gauge field couples directly to the inflaton are examined. The dominant effects of a small, persistent anisotropy on the primordial gravitational wave and curvature perturbation power spectra are found using the "in-in" formalism of perturbation theory. It is found that the primordial power spectra of cosmological perturbations gain significant direction dependence and that the fractional direction dependence of the tensor power spectrum is suppressed in comparison to that of the scalar power spectrum.
Spontaneous Planar Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hadidjojo, Jeremy; Lubensky, David
Recent progress in animal development has highlighted the central role played by planar cell polarity (PCP) in epithelial tissue morphogenesis. Through PCP, cells have the ability to collectively polarize in the plane of the epithelium by localizing morphogenetic proteins along a certain axis. This allows direction-dependent modulation of tissue mechanical properties that can translate into the formation of complex, non-rotationally invariant shapes. Recent experimental observations[1] show that cells, in addition to being planar-polarized, can also spontaneously develop planar chirality, perhaps in the effort of making yet more complex shapes that are reflection non-invariant. In this talk we will present our work in characterizing general mechanisms that can lead to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in cells. We decompose interfacial concentration of polarity proteins in a hexagonal cell packing into irreducible representations. We find that in the case of polar concentration distributions, a chiral state can only be reached from a secondary instability after the cells are polarized. However in the case of nematic distributions, we show that a finite-amplitude (subcritical, or ``first-order'') nematic transition can send the system from disorder directly to a chiral state. In addition, we find that perturbing the system by stretching the hexagonal packing enables direct (supercritical, or ``second-order'') chiral transition in the nematic case. Finally, we do a Landau expansion to study competition between stretch-induced chirality and the tendency towards a non-chiral state in packings that have retained the full 6-fold symmetry.
Time symmetry breaking in Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendonça, J. T.; Gammal, A.
2017-09-01
We consider different processes leading to time symmetry breaking in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Our approach provides a global description of time symmetry breaking, based on the equations of a thermal condensate. This includes quenching and expansion of the condensate, the Kibble-Zurek mechanism associated with the creation of vorticity, the dynamical Casimir effect and the formation of time crystals.
Parametric Symmetry Breaking in a Nonlinear Resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leuch, Anina; Papariello, Luca; Zilberberg, Oded; Degen, Christian L.; Chitra, R.; Eichler, Alexander
2016-11-01
Much of the physical world around us can be described in terms of harmonic oscillators in thermodynamic equilibrium. At the same time, the far-from-equilibrium behavior of oscillators is important in many aspects of modern physics. Here, we investigate a resonating system subject to a fundamental interplay between intrinsic nonlinearities and a combination of several driving forces. We have constructed a controllable and robust realization of such a system using a macroscopic doubly clamped string. We experimentally observe a hitherto unseen double hysteresis in both the amplitude and the phase of the resonator's response function and present a theoretical model that is in excellent agreement with the experiment. Our work unveils that the double hysteresis is a manifestation of an out-of-equilibrium symmetry breaking between parametric phase states. Such a fundamental phenomenon, in the most ubiquitous building block of nature, paves the way for the investigation of new dynamical phases of matter in parametrically driven many-body systems and motivates applications ranging from ultrasensitive force detection to low-energy computing memory units.
Symmetry Breaking by Parallel Flow Shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jiacong; Diamond, Patrick
2015-11-01
Plasma rotation is important in reducing turbulent transport, suppressing MHD instabilities, and is beneficial to confinement. Intrinsic rotation without an external momentum input is of interest for its plausible application on ITER. k∥ spectrum asymmetry is required for residual Reynolds stress that drives the intrinsic rotation. Parallel flows are reported in linear devices without magnetic shear. In CSDX, parallel flows are mostly peaked in the core [Thakur et al., 2014]; more robust flows and reversed profiles are seen in PANTA [Oldenburger, et al. 2012]. A novel mechanism for symmetry breaking in momentum transport is proposed. Magnetic shear or mean flow profile are not required. A seed parallel flow shear (PFS) sets the sign of residual stress by selecting certain modes to grow faster. The resulted spectrum imbalance leads to a nonzero residual stress, which further drives a parallel flow with ∇n as the free energy source, adding to the shear until saturated by diffusion. Balanced flow gradient is set by Π∥Res /χϕ . Residual stress is calculated for ITG turbulence and collisional drift wave turbulence where electron-ion and electron-neutral collisions are discussed and compared. Numerical simulation is proposed for testing the effect of PFS.
Symmetry breaking in occupation number based slave-particle methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Georgescu, Alexandru B.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab
2017-10-01
We describe a theoretical approach to finding spontaneously symmetry-broken electronic phases due to strong electronic interactions when using recently developed slave-particle (slave-boson) approaches based on occupation numbers. We describe why, to date, spontaneous symmetry breaking has proven difficult to achieve in such approaches. We then provide a total energy based approach for introducing auxiliary symmetry-breaking fields into the solution of the slave-particle problem that leads to lowered total energies for symmetry-broken phases. We point out that not all slave-particle approaches yield energy lowering: the slave-particle model being used must explicitly describe the degrees of freedom that break symmetry. Finally, our total energy approach permits us to greatly simplify the formalism used to achieve a self-consistent solution between spinon and slave modes while increasing the numerical stability and greatly speeding up the calculations.
Positive Disintegration as a Process of Symmetry Breaking.
Laycraft, Krystyna
2017-04-01
This article presents an analysis of the positive disintegration as a process of symmetry breaking. Symmetry breaking plays a major role in self-organized patterns formation and correlates directly to increasing complexity and function specialization. According to Dabrowski, a creator of the Theory of Positive Disintegration, the change from lower to higher levels of human development requires a major restructuring of an individual's psychological makeup. Each level of human development is a relatively stable and coherent configuration of emotional-cognitive patterns called developmental dynamisms. Their main function is to restructure a mental structure by breaking the symmetry of a low level and bringing differentiation and then integration to higher levels. The positive disintegration is then the process of transitions from a lower level of high symmetry and low complexity to higher levels of low symmetry and high complexity of mental structure.
Symmetry breaking and the geometry of reduced density matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zauner, V.; Draxler, D.; Vanderstraeten, L.; Haegeman, J.; Verstraete, F.
2016-11-01
The concept of symmetry breaking and the emergence of corresponding local order parameters constitute the pillars of modern day many body physics. We demonstrate that the existence of symmetry breaking is a consequence of the geometric structure of the convex set of reduced density matrices of all possible many body wavefunctions. The surfaces of these convex bodies exhibit non-analyticities, which signal the emergence of symmetry breaking and of an associated order parameter and also show different characteristics for different types of phase transitions. We illustrate this with three paradigmatic examples of many body systems exhibiting symmetry breaking: the quantum Ising model, the classical q-state Potts model in two-dimensions at finite temperature and the ideal Bose gas in three-dimensions at finite temperature. This state based viewpoint on phase transitions provides a unique novel tool for studying exotic many body phenomena in quantum and classical systems.
Relating quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suganuma, Hideo; Doi, Takahiro M.; Redlich, Krzysztof; Sasaki, Chihiro
2017-12-01
We study the relation between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. Using lattice QCD formalism, we analytically express the various ‘confinement indicators’, such as the Polyakov loop, its fluctuations, the Wilson loop, the inter-quark potential and the string tension, in terms of the Dirac eigenmodes. In the Dirac spectral representation, there appears a power of the Dirac eigenvalue {λ }n such as {λ }n{Nt-1}, which behaves as a reduction factor for small {λ }n. Consequently, since this reduction factor cannot be cancelled, the low-lying Dirac eigenmodes give negligibly small contribution to the confinement quantities, while they are essential for chiral symmetry breaking. These relations indicate that there is no direct one-to-one correspondence between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. In other words, there is some independence of quark confinement from chiral symmetry breaking, which can generally lead to different transition temperatures/densities for deconfinement and chiral restoration. We also investigate the Polyakov loop in terms of the eigenmodes of the Wilson, the clover and the domain-wall fermion kernels, and find similar results. The independence of quark confinement from chiral symmetry breaking seems to be natural, because confinement is realized independently of quark masses and heavy quarks are also confined even without the chiral symmetry.
Impact of symmetry breaking in networks of globally coupled oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Premalatha, K.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.
2015-05-01
We analyze the consequences of symmetry breaking in the coupling in a network of globally coupled identical Stuart-Landau oscillators. We observe that symmetry breaking leads to increased disorderliness in the dynamical behavior of oscillatory states and consequently results in a rich variety of dynamical states. Depending on the strength of the nonisochronicity parameter, we find various dynamical states such as amplitude chimera, amplitude cluster, frequency chimera, and frequency cluster states. In addition we also find disparate transition routes to recently observed chimera death states in the presence of symmetry breaking even with global coupling. We also analytically verify the chimera death region, which corroborates the numerical results. These results are compared with that of the symmetry-preserving case as well.
Patterns of symmetry breaking in chiral QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolognesi, Stefano; Konishi, Kenichi; Shifman, Mikhail
2018-05-01
We consider S U (N ) Yang-Mills theory with massless chiral fermions in a complex representation of the gauge group. The main emphasis is on the so-called hybrid ψ χ η model. The possible patterns of realization of the continuous chiral flavor symmetry are discussed. We argue that the chiral symmetry is broken in conjunction with a dynamical Higgsing of the gauge group (complete or partial) by bifermion condensates. As a result a color-flavor locked symmetry is preserved. The 't Hooft anomaly matching proceeds via saturation of triangles by massless composite fermions or, in a mixed mode, i.e. also by the "weakly" coupled fermions associated with dynamical Abelianization, supplemented by a number of Nambu-Goldstone mesons. Gauge-singlet condensates are of the multifermion type and, though it cannot be excluded, the chiral symmetry realization via such gauge invariant condensates is more contrived (requires a number of four-fermion condensates simultaneously and, even so, problems remain) and less plausible. We conclude that in the model at hand, chiral flavor symmetry implies dynamical Higgsing by bifermion condensates.
Cobimaximal lepton mixing from soft symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimus, W.; Lavoura, L.
2017-11-01
Cobimaximal lepton mixing, i.e.θ23 = 45 ° and δ = ± 90 ° in the lepton mixing matrix V, arises as a consequence of SV =V* P, where S is the permutation matrix that interchanges the second and third rows of V and P is a diagonal matrix of phase factors. We prove that any such V may be written in the form V = URP, where U is any predefined unitary matrix satisfying SU =U*, R is an orthogonal, i.e. real, matrix, and P is a diagonal matrix satisfying P2 = P. Using this theorem, we demonstrate the equivalence of two ways of constructing models for cobimaximal mixing-one way that uses a standard CP symmetry and a different way that uses a CP symmetry including μ-τ interchange. We also present two simple seesaw models to illustrate this equivalence; those models have, in addition to the CP symmetry, flavour symmetries broken softly by the Majorana mass terms of the right-handed neutrino singlets. Since each of the two models needs four scalar doublets, we investigate how to accommodate the Standard Model Higgs particle in them.
Symmetry Breaking in a random passive scalar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kilic, Zeliha; McLaughlin, Richard; Camassa, Roberto
2017-11-01
We consider the evolution of a decaying passive scalar in the presence of a gaussian white noise fluctuating shear flow. We focus on deterministic initial data and establish the short, intermediate, and long time symmetry properties of the evolving point wise probability measure for the random passive scalar. Analytical results are compared directly to Monte Carlo simulations. Time permitting we will compare the predictions to experimental observations.
The Control of Growth Symmetry Breaking in the Arabidopsis Hypocotyl.
Peaucelle, Alexis; Wightman, Raymond; Höfte, Herman
2015-06-29
Complex shapes in biology depend on the ability of cells to shift from isotropic to anisotropic growth during development. In plants, this growth symmetry breaking reflects changes in the extensibility of the cell walls. The textbook view is that the direction of turgor-driven cell expansion depends on the cortical microtubule (CMT)-mediated orientation of cellulose microfibrils. Here, we show that this view is incomplete at best. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study changes in cell-wall mechanics associated with growth symmetry breaking within the hypocotyl epidermis. We show that, first, growth symmetry breaking is preceded by an asymmetric loosening of longitudinal, as compared to transverse, anticlinal walls, in the absence of a change in CMT orientation. Second, this wall loosening is triggered by the selective de-methylesterification of cell-wall pectin in longitudinal walls, and, third, the resultant mechanical asymmetry is required for the growth symmetry breaking. Indeed, preventing or promoting pectin de-methylesterification, respectively, increased or decreased the stiffness of all the cell walls, but in both cases reduced the growth anisotropy. Finally, we show that the subsequent CMT reorientation contributes to the consolidation of the growth axis but is not required for the growth symmetry breaking. We conclude that growth symmetry breaking is controlled at a cellular scale by bipolar pectin de-methylesterification, rather than by the cellulose-dependent mechanical anisotropy of the cell walls themselves. Such a cell asymmetry-driven mechanism is comparable to that underlying tip growth in plants but also anisotropic cell growth in animal cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Minimally doubled fermions and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osmanaj (Zeqirllari), Rudina; Hyka (Xhako), Dafina
2018-03-01
Chiral symmetry breaking in massless QCD is a very important feature in the current understanding of low energy physics. Low - lying Dirac modes are suitable to help us understand the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, since the formation of a non zero chiral condensate is an effect of their accumulation near zero. The Banks - Casher relation links the spectral density of the Dirac operator to the condensate with an identity that can be read in both directions. In this work we propose a spectral method to achieve a reliable determination of the density of eigenvalues of Dirac operator near zero using the Gauss - Lanczos quadrature. In order to understand better the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and use the method we propose, we have chosen to work with minimally doubled fermions. These kind of fermions have been proposed as a strictly local discretization of the QCD fermions action, which preserves chiral symmetry at finite cut-off. Being chiral fermions, is easier to work with them and their low - lying Dirac modes and to understand the dynamical spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking.
Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Crystal Growth: Is Hydrodynamic Convection Relevant?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, B.; Tharrington, A.; Wu, Xiao-Lun
1996-01-01
The effects of mechanical stirring on nucleation and chiral symmetry breaking have been investigated for a simple inorganic molecule, sodium chlorate (NaClO3). In contrast to earlier findings, our experiment suggests that the symmetry breaking may have little to do with hydrodynamic convection. Rather the effect can be reasonably accounted for by mechanical damage to incipient crystals. The catastrophic events, creating numerous small 'secondary' crystals, produce statistical domination of one chiral species over the other. Our conclusion is supported by a number of observations using different mixing mechanisms.
Chiral symmetry breaking in a semilocalized magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Gaoqing
2018-03-01
In this work, we explore the pattern of chiral symmetry breaking and restoration in a solvable magnetic field configuration within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The special semilocalized static magnetic field can roughly mimic the realistic situation in peripheral heavy ion collisions; thus, the study is important for the dynamical evolution of quark matter. We find that the magnetic-field-dependent contribution from discrete spectra usually dominates over the contribution from continuum spectra and chiral symmetry breaking is locally catalyzed by both the magnitude and scale of the magnetic field. The study is finally extended to the case with finite temperature or chemical potential.
Symmetry Breaking and Optical Negative Index of Closed Nanorings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kante, Boubacar; Park, Yong-Shik; O'Brien, Kevin; Shuldman, Daniel; Lanzillotti-Kimura, Norberto; Wong, Zi; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang; UC Berkeley Team
2013-03-01
We report the first experimental demonstration of broadband negative-index metamaterial made solely of closed metallic nanorings. Using symmetry breaking that negatively couples the discrete nanorings, we measured negative phase delay in our composite chess metamaterial. Our approach open avenues towards topological nanophotonics with on demand linear and non-linear responses.
Bose-Einstein condensation, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and gauge theories
Kapusta, J.I.
1981-07-15
Bosonic chemical potentials for a variety of relativistic field theories are introduced via the methods of functional integrals with the aim of studying the relationship between Bose-Einstein condensation and spontaneous symmetry breaking. The models studied include the noninteracting and the self-interacting charged scalar field, scalar electrodynamics and the Higgs model, and the Weinberg-Salam model. In general the chemical potential acts as an effective symmetry-breaking parameter although the phase diagrams for the two cases (m/sup 2/<0 and m/sup 2/>0) look very different. It is found that the symmetry-restoring temperature in the Weinberg-Salam model increases with increasing electric charge density. Finally, themore » analysis of Jakobsen, Kon, and Segal of a conserved isotropic total angular momentum for the cosmic background radiation is shown to be erroneous.« less
Selected topics on dynamical symmetry breaking
Veldhuis, W.T.A.
1993-12-31
In chapter 2 the fermion number induced by nontrivial topological configurations in the O(3) nonlinear {sigma} model in 2 + 1 dimensions is studied in the presence of a parity breaking fermion mass term. We consider a scalar background configuration that adiabatically evolves from the normal vacuum to a soliton of winding number unity. The appearance of zero energy modes is analyzed as a function of the relative magnitudes of the explicit, odd parity, fermion mass, m{sub odd}, the fermion mass induced by the Yukawa coupling, m{sub Y}, and the inverse soliton width, 1/{rho}{sub s}. We find {rho}{sub c}, themore » maximum value of {rho} = {rho}{sub s}m{sub Y} for which a fermion zero energy level crossing occurs during the adiabatical evolution. We obtain that whenever the ratio M{sub f} = m{sub odd}/m{sub Y} < 1 and {rho} > {rho}{sub c}(M{sub f}) the ground state charge of the soliton is wholly determined by its topological charge. Otherwise, it vanishes. In chapter 3 the top quark mass prediction in supersymmetric top condensate models is found to be insensitive to the inclusion of the effects of higher dimensional operators. For associated coefficients of characteristically moderate strength, the supersymmetric renormalization group trajectories are strongly focused to the infrared quasi-fixed point of the top Yukawa coupling constant. In chapter 4 the sensitivity of the top quark and Higgs boson masses in the top condensate model to two loop radiative corrections is studied. Both the top quark and the Higgs boson masses vary by a few GeV with respect to their values in the one loop calculation. Finally, in chapter 5 an upper bound on the mass of the lightest neutral scalar Higgs boson is calculated in an extended version of the minimal supersymmetric standard model that contains an additional Higgs singlet.« less
Symmetry breaking in holographic theories with Lifshitz scaling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Argurio, Riccardo; Hartong, Jelle; Marzolla, Andrea; Naegels, Daniel
2018-02-01
We study holographically Lifshitz-scaling theories with broken symmetries. In order to do this, we set up a bulk action with a complex scalar and a massless vector on a background which consists in a Lifshitz metric and a massive vector. We first study separately the complex scalar and the massless vector, finding a similar pattern in the twopoint functions that we can compute analytically. By coupling the probe complex scalar to the background massive vector we can construct probe actions that are more general than the usual Klein-Gordon action. Some of these actions have Galilean boost symmetry. Finally, in the presence of a symmetry breaking scalar profile in the bulk, we reproduce the expected Ward identities of a Lifshitz-scaling theory with a broken global continuous symmetry. In the spontaneous case, the latter imply the presence of a gapless mode, the Goldstone boson, which will have dispersion relations dictated by the Lifshitz scaling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Q.; Xin, C.; Tang, S. X.; Huang, J. P.
2018-02-01
Crowd panic has incurred massive injuries or deaths throughout the world, and thus understanding it is particularly important. It is now a common knowledge that crowd panic induces "symmetry break" in which some exits are jammed while others are underutilized. Amazingly, here we show, by experiment, simulation and theory, that a class of symmetry patterns come to appear for ants and humans escaping from multiple-exit rooms while the symmetry break exists. Our symmetry pattern is described by the fact that the ratio between the ensemble-averaging numbers of ants or humans escaping from different exits is equal to the ratio between the widths of the exits. The mechanism lies in the effect of heterogeneous preferences of agents with limited information for achieving the Nash equilibrium. This work offers new insights into how to improve public safety because large public areas are always equipped with multiple exits, and it also brings an ensemble-averaging method for seeking symmetry associated with symmetry breaking.
Spontaneous SUSY breaking without R symmetry in supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maekawa, Nobuhiro; Omura, Yuji; Shigekami, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Manabu
2018-03-01
We discuss spontaneous supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking in a model with an anomalous U (1 )A symmetry. In this model, the size of the each term in the superpotential is controlled by the U (1 )A charge assignment and SUSY is spontaneously broken via the Fayet-Iliopoulos of U (1 )A at the metastable vacuum. In the global SUSY analysis, the gaugino masses become much smaller than the sfermion masses, because an approximate R symmetry appears at the SUSY breaking vacuum. In this paper, we show that gaugino masses can be as large as gravitino mass, taking the supergravity effect into consideration. This is because the R symmetry is not imposed so that the constant term in the superpotential, which is irrelevant to the global SUSY analysis, largely contributes to the soft SUSY breaking terms in the supergravity. As the mediation mechanism, we introduce the contributions of the field not charged under U (1 )A and the moduli field to cancel the anomaly of U (1 )A. We comment on the application of our SUSY breaking scenario to the grand unified theory.
Nucleation and chiral symmetry breaking under controlled hydrodynamic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Xiao-Lun; Martin, Brian; Tharrington, Arnold
1994-01-01
The effects of hydrodynamic convection on nucleation and broken chiral symmetry have been investigated for a simple inorganic molecule, sodium chlorate (NaClO3). Our experiment suggests that the symmetry breaking is a result of hydrodynamic amplification of rare nucleation events. The effect is more pronounced when the primary nucleation occurs on the solute-vapor interface, where mixing in the surface sublayer becomes important. The transition from the achiral to the chiral states appears to be smooth as the hydrodynamic parameters, such as flow rate, are varied.
Stochastic recruitment leads to symmetry breaking in foraging populations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biancalani, Tommaso; Dyson, Louise; McKane, Alan
2014-03-01
When an ant colony is faced with two identical equidistant food sources, the foraging ants are found to concentrate more on one source than the other. Analogous symmetry-breaking behaviours have been reported in various population systems, (such as queueing or stock market trading) suggesting the existence of a simple universal mechanism. Past studies have neglected the effect of demographic noise and required rather complicated models to qualitatively reproduce this behaviour. I will show how including the effects of demographic noise leads to a radically different conclusion. The symmetry-breaking arises solely due to the process of recruitment and ceases to occur for large population sizes. The latter fact provides a testable prediction for a real system.
Parity-Time Symmetry Breaking in Spin Chains.
Galda, Alexey; Vinokur, Valerii M.
We investigate nonequilibrium phase transitions in classical Heisenberg spin chains associated with spontaneous breaking of parity-time (PT) symmetry of the system under the action of Slonczewski spin-transfer torque (STT) modeled by an applied imaginary magnetic field. We reveal the STT-driven PT symmetry-breaking phase transition between the regimes of precessional and exponentially damped spin dynamics and show that its several properties can be derived from the distribution of zeros of the system's partition function, the approach first introduced by Yang and Lee for studying equilibrium phase transitions in Ising spin chains. The physical interpretation of imaginary magnetic field as describing themore » action of nonconservative forces opens the possibility of direct observations of Lee-Yang zeros in nonequilibrium physical systems.« less
Parity-time symmetry breaking in spin chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galda, Alexey; Vinokur, Valerii M.
2018-05-01
We investigate nonequilibrium phase transitions in classical Heisenberg spin chains associated with spontaneous breaking of parity-time (PT ) symmetry of the system under the action of Slonczewski spin-transfer torque (STT) modeled by an applied imaginary magnetic field. We reveal the STT-driven PT symmetry-breaking phase transition between the regimes of precessional and exponentially damped spin dynamics and show that its several properties can be derived from the distribution of zeros of the system's partition function, the approach first introduced by Yang and Lee for studying equilibrium phase transitions in Ising spin chains. The physical interpretation of imaginary magnetic field as describing the action of nonconservative forces opens the possibility of direct observations of Lee-Yang zeros in nonequilibrium physical systems.
Symmetry-breaking instability of quadratic soliton bound states
Delque, Michaeel; Departement d'Optique P.M. Duffieux, Institut FEMTO-ST, Universite de Franche-Comte, CNRS UMR 6174, F-25030 Besancon; Fanjoux, Gil
We study both numerically and experimentally two-dimensional soliton bound states in quadratic media and demonstrate their symmetry-breaking instability. The experiment is performed in a potassium titanyl phosphate crystal in a type-II configuration. The bound state is generated by the copropagation of the antisymmetric fundamental beam locked in phase with the symmetrical second harmonic one. Experimental results are in good agreement with numerical simulations of the nonlinear wave equations.
Noncritical quadrature squeezing through spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking.
Garcia-Ferrer, Ferran V; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; de Valcárcel, Germán J; Roldán, Eugenio
2010-07-01
We discuss the possibility of generating noncritical quadrature squeezing by spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking. We first consider Type II frequency-degenerate optical parametric oscillators but discard them for a number of reasons. Then we propose a four-wave-mixing cavity, in which the polarization of the output mode is always linear but has an arbitrary orientation. We show that in such a cavity, complete noise suppression in a quadrature of the output field occurs, irrespective of the parameter values.
Effects of rotational symmetry breaking in polymer-coated nanopores
Osmanović, D.; Hoogenboom, B. W.; Ford, I. J.
2015-01-21
The statistical theory of polymers tethered around the inner surface of a cylindrical channel has traditionally employed the assumption that the equilibrium density of the polymers is independent of the azimuthal coordinate. However, simulations have shown that this rotational symmetry can be broken when there are attractive interactions between the polymers. We investigate the phases that emerge in these circumstances, and we quantify the effect of the symmetry assumption on the phase behavior of the system. In the absence of this assumption, one can observe large differences in the equilibrium densities between the rotationally symmetric case and the non-rotationally symmetricmore » case. A simple analytical model is developed that illustrates the driving thermodynamic forces responsible for this symmetry breaking. Our results have implications for the current understanding of the behavior of polymers in cylindrical nanopores.« less
Effects of rotational symmetry breaking in polymer-coated nanopores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osmanović, D.; Kerr-Winter, M.; Eccleston, R. C.; Hoogenboom, B. W.; Ford, I. J.
2015-01-01
The statistical theory of polymers tethered around the inner surface of a cylindrical channel has traditionally employed the assumption that the equilibrium density of the polymers is independent of the azimuthal coordinate. However, simulations have shown that this rotational symmetry can be broken when there are attractive interactions between the polymers. We investigate the phases that emerge in these circumstances, and we quantify the effect of the symmetry assumption on the phase behavior of the system. In the absence of this assumption, one can observe large differences in the equilibrium densities between the rotationally symmetric case and the non-rotationally symmetric case. A simple analytical model is developed that illustrates the driving thermodynamic forces responsible for this symmetry breaking. Our results have implications for the current understanding of the behavior of polymers in cylindrical nanopores.
Charge symmetry breaking effects in pion and kaon structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutauruk, Parada T. P.; Bentz, Wolfgang; Cloët, Ian C.; Thomas, Anthony W.
2018-05-01
Charge symmetry breaking (CSB) effects associated with the u and d quark mass difference are investigated in the quark distribution functions and spacelike electromagnetic form factors of the pion and kaon. We use a confining version of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, where CSB effects at the infrared scale associated with the model are driven by the dressed u and d quark mass ratio, which because of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is much closer to unity than the associated current quark mass ratio. The pion and kaon are given as bound states of a dressed quark and a dressed antiquark governed by the Bethe-Salpeter equation, and exhibit the properties of Goldstone bosons, with a pion mass difference given by mπ+2-mπ0 2∝(mu-md)2 as demanded by dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. We find significant CSB effects for realistic current quark mass ratios (mu/md˜0.5 ) in the quark flavor-sector electromagnetic form factors of both the pion and kaon. For example, the difference between the u and d quark contributions to the π+ electromagnetic form factors is about 8% at a momentum transfer of Q2≃10 GeV2 , while the analogous effect for the light quark sector form factors in the K+ and K0 is about twice as large. For the parton distribution functions we find CSB effects which are considerably smaller than those found in the electromagnetic form factors.
Symmetry breaking in actin gels - Implications for cellular motility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
John, Karin; Peyla, Philippe; Misbah, Chaouqi
2007-03-01
The physical origin of cell motility is not fully understood. Recently minimal model systems have shown, that polymerizing actin itself can produce a motile force, without the help of motor proteins. Pathogens like Shigella or Listeria use actin to propel themselves forward in their host cell. The same process can be mimicked with polystyrene beads covered with the activating protein ActA, which reside in a solution containing actin monomers. ActA induces the growth of an actin gel at the bead surface. Initially the gel grows symmetrically around the bead until a critical size is reached. Subsequently one observes a symmetry breaking and the gel starts to grow asymmetrically around the bead developing a tail of actin at one side. This symmetry breaking is accompanied by a directed movement of the bead, with the actin tail trailing behind the bead. Force generation relies on the combination of two properties: growth and elasticity of the actin gel. We study this phenomenon theoretically within the framework of a linear elasticity theory and linear flux-force relationships for the evolution of an elastic gel around a hard sphere. Conditions for a parity symmetry breaking are identified analytically and illustrated numerically with the help of a phasefield model.
Amplitude Excitations in a Symmetry-Breaking Quantum Phase Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boguslawski, Matthew; H M, Bharath; Barrios, Maryrose; Chapman, Michael
Quantum phase transitions (QPT) can be characterized using a local order parameter. In a symmetry-breaking phase transition, this order parameter spontaneously breaks one or more of the symmetries of the Hamiltonian while crossing the quantum critical point (QCP). A spin-1 Bose Einstein condensate, in a single spatial mode, undergoes a QPT when the applied magnetic field is quenched through a critical value. The transverse spin component is an order parameter characterizing this QPT. It shares a U(1)Ã'SO(2) symmetry with the Hamiltonian, but one of these two symmetries is broken when the system is quenched through the QCP. As a result, two massless, coupled phonon-magnon modes are present along with a single massive, or Higgs-like mode which has the form of amplitude excitations of the order parameter. Here, we experimentally characterize this phase transition and the resulting amplitude excitations by inducing coherent oscillation in the spin population. We further use the amplitude oscillations to measure the energy gap between the ground state and the first excited state for different phases of the QPT. At the QCP, finite size effects lead to a non-zero gap, and our measurements are consistent with this prediction.
Grand minima and equatorial symmetry breaking in axisymmetric dynamo models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooke, John M.; Pelt, Jaan; Tavakol, Reza; Tworkowski, Andrew
1998-04-01
We consider the manner in which time-periodic solutions of an axisymmetric dynamo model can undergo breaking of equatorial symmetry, i.e. loss of pure dipolar or quadrupolar symmetry. By considering the symmetry group underlying the solutions, we show that the fluctuations responsible for the symmetry-breaking can be constrained such that they are in resonance with the former solution. They can then be amplified until they are comparable in magnitude to the former solution. If the bifurcation is supercritical, the amplitude of the fluctuation is stabilised and a stable mixed parity limit cycle is formed. If it is subcritical it gives rise to a recently identified form of intermittency, called icicle intermittency. This produces episodes in which the original solution and the fluctuation are almost exactly synchronised and the fluctuation grows exponentially in amplitude, interrupted by brief episodes where synchronicity is lost and the amplitude of the fluctuation declines rapidly by several orders of magnitude. During these latter episodes there is a significant dip in the amplitude of the total magnetic field. This model-independent analysis can produce quantitative predictions for the behaviour of this bifurcation and we provide evidence for this behaviour by analysing timeseries from four different mean-field dynamo models, where intermittency is observed without the need for stochastic, or chaotically driven, forcing terms in the dynamo equations. We compare these results with recent work on intermittency in dynamo models and consider their relevance to the intermittency present in solar and stellar cycles.
Symmetry breaking and singularity structure in Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Commeford, K. A.; Garcia-March, M. A.; Ferrando, A.; Carr, Lincoln D.
2012-08-01
We determine the trajectories of vortex singularities that arise after a single vortex is broken by a discretely symmetric impulse in the context of Bose-Einstein condensates in a harmonic trap. The dynamics of these singularities are analyzed to determine the form of the imprinted motion. We find that the symmetry-breaking process introduces two effective forces: a repulsive harmonic force that causes the daughter trajectories to be ejected from the parent singularity and a Magnus force that introduces a torque about the axis of symmetry. For the analytical noninteracting case we find that the parent singularity is reconstructed from the daughter singularities after one period of the trapping frequency. The interactions between singularities in the weakly interacting system do not allow the parent vortex to be reconstructed. Analytic trajectories were compared to the actual minima of the wave function, showing less than 0.5% error for an impulse strength of v=0.00005. We show that these solutions are valid within the impulse regime for various impulse strengths using numerical integration of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We also show that the actual duration of the symmetry-breaking potential does not significantly change the dynamics of the system as long as the strength is below v=0.0005.
Towards a realistic model of Higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking.
Csáki, Csaba; Grojean, Christophe; Pilo, Luigi; Terning, John
2004-03-12
We present a 5D gauge theory in warped space based on a bulk SU(2)L x SU(2)R x U(1)(B-L) gauge group where the gauge symmetry is broken by boundary conditions. The symmetry breaking pattern and the mass spectrum resemble that in the standard model (SM). To leading order in the warp factor the rho parameter and the coupling of the Z (S parameter) are as in the SM, while corrections are expected at the level of a percent. From the anti-de Sitter (AdS) conformal field theory point of view the model presented here can be viewed as the AdS dual of a (walking) technicolorlike theory, in the sense that it is the presence of the IR brane itself that breaks electroweak symmetry, and not a localized Higgs on the IR brane (which should be interpreted as a composite Higgs model). This model predicts the lightest W, Z, and gamma resonances to be at around 1.2 TeV, and no fundamental (or composite) Higgs particles.
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in two-dimensional aggregation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandler, Ilya Moiseevich
Recently, unusual and strikingly beautiful seahorse-like growth patterns have been discovered. These patterns possess a spontaneously broken chiral (left/right) symmetry. To explain this spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, we develop a model for the growth of the aggregate, assuming that the latter is charged, and that the incoming particles are polarizable, and hence drawn preferentially to regions of strong electric field. This model is used both for numerical simulation and theoretical analysis of the aggregation process. We find that the broken symmetry (typically, an 'S' shape) appears in our simulations for some parameter values. Its origin is the long-range interaction (competition and repulsion) among growing branches of the aggregate, such that a right or left side consistently dominates the growth process. We show that the electrostatic interaction may account for the other geometrical properties of the aggregates, such as the existence of only 2 main arms, and the "finned" external edge of the main arms. The results of our simulations of growth in the presence of the external electric field are also in a good agreement with the results of new experiments, motivated by our ideas. Thus, we believe that our growth model provides a plausible explanation of the origin of the broken symmetry in the experimental patterns.
Lateralization as a symmetry breaking process in birdsong
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trevisan, M. A.; Cooper, B.; Goller, F.; Mindlin, G. B.
2007-03-01
The singing by songbirds is a most convincing example in the animal kingdom of functional lateralization of the brain, a feature usually associated with human language. Lateralization is expressed as one or both of the bird’s sound sources being active during the vocalization. Normal songs require high coordination between the vocal organ and respiratory activity, which is bilaterally symmetric. Moreover, the physical and neural substrate used to produce the song lack obvious asymmetries. In this work we show that complex spatiotemporal patterns of motor activity controlling airflow through the sound sources can be explained in terms of spontaneous symmetry breaking bifurcations. This analysis also provides a framework from which to study the effects of imperfections in the system’ s symmetries. A physical model of the avian vocal organ is used to generate synthetic sounds, which allows us to predict acoustical signatures of the song and compare the predictions of the model with experimental data.
Orbital Engineering in Symmetry-Breaking Polar Heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Disa, Ankit S.; Kumah, Divine P.; Malashevich, Andrei; Chen, Hanghui; Arena, Dario A.; Specht, Eliot D.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, Charles H.
2015-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate a novel approach to substantially modify orbital occupations and symmetries in electronically correlated oxides. In contrast to methods using strain or confinement, this orbital tuning is achieved by exploiting charge transfer and inversion symmetry breaking using atomically layered heterostructures. We illustrate the technique in the LaTiO3-LaNiO3-LaAlO3 system; a combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy and ab initio theory reveals electron transfer and concomitant polar fields, resulting in a ˜50 % change in the occupation of Ni d orbitals. This change is sufficiently large to remove the orbital degeneracy of bulk LaNiO3 and creates an electronic configuration approaching a single-band Fermi surface. Furthermore, we theoretically show that such three-component heterostructuring is robust and tunable by choice of insulator in the heterostructure, providing a general method for engineering orbital configurations and designing novel electronic systems.
Symmetry breaking and optical negative index of closed nanorings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanté, Boubacar; Park, Yong-Shik; O'Brien, Kevin; Shuldman, Daniel; Lanzillotti-Kimura, Norberto D.; Jing Wong, Zi; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang
2012-11-01
Metamaterials have extraordinary abilities, such as imaging beyond the diffraction limit and invisibility. Many metamaterials are based on split-ring structures, however, like atomic orbital currents, it has long been believed that closed rings cannot produce negative refractive index. Here we report a low-loss and polarization-independent negative-index metamaterial made solely of closed metallic nanorings. Using symmetry breaking that negatively couples the discrete nanorings, we measured negative phase delay in our composite ‘chess metamaterial’. The formation of an ultra-broad Fano-resonance-induced optical negative-index band, spanning wavelengths from 1.3 to 2.3 μm, is experimentally observed in this structure. This discrete and mono-particle negative-index approach opens exciting avenues towards symmetry-controlled topological nanophotonics with on-demand linear and nonlinear responses.
Flavor symmetry breaking in lattice QCD with a mixed action
Baer, Oliver; Golterman, Maarten; Shamir, Yigal
2011-03-01
We study the phase structure of mixed-action QCD with two Wilson sea quarks and any number of chiral valence quarks (and ghosts), starting from the chiral Lagrangian. A priori the effective theory allows for a rich phase structure, including a phase with a condensate made of sea and valence quarks. In such a phase, mass eigenstates would become admixtures of sea and valence fields, and pure-sea correlation functions would depend on the parameters of the valence sector, in contradiction with the actual setup of mixed-action simulations. Using that the spectrum of the chiral Dirac operator has a gap for nonzeromore » quark mass we prove that spontaneous symmetry breaking of the flavor symmetries can only occur within the sea sector. This rules out a mixed condensate and implies restrictions on the low-energy constants of the effective theory.« less
Crucial role of neutrinos in the electroweak symmetry breaking
Smetana, Adam
2013-12-30
Not only the top-quark condensate appears to be the natural significant source of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. Provided the seesaw scenario, the neutrinos can have their Dirac masses large enough so that their condensates contribute significantly to the electroweak scale as well. We address the question of a phenomenological feasibility of the top-quark and neutrino condensation conspiracy against the electroweak symmetry within the simplifying two-composite-Higgs-doublet model. Mandatory is to reproduce the masses of electroweak gauge bosons, the top-quark mass and the recently observed scalar mass of 125 GeV, and to satisfy the upper limits on absolute value of active neutrinomore » masses. To accomplish that, the number of right-handed neutrinos participating on the seesaw mechanism turns out to be rather large, O(100–1000)« less
Symmetry breaking by heating in a continuous opinion model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anteneodo, Celia; Crokidakis, Nuno
2017-04-01
We study the critical behavior of a continuous opinion model, driven by kinetic exchanges in a fully connected population. Opinions range in the real interval [-1 ,1 ] , representing the different shades of opinions against and for an issue under debate. Individuals' opinions evolve through pairwise interactions, with couplings that are typically positive, but a fraction p of negative ones is allowed. Moreover, a social temperature parameter T controls the tendency of the individual responses toward neutrality. Depending on p and T , different collective states emerge: symmetry broken (one side wins), symmetric (tie of opposite sides), and absorbing neutral (indecision wins). We find the critical points and exponents that characterize the phase transitions between them. The symmetry breaking transition belongs to the usual Ising mean-field universality class, but the absorbing-phase transitions, with β =0.5 , are out of the paradigmatic directed percolation class. Moreover, ordered phases can emerge by increasing social temperature.
Single-mode Laser by Parity-time Symmetry Breaking
2014-11-21
solenoid -like Pds5B that reside in direct proximity to Wapl and the Smc3-Scc1 in- teraction interface (fig. S13), implying that Wapl and Pds5 control the...accepted 26 September 2014 10.1126/science.1256904 REPORTS ◥ OPTICS Single-mode laser by parity-time symmetry breaking Liang Feng,1* Zi Jing Wong,1...Ren-Min Ma,1* Yuan Wang,1,2 Xiang Zhang1,2† Effective manipulation of cavity resonant modes is crucial for emission control in laser physics and
Breaking the imaging symmetry in negative refraction lenses.
Ma, Changbao; Liu, Zhaowei
2012-01-30
Optical lenses are pervasive in various areas of sciences and technologies. It is well known that conventional lenses have symmetrical imaging properties along forward and backward directions. In this letter, we show that hyperbolic plasmonic metamaterial based negative refraction lenses perform as either converging lenses or diverging lenses depending on the illumination directions. New imaging equations and properties that are different from those of all the existing optical lenses are also presented. These new imaging properties, including symmetry breaking as well as the super resolving power, significantly expand the horizon of imaging optics and optical system design.
Minimal but non-minimal inflation and electroweak symmetry breaking
Marzola, Luca; Institute of Physics, University of Tartu,Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu; Racioppi, Antonio
2016-10-07
We consider the most minimal scale invariant extension of the standard model that allows for successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and inflation. The framework involves an extra scalar singlet, that plays the rôle of the inflaton, and is compatibile with current experimental bounds owing to the non-minimal coupling of the latter to gravity. This inflationary scenario predicts a very low tensor-to-scalar ratio r≈10{sup −3}, typical of Higgs-inflation models, but in contrast yields a scalar spectral index n{sub s}≃0.97 which departs from the Starobinsky limit. We briefly discuss the collider phenomenology of the framework.
Naturalness of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking while Waiting for the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Espinosa, J. R.
2007-06-01
After revisiting the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model and its implications for the scale of New Physics, I consider the finetuning problem of electroweak symmetry breaking in several scenarios beyond the Standard Model: SUSY, Little Higgs and "improved naturalness" models. The main conclusions are that: New Physics should appear on the reach of the LHC; some SUSY models can solve the hierarchy problem with acceptable residual tuning; Little Higgs models generically suffer from large tunings, many times hidden; and, finally, that "improved naturalness" models do not generically improve the naturalness of the SM.
Probing dynamical symmetry breaking using quantum-entangled photons
Li, Hao; Piryatinski, Andrei; Jerke, Jonathan
Here, we present an input/output analysis of photon-correlation experiments whereby a quantum mechanically entangled bi-photon state interacts with a material sample placed in one arm of a Hong–Ou–Mandel apparatus. We show that the output signal contains detailed information about subsequent entanglement with the microscopic quantum states in the sample. In particular, we apply the method to an ensemble of emitters interacting with a common photon mode within the open-system Dicke model. Our results indicate considerable dynamical information concerning spontaneous symmetry breaking can be revealed with such an experimental system.
Probing dynamical symmetry breaking using quantum-entangled photons
Li, Hao; Piryatinski, Andrei; Jerke, Jonathan; ...
2017-11-15
Here, we present an input/output analysis of photon-correlation experiments whereby a quantum mechanically entangled bi-photon state interacts with a material sample placed in one arm of a Hong–Ou–Mandel apparatus. We show that the output signal contains detailed information about subsequent entanglement with the microscopic quantum states in the sample. In particular, we apply the method to an ensemble of emitters interacting with a common photon mode within the open-system Dicke model. Our results indicate considerable dynamical information concerning spontaneous symmetry breaking can be revealed with such an experimental system.
Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking as a Basis of Particle Mass
Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN
2007-04-01
Electroweak theory joins electromagnetism with the weak force in a single quantum field theory, ascribing the two fundamental interactions--so different in their manifestations--to a common symmetry principle. How the electroweak gauge symmetry is hidden is one of the most urgent and challenging questions facing particle physics. The provisional answer incorporated in the ''standard model'' of particle physics was formulated in the 1960s by Higgs, by Brout & Englert, and by Guralnik, Hagen, & Kibble: The agent of electroweak symmetry breaking is an elementary scalar field whose self-interactions select a vacuum state in which the full electroweak symmetry is hidden, leavingmore » a residual phase symmetry of electromagnetism. By analogy with the Meissner effect of the superconducting phase transition, the Higgs mechanism, as it is commonly known, confers masses on the weak force carriers W{sup {+-}} and Z. It also opens the door to masses for the quarks and leptons, and shapes the world around us. It is a good story--though an incomplete story--and we do not know how much of the story is true. Experiments that explore the Fermi scale (the energy regime around 1 TeV) during the next decade will put the electroweak theory to decisive test, and may uncover new elements needed to construct a more satisfying completion of the electroweak theory. The aim of this article is to set the stage by reporting what we know and what we need to know, and to set some ''Big Questions'' that will guide our explorations.« less
Parity-time symmetry breaking in magnetic systems
Galda, Alexey; Vinokur, Valerii M.
2016-07-14
The understanding of out-of-equilibrium physics, especially dynamic instabilities and dynamic phase transitions, is one of the major challenges of contemporary science, spanning the broadest wealth of research areas that range from quantum optics to living organisms. By focusing on nonequilibrium dynamics of an open dissipative spin system, we introduce a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian approach, in which non-Hermiticity reflects dissipation and deviation from equilibrium. The imaginary part of the proposed spin Hamiltonian describes the effects of Gilbert damping and applied Slonczewski spin-transfer torque. In the classical limit, our approach reproduces Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski dynamics of a large macrospin. Here, we reveal the spin-transfer torque-drivenmore » parity-time symmetry-breaking phase transition corresponding to a transition from precessional to exponentially damped spin dynamics. Micromagnetic simulations for nanoscale ferromagnetic disks demonstrate the predicted effect. These findings can pave the way to a general quantitative description of out-of-equilibrium phase transitions driven by spontaneous parity-time symmetry breaking.« less
Hybrid local-order mechanism for inversion symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolpert, Emma H.; Overy, Alistair R.; Thygesen, Peter M. M.; Simonov, Arkadiy; Senn, Mark S.; Goodwin, Andrew L.
2018-04-01
Using classical Monte Carlo simulations, we study a simple statistical mechanical model of relevance to the emergence of polarization from local displacements on the square and cubic lattices. Our model contains two key ingredients: a Kitaev-like orientation-dependent interaction between nearest neighbors and a steric term that acts between next-nearest neighbors. Taken by themselves, each of these two ingredients is incapable of driving long-range symmetry breaking, despite the presence of a broad feature in the corresponding heat-capacity functions. Instead, each component results in a "hidden" transition on cooling to a manifold of degenerate states; the two manifolds are different in the sense that they reflect distinct types of local order. Remarkably, their intersection, i.e., the ground state when both interaction terms are included in the Hamiltonian, supports a spontaneous polarization. In this way, our study demonstrates how local-order mechanisms might be combined to break global inversion symmetry in a manner conceptually similar to that operating in the "hybrid" improper ferroelectrics. We discuss the relevance of our analysis to the emergence of spontaneous polarization in well-studied ferroelectrics such as BaTiO3 and KNbO3.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in vortex systems with two repulsive lengthscales.
Curran, P J; Desoky, W M; Milosević, M V; Chaves, A; Laloë, J-B; Moodera, J S; Bending, S J
2015-10-23
Scanning Hall probe microscopy (SHPM) has been used to study vortex structures in thin epitaxial films of the superconductor MgB2. Unusual vortex patterns observed in MgB2 single crystals have previously been attributed to a competition between short-range repulsive and long-range attractive vortex-vortex interactions in this two band superconductor; the type 1.5 superconductivity scenario. Our films have much higher levels of disorder than bulk single crystals and therefore both superconducting condensates are expected to be pushed deep into the type 2 regime with purely repulsive vortex interactions. We observe broken symmetry vortex patterns at low fields in all samples after field-cooling from above Tc. These are consistent with those seen in systems with competing repulsions on disparate length scales, and remarkably similar structures are reproduced in dirty two band Ginzburg-Landau calculations, where the simulation parameters have been defined by experimental observations. This suggests that in our dirty MgB2 films, the symmetry of the vortex structures is broken by the presence of vortex repulsions with two different lengthscales, originating from the two distinct superconducting condensates. This represents an entirely new mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking in systems of superconducting vortices, with important implications for pinning phenomena and high current density applications.
3D toroidal physics: testing the boundaries of symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spong, Don
2014-10-01
Toroidal symmetry is an important concept for plasma confinement; it allows the existence of nested flux surface MHD equilibria and conserved invariants for particle motion. However, perfect symmetry is unachievable in realistic toroidal plasma devices. For example, tokamaks have toroidal ripple due to discrete field coils, optimized stellarators do not achieve exact quasi-symmetry, the plasma itself continually seeks lower energy states through helical 3D deformations, and reactors will likely have non-uniform distributions of ferritic steel near the plasma. Also, some level of designed-in 3D magnetic field structure is now anticipated for most concepts in order to lead to a stable, steady-state fusion reactor. Such planned 3D field structures can take many forms, ranging from tokamaks with weak 3D ELM-suppression fields to stellarators with more dominant 3D field structures. There is considerable interest in the development of unified physics models for the full range of 3D effects. Ultimately, the questions of how much symmetry breaking can be tolerated and how to optimize its design must be addressed for all fusion concepts. Fortunately, significant progress is underway in theory, computation and plasma diagnostics on many issues such as magnetic surface quality, plasma screening vs. amplification of 3D perturbations, 3D transport, influence on edge pedestal structures, MHD stability effects, modification of fast ion-driven instabilities, prediction of energetic particle heat loads on plasma-facing materials, effects of 3D fields on turbulence, and magnetic coil design. A closely coupled program of simulation, experimental validation, and design optimization is required to determine what forms and amplitudes of 3D shaping and symmetry breaking will be compatible with future fusion reactors. The development of models to address 3D physics and progress in these areas will be described. This work is supported both by the US Department of Energy under Contract DE
Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in the Large Hadron Collider Era
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, Jared Andrew
2011-12-01
With the Large Hadron Collider collecting data, both the pursuit of novel detection techniques and the exploration of new ideas are more important than ever. Novel detection techniques are essential in order for the community to garner the most worth from the machine. New ideas are needed both to expand the boundaries of what could be observed and to foster the creative mindset of the community that moves particle physics into fascinating, and often unexpected, directions. Discovering whether electroweak symmetry is broken strongly or weakly is one of the most pressing questions to be answered. Exploring the possibility of strong electroweak symmetry breaking is the topic of this work. The first of two major sectors in this work concerns the theory of conformal technicolor. We present the low energy minimal model for conformal technicolor and verify that it can satisfy current constraints from experiment. We will also provide a UV completion for this model, which realistically extends the sector with high-energy supersymmetry. Two complete models of flavor are presented. This is the first example of a complete, consistent model of strong electroweak symmetry breaking. The second of the two sectors discusses experimental signatures arising in a large class of general technicolor models at the Large Hadron Collider. The possible existence of narrow scalar states that can be produced via gluon-gluon fusion is first discussed. These states can decay into exotic final states of multiple electroweak gauge bosons, third generation particles and even light composite Higgs particles. A two Higgs doublet model is proposed as an effective way to model these exciting states. Lastly, we discuss the array of possible final states and their possible discovery.
Stock market speculation: Spontaneous symmetry breaking of economic valuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sornette, Didier
2000-09-01
Firm foundation theory estimates a security's firm fundamental value based on four determinants: expected growth rate, expected dividend payout, the market interest rate and the degree of risk. In contrast, other views of decision-making in the stock market, using alternatives such as human psychology and behavior, bounded rationality, agent-based modeling and evolutionary game theory, expound that speculative and crowd behavior of investors may play a major role in shaping market prices. Here, we propose that the two views refer to two classes of companies connected through a "phase transition". Our theory is based on (1) the identification of the fundamental parity symmetry of prices (p→-p), which results from the relative direction of payment flux compared to commodity flux and (2) the observation that a company's risk-adjusted growth rate discounted by the market interest rate behaves as a control parameter for the observable price. We find a critical value of this control parameter at which a spontaneous symmetry-breaking of prices occurs, leading to a spontaneous valuation in absence of earnings, similarly to the emergence of a spontaneous magnetization in Ising models in absence of a magnetic field. The low growth rate phase is described by the firm foundation theory while the large growth rate phase is the regime of speculation and crowd behavior. In practice, while large "finite-time horizon" effects round off the predicted singularities, our symmetry-breaking speculation theory accounts for the apparent over-pricing and the high volatility of fast growing companies on the stock markets.
Beyond Symmetry Breaking: Competition and Negative Feedback in GTPase regulation
Wu, Chi-Fang; Lew, Daniel J.
2013-01-01
Summary Cortical domains are often specified by the local accumulation of active GTPases. Such domains can arise through spontaneous symmetry breaking, suggesting that GTPase accumulation occurs via positive feedback. Here, we focus on recent advances in fungal and plant cell models, where new work suggests that polarity-controlling GTPases develop only one “front” because GTPase clusters engage in a winner-takes-all competition. However, in some circumstances two or more GTPase domains can co-exist, and the basis for the switch from competition to coexistence remains an open question. Polarity GTPases can undergo oscillatory clustering and dispersal, suggesting that these systems contain negative feedback. Negative feedback may prevent polarity clusters from spreading too far, regulate the balance between competition and co-existence, and provide directional flexibility for cells tracking gradients. PMID:23731999
Nontrivial Critical Fixed Point for Replica-Symmetry-Breaking Transitions.
Charbonneau, Patrick; Yaida, Sho
2017-05-26
The transformation of the free-energy landscape from smooth to hierarchical is one of the richest features of mean-field disordered systems. A well-studied example is the de Almeida-Thouless transition for spin glasses in a magnetic field, and a similar phenomenon-the Gardner transition-has recently been predicted for structural glasses. The existence of these replica-symmetry-breaking phase transitions has, however, long been questioned below their upper critical dimension, d_{u}=6. Here, we obtain evidence for the existence of these transitions in d
Dynamics of the universe and spontaneous symmetry breaking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kazanas, D.
1980-01-01
It is shown that the presence of a phase transition early in the history of the universe, associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking (believed to take place at very high temperatures at which the various fundamental interactions unify), significantly modifies its dynamics and evolution. This is due to the energy 'pumping' during the phase transition from the vacuum to the substance, rather than the gravitating effects of the vacuum. The expansion law of the universe then differs substantially from the relation considered so far for the very early time expansion. In particular it is shown that under certain conditions this expansion law is exponential. It is further argued that under reasonable assumptions for the mass of the associated Higgs boson this expansion stage could last long enough to potentially account for the observed isotropy of the universe.
Spontaneous PT symmetry breaking in Dirac-Kronig-Penney crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longhi, Stefano; Cannata, Francesco; Ventura, Alberto
2011-12-01
We introduce a non-Hermitian PT invariant extension of the Dirac-Kronig-Penney model, describing the motion of a Dirac quasiparticle in a locally periodic sequence of imaginary δ-Dirac barriers and wells, and propose its optical realization using superstructure fiber Bragg gratings with alternating regions of optical gain and absorption. For the infinite crystal, we determine the band structure and show that the PT phase is always broken. For a finite crystal, we derive analytical expressions for reflection and transmission probabilities, and show that the PT phase is unbroken below a finite threshold of the δ-barrier area. In the proposed optical realization, the onset of PT symmetry breaking in the finite crystal corresponds to the lasing condition for the grating superstructures.
Neutrino mass ordering and μ-τ reflection symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, Zhi-zhong; Zhu, Jing-yu
2017-12-01
If the neutrino mass spectrum turns out to be m 3
Symmetry Breaking Drift of Particles Settling in Homogeneous Shear Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Hinsberg, M. A. T.; Clercx, H. J. H.; Toschi, Federico
2016-08-01
We investigate the influence of shear on the gravitational settling of heavy inertial particles in homogeneous shear turbulence (HST). In addition to the well-known enhanced settling velocity, observed for heavy inertial particles in homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT), a horizontal drift velocity is also observed in the shearing direction due to the presence of a nonzero mean vorticity (introducing symmetry breaking due to the mean shear). This drift velocity is due to the combination of shear, gravity, and turbulence, and all three of these elements are needed for this effect to occur. We extend the mechanism responsible for the enhanced settling velocity in HIT to the case of HST. Two separate regimes are observed, characterized by positive or negative drift velocity, depending on the particle settling velocity.
Inertial Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Quantum Scale Invariance
Ferreira, Pedro G.; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.
Weyl invariant theories of scalars and gravity can generate all mass scales spontaneously, initiated by a dynamical process of "inertial spontaneous symmetry breaking" that does not involve a potential. This is dictated by the structure of the Weyl current,more » $$K_\\mu$$, and a cosmological phase during which the universe expands and the Einstein-Hilbert effective action is formed. Maintaining exact Weyl invariance in the renormalised quantum theory is straightforward when renormalisation conditions are referred back to the VEV's of fields in the action of the theory, which implies a conserved Weyl current. We do not require scale invariant regulators. We illustrate the computation of a Weyl invariant Coleman-Weinberg potential.« less
Cosmological signature change in Cartan gravity with dynamical symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magueijo, João; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Matías; Westman, Hans; Złośnik, Tom
2014-03-01
We investigate the possibility for classical metric signature change in a straightforward generalization of the first-order formulation of gravity, dubbed "Cartan gravity." The mathematical structure of this theory mimics the electroweak theory in that the basic ingredients are an SO(1,4) Yang-Mills gauge field Aabμ and a symmetry breaking Higgs field Va, with no metric or affine structure of spacetime presupposed. However, these structures can be recovered, with the predictions of general relativity exactly reproduced, whenever the Higgs field breaking the symmetry to SO(1,3) is forced to have a constant (positive) norm VaVa. This restriction is usually imposed "by hand," but in analogy with the electroweak theory we promote the gravitational Higgs field Va to a genuine dynamical field, subject to nontrivial equations of motion. Even though we limit ourselves to actions polynomial in these variables, we discover a rich phenomenology. Most notably we derive classical cosmological solutions exhibiting a smooth transition between Euclidean and Lorentzian signature in the four-metric. These solutions are nonsingular and arise whenever the SO(1,4) norm of the Higgs field changes sign; i.e. the signature of the metric of spacetime is determined dynamically by the gravitational Higgs field. It is possible to find a plethora of such solutions and in some of them this dramatic behavior is confined to the early Universe, with the theory asymptotically tending to Einstein gravity at late times. Curiously the theory can also naturally embody a well-known dark energy model: Peebles-Ratra quintessence.
Flavour symmetry breaking in the kaon parton distribution amplitude
none,
2014-11-01
We compute the kaon's valence-quark (twist-two parton) distribution amplitude (PDA) by projecting its Poincaré-covariant Bethe–Salpeter wave-function onto the light-front. At a scale ζ = 2 GeV, the PDA is a broad, concave and asymmetric function, whose peak is shifted 12–16% away from its position in QCD's conformal limit. These features are a clear expression of SU(3)-flavour-symmetry breaking. They show that the heavier quark in the kaon carries more of the bound-state's momentum than the lighter quark and also that emergent phenomena in QCD modulate the magnitude of flavour-symmetry breaking: it is markedly smaller than one might expect based on themore » difference between light-quark current masses. Our results add to a body of evidence which indicates that at any energy scale accessible with existing or foreseeable facilities, a reliable guide to the interpretation of experiment requires the use of such nonperturbatively broadened PDAs in leading-order, leading-twist formulae for hard exclusive processes instead of the asymptotic PDA associated with QCD's conformal limit. We illustrate this via the ratio of kaon and pion electromagnetic form factors: using our nonperturbative PDAs in the appropriate formulae, F K/F π=1.23 at spacelike-Q 2=17 GeV 2, which compares satisfactorily with the value of 0.92(5) inferred in e +e - annihilation at s=17 GeV 2.« less
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in coupled parametrically driven waveguides.
Dror, Nir; Malomed, Boris A
2009-01-01
We introduce a system of linearly coupled parametrically driven damped nonlinear Schrödinger equations, which models a laser based on a nonlinear dual-core waveguide with parametric amplification symmetrically applied to both cores. The model may also be realized in terms of parallel ferromagnetic films, in which the parametric gain is provided by an external field. We analyze spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) of fundamental and multiple solitons in this system, which was not studied systematically before in linearly coupled dissipative systems with intrinsic nonlinearity. For fundamental solitons, the analysis reveals three distinct SSB scenarios. Unlike the standard dual-core-fiber model, the present system gives rise to a vast bistability region, which may be relevant to applications. Other noteworthy findings are restabilization of the symmetric soliton after it was destabilized by the SSB bifurcation, and the existence of a generic situation with all solitons unstable in the single-component (decoupled) model, while both symmetric and asymmetric solitons may be stable in the coupled system. The stability of the asymmetric solitons is identified via direct simulations, while for symmetric and antisymmetric ones the stability is verified too through the computation of stability eigenvalues, families of antisymmetric solitons being entirely unstable. In this way, full stability maps for the symmetric solitons are produced. We also investigate the SSB bifurcation of two-soliton bound states (it breaks the symmetry between the two components, while the two peaks in the shape of the soliton remain mutually symmetric). The family of the asymmetric double-peak states may decouple from its symmetric counterpart, being no longer connected to it by the bifurcation, with a large portion of the asymmetric family remaining stable.
Generation of zonal flows through symmetry breaking of statistical homogeneity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, Jeffrey B.; Krommes, John A.
2014-03-01
In geophysical and plasma contexts, zonal flows (ZFs) are well known to arise out of turbulence. We elucidate the transition from homogeneous turbulence without ZFs to inhomogeneous turbulence with steady ZFs. Starting from the equation for barotropic flow on a β plane, we employ both the quasilinear approximation and a statistical average, which retains a great deal of the qualitative behavior of the full system. Within the resulting framework known as CE2, we extend recent understanding of the symmetry-breaking zonostrophic instability and show that it is an example of a Type {{\\text{I}}_{s}} instability within the pattern formation literature. The broken symmetry is statistical homogeneity. Near the bifurcation point, the slow dynamics of CE2 are governed by a well-known amplitude equation. The important features of this amplitude equation, and therefore of the CE2 system, are multiple. First, the ZF wavelength is not unique. In an idealized, infinite system, there is a continuous band of ZF wavelengths that allow a nonlinear equilibrium. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets. These behaviors are shown numerically to hold in the CE2 system. We also conclude that the stability of the equilibria near the bifurcation point, which is governed by the Eckhaus instability, is independent of the Rayleigh-Kuo criterion.
A perfectly conducting surface in electrodynamics with Lorentz symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borges, L. H. C.; Barone, F. A.
2017-10-01
In this paper we consider a model which exhibits explicit Lorentz symmetry breaking due to the presence of a single background vector v^{μ } coupled to the gauge field. We investigate such a theory in the vicinity of a perfectly conducting plate for different configurations of v^{μ }. First we consider no restrictions on the components of the background vector and we treat it perturbatively up to second order. Next, we treat v^{μ } exactly for two special cases: the first one is when it has only components parallel to the plate, and the second one when it has a single component perpendicular to the plate. For all these configurations, the propagator for the gauge field and the interaction force between the plate and a point-like electric charge are computed. Surprisingly, it is shown that the image method is valid in our model and we argue that it is a non-trivial result. We show there arises a torque on the mirror with respect to its positioning in the background field when it interacts with a point-like charge. It is a new effect with no counterpart in theories with Lorentz symmetry in the presence of a perfect mirror.
Symmetry Breaking and the B3LYP Functional
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Hudgins, Douglas M.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
The infrared spectra of six molecules, each of which contains a five-membered ring, and their cations are determined using density functional theory (DFT); both the B3LYP and BP86 functionals are used. The computed results are compared with the experimental spectra. For the neutral molecules, both methods are in good agreement with experiment. Even the Hartree-Fock (HF) approach is qualitatively correct for the neutrals. For the cations, the HF approach fails, as found for other organic ring systems. The B3LYP and BP86 approaches are in good mutual agreement for five of the six cation spectra, and in good agreement with experiment for four of the five cations where the experimental spectra are available. It is only for the fluoranthene cation, where the BP86 and B3LYP functionals yield different results; the BP86 yields the expected C2v symmetry, while the B3LYP approach breaks symmetry. The experimental spectra supports the BP86 spectra over the B3LYP, but the quality of the experimental spectra does not allow a critical evaluation of the accuracy of the BP86 approach for this difficult system.
Aspects of Higher Spin Symmetry and its Breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhiboedov, Alexander
This thesis explores different aspects of higher spin symmetry and its breaking in the context of Quantum Field Theory, AdS/CFT and String Theory. In chapter 2, we study the constraints imposed by the existence of a single higher spin conserved current on a three-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT). A single higher spin conserved current implies the existence of an infinite number of higher spin conserved currents. The correlation functions of the stress tensor and the conserved currents are then shown to be equal to those of a free field theory. Namely a theory of N free bosons or free fermions. This is an extension of the Coleman-Mandula theorem to CFT's, which do not have a conventional S-matrix. In chapter 3, we consider three-dimensional conformal field theories that have a higher spin symmetry that is slightly broken. The theories have a large N limit, in the sense that the operators separate into single-trace and multi-trace and obey the usual large N factorization properties. We assume that the only single trace operators are the higher spin currents plus an additional scalar. Using the slightly broken higher spin symmetry we constrain the three-point functions of the theories to leading order in N. We show that there are two families of solutions. One family can be realized as a theory of N fermions with an O( N) Chern-Simons gauge field, the other as a N bosons plus the Chern-Simons gauge field. In chapter 4, we consider several aspects of unitary higher-dimensional conformal field theories. We investigate the dimensions of spinning operators via the crossing equations in the light-cone limit. We find that, in a sense, CFTs become free at large spin and 1/s is a weak coupling parameter. The spectrum of CFTs enjoys additivity: if two twists tau 1, tau2 appear in the spectrum, there are operators whose twists are arbitrarily close to tau1 + tau2. We characterize how tau1 + tau2 is approached at large spin by solving the crossing equations analytically
Spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in copper oxide superconductors
Wu, J.; Bollinger, A. T.; He, X.; ...
2017-07-26
The origin of high-temperature superconductivity in copper oxides and the nature of the ‘normal’ state above the critical temperature are widely debated. In underdoped copper oxides, this normal state hosts a pseudogap and other anomalous features; and in the overdoped materials, the standard Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer description fails, challenging the idea that the normal state is a simple Fermi liquid. To investigate these questions, we have studied the behaviour of single-crystal La 2–xSr xCuO 4 films through which an electrical current is being passed. Here we report that a spontaneous voltage develops across the sample, transverse (orthogonal) to the electrical current. The dependence of this voltage on probe current, temperature, in-plane device orientation and doping shows that this behaviour is intrinsic, substantial, robust and present over a broad range of temperature and doping. If the current direction is rotated in-plane by an anglemore » $$\\phi$$, the transverse voltage oscillates as sin(2$$\\phi$$), breaking the four-fold rotational symmetry of the crystal. The amplitude of the oscillations is strongly peaked near the critical temperature for superconductivity and decreases with increasing doping. We find that these phenomena are manifestations of unexpected in-plane anisotropy in the electronic transport. The films are very thin and epitaxially constrained to be tetragonal (that is, with four-fold symmetry), so one expects a constant resistivity and zero transverse voltage, for every $$\\phi$$. The origin of this anisotropy is purely electronic—the so-called electronic nematicity. Unusually, the nematic director is not aligned with the crystal axes, unless a substantial orthorhombic distortion is imposed. The fact that this anisotropy occurs in a material that exhibits high-temperature superconductivity may not be a coincidence.« less
Wavelength selection and symmetry breaking in orbital wave ripples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Perron, J. Taylor; Kao, Justin C. T.; Myrow, Paul M.
2014-10-01
Sand ripples formed by waves have a uniform wavelength while at equilibrium and develop defects while adjusting to changes in the flow. These patterns arise from the interaction of the flow with the bed topography, but the specific mechanisms have not been fully explained. We use numerical flow models and laboratory wave tank experiments to explore the origins of these patterns. The wavelength of "orbital" wave ripples (λ) is directly proportional to the oscillating flow's orbital diameter (d), with many experimental and field studies finding λ/d ≈ 0.65. We demonstrate a coupling that selects this ratio: the maximum length of the flow separation zone downstream of a ripple crest equals λ when λ/d ≈ 0.65. We show that this condition maximizes the growth rate of ripples. Ripples adjusting to changed flow conditions develop defects that break the bed's symmetry. When d is shortened sufficiently, two new incipient crests appear in every trough, but only one grows into a full-sized crest. Experiments have shown that the same side (right or left) wins in every trough. We find that this occurs because incipient secondary crests slow the flow and encourage the growth of crests on the next flank. Experiments have also shown that when d is lengthened, ripple crests become increasingly sinuous and eventually break up. We find that this occurs because crests migrate preferentially toward the nearest adjacent crest, amplifying any initial sinuosity. Our results reveal the mechanisms that form common wave ripple patterns and highlight interactions among unsteady flows, sediment transport, and bed topography.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roper, Marcus Leigh
This thesis describes the numerical and asymptotic analysis of symmetry breaking phenomena in three fluid dynamical systems. The first part concerns modeling of a micrometer sized swimming device, comprising a filament composed of superparamagnetic micron-sized beads and driven by an applied magnetic field. The swimming mechanics are deciphered in order to show how actuation by a spatially-homogeneous but temporally-varying torque leads to propagation of a bending wave along the filament and thence to propulsion. Absence of swimming unless the lateral symmetry of the filament is broken by tethering one end to a high drag body is explained. The model is used to determine whether, and to what extent, the micro-swimmer behaves like a flagellated eukaryotic cell. The second part concerns modeling of locomotion using a reversible stroke. Although forbidden at low Reynolds numbers, such symmetric gaits are favored by some microscopic planktonic swimmers. We analyze the constraints upon generation of propulsive force by such swimmers using a numerical model for a flapped limb. Effective locomotion is shown to be possible at arbitrarily low rates of energy expenditure, escaping a formerly postulated time-symmetry constraint, if the limb is shaped in order to exploit slow inertial-streaming eddies. Finally we consider the evolution of explosively launched ascomycete spores toward perfect projectile shapes---bodies that are designed to experience minimum drag in flight---using the variance of spore shapes between species in order to quantify the stiffness of the drag minimization constraint. A surprising observation about the persistent fore-aft symmetry of perfect projectiles, even up to Reynolds numbers great enough that the flow around the projectile is highly asymmetric, points both toward a model for spore ontogeny and to a novel linear approximation for moderate Reynolds flows.
Nambu mechanism of dynamical symmetry breaking by the top quark
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pham, Xuan-Yem
1990-05-01
It may be possible that the gauge symmetry breaking of the standard electroweak interactions is not due to the elementary scalar Higgs fields but has a dynamic origin intimately involving the top quark. A prototype of this dynamical scenario is the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model in which both the top quark and the gauge bosons become massive by some strong attractive nonlinear interactions similar to the gap energy produced in BCS superconductivity. Self-consistent equations for the charged Goldstone boson and for the vector meson are used to get an upper bound for the top quark mass. In the bubble approximation of keeping only fermion loops, we obtain an equation relating the top quark mass to the W boson one; from the top mass is found to be around 84 GeV. Its typical dominant decay mode t→W+s then follows. Also discussed are distinctive signatures of the scalar overlinett bound state identified as the physical Higgs particle whose mass is twice that of the top quark.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking, conformal anomaly and incompressible fluid turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oz, Yaron
2017-11-01
We propose an effective conformal field theory (CFT) description of steady state incompressible fluid turbulence at the inertial range of scales in any number of spatial dimensions. We derive a KPZ-type equation for the anomalous scaling of the longitudinal velocity structure functions and relate the intermittency parameter to the boundary Euler (A-type) conformal anomaly coefficient. The proposed theory consists of a mean field CFT that exhibits Kolmogorov linear scaling (K41 theory) coupled to a dilaton. The dilaton is a Nambu-Goldstone gapless mode that arises from a spontaneous breaking due to the energy flux of the separate scale and time symmetries of the inviscid Navier-Stokes equations to a K41 scaling with a dynamical exponent z=2/3 . The dilaton acts as a random measure that dresses the K41 theory and introduces intermittency. We discuss the two, three and large number of space dimensions cases and how entanglement entropy can be used to characterize the intermittency strength.
Symmetry breaking and polarity establishment during mouse oocyte maturation
Yi, Kexi; Rubinstein, Boris; Li, Rong
2013-01-01
Mammalian oocyte meiosis encompasses two rounds of asymmetric divisions to generate a totipotent haploid egg and, as by-products, two small polar bodies. Two intracellular events, asymmetric spindle positioning and cortical polarization, are critical to such asymmetric divisions. Actin but not microtubule cytoskeleton has been known to be directly involved in both events. Recent work has revealed a positive feedback loop between chromosome-mediated cortical activation and the Arp2/3-orchestrated cytoplasmic streaming that moves chromosomes. This feedback loop not only maintains meiotic II spindle position during metaphase II arrest, but also brings about symmetry breaking during meiosis I. Prior to an Arp2/3-dependent phase of fast movement, meiotic I spindle experiences a slow and non-directional first phase of migration driven by a pushing force from Fmn2-mediated actin polymerization. In addition to illustrating these molecular mechanisms, mathematical simulations are presented to elucidate mechanical properties of actin-dependent force generation in this system. PMID:24062576
Symmetry breaking in SNS junctions: edge transport and field asymmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suominen, Henri; Nichele, Fabrizio; Kjaergaard, Morten; Rasmussen, Asbjorn; Danon, Jeroen; Flensberg, Karsten; Levitov, Leonid; Shabani, Javad; Palmstrom, Chris; Marcus, Charles
We study magnetic diffraction patterns in a tunable superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor junction. By utilizing epitaxial growth of aluminum on InAs/InGaAs we obtain transparent junctions which display a conventional Fraunhofer pattern of the critical current as a function of applied perpendicular magnetic field, B⊥. By studying the angular dependence of the critical current with applied magnetic fields in the plane of the junction we find a striking anisotropy. We attribute this effect to dephasing of Andreev states in the bulk of the junction, leading to SQUID like behavior when the magnetic field is applied parallel to current flow. Furthermore, in the presence of both in-plane and perpendicular fields, asymmetries in +/-B⊥ are observed. We suggest possible origins and discuss the role of spin-orbit and Zeeman physics together with a background disorder potential breaking spatial symmetries of the junction. Research supported by Microsoft Project Q, the Danish National Research Foundation and the NSF through the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network.
Artificial Symmetry-Breaking for Morphogenetic Engineering Bacterial Colonies.
Nuñez, Isaac N; Matute, Tamara F; Del Valle, Ilenne D; Kan, Anton; Choksi, Atri; Endy, Drew; Haseloff, Jim; Rudge, Timothy J; Federici, Fernan
2017-02-17
Morphogenetic engineering is an emerging field that explores the design and implementation of self-organized patterns, morphologies, and architectures in systems composed of multiple agents such as cells and swarm robots. Synthetic biology, on the other hand, aims to develop tools and formalisms that increase reproducibility, tractability, and efficiency in the engineering of biological systems. We seek to apply synthetic biology approaches to the engineering of morphologies in multicellular systems. Here, we describe the engineering of two mechanisms, symmetry-breaking and domain-specific cell regulation, as elementary functions for the prototyping of morphogenetic instructions in bacterial colonies. The former represents an artificial patterning mechanism based on plasmid segregation while the latter plays the role of artificial cell differentiation by spatial colocalization of ubiquitous and segregated components. This separation of patterning from actuation facilitates the design-build-test-improve engineering cycle. We created computational modules for CellModeller representing these basic functions and used it to guide the design process and explore the design space in silico. We applied these tools to encode spatially structured functions such as metabolic complementation, RNAPT7 gene expression, and CRISPRi/Cas9 regulation. Finally, as a proof of concept, we used CRISPRi/Cas technology to regulate cell growth by controlling methionine synthesis. These mechanisms start from single cells enabling the study of morphogenetic principles and the engineering of novel population scale structures from the bottom up.
Localization and Symmetry Breaking in the Quantum Quasiperiodic Ising Glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandran, A.; Laumann, C. R.
2017-07-01
Quasiperiodic modulation can prevent isolated quantum systems from equilibrating by localizing their degrees of freedom. In this article, we show that such systems can exhibit dynamically stable long-range orders forbidden in equilibrium. Specifically, we show that the interplay of symmetry breaking and localization in the quasiperiodic quantum Ising chain produces a quasiperiodic Ising glass stable at all energy densities. The glass order parameter vanishes with an essential singularity at the melting transition with no signatures in the equilibrium properties. The zero-temperature phase diagram is also surprisingly rich, consisting of paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, and quasiperiodically alternating ground-state phases with extended, localized, and critically delocalized low-energy excitations. The system exhibits an unusual quantum Ising transition whose properties are intermediate between those of the clean and infinite randomness Ising transitions. Many of these results follow from a geometric generalization of the Aubry-André duality that we develop. The quasiperiodic Ising glass may be realized in near-term quantum optical experiments.
Symmetry-breaking inelastic wave-mixing atomic magnetometry.
Zhou, Feng; Zhu, Chengjie J; Hagley, Edward W; Deng, Lu
2017-12-01
The nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) effect has prolific applications ranging from precision mapping of Earth's magnetic field to biomagnetic sensing. Studies on collisional spin relaxation effects have led to ultrahigh magnetic field sensitivities using a single-beam Λ scheme with state-of-the-art magnetic shielding/compensation techniques. However, the NMOR effect in this widely used single-beam Λ scheme is peculiarly small, requiring complex radio-frequency phase-locking protocols. We show the presence of a previously unknown energy symmetry-based nonlinear propagation blockade and demonstrate an optical inelastic wave-mixing NMOR technique that breaks this NMOR blockade, resulting in an NMOR optical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement of more than two orders of magnitude never before seen with the single-beam Λ scheme. The large SNR enhancement was achieved simultaneously with a nearly two orders of magnitude reduction in laser power while preserving the magnetic resonance linewidth. This new method may open a myriad of applications ranging from biomagnetic imaging to precision measurement of the magnetic properties of subatomic particles.
Perversions driven spontaneous symmetry breaking in heterogeneous elastic ribbons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Shuangping; Yao, Zhenwei; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica
2015-03-01
Perversion structures in an otherwise uniform helical structure are associated with several important concepts in fundamental physics and materials science, including the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the elastic buckling. They also have strong connections with biological motifs (e.g., bacteria shapes and plant tendrils) and have potential applications in micro-muscles and soft robotics. In this work, using a three-dimensional elastomeric bi-stripe model, we investigate the properties of perversions that are independent of the specific ribbon shapes. Several intrinsic features of perversions are revealed, including the spontaneous condensation of energy as well as the distinct energy transfer modes within the perversion region. These properties of perversions associated with the storage of elastic energies can be exploited in the design of actuator devices. We thank the financial support from the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
Dynamics of symmetry breaking during quantum real-time evolution in a minimal model system.
Heyl, Markus; Vojta, Matthias
2014-10-31
One necessary criterion for the thermalization of a nonequilibrium quantum many-particle system is ergodicity. It is, however, not sufficient in cases where the asymptotic long-time state lies in a symmetry-broken phase but the initial state of nonequilibrium time evolution is fully symmetric with respect to this symmetry. In equilibrium, one particular symmetry-broken state is chosen as a result of an infinitesimal symmetry-breaking perturbation. From a dynamical point of view the question is: Can such an infinitesimal perturbation be sufficient for the system to establish a nonvanishing order during quantum real-time evolution? We study this question analytically for a minimal model system that can be associated with symmetry breaking, the ferromagnetic Kondo model. We show that after a quantum quench from a completely symmetric state the system is able to break its symmetry dynamically and discuss how these features can be observed experimentally.
A theoretical study of symmetry-breaking organic overlayers on single- and bi-layer graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales-Cifuentes, Josue; Einstein, T. L.
2013-03-01
An ``overlayer'' of molecules that breaks the AB symmetry of graphene can produce (modify) a band gap in single- (bi-) layer graphene.[2] Since the triangular shaped trimesic acid (TMA) molecule forms two familiar symmetry breaking configurations, we are motivated to model TMA physisorption on graphene surfaces in conjunction with experiments by Groce et al. at UMD. Using VASP, with ab initio van der Waals density functionals (vdW-DF), we simulate adsorption of TMA onto a graphene surface in several symmetry-breaking arrangements in order to predict/understand the effect of TMA adsorption on experimental observables. Supported by NSF-MRSEC Grant DMR 05-20471.
Chiral symmetry breaking in QCD with two light flavors.
Engel, Georg P; Giusti, Leonardo; Lottini, Stefano; Sommer, Rainer
2015-03-20
A distinctive feature of the presence of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in QCD is the condensation of low modes of the Dirac operator near the origin. The rate of condensation must be equal to the slope of M(π)(2)F(π)(2)/2 with respect to the quark mass m in the chiral limit, where M(π) and F(π) are the mass and the decay constant of the Nambu-Goldstone bosons. We compute the spectral density of the (Hermitian) Dirac operator, the quark mass, the pseudoscalar meson mass, and decay constant by numerical simulations of lattice QCD with two light degenerate Wilson quarks. We use lattices generated by the Coordinated Lattice Simulation (CLS) group at three values of the lattice spacing in the range 0.05-0.08 fm, and for several quark masses corresponding to pseudoscalar mesons masses down to 190 MeV. Thanks to this coverage of parameters space, we can extrapolate all quantities to the chiral and continuum limits with confidence. The results show that the low quark modes do condense in the continuum as expected by the Banks-Casher mechanism, and the rate of condensation agrees with the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation. For the renormalization-group-invariant ratios we obtain [Σ(RGI)](1/3)/F=2.77(2)(4) and Λ(M̅S)/F=3.6(2), which correspond to [Σ(M̅S)(2 GeV)](1/3)=263(3)(4) MeV and F=85.8(7)(20) MeV if F(K) is used to set the scale by supplementing the theory with a quenched strange quark.
Symmetry breaking in binary mixtures in closed nanoslits.
Berim, Gersh O; Ruckenstein, Eli
2008-04-07
The symmetry breaking (SB) of the fluid density distribution (FDD) in closed nanoslits between two identical parallel solid walls described by Berim and Ruckenstein [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 024704 (2008)] for a single component fluid is examined for binary mixtures on the basis of a nonlocal canonical ensemble density functional theory. As in Monte Carlo simulations, the periodicity of the FDD in one of the lateral (parallel to the wall surfaces) directions, denoted as the x direction, was assumed. In the other lateral direction, y direction, the FDD was considered to be uniform. The molecules of the two components have different diameters and their Lennard-Jones interaction potentials have different energy parameters. It was found that depending on the average fluid density in the slit and mixture composition, SB can occur for both or none of the components but never for only one of them. In the direction perpendicular to the walls (h direction), the FDDs of both components can be asymmetrical about the middle plane between walls. In the x direction, the SB occurs as bumps and bridges enriched in one of the components, whereas the composition of the mixture between them is enriched in the other component. The dependence of the SB states on the length Lx of the FDD period at fixed average densities of the two components was examined for Lx in the range from 10 to 120 molecular diameters of the smaller size component. It was shown that for large Lx, the stable state of the system corresponds to a bridge. Because the free energy of that state decreases monotonically with increasing Lx, one can conclude that the real period is very large (infinite) and that a single bridge exists in the slit.
Symmetry breaking in binary mixtures in closed nanoslits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berim, Gersh O.; Ruckenstein, Eli
2008-04-01
The symmetry breaking (SB) of the fluid density distribution (FDD) in closed nanoslits between two identical parallel solid walls described by Berim and Ruckenstein [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 024704 (2008)] for a single component fluid is examined for binary mixtures on the basis of a nonlocal canonical ensemble density functional theory. As in Monte Carlo simulations, the periodicity of the FDD in one of the lateral (parallel to the wall surfaces) directions, denoted as the x direction, was assumed. In the other lateral direction, y direction, the FDD was considered to be uniform. The molecules of the two components have different diameters and their Lennard-Jones interaction potentials have different energy parameters. It was found that depending on the average fluid density in the slit and mixture composition, SB can occur for both or none of the components but never for only one of them. In the direction perpendicular to the walls (h direction), the FDDs of both components can be asymmetrical about the middle plane between walls. In the x direction, the SB occurs as bumps and bridges enriched in one of the components, whereas the composition of the mixture between them is enriched in the other component. The dependence of the SB states on the length Lx of the FDD period at fixed average densities of the two components was examined for Lx in the range from 10 to 120 molecular diameters of the smaller size component. It was shown that for large Lx, the stable state of the system corresponds to a bridge. Because the free energy of that state decreases monotonically with increasing Lx, one can conclude that the real period is very large (infinite) and that a single bridge exists in the slit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roca-Maza, X.; Colò, G.; Sagawa, H.
2018-05-01
We analyze and propose a solution to the apparent inconsistency between our current knowledge of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter, the energy of the isobaric analog state (IAS) in a heavy nucleus such as 208Pb, and the isospin symmetry breaking forces in the nuclear medium. This is achieved by performing state-of-the-art Hartree-Fock plus random phase approximation calculations of the IAS that include all isospin symmetry breaking contributions. To this aim, we propose a new effective interaction that is successful in reproducing the IAS excitation energy without compromising other properties of finite nuclei.
Roca-Maza, X; Colò, G; Sagawa, H
2018-05-18
We analyze and propose a solution to the apparent inconsistency between our current knowledge of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter, the energy of the isobaric analog state (IAS) in a heavy nucleus such as ^{208}Pb, and the isospin symmetry breaking forces in the nuclear medium. This is achieved by performing state-of-the-art Hartree-Fock plus random phase approximation calculations of the IAS that include all isospin symmetry breaking contributions. To this aim, we propose a new effective interaction that is successful in reproducing the IAS excitation energy without compromising other properties of finite nuclei.
Quantum chaos and breaking of all anti-unitary symmetries in Rydberg excitons.
Aßmann, Marc; Thewes, Johannes; Fröhlich, Dietmar; Bayer, Manfred
2016-07-01
Symmetries are the underlying principles of fundamental interactions in nature. Chaos in a quantum system may emerge from breaking these symmetries. Compared to vacuum, crystals are attractive for studying quantum chaos, as they not only break spatial isotropy, but also lead to novel quasiparticles with modified interactions. Here we study yellow Rydberg excitons in cuprous oxide which couple strongly to the vacuum light field and interact significantly with crystal phonons, leading to inversion symmetry breaking. In a magnetic field, time-reversal symmetry is also broken and the exciton states show a complex splitting pattern, resulting in quadratic level repulsion for small splittings. In contrast to atomic chaotic systems in a magnetic field, which show only a linear level repulsion, this is a signature of a system where all anti-unitary symmetries are broken simultaneously. This behaviour can otherwise be found only for the electro-weak interaction or engineered billiards.
Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in Models of Spinor Fields with Quartic Interactions in (1+1) Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rhung-tai; Ni, Guang-jiong
1982-07-01
A nonperturbative method, namely, variational method together with canonical transformations, is developed to study dynamical symmetry breaking. This method has been applied in the models of two dimensional massless fermion fields with quartic interactions. The results imply that the mechanism of dynamical symmetry breaking bears some analogy to the phenomenon of superconductivity. The new vacuum \\mid \\tilde{0}> is just a relativistic BCS groundstate, In this vacuum \\mid ^≈0>, we can observe a quasi-particle with mass "MF" Furthermore, correlative vacuum \\mid ^≈0> exists and the mesons emerge with masses "O" and "2MF". It is also shown that dynamical symmetry breaking always occurs in the models with infrared slavery and asymptotic freedom, while it is meaningless to discuss dynamical symmetry breaking in infrared stable theory.
Symmetry Breaking of Counter-Propagating Light in a Nonlinear Resonator.
Del Bino, Leonardo; Silver, Jonathan M; Stebbings, Sarah L; Del'Haye, Pascal
2017-02-21
Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a concept of fundamental importance in many areas of physics, underpinning such diverse phenomena as ferromagnetism, superconductivity, superfluidity and the Higgs mechanism. Here we demonstrate nonreciprocity and spontaneous symmetry breaking between counter-propagating light in dielectric microresonators. The symmetry breaking corresponds to a resonance frequency splitting that allows only one of two counter-propagating (but otherwise identical) states of light to circulate in the resonator. Equivalently, this effect can be seen as the collapse of standing waves and transition to travelling waves within the resonator. We present theoretical calculations to show that the symmetry breaking is induced by Kerr-nonlinearity-mediated interaction between the counter-propagating light. Our findings pave the way for a variety of applications including optically controllable circulators and isolators, all-optical switching, nonlinear-enhanced rotation sensing, optical flip-flops for photonic memories as well as exceptionally sensitive power and refractive index sensors.
Symmetry Breaking of Counter-Propagating Light in a Nonlinear Resonator
Del Bino, Leonardo; Silver, Jonathan M.; Stebbings, Sarah L.; Del'Haye, Pascal
2017-01-01
Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a concept of fundamental importance in many areas of physics, underpinning such diverse phenomena as ferromagnetism, superconductivity, superfluidity and the Higgs mechanism. Here we demonstrate nonreciprocity and spontaneous symmetry breaking between counter-propagating light in dielectric microresonators. The symmetry breaking corresponds to a resonance frequency splitting that allows only one of two counter-propagating (but otherwise identical) states of light to circulate in the resonator. Equivalently, this effect can be seen as the collapse of standing waves and transition to travelling waves within the resonator. We present theoretical calculations to show that the symmetry breaking is induced by Kerr-nonlinearity-mediated interaction between the counter-propagating light. Our findings pave the way for a variety of applications including optically controllable circulators and isolators, all-optical switching, nonlinear-enhanced rotation sensing, optical flip-flops for photonic memories as well as exceptionally sensitive power and refractive index sensors. PMID:28220865
Mode structure symmetry breaking of energetic particle driven beta-induced Alfvén eigenmode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Z. X.; Wang, X.; Lauber, Ph.; Zonca, F.
2018-01-01
The mode structure symmetry breaking of energetic particle driven Beta-induced Alfvén Eigenmode (BAE) is studied based on global theory and simulation. The weak coupling formula gives a reasonable estimate of the local eigenvalue compared with global hybrid simulation using XHMGC. The non-perturbative effect of energetic particles on global mode structure symmetry breaking in radial and parallel (along B) directions is demonstrated. With the contribution from energetic particles, two dimensional (radial and poloidal) BAE mode structures with symmetric/asymmetric tails are produced using an analytical model. It is demonstrated that the symmetry breaking in radial and parallel directions is intimately connected. The effects of mode structure symmetry breaking on nonlinear physics, energetic particle transport, and the possible insight for experimental studies are discussed.
Translational Symmetry Breaking and Gapping of Heavy-Quasiparticle Pocket in URu2Si2
Yoshida, Rikiya; Tsubota, Koji; Ishiga, Toshihiko; Sunagawa, Masanori; Sonoyama, Jyunki; Aoki, Dai; Flouquet, Jacques; Wakita, Takanori; Muraoka, Yuji; Yokoya, Takayoshi
2013-01-01
URu2Si2 is a uranium compound that exhibits a so-called ‘hidden-order’ transition at ~17.5 K. However, the order parameter of this second-order transition as well as many of its microscopic properties remain unclarified despite considerable research. One of the key questions in this regard concerns the type of spontaneous symmetry breaking occurring at the transition; although rotational symmetry breaking has been detected, it is not clear whether another type of symmetry breaking also occurs. Another key question concerns the property of Fermi-surface gapping in the momentum space. Here we address these key questions by a momentum-dependent observation of electronic states at the transition employing ultrahigh-resolution three-dimensional angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Our results provide compelling evidence of the spontaneous breaking of the lattice's translational symmetry and particle-hole asymmetric gapping of a heavy quasiparticle pocket at the transition. PMID:24084937
From physics to biology by extending criticality and symmetry breakings.
Longo, G; Montévil, M
2011-08-01
Symmetries play a major role in physics, in particular since the work by E. Noether and H. Weyl in the first half of last century. Herein, we briefly review their role by recalling how symmetry changes allow to conceptually move from classical to relativistic and quantum physics. We then introduce our ongoing theoretical analysis in biology and show that symmetries play a radically different role in this discipline, when compared to those in current physics. By this comparison, we stress that symmetries must be understood in relation to conservation and stability properties, as represented in the theories. We posit that the dynamics of biological organisms, in their various levels of organization, are not "just" processes, but permanent (extended, in our terminology) critical transitions and, thus, symmetry changes. Within the limits of a relative structural stability (or interval of viability), variability is at the core of these transitions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aspects of Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horkel, Derek P.
In this thesis we describe two studies concerting lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD): first, an analysis of the phase structure of Wilson and twisted-mass fermions with isospin breaking effects, second a computational study measuring non-perturbative Greens functions. We open with a brief overview of the formalism of QCD and LQCD, focusing on the aspects necessary for understanding how a lattice computation is performed and how discretization effects can be understood. Our work in Wilson and twisted-mass fermions investigates an increasingly relevant regime where lattice simulations are performed with quarks at or near their physical masses and both the mass difference of the up and down quarks and their differing electric charges are included. Our computation of a non-perturbative Greens functions on the lattice serves as a first attempt to validate recent work by Dine et. al. [24] in which they calculate Greens functions which vanish in perturbation theory, yet have a contribution from the one instanton background. In chapter 2, we determine the phase diagram and pion spectrum for Wilson and twisted-mass fermions in the presence of non-degeneracy between the up and down quark and discretization errors, using Wilson and twisted-mass chiral perturbation theory. We find that the CP-violating phase of the continuum theory (which occurs for sufficiently large non-degeneracy) is continuously connected to the Aoki phase of the lattice theory with degenerate quarks. We show that discretization effects can, in some cases, push simulations with physical masses closer to either the CP-violating phase or another phase not present in the continuum, so that at sufficiently large lattice spacings physical-point simulations could lie in one of these phases. In chapter 3, we extend the work in chapter 2 to include the effects of electromagnetism, so that it is applicable to recent simulations incorporating all sources of isospin breaking. For Wilson fermions, we find that the
Maximal Rashba-like spin splitting via kinetic-energy-coupled inversion-symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sunko, Veronika; Rosner, H.; Kushwaha, P.; Khim, S.; Mazzola, F.; Bawden, L.; Clark, O. J.; Riley, J. M.; Kasinathan, D.; Haverkort, M. W.; Kim, T. K.; Hoesch, M.; Fujii, J.; Vobornik, I.; MacKenzie, A. P.; King, P. D. C.
2017-09-01
Engineering and enhancing the breaking of inversion symmetry in solids—that is, allowing electrons to differentiate between ‘up’ and ‘down’—is a key goal in condensed-matter physics and materials science because it can be used to stabilize states that are of fundamental interest and also have potential practical applications. Examples include improved ferroelectrics for memory devices and materials that host Majorana zero modes for quantum computing. Although inversion symmetry is naturally broken in several crystalline environments, such as at surfaces and interfaces, maximizing the influence of this effect on the electronic states of interest remains a challenge. Here we present a mechanism for realizing a much larger coupling of inversion-symmetry breaking to itinerant surface electrons than is typically achieved. The key element is a pronounced asymmetry of surface hopping energies—that is, a kinetic-energy-coupled inversion-symmetry breaking, the energy scale of which is a substantial fraction of the bandwidth. Using spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we demonstrate that such a strong inversion-symmetry breaking, when combined with spin-orbit interactions, can mediate Rashba-like spin splittings that are much larger than would typically be expected. The energy scale of the inversion-symmetry breaking that we achieve is so large that the spin splitting in the CoO2- and RhO2-derived surface states of delafossite oxides becomes controlled by the full atomic spin-orbit coupling of the 3d and 4d transition metals, resulting in some of the largest known Rashba-like spin splittings. The core structural building blocks that facilitate the bandwidth-scaled inversion-symmetry breaking are common to numerous materials. Our findings therefore provide opportunities for creating spin-textured states and suggest routes to interfacial control of inversion-symmetry breaking in designer heterostructures of oxides and other material classes.
Maximal Rashba-like spin splitting via kinetic-energy-coupled inversion-symmetry breaking.
Sunko, Veronika; Rosner, H; Kushwaha, P; Khim, S; Mazzola, F; Bawden, L; Clark, O J; Riley, J M; Kasinathan, D; Haverkort, M W; Kim, T K; Hoesch, M; Fujii, J; Vobornik, I; Mackenzie, A P; King, P D C
2017-09-27
Engineering and enhancing the breaking of inversion symmetry in solids-that is, allowing electrons to differentiate between 'up' and 'down'-is a key goal in condensed-matter physics and materials science because it can be used to stabilize states that are of fundamental interest and also have potential practical applications. Examples include improved ferroelectrics for memory devices and materials that host Majorana zero modes for quantum computing. Although inversion symmetry is naturally broken in several crystalline environments, such as at surfaces and interfaces, maximizing the influence of this effect on the electronic states of interest remains a challenge. Here we present a mechanism for realizing a much larger coupling of inversion-symmetry breaking to itinerant surface electrons than is typically achieved. The key element is a pronounced asymmetry of surface hopping energies-that is, a kinetic-energy-coupled inversion-symmetry breaking, the energy scale of which is a substantial fraction of the bandwidth. Using spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we demonstrate that such a strong inversion-symmetry breaking, when combined with spin-orbit interactions, can mediate Rashba-like spin splittings that are much larger than would typically be expected. The energy scale of the inversion-symmetry breaking that we achieve is so large that the spin splitting in the CoO 2 - and RhO 2 -derived surface states of delafossite oxides becomes controlled by the full atomic spin-orbit coupling of the 3d and 4d transition metals, resulting in some of the largest known Rashba-like spin splittings. The core structural building blocks that facilitate the bandwidth-scaled inversion-symmetry breaking are common to numerous materials. Our findings therefore provide opportunities for creating spin-textured states and suggest routes to interfacial control of inversion-symmetry breaking in designer heterostructures of oxides and other material classes.
Traces of Lorentz symmetry breaking in a hydrogen atom at ground state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borges, L. H. C.; Barone, F. A.
2016-02-01
Some traces of a specific Lorentz symmetry breaking scenario in the ground state of the hydrogen atom are investigated. We use standard Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory in order to obtain the corrections to the ground state energy and the wave function. It is shown that an induced four-pole moment arises, due to the Lorentz symmetry breaking. The model considered is the one studied in Borges et al. (Eur Phys J C 74:2937, 2014), where the Lorentz symmetry is broken in the electromagnetic sector.
Symmetry Breaking and Restoration in the Ginzburg-Landau Model of Nematic Liquid Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clerc, Marcel G.; Kowalczyk, Michał; Smyrnelis, Panayotis
2018-06-01
In this paper we study qualitative properties of global minimizers of the Ginzburg-Landau energy which describes light-matter interaction in the theory of nematic liquid crystals near the Fréedericksz transition. This model depends on two parameters: ɛ >0 which is small and represents the coherence scale of the system and a≥0 which represents the intensity of the applied laser light. In particular, we are interested in the phenomenon of symmetry breaking as a and ɛ vary. We show that when a=0 the global minimizer is radially symmetric and unique and that its symmetry is instantly broken as a>0 and then restored for sufficiently large values of a. Symmetry breaking is associated with the presence of a new type of topological defect which we named the shadow vortex. The symmetry breaking scenario is a rigorous confirmation of experimental and numerical results obtained earlier in Barboza et al. (Phys Rev E 93(5):050201, 2016).
Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Peptide Systems During Formation of Life on Earth.
Konstantinov, Konstantin K; Konstantinova, Alisa F
2018-03-01
Chiral symmetry breaking in complex chemical systems with a large number of amino acids and a large number of similar reactions was considered. It was shown that effective averaging over similar reaction channels may result in very weak effective enantioselectivity of forward reactions, which does not allow most of the known models to result in chiral symmetry breaking during formation of life on Earth. Models with simple and catalytic synthesis of a single amino acid, formation of peptides up to length five, and sedimentation of insoluble pair of substances were considered. It was shown that depending on the model and the values of the parameters, chiral symmetry breaking may occur in up to about 10% out of all possible unique insoluble pair combinations even in the absence of any catalytic synthesis and that minimum total number of amino acids in the pair is 5. If weak enantioselective forward catalytic synthesis of amino acids is present, then the number of possible variants, in which chiral symmetry breaking may occur, increases substantially. It was shown that that the most interesting catalysts have zero or one amino acid of "incorrect" chirality. If the parameters of the model are adjusted in such a way to result in an increase of concentration of longer peptides, then catalysts with two amino acids of incorrect chirality start to appear at peptides of length five. Models of chiral symmetry breaking in the presence of epimerization were considered for peptides up to length three. It was shown that the range of parameters in which chiral symmetry breaking could occur significantly shrinks in comparison to previously considered models with peptides up to length two. An experiment of chiral symmetry breaking was proposed. The experiment consists of a three-step cycle: reversible catalytic synthesis of amino acids, reversible synthesis of peptides, and irreversible sedimentation of insoluble substances.
Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Peptide Systems During Formation of Life on Earth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konstantinov, Konstantin K.; Konstantinova, Alisa F.
2018-03-01
Chiral symmetry breaking in complex chemical systems with a large number of amino acids and a large number of similar reactions was considered. It was shown that effective averaging over similar reaction channels may result in very weak effective enantioselectivity of forward reactions, which does not allow most of the known models to result in chiral symmetry breaking during formation of life on Earth. Models with simple and catalytic synthesis of a single amino acid, formation of peptides up to length five, and sedimentation of insoluble pair of substances were considered. It was shown that depending on the model and the values of the parameters, chiral symmetry breaking may occur in up to about 10% out of all possible unique insoluble pair combinations even in the absence of any catalytic synthesis and that minimum total number of amino acids in the pair is 5. If weak enantioselective forward catalytic synthesis of amino acids is present, then the number of possible variants, in which chiral symmetry breaking may occur, increases substantially. It was shown that that the most interesting catalysts have zero or one amino acid of "incorrect" chirality. If the parameters of the model are adjusted in such a way to result in an increase of concentration of longer peptides, then catalysts with two amino acids of incorrect chirality start to appear at peptides of length five. Models of chiral symmetry breaking in the presence of epimerization were considered for peptides up to length three. It was shown that the range of parameters in which chiral symmetry breaking could occur significantly shrinks in comparison to previously considered models with peptides up to length two. An experiment of chiral symmetry breaking was proposed. The experiment consists of a three-step cycle: reversible catalytic synthesis of amino acids, reversible synthesis of peptides, and irreversible sedimentation of insoluble substances.
Imaging chiral symmetry breaking from Kekule bond order in graphene
Gutiérrez, Christopher; Kim, Cheol -Joo; Brown, Lola; ...
2016-05-23
Chirality—or ‘handedness’—is a symmetry property crucial to fields as diverse as biology, chemistry and high-energy physics. In graphene, chiral symmetry emerges naturally as a consequence of the carbon honeycomb lattice. This symmetry can be broken by interactions that couple electrons with opposite momenta in graphene. Here we directly visualize the formation of Kekulé bond order, one such phase of broken chiral symmetry, in an ultraflat graphene sheet grown epitaxially on a copper substrate. We show that its origin lies in the interactions between individual vacancies in the copper substrate that are mediated electronically by the graphene. We show that thismore » interaction causes the bonds in graphene to distort, creating a phase with broken chiral symmetry. Furthermore, the Kekulé ordering is robust at ambient temperature and atmospheric conditions, indicating that intercalated atoms may be harnessed to drive graphene and other two-dimensional materials towards electronically desirable and exotic collective phases.« less
Semiclassical transport in nearly symmetric quantum dots. I. Symmetry breaking in the dot.
Whitney, Robert S; Schomerus, Henning; Kopp, Marten
2009-11-01
We apply the semiclassical theory of transport to quantum dots with exact and approximate spatial symmetries; left-right mirror symmetry, up-down mirror symmetry, inversion symmetry, or fourfold symmetry. In this work-the first of a pair of articles-we consider (a) perfectly symmetric dots and (b) nearly symmetric dots in which the symmetry is broken by the dot's internal dynamics. The second article addresses symmetry-breaking by displacement of the leads. Using semiclassics, we identify the origin of the symmetry-induced interference effects that contribute to weak localization corrections and universal conductance fluctuations. For perfect spatial symmetry, we recover results previously found using the random-matrix theory conjecture. We then go on to show how the results are affected by asymmetries in the dot, magnetic fields, and decoherence. In particular, the symmetry-asymmetry crossover is found to be described by a universal dependence on an asymmetry parameter gamma_{asym} . However, the form of this parameter is very different depending on how the dot is deformed away from spatial symmetry. Symmetry-induced interference effects are completely destroyed when the dot's boundary is globally deformed by less than an electron wavelength. In contrast, these effects are only reduced by a finite amount when a part of the dot's boundary smaller than a lead-width is deformed an arbitrarily large distance.
A UV-complete Composite Higgs model for Electroweak Symmetry Breaking: Minimal Conformal Technicolor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tacchi, Ruggero Altair
The Large Hadron Collider is currently collecting data. One of the main goals of the experiment is to find evidence of the mechanism responsible for the breaking of the electroweak symmetry. There are many different models attempting to explain this breaking and traditionally most of them involve the use of supersymmetry near the scale of the breaking. This work is focused on exploring a viable model that is not based on a weakly coupled low scale supersymmetry sector to explain the electroweak symmetry breaking. We build a model based on a new strong interaction, in the fashion of theories commonly called "technicolor", name that is reminiscent of one of the first attempts of explaining the electroweak symmetry breaking using a strong interaction similar to the one whose charges are called colors. We explicitly study the minimal model of conformal technicolor, an SU(2) gauge theory near a strongly coupled conformal fixed point, with conformal symmetry softly broken by technifermion mass terms. Conformal symmetry breaking triggers chiral symmetry breaking in the pattern SU(4) → Sp (4), which gives rise to a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson that can act as a composite Higgs boson. There is an additional composite pseudoscalar A with mass larger than mh and suppressed direct production at LHC. We discuss the electroweak fit in this model in detail. A good fit requires fine tuning at the 10% level. We construct a complete, realistic, and natural UV completion of the model, that explains the origin of quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. We embed conformal technicolor in a supersymmetric theory, with supersymmetry broken at a high scale. The effective theory below the supersymmetry breaking scale is minimal conformal technicolor with an additional light technicolor gaugino that might give rise to an additional pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson that is observable at the LHC.
Performance improvements of symmetry-breaking reflector structures in nonimaging devices
Winston, Roland
2004-01-13
A structure and method for providing a broken symmetry reflector structure for a solar concentrator device. The component of the optical direction vector along the symmetry axis is conserved for all rays propagated through a translationally symmetric optical device. This quantity, referred to as the translational skew invariant, is conserved in rotationally symmetric optical systems. Performance limits for translationally symmetric nonimaging optical devices are derived from the distributions of the translational skew invariant for the optical source and for the target to which flux is to be transferred. A numerically optimized non-tracking solar concentrator utilizing symmetry-breaking reflector structures can overcome the performance limits associated with translational symmetry.
Is radiative electroweak symmetry breaking consistent with a 125 GeV Higgs mass?
Steele, T G; Wang, Zhi-Wei
2013-04-12
The mechanism of radiative electroweak symmetry breaking occurs through loop corrections, and unlike conventional symmetry breaking where the Higgs mass is a parameter, the radiatively generated Higgs mass is dynamically predicted. Padé approximations and an averaging method are developed to extend the Higgs mass predictions in radiative electroweak symmetry breaking from five- to nine-loop order in the scalar sector of the standard model, resulting in an upper bound on the Higgs mass of 141 GeV. The mass predictions are well described by a geometric series behavior, converging to an asymptotic Higgs mass of 124 GeV consistent with the recent ATLAS and CMS Collaborations observations. Similarly, we find that the Higgs self-coupling converges to λ=0.23, which is significantly larger than its conventional symmetry breaking counterpart for a 124 GeV Higgs mass. In addition to this significant enhancement of the Higgs self-coupling and HH→HH scattering, we find that Higgs decays to gauge bosons are unaltered and the scattering processes WL(+)WL(+)→HH, ZLZL→HH are also enhanced, providing signals to distinguish conventional and radiative electroweak symmetry breaking mechanisms.
Optical diametric drive acceleration through action-reaction symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wimmer, Martin; Regensburger, Alois; Bersch, Christoph; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Batz, Sascha; Onishchukov, Georgy; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Peschel, Ulf
2013-12-01
Newton's third law of motion is one of the pillars of classical physics. This fundamental principle states that the forces two bodies exert on each other are equal and opposite. Had the resulting accelerations been oriented in the same direction, this would have instead led to a counterintuitive phenomenon, that of diametric drive. In such a hypothetical arrangement, two interacting particles constantly accelerate each other in the same direction through a violation of the action-reaction symmetry. Although in classical mechanics any realization of this process requires one of the two particles to have a negative mass and hence is strictly forbidden, it could nevertheless be feasible in periodic structures where the effective mass can also attain a negative sign. Here we report the first experimental observation of such diametric drive acceleration for pulses propagating in a nonlinear optical mesh lattice. The demonstrated reversal of action-reaction symmetry could enable altogether new possibilities for frequency conversion and pulse-steering applications.
Higgs-like mechanism for spontaneous spacetime symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishimura, Kimihide
2015-10-01
The study of spontaneous breakdown of spacetime symmetries leads to the discovery of another type of Higgs mechanism operating in a chiral SU(2) model. Some of the Nambu-Goldstone vector mesons emergent from simultaneous violations of gauge and Lorentz symmetries are, in this case, absorbed by a left-handed doublet and endow one of the fermions with a right-handed state, while another part becomes emergent as photons. Accordingly, this mechanism allows a chiral fermion to acquire a mass, and it may enable the emergent theory to reproduce the electromagnetism equivalent to the QED sector in the standard theory. It is also mentioned that the "fermion-boson puzzle" known in the presence of a 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole does not exist in our theory.
Dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking in 3D and charge fractionalization
Charneski, B.; Gomes, M.; Silva, A. J. da
2009-03-15
We analyze the breaking of Lorentz invariance in a 3D model of fermion fields self-coupled through four-fermion interactions. The low-energy limit of the theory contains various submodels which are similar to those used in the study of graphene or in the description of irrational charge fractionalization.
Taste symmetry breaking with hypercubic-smeared staggered fermions
Bae, Taegil; Adams, David H.; Kim, Hyung-Jin
2008-05-01
We study the impact of hypercubic (HYP) smearing on the size of taste-breaking for staggered fermions, comparing to unimproved and to asqtad-improved staggered fermions. As in previous studies, we find a substantial reduction in taste-breaking compared to unimproved staggered fermions (by a factor of 4-7 on lattices with spacing a{approx_equal}0.1 fm). In addition, we observe that discretization effects of next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion (O(a{sup 2}p{sup 2})) are markedly reduced by HYP smearing. Compared to asqtad valence fermions, we find that taste-breaking in the pion spectrum is reduced by a factor of 2.5-3, down to a level comparable tomore » the expected size of generic O(a{sup 2}) effects. Our results suggest that, once one reaches a lattice spacing of a{approx_equal}0.09 fm, taste-breaking will be small enough after HYP smearing that one can use a modified power counting in which O(a{sup 2})<
Using light gradients to investigate symmetry breaking in fish schools
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puckett, James; Giannini, Julia
Theoretical models of social animals successfully reproduce many structures found in nature (e.g. swarms, flocks, mills) using simple interaction rules. However, the interactions between individuals is complex and undoubtedly depends on the environment. Using schools of fish, we use visual perturbations to investigate how individuals negotiate both social and environmental information to reach a consensus. Starting with an unpolarized school of fish, we examine how the symmetry is broken and find that not all fish contribute equally to this decision.
Isospin-symmetry breaking in masses of N ≃ Z nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bączyk, P.; Dobaczewski, J.; Konieczka, M.; Satuła, W.; Nakatsukasa, T.; Sato, K.
2018-03-01
Effects of the isospin-symmetry breaking (ISB) beyond mean-field Coulomb terms are systematically studied in nuclear masses near the N = Z line. The Coulomb exchange contributions are calculated exactly. We use extended Skyrme energy density functionals (EDFs) with proton-neutron-mixed densities, to which we add new terms breaking the isospin symmetry. Two parameters associated with the new terms are determined by fitting mirror and triplet displacement energies (MDEs and TDEs) of isospin multiplets. The new EDFs reproduce MDEs for the T = 1/2 doublets and T = 1 triplets, and TDEs for the T = 1 triplets. Relative strengths of the obtained isospin-symmetry-breaking terms are not consistent with the differences in the NN scattering lengths, ann, app, and anp. Based on low-energy experimental data, it seems thus impossible to delineate the strong-force ISB effects from beyond-mean-field Coulomb-energy corrections.
Symmetry Breaking in Photonic Crystals: On-Demand Dispersion from Flatband to Dirac Cones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, H. S.; Dubois, F.; Deschamps, T.; Cueff, S.; Pardon, A.; Leclercq, J.-L.; Seassal, C.; Letartre, X.; Viktorovitch, P.
2018-02-01
We demonstrate that symmetry breaking opens a new degree of freedom to tailor energy-momentum dispersion in photonic crystals. Using a general theoretical framework in two illustrative practical structures, we show that breaking symmetry enables an on-demand tuning of the local density of states of the same photonic band from zero (Dirac cone dispersion) to infinity (flatband dispersion), as well as any constant density over an adjustable spectral range. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate experimentally the transformation of the very same photonic band from a conventional quadratic shape to a Dirac dispersion, a flatband dispersion, and a multivalley one. This transition is achieved by finely tuning the vertical symmetry breaking of the photonic structures. Our results provide an unprecedented degree of freedom for optical dispersion engineering in planar integrated photonic devices.
Cooperation and competition between two symmetry breakings in a coupled ratchet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chen-Pu; Chen, Hong-Bin; Fan, Hong; Xie, Ge-Ying; Zheng, Zhi-Gang
2018-03-01
We investigate the collective mechanism of coupled Brownian motors in a flashing ratchet in the presence of coupling symmetry breaking and space symmetry breaking. The dependences of directed current on various parameters are extensively studied in terms of numerical simulations and theoretical analysis. Reversed motion can be achieved by modulating multiple parameters including the spatial asymmetry coefficient, the coupling asymmetry coefficient, the coupling free length and the coupling strength. The dynamical mechanism of these transport properties can be reasonably explained by the effective potential theory and the cooperation or competition between two symmetry breakings. Moreover, adjusting the Gaussian white noise intensity, which can induce weak reversed motion under certain condition, can optimize and manipulate the directed transport of the ratchet system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, T.; Pang, G. M.; Baines, C.; Jiang, W. B.; Xie, W.; Wang, A.; Medarde, M.; Pomjakushina, E.; Shi, M.; Mesot, J.; Yuan, H. Q.; Shiroka, T.
2018-01-01
The noncentrosymmetric superconductor Re24Ti5 , a time-reversal symmetry- (TRS-) breaking candidate with Tc=6 K , was studied by means of muon-spin rotation/relaxation (μ SR ) and tunnel-diode oscillator techniques. At the macroscopic level, its bulk superconductivity was investigated via electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and heat-capacity measurements. The low-temperature penetration depth, superfluid density, and electronic heat capacity all evidence an s -wave coupling with an enhanced superconducting gap. The spontaneous magnetic fields revealed by zero-field μ SR below Tc indicate a time-reversal symmetry breaking and thus the unconventional nature of superconductivity in Re24Ti5 . The concomitant occurrence of TRS breaking also in the isostructural Re6(Zr ,Hf ) compounds hints at its common origin in this superconducting family and that an enhanced spin-orbital coupling does not affect pairing symmetry.
Two symmetry-breaking mechanisms for the development of orientation selectivity in a neural system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Myoung Won; Chun, Min Young
2015-11-01
Orientation selectivity is a remarkable feature of the neurons located in the primary visual cortex. Provided that the visual neurons acquire orientation selectivity through activity-dependent Hebbian learning, the development process could be understood as a kind of symmetry-breaking phenomenon in the view of physics. This paper examines the key mechanisms of the orientation selectivity development process. Be found that at least two different mechanisms, which lead to the development of orientation selectivity by breaking the radial symmetry in receptive fields. The first is a simultaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism occurring based on the competition between neighboring neurons, and the second is a spontaneous one occurring based on the nonlinearity in interactions. Only the second mechanism leads to the formation of a columnar pattern whose characteristics is in accord with those observed in an animal experiment.
PT-symmetry breaking with divergent potentials: Lattice and continuum cases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joglekar, Yogesh N.; Scott, Derek D.; Saxena, Avadh
2014-09-01
We investigate the parity- and time-reversal (PT-) symmetry breaking in lattice models in the presence of long-ranged, non-Hermitian, PT-symmetric potentials that remain finite or become divergent in the continuum limit. By scaling analysis of the fragile PT threshold for an open finite lattice, we show that continuum loss-gain potentials Vα(x)∝i|x|αsgn(x) have a positive PT-breaking threshold for α >-2, and a zero threshold for α ≤-2. When α <0 localized states with complex (conjugate) energies in the continuum energy band occur at higher loss-gain strengths. We investigate the signatures of PT-symmetry breaking in coupled waveguides, and show that the emergence of localized states dramatically shortens the relevant time scale in the PT-symmetry broken region.
Symmetry Breaking in Photonic Crystals: On-Demand Dispersion from Flatband to Dirac Cones.
Nguyen, H S; Dubois, F; Deschamps, T; Cueff, S; Pardon, A; Leclercq, J-L; Seassal, C; Letartre, X; Viktorovitch, P
2018-02-09
We demonstrate that symmetry breaking opens a new degree of freedom to tailor energy-momentum dispersion in photonic crystals. Using a general theoretical framework in two illustrative practical structures, we show that breaking symmetry enables an on-demand tuning of the local density of states of the same photonic band from zero (Dirac cone dispersion) to infinity (flatband dispersion), as well as any constant density over an adjustable spectral range. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate experimentally the transformation of the very same photonic band from a conventional quadratic shape to a Dirac dispersion, a flatband dispersion, and a multivalley one. This transition is achieved by finely tuning the vertical symmetry breaking of the photonic structures. Our results provide an unprecedented degree of freedom for optical dispersion engineering in planar integrated photonic devices.
Effective field theory of emergent symmetry breaking in deformed atomic nuclei
Papenbrock, Thomas F.; Weidenmüller, H. A.
2015-09-03
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in non-relativistic quantum systems has previously been addressed in the framework of effective field theory. Low-lying excitations are constructed from Nambu–Goldstone modes using symmetry arguments only. In this study, we extend that approach to finite systems. The approach is very general. To be specific, however, we consider atomic nuclei with intrinsically deformed ground states. The emergent symmetry breaking in such systems requires the introduction of additional degrees of freedom on top of the Nambu–Goldstone modes. Symmetry arguments suffice to construct the low-lying states of the system. Lastly, in deformed nuclei these are vibrational modes each of whichmore » serves as band head of a rotational band.« less
Cosmological baryon number domain structure from symmetry-breaking in grand unified field theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, R. W.; Stecker, F. W.
1979-01-01
It is suggested that grand unified field theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking in the very early big-bang can lead more naturally to a baryon symmetric cosmology with a domain structure than to a totally baryon asymmetric cosmology. The symmetry is broken in a randomized manner in causally independent domains, favoring neither a baryon nor an antibaryon excess on a universal scale. Arguments in favor of this cosmology and observational tests are discussed.
Cosmological baryon-number domain structure from symmetry breaking in grand unified field theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, R. W.; Stecker, F. W.
1979-01-01
It is suggested that grand unified field theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking in the very early big bang can lead more naturally to a baryon-symmetric cosmology with a domain structure than to a totally baryon-asymmetric cosmology. The symmetry is broken in a randomized manner in causally independent domains, favoring neither a baryon nor an antibaryon excess on a universal scale. Arguments in favor of this cosmology and observational tests are discussed.
Tschierske, Carsten; Ungar, Goran
2016-01-04
Spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking is an efficient way to obtain homogeneously chiral agents, pharmaceutical ingredients and materials. It is also in the focus of the discussion around the emergence of uniform chirality in biological systems. Tremendous progress has been made by symmetry breaking during crystallisation from supercooled melts or supersaturates solutions and by self-assembly on solid surfaces and in other highly ordered structures. However, recent observations of spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking in liquids and liquid crystals indicate that it is not limited to the well-ordered solid state. Herein, progress in the understanding of a new dynamic mode of symmetry breaking, based on chirality synchronisation of transiently chiral molecules in isotropic liquids and in bicontinuous cubic, columnar, smectic and nematic liquid crystalline phases is discussed. This process leads to spontaneous deracemisation in the liquid state under thermodynamic control, giving rise to long-term stable symmetry-broken fluids, even at high temperatures. These fluids form conglomerates that are capable of extraordinary strong chirality amplification, eventually leading to homochirality and providing a new view on the discussion of emergence of uniform chirality in prebiotic systems. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries in QCD on a small volume
Lucini, B.; Patella, A.; Pica, C.
2007-11-20
In a compact space with non-trivial cycles, for sufficiently small values of the compact dimensions, charge conjugation (C), spatial reflection (P) and time reversal (J) are spontaneously broken in QCD. The order parameter for the symmetry breaking is the trace of the Wilson line wrapping around the compact dimension, which acquires an imaginary part in the broken phase. We show that a physical signature for the symmetry breaking is a persistent baryonic current wrapping in the compact directions. The existence of such a current is derived analytically at first order in perturbation theory and confirmed in the non-perturbative regime bymore » lattice simulations.« less
Cal Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I k, A. E., E-mail: engincalik@yahoo.com; Gerceklioglu, M.; Selam, C.
2013-05-15
Within the framework of quasi-particle random phase approximation, the isospin breaking correction of superallowed 0{sup +} {yields} 0{sup +} beta decay and unitarity of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix have been investigated. The broken isotopic symmetry of nuclear part of Hamiltonian has been restored by Pyatov's method. The isospin symmetry breaking correction with pairing correlations has been compared with the previous results without pairing. The effect of pairing interactions has been examined for nine superallowed Fermi beta decays; their parent nuclei are {sup 26}Al, {sup 34}Cl, {sup 38}K, {sup 42}Sc, {sup 46}V, {sup 50}Mn, {sup 54}Co, {sup 62}Ga, {sup 74}Rb.
Symmetry breaking in clogging for oppositely driven particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glanz, Tobias; Wittkowski, Raphael; Löwen, Hartmut
2016-11-01
The clogging behavior of a symmetric binary mixture of colloidal particles that are driven in opposite directions through constrictions is explored by Brownian dynamics simulations and theory. A dynamical state with a spontaneously broken symmetry occurs where one species is flowing and the other is blocked for a long time, which can be tailored by the size of the constrictions. Moreover, we find self-organized oscillations in clogging and unclogging of the two species. Apart from statistical physics, our results are of relevance for fields like biology, chemistry, and crowd management, where ions, microparticles, pedestrians, or other particles are driven in opposite directions through constrictions.
Ultrafast dynamics of vibrational symmetry breaking in a charge-ordered nickelate
Coslovich, Giacomo; Kemper, Alexander F.; Behl, Sascha; ...
2017-11-24
The ability to probe symmetry-breaking transitions on their natural time scales is one of the key challenges in nonequilibrium physics. Stripe ordering represents an intriguing type of broken symmetry, where complex interactions result in atomic-scale lines of charge and spin density. Although phonon anomalies and periodic distortions attest the importance of electron-phonon coupling in the formation of stripe phases, a direct time-domain view of vibrational symmetry breaking is lacking. We report experiments that track the transient multi-terahertz response of the model stripe compound La 1.75Sr 0.25NiO 4, yielding novel insight into its electronic and structural dynamics following an ultrafast opticalmore » quench. We find that although electronic carriers are immediately delocalized, the crystal symmetry remains initially frozen—as witnessed by time-delayed suppression of zone-folded Ni–O bending modes acting as a fingerprint of lattice symmetry. Longitudinal and transverse vibrations react with different speeds, indicating a strong directionality and an important role of polar interactions. As a result, the hidden complexity of electronic and structural coupling during stripe melting and formation, captured here within a single terahertz spectrum, opens new paths to understanding symmetry-breaking dynamics in solids.« less
Ultrafast dynamics of vibrational symmetry breaking in a charge-ordered nickelate
Coslovich, Giacomo; Kemper, Alexander F.; Behl, Sascha; Huber, Bernhard; Bechtel, Hans A.; Sasagawa, Takao; Martin, Michael C.; Lanzara, Alessandra; Kaindl, Robert A.
2017-01-01
The ability to probe symmetry-breaking transitions on their natural time scales is one of the key challenges in nonequilibrium physics. Stripe ordering represents an intriguing type of broken symmetry, where complex interactions result in atomic-scale lines of charge and spin density. Although phonon anomalies and periodic distortions attest the importance of electron-phonon coupling in the formation of stripe phases, a direct time-domain view of vibrational symmetry breaking is lacking. We report experiments that track the transient multi-terahertz response of the model stripe compound La1.75Sr0.25NiO4, yielding novel insight into its electronic and structural dynamics following an ultrafast optical quench. We find that although electronic carriers are immediately delocalized, the crystal symmetry remains initially frozen—as witnessed by time-delayed suppression of zone-folded Ni–O bending modes acting as a fingerprint of lattice symmetry. Longitudinal and transverse vibrations react with different speeds, indicating a strong directionality and an important role of polar interactions. The hidden complexity of electronic and structural coupling during stripe melting and formation, captured here within a single terahertz spectrum, opens new paths to understanding symmetry-breaking dynamics in solids. PMID:29202025
Ultrafast dynamics of vibrational symmetry breaking in a charge-ordered nickelate
Coslovich, Giacomo; Kemper, Alexander F.; Behl, Sascha
The ability to probe symmetry-breaking transitions on their natural time scales is one of the key challenges in nonequilibrium physics. Stripe ordering represents an intriguing type of broken symmetry, where complex interactions result in atomic-scale lines of charge and spin density. Although phonon anomalies and periodic distortions attest the importance of electron-phonon coupling in the formation of stripe phases, a direct time-domain view of vibrational symmetry breaking is lacking. We report experiments that track the transient multi-terahertz response of the model stripe compound La 1.75Sr 0.25NiO 4, yielding novel insight into its electronic and structural dynamics following an ultrafast opticalmore » quench. We find that although electronic carriers are immediately delocalized, the crystal symmetry remains initially frozen—as witnessed by time-delayed suppression of zone-folded Ni–O bending modes acting as a fingerprint of lattice symmetry. Longitudinal and transverse vibrations react with different speeds, indicating a strong directionality and an important role of polar interactions. As a result, the hidden complexity of electronic and structural coupling during stripe melting and formation, captured here within a single terahertz spectrum, opens new paths to understanding symmetry-breaking dynamics in solids.« less
Chains of benzenes with lithium-atom adsorption: Vibrations and spontaneous symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortiz, Yenni P.; Stegmann, Thomas; Klein, Douglas J.; Seligman, Thomas H.
2017-09-01
We study effects of different configurations of adsorbates on the vibrational modes as well as symmetries of polyacenes and poly-p-phenylenes focusing on lithium atom adsorption. We found that the spectra of the vibrational modes distinguish the different configurations. For more regular adsorption schemes the lowest states are bending and torsion modes of the skeleton, which are essentially followed by the adsorbate. On poly-p-phenylenes we found that lithium adsorption reduces and often eliminates the torsion between rings thus increasing symmetry. There is spontaneous symmetry breaking in poly-p-phenylenes due to double adsorption of lithium atoms on alternating rings.
Baryogenesis via dark matter-induced symmetry breaking in the early Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakstein, Jeremy; Trodden, Mark
2017-11-01
We put forward a new proposal for generating the baryon asymmetry of the universe by making use of the dynamics of a U (1) scalar field coupled to dark matter. High dark matter densities cause the U (1) symmetry to break spontaneously so that the field acquires a large vacuum expectation value. The symmetry is restored when the density redshifts below a critical value, resulting in the coherent oscillation of the scalar field. A net B - L number can be generated either via baryon number-conserving couplings to the standard model or through small symmetry-violating operators and the subsequent decay of the scalar condensate.
General relativity as the effective theory of GL(4,R) spontaneous symmetry breaking
Tomboulis, E. T.
2011-10-15
We assume a GL(4,R) space-time symmetry which is spontaneously broken to SO(3,1). We carry out the coset construction of the effective theory for the nonlinearly realized broken symmetry in terms of the Goldstone fields and matter fields transforming linearly under the unbroken Lorentz subgroup. We then identify functions of the Goldstone and matter fields that transform linearly also under the broken symmetry. Expressed in terms of these quantities the effective theory reproduces the vierbein formalism of general relativity with general coordinate invariance being automatically realized nonlinearly over GL(4,R). The coset construction makes no assumptions about any underlying theory that mightmore » be responsible for the assumed symmetry breaking. We give a brief discussion of the possibility of field theories with GL(4,R) rather than Lorentz space-time symmetry providing the underlying dynamics.« less
Graphene symmetry-breaking with molecular adsorbates: modeling and experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groce, M. A.; Hawkins, M. K.; Wang, Y. L.; Cullen, W. G.; Einstein, T. L.
2012-02-01
Graphene's structure and electronic properties provide a framework for understanding molecule-substrate interactions and developing techniques for band gap engineering. Controlled deposition of molecular adsorbates can create superlattices which break the degeneracy of graphene's two-atom unit cell, opening a band gap. We simulate scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements for a variety of organic molecule/graphene systems, including pyridine, trimesic acid, and isonicotinic acid, based on density functional theory calculations using VASP. We also compare our simulations to ultra-high vacuum STM and STS results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhijian; Xu, Bin; Zhejiang Collaboration
2011-03-01
In social science, laboratory experiment with human subjects' interaction is a standard test-bed for studying social processes in micro level. Usually, as in physics, the processes near equilibrium are suggested as stochastic processes with time-reversal symmetry (TRS). To the best of our knowledge, near equilibrium, the breaking time symmetry, as well as the existence of robust time anti-symmetry processes, has not been reported clearly in experimental economics till now. By employing Markov transition method to analysis the data from human subject 2x2 Games with wide parameters and mixed Nash equilibrium, we study the time symmetry of the social interaction process near Nash equilibrium. We find that, the time symmetry is broken, and there exists a robust time anti-symmetry processes. We also report the weight of the time anti-symmetry processes in the total processes of each the games. Evidences in laboratory marketing experiments, at the same time, are provided as one-dimension cases. In these cases, time anti-symmetry cycles can also be captured. The proposition of time anti-symmetry processes is small, but the cycles are distinguishable.
Symmetry breaking in drop bouncing on curved surfaces
Liu, Yahua; Andrew, Matthew; Li, Jing; Yeomans, Julia M.; Wang, Zuankai
2015-01-01
The impact of liquid drops on solid surfaces is ubiquitous in nature, and of practical importance in many industrial processes. A drop hitting a flat surface retains a circular symmetry throughout the impact process. Here we show that a drop impinging on Echevaria leaves exhibits asymmetric bouncing dynamics with distinct spreading and retraction along two perpendicular directions. This is a direct consequence of the cylindrical leaves that have a convex/concave architecture of size comparable to the drop. Systematic experimental investigations on mimetic surfaces and lattice Boltzmann simulations reveal that this novel phenomenon results from an asymmetric momentum and mass distribution that allows for preferential fluid pumping around the drop rim. The asymmetry of the bouncing leads to ∼40% reduction in contact time. PMID:26602170
Symmetry breaking in smectics and surface models of their singularities
Chen, Bryan Gin-ge; Alexander, Gareth P.; Kamien, Randall D.
2009-01-01
The homotopy theory of topological defects in ordered media fails to completely characterize systems with broken translational symmetry. We argue that the problem can be understood in terms of the lack of rotational Goldstone modes in such systems and provide an alternate approach that correctly accounts for the interaction between translations and rotations. Dislocations are associated, as usual, with branch points in a phase field, whereas disclinations arise as critical points and singularities in the phase field. We introduce a three-dimensional model for two-dimensional smectics that clarifies the topology of disclinations and geometrically captures known results without the need to add compatibility conditions. Our work suggests natural generalizations of the two-dimensional smectic theory to higher dimensions and to crystals. PMID:19717435
Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space
Biernat, Elmer P.; Pena, M. T.; Ribiero, J. E.
2016-01-01
We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and comparedmore » with the experimental data from JLab.« less
Chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in Minkowski space
Biernat, Elmar P.; Peña, M. T.; Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico
2016-01-22
We present a model for the quark-antiquark interaction formulated in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. By applying the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity we show that our model satisfies the Adler-zero constraint imposed by chiral symmetry. For this model, our Minkowski-space results of the dressed quark mass function are compared to lattice QCD data obtained in Euclidean space. The mass function is then used in the calculation of the electromagnetic pion form factor in relativistic impulse approximation, and the results are presented and comparedmore » with the experimental data from JLab.« less
Quantum Discord in a Spin System with Symmetry Breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomasello, Bruno; Rossini, Davide; Hamma, Alioscia; Amico, Luigi
2013-06-01
We analyze the quantum discord Q throughout the low temperature phase diagram of the quantum XY model in transverse field. We first focus on the T = 0 order-disorder quantum phase transition QPT both in the symmetric ground state and in the symmetry broken one. Beside it, we highlight how Q displays clear anomalies also at a noncritical value of the control parameter inside the ordered phase, where the ground state is completely factorized. We evidence how the phenomenon is in fact of collective nature and displays universal features. We also study Q at finite temperature. We show that, close to the QPT, Q exhibits quantum-classical crossover of the system with universal scaling behavior. We evidence a nontrivial pattern of thermal correlations resulting from the factorization phenomenon.
Quantum Discord in a Spin System with Symmetry Breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomasello, Bruno; Rossini, Davide; Hamma, Alioscia; Amico, Luigi
2012-11-01
We analyze the quantum discordQ throughout the low temperature phase diagram of the quantum XY model in transverse field. We first focus on the T = 0 order-disorder quantum phase transition QPT both in the symmetric ground state and in the symmetry broken one. Beside it, we highlight how Q displays clear anomalies also at a noncritical value of the control parameter inside the ordered phase, where the ground state is completely factorized. We evidence how the phenomenon is in fact of collective nature and displays universal features. We also study Q at finite temperature. We show that, close to the QPT, Q exhibits quantum-classical crossover of the system with universal scaling behavior. We evidence a nontrivial pattern of thermal correlations resulting from the factorization phenomenon.
Universality of phase transition dynamics: topological defects from symmetry breaking
Zurek, Wojciech H.; Del Campo, Adolfo
In the course of a non-equilibrium continuous phase transition, the dynamics ceases to be adiabatic in the vicinity of the critical point as a result of the critical slowing down (the divergence of the relaxation time in the neighborhood of the critical point). This enforces a local choice of the broken symmetry and can lead to the formation of topological defects. The Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) was developed to describe the associated nonequilibrium dynamics and to estimate the density of defects as a function of the quench rate through the transition. During recent years, several new experiments investigating formation of defectsmore » in phase transitions induced by a quench both in classical and quantum mechanical systems were carried out. At the same time, some established results were called into question. We review and analyze the Kibble-Zurek mechanism focusing in particular on this surge of activity, and suggest possible directions for further progress.« less
Time-reversal symmetry-breaking superconductivity in epitaxial bismuth/nickel bilayers.
Gong, Xinxin; Kargarian, Mehdi; Stern, Alex; Yue, Di; Zhou, Hexin; Jin, Xiaofeng; Galitski, Victor M; Yakovenko, Victor M; Xia, Jing
2017-03-01
Superconductivity that spontaneously breaks time-reversal symmetry (TRS) has been found, so far, only in a handful of three-dimensional (3D) crystals with bulk inversion symmetry. We report an observation of spontaneous TRS breaking in a 2D superconducting system without inversion symmetry: the epitaxial bilayer films of bismuth and nickel. The evidence comes from the onset of the polar Kerr effect at the superconducting transition in the absence of an external magnetic field, detected by the ultrasensitive loop-less fiber-optic Sagnac interferometer. Because of strong spin-orbit interaction and lack of inversion symmetry in a Bi/Ni bilayer, superconducting pairing cannot be classified as singlet or triplet. We propose a theoretical model where magnetic fluctuations in Ni induce the superconducting pairing of the [Formula: see text] orbital symmetry between the electrons in Bi. In this model, the order parameter spontaneously breaks the TRS and has a nonzero phase winding number around the Fermi surface, thus making it a rare example of a 2D topological superconductor.
Time-reversal symmetry-breaking superconductivity in epitaxial bismuth/nickel bilayers
Gong, Xinxin; Kargarian, Mehdi; Stern, Alex; ...
2017-03-31
Superconductivity that spontaneously breaks time-reversal symmetry (TRS) has been found, so far, only in a handful of three-dimensional (3D) crystals with bulk inversion symmetry. We report an observation of spontaneous TRS breaking in a 2D superconducting system without inversion symmetry: the epitaxial bilayer films of bismuth and nickel. The evidence comes from the onset of the polar Kerr effect at the superconducting transition in the absence of an external magnetic field, detected by the ultrasensitive loop-less fiber-optic Sagnac interferometer. Because of strong spin-orbit interaction and lack of inversion symmetry in a Bi/Ni bilayer, superconducting pairing cannot be classified as singletmore » or triplet.We propose a theoretical model where magnetic fluctuations in Ni induce the superconducting pairing of the d xy ± id x2-y2 orbital symmetry between the electrons in Bi. In this model, the order parameter spontaneously breaks the TRS and has a nonzero phase winding number around the Fermi surface, thus making it a rare example of a 2D topological superconductor.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stumpf, Harald
2006-09-01
Based on the assumption that electroweak bosons, leptons and quarks possess a substructure of elementary fermionic constituents, in previous papers the effect of CP-symmetry breaking on the effective dynamics of these particles was calculated. Motivated by the phenomenological procedure in this paper, isospin symmetry breaking will be added and the physical consequences of these calculations will be discussed. The dynamical law of the fermionic constituents is given by a relativistically invariant nonlinear spinor field equation with local interaction, canonical quantization, selfregularization and probability interpretation. The corresponding effective dynamics is derived by algebraic weak mapping theorems. In contrast to the commonly applied modifications of the quark mass matrices, CP-symmetry breaking is introduced into this algebraic formalism by an inequivalent vacuum with respect to the CP-invariant case, represented by a modified spinor field propagator. This leads to an extension of the standard model as effective theory which contains besides the "electric" electroweak bosons additional "magnetic" electroweak bosons and corresponding interactions. If furthermore the isospin invariance of the propagator is broken too, it will be demonstrated in detail that in combination with CP-symmetry breaking this induces a considerable modification of electroweak nuclear reaction rates.
A simple model of solvent-induced symmetry-breaking charge transfer in excited quadrupolar molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, Anatoly I.; Dereka, Bogdan; Vauthey, Eric
2017-04-01
A simple model has been developed to describe the symmetry-breaking of the electronic distribution of AL-D-AR type molecules in the excited state, where D is an electron donor and AL and AR are identical acceptors. The origin of this process is usually associated with the interaction between the molecule and the solvent polarization that stabilizes an asymmetric and dipolar state, with a larger charge transfer on one side than on the other. An additional symmetry-breaking mechanism involving the direct Coulomb interaction of the charges on the acceptors is proposed. At the same time, the electronic coupling between the two degenerate states, which correspond to the transferred charge being localised either on AL or AR, favours a quadrupolar excited state with equal amount of charge-transfer on both sides. Because of these counteracting effects, symmetry breaking is only feasible when the electronic coupling remains below a threshold value, which depends on the solvation energy and the Coulomb repulsion energy between the charges located on AL and AR. This model allows reproducing the solvent polarity dependence of the symmetry-breaking reported recently using time-resolved infrared spectroscopy.
Symmetry breaking by quantum coherence in single electron attachment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnakumar, E.; Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S.; Mason, Nigel J.
2018-02-01
Quantum coherence-induced effects in atomic and molecular systems are the basis of several proposals for laser-based control of chemical reactions. So far, these rely on coherent photon beams inducing coherent reaction pathways that may interfere with one another, to achieve the desired outcome. This concept has been successfully exploited for removing the inversion symmetry in the dissociation of homonuclear diatomic molecules, but it remains to be seen if such quantum coherent effects can also be generated by the interaction of incoherent electrons with such molecules. Here we show that resonant electron attachment to H2 and the subsequent dissociation into H (n = 2) + H- is asymmetric about the inter-nuclear axis, whereas the asymmetry in D2 is far less pronounced. We explain this observation as due to attachment of a single electron resulting in a coherent superposition of two resonances of opposite parity. In addition to exemplifying a new quantum coherent process, our observation of coherent quantum dynamics involves the active participation of all three electrons and two nuclei, which could provide new tools for studying electron correlations as a means to control chemical processes, and demonstrates the role of coherent effects in electron-induced chemistry.
Study of charge symmetry breaking in dd collisions with WASA-at-COSY
Wronska, Aleksandra
2011-10-24
Charge symmetry is an approximate symmetry of the strong interaction. Studies of its breaking can yield information on the u and d quark mass difference. A theoretical collaboration is currently working on the description of charge symmetry breaking mechanisms for dd{yields}{alpha}{pi}{sup 0} and np{yields}d{pi}{sup 0} within Chiral Perturbation Theory, using the data from TRI-UMF and IUCF. One of the items in the program of the WASA-at-COSY collaboration is to extend the data base for the dd{yields}{alpha}{pi}{sup 0} reaction to higher energies, which would allow the extraction of the information on the p-wave. Status of the analysis of experimental data alongmore » with the preliminary results from the pilot run will be presented here.« less
Time-reversal and rotation symmetry breaking superconductivity in Dirac materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chirolli, Luca; de Juan, Fernando; Guinea, Francisco
2017-05-01
We consider mixed symmetry superconducting phases in Dirac materials in the odd-parity channel, where pseudoscalar and vector order parameters can coexist due to their similar critical temperatures when attractive interactions are of a finite range. We show that the coupling of these order parameters to unordered magnetic dopants favors the condensation of time-reversal symmetry breaking (TRSB) phases, characterized by a condensate magnetization, rotation symmetry breaking, and simultaneous ordering of the dopant moments. We find a rich phase diagram of mixed TRSB phases characterized by peculiar bulk quasiparticles, with Weyl nodes and nodal lines, and distinctive surface states. These findings are consistent with recent experiments on NbxBi2Se3 that report evidence of point nodes, nematicity, and TRSB superconductivity induced by Nb magnetic moments.
On gauge independence for gauge models with soft breaking of BRST symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reshetnyak, Alexander
2014-12-01
A consistent quantum treatment of general gauge theories with an arbitrary gauge-fixing in the presence of soft breaking of the BRST symmetry in the field-antifield formalism is developed. It is based on a gauged (involving a field-dependent parameter) version of finite BRST transformations. The prescription allows one to restore the gauge-independence of the effective action at its extremals and therefore also that of the conventional S-matrix for a theory with BRST-breaking terms being additively introduced into a BRST-invariant action in order to achieve a consistency of the functional integral. We demonstrate the applicability of this prescription within the approach of functional renormalization group to the Yang-Mills and gravity theories. The Gribov-Zwanziger action and the refined Gribov-Zwanziger action for a many-parameter family of gauges, including the Coulomb, axial and covariant gauges, are derived perturbatively on the basis of finite gauged BRST transformations starting from Landau gauge. It is proved that gauge theories with soft breaking of BRST symmetry can be made consistent if the transformed BRST-breaking terms satisfy the same soft BRST symmetry breaking condition in the resulting gauge as the untransformed ones in the initial gauge, and also without this requirement.
Symmetry Breaking, Unification, and Theories Beyond the Standard Model
Nomura, Yasunori
2009-07-31
A model was constructed in which the supersymmetric fine-tuning problem is solved without extending the Higgs sector at the weak scale. We have demonstrated that the model can avoid all the phenomenological constraints, while avoiding excessive fine-tuning. We have also studied implications of the model on dark matter physics and collider physics. I have proposed in an extremely simple construction for models of gauge mediation. We found that the {mu} problem can be simply and elegantly solved in a class of models where the Higgs fields couple directly to the supersymmetry breaking sector. We proposed a new way of addressingmore » the flavor problem of supersymmetric theories. We have proposed a new framework of constructing theories of grand unification. We constructed a simple and elegant model of dark matter which explains excess flux of electrons/positrons. We constructed a model of dark energy in which evolving quintessence-type dark energy is naturally obtained. We studied if we can find evidence of the multiverse.« less
Symmetry-breaking inelastic wave-mixing atomic magnetometry
Zhou, Feng; Zhu, Chengjie J.; Hagley, Edward W.; Deng, Lu
2017-01-01
The nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) effect has prolific applications ranging from precision mapping of Earth’s magnetic field to biomagnetic sensing. Studies on collisional spin relaxation effects have led to ultrahigh magnetic field sensitivities using a single-beam Λ scheme with state-of-the-art magnetic shielding/compensation techniques. However, the NMOR effect in this widely used single-beam Λ scheme is peculiarly small, requiring complex radio-frequency phase-locking protocols. We show the presence of a previously unknown energy symmetry–based nonlinear propagation blockade and demonstrate an optical inelastic wave-mixing NMOR technique that breaks this NMOR blockade, resulting in an NMOR optical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement of more than two orders of magnitude never before seen with the single-beam Λ scheme. The large SNR enhancement was achieved simultaneously with a nearly two orders of magnitude reduction in laser power while preserving the magnetic resonance linewidth. This new method may open a myriad of applications ranging from biomagnetic imaging to precision measurement of the magnetic properties of subatomic particles. PMID:29214217
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Guo-Qing
Spontaneous symmetry breaking is an important concept for understanding physics ranging from the elementary particles to states of matter. For example, the superconducting state breaks global gauge symmetry, and unconventional superconductors can break additional symmetries. In particular, spin rotational symmetry is expected to be broken in spin-triplet superconductors. However, experimental evidence for such symmetry breaking has not been obtained so far in any candidate compounds. We report 77Se nuclear magnetic resonance measurements which showed that spin rotation symmetry is spontaneously broken in the hexagonal plane of the electron-doped topological insulator Cu0.3Bi2Se3 below the superconducting transition temperature Tc =3.4 K. Our results not only establish spin-triplet (odd parity) superconductivity in this compound, but also serve to lay a foundation for the research of topological superconductivity (Ref.). We will also report the doping mechanism and superconductivity in Sn1-xInxTe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, R. C.; Cheung, C. H.; Gong, P. L.; Lu, W. J.; Si, J. G.; Sun, Y. P.
2018-06-01
k paths exactly with symmetry allow to find triply degenerate points (TDPs) in band structures. The paths that host the type-II Dirac points in PtSe2 family materials also have the spatial symmetry. However, due to Kramers degeneracy (the systems have both inversion symmetry and time reversal symmetry), the crossing points in them are Dirac ones. In this work, based on symmetry analysis, first-principles calculations, and method, we predict that PtSe2 family materials should undergo topological transitions if the inversion symmetry is broken, i.e. the Dirac fermions in PtSe2 family materials split into TDPs in PtSeTe family materials (PtSSe, PtSeTe, and PdSeTe) with orderly arranged S/Se (Se/Te). It is different from the case in high-energy physics that breaking inversion symmetry I leads to the splitting of Dirac fermion into Weyl fermions. We also address a possible method to achieve the orderly arranged in PtSeTe family materials in experiments. Our study provides a real example that Dirac points transform into TDPs, and is helpful to investigate the topological transition between Dirac fermions and TDP fermions.
Localized Symmetry Breaking for Tuning Thermal Expansion in ScF 3 Nanoscale Frameworks
Hu, Lei; Qin, Feiyu; Sanson, Andrea
The local symmetry, beyond the averaged crystallographic structure, tends to bring unu-sual performances. Negative thermal expansion is a peculiar physical property of solids. Here, we report the delicate design of the localized symmetry breaking to achieve the controllable thermal expansion in ScF3 nano-scale frameworks. Intriguingly, an isotropic zero thermal expansion is concurrently engi-neered by localized symmetry breaking, with a remarkably low coefficient of thermal expansion of about +4.0×10-8/K up to 675K. This mechanism is investigated by the joint analysis of atomic pair dis-tribution function of synchrotron X-ray total scattering and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra. A localized rhombohedral distortionmore » presumably plays a critical role in stiffening ScF3 nano-scale frameworks and concomitantly suppressing transverse thermal vibrations of fluorine atoms. This physical scenario is also theoretically corroborated by the extinction of phonon modes with negative Grüneisen parameters in the rhombohedral ScF3. The present work opens an untraditional chemical modification to achieve controllable thermal expansion by breaking local symmetries of materials.« less
Polar Kerr effect studies of time reversal symmetry breaking states in heavy fermion superconductors
Schemm, E. R.; Levenson-Falk, E. M.; Kapitulnik, A.
2016-11-30
The connection between chiral superconductivity and topological order has emerged as an active direction in research as more instances of both have been identified in condensed matter systems. Moreover, with the notable exception of 3He-B, all of the known or suspected chiral – that is to say time-reversal symmetry-breaking (TRSB) – superfluids arise in heavy fermion superconductors, although the vast majority of heavy fermion superconductors preserve time-reversal symmetry. We review recent experimental efforts to identify TRSB states in heavy fermion systems via measurement of polar Kerr effect, which is a direct consequence of TRSB.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stecker, F. W.; Brown, R. W.
1979-01-01
Grand unified theories (GUT) such as SU(5), with spontaneous symmetry breaking, can lead more naturally to a globally baryon symmetric big bang cosmology with a domain structure than to a totally asymmetric cosmology. The symmetry is broken at random in causally independent domains, favoring neither a baryon nor an antibaryon excess on a universal scale. Because of the additional freedom in the high-energy physics allowed by such GUT gauge theories, new observational tests may be possible. Arguments in favor of this cosmology and various observational tests are discussed.
Soft A 4→Z 3 symmetry breaking and cobimaximal neutrino mixing
Ma, Ernest
2016-03-28
In this study, I propose a model of radiative charged-lepton and neutrino masses with A 4 symmetry. The soft breaking of A 4 to Z 3 lepton triality is accomplished by dimension-three terms. The breaking of Z 3 by dimension-two terms allows cobimaximal neutrino mixing (θ 13 ≠ 0, θ 23 = π/4, δ cp=π/2) to be realized with only very small finite calculable deviations from the residual Z 3 lepton triality. This construction solves a long-standing technical problem inherent in renormalizable A 4 models since their inception.
Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbunov, Dmitry S.; Sibiryakov, Sergei M.
2005-09-01
We present an extension of the Randall-Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitational attraction between static point masses becomes gradually weaker with increasing of separation and gets replaced by repulsion (antigravity) at exponentially large distances.
Spatial and Spin Symmetry Breaking in Semidefinite-Programming-Based Hartree-Fock Theory.
Nascimento, Daniel R; DePrince, A Eugene
2018-05-08
The Hartree-Fock problem was recently recast as a semidefinite optimization over the space of rank-constrained two-body reduced-density matrices (RDMs) [ Phys. Rev. A 2014 , 89 , 010502(R) ]. This formulation of the problem transfers the nonconvexity of the Hartree-Fock energy functional to the rank constraint on the two-body RDM. We consider an equivalent optimization over the space of positive semidefinite one-electron RDMs (1-RDMs) that retains the nonconvexity of the Hartree-Fock energy expression. The optimized 1-RDM satisfies ensemble N-representability conditions, and ensemble spin-state conditions may be imposed as well. The spin-state conditions place additional linear and nonlinear constraints on the 1-RDM. We apply this RDM-based approach to several molecular systems and explore its spatial (point group) and spin ( Ŝ 2 and Ŝ 3 ) symmetry breaking properties. When imposing Ŝ 2 and Ŝ 3 symmetry but relaxing point group symmetry, the procedure often locates spatial-symmetry-broken solutions that are difficult to identify using standard algorithms. For example, the RDM-based approach yields a smooth, spatial-symmetry-broken potential energy curve for the well-known Be-H 2 insertion pathway. We also demonstrate numerically that, upon relaxation of Ŝ 2 and Ŝ 3 symmetry constraints, the RDM-based approach is equivalent to real-valued generalized Hartree-Fock theory.
Absence of time-reversal symmetry breaking in the noncentrosymmetric superconductor Mo3Al2C
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, E.; Sekine, C.; Sai, U.; Rogl, P.; Biswas, P. K.; Amato, A.
2014-08-01
Zero-field muon spin rotation and relaxation (μSR) studies carried out on the strongly coupled, noncentrosymmetric superconductor Mo3Al2C,Tc=9 K, did not reveal hints of time-reversal symmetry breaking as was found for a number of other noncentrosymmetric systems. Transverse field measurements performed above and below the superconducting transition temperature defined the temperature dependent London penetration depth, which in turn served to derive from a microscopic point of view a simple s-wave superconducting state in Mo3Al2C. The present investigations also provide fairly solid grounds to conclude that time-reversal symmetry breaking is not an immanent feature of noncentrosymmetric superconductors.
Noncritical generation of nonclassical frequency combs via spontaneous rotational symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Patera, Giuseppe; de Valcárcel, Germán J.
2017-10-01
Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillators (SPOPOs) are optical cavities driven by mode-locked lasers, and containing a nonlinear crystal capable of down-converting a frequency comb to lower frequencies. SPOPOs have received a lot of attention lately because their intrinsic multimode nature makes them compact sources of quantum correlated light with promising applications in modern quantum information technologies. In this work we show that SPOPOs are also capable of accessing the challenging and interesting regime where spontaneous symmetry breaking confers strong nonclassical properties to the emitted light, which has eluded experimental observation so far. Apart from opening the possibility of studying experimentally this elusive regime of dissipative phase transitions, our predictions will have a practical impact, since we show that spontaneous symmetry breaking provides a specific spatiotemporal mode with large quadrature squeezing for any value of the system parameters, turning SPOPOs into robust sources of highly nonclassical light above threshold.
Tachikawa, Masashi; Mochizuki, Atsushi
2015-01-07
The cytoplasms of ameboid cells are nonlinearly viscous. The cell controls this viscosity by modulating the amount, localization and interactions of bio-polymers. Here we investigated how the nonlinearity infers the cellular behaviors and whether nonlinearity-specific behaviors exist. We modeled the developed plasmodium of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum as a network of branching tubes and examined the linear and nonlinear viscous cytoplasm flows in the tubes. We found that the nonlinearity in the cytoplasm׳s viscosity induces a novel type of symmetry breaking in the protoplasmic flow. We also show that symmetry breaking can play an important role in adaptive behaviors, namely, connection of behavioral modes implemented on different time scales and transportation of molecular signals from the front to the rear of the cell during cellular locomotion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Clifford algebra approach to chiral symmetry breaking and fermion mass hierarchies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Wei
2017-09-01
We propose a Clifford algebra approach to chiral symmetry breaking and fermion mass hierarchies in the context of composite Higgs bosons. Standard model fermions are represented by algebraic spinors of six-dimensional binary Clifford algebra, while ternary Clifford algebra-related flavor projection operators control allowable flavor-mixing interactions. There are three composite electroweak Higgs bosons resulted from top quark, tau neutrino, and tau lepton condensations. Each of the three condensations gives rise to masses of four different fermions. The fermion mass hierarchies within these three groups are determined by four-fermion condensations, which break two global chiral symmetries. The four-fermion condensations induce axion-like pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons and can be dark matter candidates. In addition to the 125 GeV Higgs boson observed at the Large Hadron Collider, we anticipate detection of tau neutrino composite Higgs boson via the charm quark decay channel.
Self-organization and symmetry-breaking in two-dimensional plasma turbulence
Bos, Wouter J. T.; Neffaa, Salah; Schneider, Kai
The spontaneous self-organization of two-dimensional magnetized plasma is investigated within the framework of magnetohydrodynamics with a particular emphasis on the symmetry-breaking induced by the shape of the confining boundaries. This symmetry-breaking is quantified by the angular momentum, which is shown to be generated rapidly and spontaneously from initial conditions free from angular momentum as soon as the geometry lacks axisymmetry. This effect is illustrated by considering circular, square, and elliptical boundaries. It is shown that the generation of angular momentum in nonaxisymmetric geometries can be enhanced by increasing the magnetic pressure. The effect becomes stronger at higher Reynolds numbers. Themore » generation of magnetic angular momentum (or angular field), previously observed at low Reynolds numbers, becomes weaker at larger Reynolds numbers.« less
Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking with a Heavy Fermion in Light of Recent LHC Results
Hung, Pham Q.
2013-01-01
The recent announcement of a discovery of a possible Higgs-like particle—its spin and parity are yet to be determined—at the LHC with a mass of 126 GeV necessitates a fresh look at the nature of the electroweak symmetry breaking, in particular if this newly-discovered particle will turn out to have the quantum numbers of a Standard Model Higgs boson. Even if it were a 0 + scalar with the properties expected for a SM Higgs boson, there is still the quintessential hierarchy problem that one has to deal with and which, by itself, suggests a new physics energy scale around 1 TeV.more » This paper presents a minireview of one possible scenario: the formation of a fermion-antifermion condensate coming from a very heavy fourth generation, carrying the quantum number of the SM Higgs field, and thus breaking the electroweak symmetry.« less
Lee, Sangwoo; Leighton, Chris; Bates, Frank S.
Frank–Kasper phases are tetrahedrally packed structures occurring in numerous materials, from elements to intermetallics to self-assembled soft materials. They exhibit complex manifolds of Wigner–Seitz cells with many-faceted polyhedra, forming an important bridge between the simple close-packed periodic and quasiperiodic crystals. The recent discovery of the Frank–Kasper σ-phase in diblock and tetrablock polymers stimulated the experiments reported here on a poly(isoprene- b-lactide) diblock copolymer melt. Thus, analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering and mechanical spectroscopy exposes an undiscovered competition between the tendency to form self-assembled particles with spherical symmetry, and the necessity to fill space at uniform density within the framework imposedmore » by the lattice. We thus deduce surprising analogies between the symmetry breaking at the body-centered cubic phase to σ-phase transition in diblock copolymers, mediated by exchange of mass, and the symmetry breaking in certain metals and alloys (such as the elements Mn and U), mediated by exchange of charge. Similar connections are made between the role of sphericity in real space for polymer systems, and the role of sphericity in reciprocal space for metallic systems such as intermetallic compounds and alloys. These findings establish new links between disparate materials classes, provide opportunities to improve the understanding of complex crystallization by building on synergies between hard and soft matter, and, perhaps most significantly, challenge the view that the symmetry breaking required to form reduced symmetry structures (possibly even quasiperiodic crystals) requires particles with multiple predetermined shapes and/or sizes.« less
Lee, Sangwoo; Leighton, Chris; Bates, Frank S.
2014-11-05
Frank–Kasper phases are tetrahedrally packed structures occurring in numerous materials, from elements to intermetallics to self-assembled soft materials. They exhibit complex manifolds of Wigner–Seitz cells with many-faceted polyhedra, forming an important bridge between the simple close-packed periodic and quasiperiodic crystals. The recent discovery of the Frank–Kasper σ-phase in diblock and tetrablock polymers stimulated the experiments reported here on a poly(isoprene- b-lactide) diblock copolymer melt. Thus, analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering and mechanical spectroscopy exposes an undiscovered competition between the tendency to form self-assembled particles with spherical symmetry, and the necessity to fill space at uniform density within the framework imposedmore » by the lattice. We thus deduce surprising analogies between the symmetry breaking at the body-centered cubic phase to σ-phase transition in diblock copolymers, mediated by exchange of mass, and the symmetry breaking in certain metals and alloys (such as the elements Mn and U), mediated by exchange of charge. Similar connections are made between the role of sphericity in real space for polymer systems, and the role of sphericity in reciprocal space for metallic systems such as intermetallic compounds and alloys. These findings establish new links between disparate materials classes, provide opportunities to improve the understanding of complex crystallization by building on synergies between hard and soft matter, and, perhaps most significantly, challenge the view that the symmetry breaking required to form reduced symmetry structures (possibly even quasiperiodic crystals) requires particles with multiple predetermined shapes and/or sizes.« less
Symmetry breaking: a tool to unveil the topology of chaotic scattering with three degrees of freedom
Jung, Christof; Zapfe, W. P. Karel; Seligman, T. H.
2010-12-23
We shall use symmetry breaking as a tool to attack the problem of identifying the topology of chaotic scatteruing with more then two degrees of freedom. specifically we discuss the structure of the homoclinic/heteroclinic tangle and the connection between the chaotic invariant set, the scattering functions and the singularities in the cross section for a class of scattering systems with one open and two closed degrees of freedom.
Socci, Luciano; Sorianello, Vito; Romagnoli, Marco
2015-07-27
Adiabatic polarization splitter-rotators are investigated exploiting continuous symmetry breaking thereby achieving significant device size and losses reduction in a single mask fabrication process for both SOI channel and ridge waveguides. A crosstalk lower than -25 dB is expected over 300nm bandwidth, making the device suitable for full grid CWDM and diplexer/triplexer FTTH applications at 1310, 1490 and 1550nm.
In Silico Reconstitution of Actin-Based Symmetry Breaking and Motility
Dayel, Mark J.; Akin, Orkun; Landeryou, Mark; Risca, Viviana; Mogilner, Alex; Mullins, R. Dyche
2009-01-01
Eukaryotic cells assemble viscoelastic networks of crosslinked actin filaments to control their shape, mechanical properties, and motility. One important class of actin network is nucleated by the Arp2/3 complex and drives both membrane protrusion at the leading edge of motile cells and intracellular motility of pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. These networks can be reconstituted in vitro from purified components to drive the motility of spherical micron-sized beads. An Elastic Gel model has been successful in explaining how these networks break symmetry, but how they produce directed motile force has been less clear. We have combined numerical simulations with in vitro experiments to reconstitute the behavior of these motile actin networks in silico using an Accumulative Particle-Spring (APS) model that builds on the Elastic Gel model, and demonstrates simple intuitive mechanisms for both symmetry breaking and sustained motility. The APS model explains observed transitions between smooth and pulsatile motion as well as subtle variations in network architecture caused by differences in geometry and conditions. Our findings also explain sideways symmetry breaking and motility of elongated beads, and show that elastic recoil, though important for symmetry breaking and pulsatile motion, is not necessary for smooth directional motility. The APS model demonstrates how a small number of viscoelastic network parameters and construction rules suffice to recapture the complex behavior of motile actin networks. The fact that the model not only mirrors our in vitro observations, but also makes novel predictions that we confirm by experiment, suggests that the model captures much of the essence of actin-based motility in this system. PMID:19771152
Symmetry breaking: a tool to unveil the topology of chaotic scattering with three degrees of freedom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Christof; Zapfe, W. P. Karel; Merlo, Olivier; Seligman, T. H.
2010-12-01
We shall use symmetry breaking as a tool to attack the problem of identifying the topology of chaotic scatteruing with more then two degrees of freedom. specifically we discuss the structure of the homoclinic/heteroclinic tangle and the connection between the chaotic invariant set, the scattering functions and the singularities in the cross section for a class of scattering systems with one open and two closed degrees of freedom.
Spontaneous mirror-symmetry breaking induces inverse energy cascade in 3D active fluids
Słomka, Jonasz; Dunkel, Jörn
2017-01-01
Classical turbulence theory assumes that energy transport in a 3D turbulent flow proceeds through a Richardson cascade whereby larger vortices successively decay into smaller ones. By contrast, an additional inverse cascade characterized by vortex growth exists in 2D fluids and gases, with profound implications for meteorological flows and fluid mixing. The possibility of a helicity-driven inverse cascade in 3D fluids had been rejected in the 1970s based on equilibrium-thermodynamic arguments. Recently, however, it was proposed that certain symmetry-breaking processes could potentially trigger a 3D inverse cascade, but no physical system exhibiting this phenomenon has been identified to date. Here, we present analytical and numerical evidence for the existence of an inverse energy cascade in an experimentally validated 3D active fluid model, describing microbial suspension flows that spontaneously break mirror symmetry. We show analytically that self-organized scale selection, a generic feature of many biological and engineered nonequilibrium fluids, can generate parity-violating Beltrami flows. Our simulations further demonstrate how active scale selection controls mirror-symmetry breaking and the emergence of a 3D inverse cascade. PMID:28193853
Spontaneous symmetry breaking due to the trade-off between attractive and repulsive couplings.
Sathiyadevi, K; Karthiga, S; Chandrasekar, V K; Senthilkumar, D V; Lakshmanan, M
2017-04-01
Spontaneous symmetry breaking is an important phenomenon observed in various fields including physics and biology. In this connection, we here show that the trade-off between attractive and repulsive couplings can induce spontaneous symmetry breaking in a homogeneous system of coupled oscillators. With a simple model of a system of two coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators, we demonstrate how the tendency of attractive coupling in inducing in-phase synchronized (IPS) oscillations and the tendency of repulsive coupling in inducing out-of-phase synchronized oscillations compete with each other and give rise to symmetry breaking oscillatory states and interesting multistabilities. Further, we provide explicit expressions for synchronized and antisynchronized oscillatory states as well as the so called oscillation death (OD) state and study their stability. If the Hopf bifurcation parameter (λ) is greater than the natural frequency (ω) of the system, the attractive coupling favors the emergence of an antisymmetric OD state via a Hopf bifurcation whereas the repulsive coupling favors the emergence of a similar state through a saddle-node bifurcation. We show that an increase in the repulsive coupling not only destabilizes the IPS state but also facilitates the reentrance of the IPS state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Pei-Hong
2017-10-01
We introduce a mirror copy of the ordinary fermions and Higgs scalars for embedding the SU(2) L × U(1) Y electroweak gauge symmetry into an SU(2) L × SU(2) R × U(1) B-L left-right gauge symmetry. We then show the spontaneous left-right symmetry breaking can automatically break the parity symmetry motivated by solving the strong CP problem. Through the SU(2) R gauge interactions, a mirror Majorana neutrino can decay into a mirror charged lepton and two mirror quarks. Consequently we can obtain a lepton asymmetry stored in the mirror charged leptons. The Yukawa couplings of the mirror and ordinary charged fermions to a dark matter scalar then can transfer the mirror lepton asymmetry to an ordinary lepton asymmetry which provides a solution to the cosmic baryon asymmetry in association with the SU(2) L sphaleron processes. In this scenario, the baryon asymmetry can be well described by the neutrino mass matrix up to an overall factor.
Lattice QCD analysis for relation between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking
Doi, Takahiro M.; Suganuma, Hideo; Iritani, Takumi
2016-01-22
The Polyakov loop and the Dirac modes are connected via a simple analytical relation on the temporally odd-number lattice, where the temporal lattice size is odd with the normal (nontwisted) periodic boundary condition. Using this relation, we investigate the relation between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. In this paper, we discuss the properties of this analytical relation and numerically investigate each Dirac-mode contribution to the Polyakov loop in both confinement and deconfinement phases at the quenched level. This relation indicates that low-lying Dirac modes have little contribution to the Polyakov loop, and we numerically confirmed this fact.more » From our analysis, it is suggested that there is no direct one-to-one corresponding between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. Also, in the confinement phase, we numerically find that there is a new “positive/negative symmetry” in the Dirac-mode matrix elements of link-variable operator which appear in the relation and the Polyakov loop becomes zero because of this symmetry. In the deconfinement phase, this symmetry is broken and the Polyakov loop is non-zero.« less
Localization Protection and Symmetry Breaking in One-dimensional Potts Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedman, Aaron; Vasseur, Romain; Potter, Andrew; Parameswaran, Siddharth
Recent work on the 3-state Potts and Z3 clock models has demonstrated that their ordered phases are connected by duality to a phase that hosts topologically protected parafermionic zero modes at the system's boundary. The analogy with Kitaev's example of the one-dimensional Majorana chain (similarly related by duality to the Ising model) suggests that such zero modes may also be stabilized in highly excited states by many-body localization (MBL). However, the Potts model has a non-Abelian S3 symmetry believed to be incompatible with MBL; hence any MBL state must spontaneously break this symmetry, either completely or into one of its abelian subgroups (Z2 or Z3), with the topological phase corresponding to broken Z3 symmetry. We therefore study the excited state phase structure of random three-state Potts and clock models in one dimension using exact diagonalization and real-space renormalization group techniques. We also investigate the interesting possibility of a direct excited-state transition between MBL phases that break either Z3 or Z2 symmetry, forbidden within Landau theory. NSF DGE-1321846 (AJF), NSF DMR-1455366 and President's Research Catalyst Award No. CA-15-327861 from the University of California Office of the President (SAP), LDRD Program of LBNL (RV), NSF PHY11-25915 at the KITP (AJF, RV, SAP).
Discrete symmetry breaking and baryon currents in U(N) and SU(N) gauge theories
Lucini, B.; Patella, A.
2009-06-15
In SU(N) gauge theories with fermions in the fundamental or in a two-index (either symmetric or antisymmetric) representation formulated on a manifold with at least one compact dimension with nontrivial holonomy the discrete symmetries C, P, and T are broken at small enough size of the compact direction(s) for certain values of N. We show that for those N in the broken phase a nonzero baryon current wrapping in the compact direction exists, which provides a measurable observable for the breaking of C, P, and T. We prove that in all cases where the current is absent there is nomore » breaking of those discrete symmetries. This includes the limit N{yields}{infinity} of the SU(N) gauge theory with symmetric or antisymmetric fermions and U(N) gauge theory at any value of N. We then argue that the component of the baryon current in the compact direction is the physical order parameter for C, P, and T breaking due to the breaking of Lorentz invariance.« less
Spontaneous Symmetry-Breaking in a Network Model for Quadruped Locomotion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, Ian
2017-12-01
Spontaneous symmetry-breaking proves a mechanism for pattern generation in legged locomotion of animals. The basic timing patterns of animal gaits are produced by a network of spinal neurons known as a Central Pattern Generator (CPG). Animal gaits are primarily characterized by phase differences between leg movements in a periodic gait cycle. Many different gaits occur, often having spatial or spatiotemporal symmetries. A natural way to explain gait patterns is to assume that the CPG is symmetric, and to classify the possible symmetry-breaking periodic motions. Pinto and Golubitsky have discussed a four-node model CPG network for biped gaits with ℤ2 × ℤ2 symmetry, classifying the possible periodic states that can arise. A more specific rate model with this structure has been analyzed in detail by Stewart. Here we extend these methods to quadruped gaits, using an eight-node network with ℤ4 × ℤ2 symmetry proposed by Golubitsky and coworkers. We formulate a rate model and calculate how the first steady or Hopf bifurcation depends on its parameters, which represent four connection strengths. The calculations involve a distinction between “real” gaits with one or two phase shifts (pronk, bound, pace, trot) and “complex” gaits with four phase shifts (forward and reverse walk, forward and reverse buck). The former correspond to real eigenvalues of the connection matrix, the latter to complex conjugate pairs. The partition of parameter space according to the first bifurcation, ignoring complex gaits, is described explicitly. The complex gaits introduce further complications, not yet fully understood. All eight gaits can occur as the first bifurcation from a fully synchronous equilibrium, for suitable parameters, and numerical simulations indicate that they can be asymptotically stable.
Symmetry breaking in nematic liquid crystals: analogy with cosmology and magnetism.
Repnik, R; Ranjkesh, A; Simonka, V; Ambrozic, M; Bradac, Z; Kralj, S
2013-10-09
Universal behavior related to continuous symmetry breaking in nematic liquid crystals is studied using Brownian molecular dynamics. A three-dimensional lattice system of rod-like objects interacting via the Lebwohl-Lasher interaction is considered. We test the applicability of predictions originally derived in cosmology and magnetism. In the first part we focus on coarsening dynamics following the temperature driven isotropic-nematic phase transition for different quench rates. The behavior in the early coarsening regime supports predictions made originally by Kibble in cosmology. For fast enough quenches, symmetry breaking and causality give rise to a dense tangle of defects. When the degree of orientational ordering is large enough, well defined protodomains characterized by a single average domain length are formed. With time subcritical domains gradually vanish and supercritical domains grow with time, exhibiting a universal scaling law. In the second part of the paper we study the impact of random-field-type disorder on a range of ordering in the (symmetry broken) nematic phase. We demonstrate that short-range order is observed even for a minute concentration of impurities, giving rise to disorder in line with the Imry-Ma theorem prediction only for the appropriate history of systems.
Topological defect formation and spontaneous symmetry breaking in ion Coulomb crystals.
Pyka, K; Keller, J; Partner, H L; Nigmatullin, R; Burgermeister, T; Meier, D M; Kuhlmann, K; Retzker, A; Plenio, M B; Zurek, W H; del Campo, A; Mehlstäubler, T E
2013-01-01
Symmetry breaking phase transitions play an important role in nature. When a system traverses such a transition at a finite rate, its causally disconnected regions choose the new broken symmetry state independently. Where such local choices are incompatible, topological defects can form. The Kibble-Zurek mechanism predicts the defect densities to follow a power law that scales with the rate of the transition. Owing to its ubiquitous nature, this theory finds application in a wide field of systems ranging from cosmology to condensed matter. Here we present the successful creation of defects in ion Coulomb crystals by a controlled quench of the confining potential, and observe an enhanced power law scaling in accordance with numerical simulations and recent predictions. This simple system with well-defined critical exponents opens up ways to investigate the physics of non-equilibrium dynamics from the classical to the quantum regime.
Isospin-symmetry-breaking effects in A˜70 nuclei within beyond-mean-field approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrovici, A.; Andrei, O.
2015-02-01
Particular isospin-symmetry-breaking probes including Coulomb energy differences (CED), mirror energy differences (MED), and triplet energy differences (TED) manifest anomalies in the A˜70 isovector triplets of nuclei. The structure of proton-rich nuclei in the A˜70 mass region suggests shape coexistence and competition between pairing correlations in different channels. Recent results concerning the interplay between isospin-mixing and shape-coexistence effects on exotic phenomena in A˜70 nuclei obtained within the beyond-mean-field complex Excited Vampir variational model with symmetry projection before variation using a realistic effective interaction in a relatively large model space are presented. Excited Vampir predictions concerning the Gamow-Teller β decay to the odd-odd N=Z 66As and 70Br nuclei correlated with the pair structure analysis in the T=1 and T=0 channel of the involved wave functions are discussed.
Parity-time symmetry-breaking mechanism of dynamic Mott transitions in dissipative systems
Tripathi, Vikram; Galda, Alexey; Barman, Himadri; ...
2016-07-05
Here, we describe the critical behavior of the electric field-driven (dynamic) Mott insulator-to-metal transitions in dissipative Fermi and Bose systems in terms of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians invariant under simultaneous parity (P) and time-reversal (T) operations. The dynamic Mott transition is identified as a PT symmetry-breaking phase transition, with the Mott insulating state corresponding to the regime of unbroken PT symmetry with a real energy spectrum. We also established that the imaginary part of the Hamiltonian arises from the combined effects of the driving field and inherent dissipation. We derive the renormalization and collapse of the Mott gap at the dielectric breakdownmore » and describe the resulting critical behavior of transport characteristics. The critical exponent we obtained is in an excellent agreement with experimental findings.« less
Symmetry breaking, and the effect of matter density on neutrino oscillation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohseni Sadjadi, H.; Khosravi Karchi, A. P.
2018-04-01
A proposal for the neutrino mass, based on neutrino-scalar field interaction, is introduced. The scalar field is also non-minimally coupled to the Ricci scalar, and hence relates the neutrino mass to the matter density. In a dense region, the scalar field obeys the Z2 symmetry, and the neutrino is massless. In a dilute region, the Z2 symmetry breaks and neutrino acquires mass from the non-vanishing expectation value of the scalar field. We consider this scenario in the framework of a spherical dense object whose outside is a dilute region. In this background, we study the neutrino flavors oscillation, along with the consequences of the theory on oscillation length and MSW effect. This preliminary model may shed some lights on the existing anomalies within the neutrino data, concerning the different oscillating behavior of the neutrinos in regions with different densities.
FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a bridge model fed by junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popkov, Vladislav; Evans, Martin R.; Mukamel, David
2008-10-01
We introduce a class of 1D models mimicking a single-lane bridge with two junctions and two particle species driven in opposite directions. The model exhibits spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) for a range of injection/extraction rates. In this phase the steady-state currents of the two species are not equal. Moreover, there is a co-existence region in which the symmetry-broken phase co-exists with a symmetric phase. Along a path in which the extraction rate is varied, keeping the injection rate fixed and large, hysteresis takes place. The mean-field phase diagram is calculated and supporting Monte Carlo simulations are presented. One of the transition lines exhibits a kink, a feature which cannot exist in transition lines of equilibrium phase transitions.
Isospin-symmetry-breaking effects in A∼70 nuclei within beyond-mean-field approach
Petrovici, A.; Andrei, O.
2015-02-24
Particular isospin-symmetry-breaking probes including Coulomb energy differences (CED), mirror energy differences (MED), and triplet energy differences (TED) manifest anomalies in the A∼70 isovector triplets of nuclei. The structure of proton-rich nuclei in the A∼70 mass region suggests shape coexistence and competition between pairing correlations in different channels. Recent results concerning the interplay between isospin-mixing and shape-coexistence effects on exotic phenomena in A∼70 nuclei obtained within the beyond-mean-field complex Excited Vampir variational model with symmetry projection before variation using a realistic effective interaction in a relatively large model space are presented. Excited Vampir predictions concerning the Gamow-Teller β decay to themore » odd-odd N=Z {sup 66}As and {sup 70}Br nuclei correlated with the pair structure analysis in the T=1 and T=0 channel of the involved wave functions are discussed.« less
Roles of dynamical symmetry breaking in driving oblate-prolate transitions of atomic clusters
Oka, Yurie, E-mail: ok-yu@fuji.waseda.jp; Yanao, Tomohiro, E-mail: yanao@waseda.jp; Koon, Wang Sang, E-mail: koon@cds.caltech.edu
2015-04-07
This paper explores the driving mechanisms for structural transitions of atomic clusters between oblate and prolate isomers. We employ the hyperspherical coordinates to investigate structural dynamics of a seven-atom cluster at a coarse-grained level in terms of the dynamics of three gyration radii and three principal axes, which characterize overall mass distributions of the cluster. Dynamics of gyration radii is governed by two kinds of forces. One is the potential force originating from the interactions between atoms. The other is the dynamical forces called the internal centrifugal forces, which originate from twisting and shearing motions of the system. The internalmore » centrifugal force arising from twisting motions has an effect of breaking the symmetry between two gyration radii. As a result, in an oblate isomer, activation of the internal centrifugal force that has the effect of breaking the symmetry between the two largest gyration radii is crucial in triggering structural transitions into prolate isomers. In a prolate isomer, on the other hand, activation of the internal centrifugal force that has the effect of breaking the symmetry between the two smallest gyration radii is crucial in triggering structural transitions into oblate isomers. Activation of a twisting motion that switches the movement patterns of three principal axes is also important for the onset of structural transitions between oblate and prolate isomers. Based on these trigger mechanisms, we finally show that selective activations of specific gyration radii and twisting motions, depending on the isomer of the cluster, can effectively induce structural transitions of the cluster. The results presented here could provide further insights into the control of molecular reactions.« less
Roles of dynamical symmetry breaking in driving oblate-prolate transitions of atomic clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oka, Yurie; Yanao, Tomohiro; Koon, Wang Sang
2015-04-01
This paper explores the driving mechanisms for structural transitions of atomic clusters between oblate and prolate isomers. We employ the hyperspherical coordinates to investigate structural dynamics of a seven-atom cluster at a coarse-grained level in terms of the dynamics of three gyration radii and three principal axes, which characterize overall mass distributions of the cluster. Dynamics of gyration radii is governed by two kinds of forces. One is the potential force originating from the interactions between atoms. The other is the dynamical forces called the internal centrifugal forces, which originate from twisting and shearing motions of the system. The internal centrifugal force arising from twisting motions has an effect of breaking the symmetry between two gyration radii. As a result, in an oblate isomer, activation of the internal centrifugal force that has the effect of breaking the symmetry between the two largest gyration radii is crucial in triggering structural transitions into prolate isomers. In a prolate isomer, on the other hand, activation of the internal centrifugal force that has the effect of breaking the symmetry between the two smallest gyration radii is crucial in triggering structural transitions into oblate isomers. Activation of a twisting motion that switches the movement patterns of three principal axes is also important for the onset of structural transitions between oblate and prolate isomers. Based on these trigger mechanisms, we finally show that selective activations of specific gyration radii and twisting motions, depending on the isomer of the cluster, can effectively induce structural transitions of the cluster. The results presented here could provide further insights into the control of molecular reactions.
Chiral symmetry breaking and the spin content of the ρ and ρ‧ mesons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glozman, L. Ya.; Lang, C. B.; Limmer, M.
2011-11-01
Using interpolators with different SU(2)L × SU(2)R transformation properties we study the chiral symmetry and spin contents of the ρ and ρ‧ mesons in lattice simulations with dynamical quarks. A ratio of couplings of the qbarγi τq and qbarσ0i τq interpolators to a given meson state at different resolution scales tells one about the degree of chiral symmetry breaking in the meson wave function at these scales. Using a Gaussian gauge invariant smearing of the quark fields in the interpolators, we are able to extract the chiral content of mesons up to the infrared resolution of ∼ 1 fm. In the ground state ρ meson the chiral symmetry is strongly broken with comparable contributions of both the (0 , 1) + (1 , 0) and (1 / 2 , 1 / 2) b chiral representations with the former being the leading contribution. In contrast, in the ρ‧ meson the degree of chiral symmetry breaking is manifestly smaller and the leading representation is (1 / 2 , 1 / 2) b. Using a unitary transformation from the chiral basis to the LJ2S+1 basis, we are able to define and measure the angular momentum content of mesons in the rest frame. This definition is different from the traditional one which uses parton distributions in the infinite momentum frame. The ρ meson is practically a 3S1 state with no obvious trace of a "spin crisis". The ρ‧ meson has a sizeable contribution of the 3D1 wave, which implies that the ρ‧ meson cannot be considered as a pure radial excitation of the ρ meson.
Symmetry breaking and uniqueness for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Dascaliuc, Radu; Michalowski, Nicholas; Thomann, Enrique; Waymire, Edward C
2015-07-01
The present article establishes connections between the structure of the deterministic Navier-Stokes equations and the structure of (similarity) equations that govern self-similar solutions as expected values of certain naturally associated stochastic cascades. A principle result is that explosion criteria for the stochastic cascades involved in the probabilistic representations of solutions to the respective equations coincide. While the uniqueness problem itself remains unresolved, these connections provide interesting problems and possible methods for investigating symmetry breaking and the uniqueness problem for Navier-Stokes equations. In particular, new branching Markov chains, including a dilogarithmic branching random walk on the multiplicative group (0, ∞), naturally arise as a result of this investigation.
Dimer motion on a periodic substrate: spontaneous symmetry breaking and absolute negative mobility.
Speer, David; Eichhorn, Ralf; Evstigneev, Mykhaylo; Reimann, Peter
2012-06-01
We consider two coupled particles moving along a periodic substrate potential with negligible inertia effects (overdamped limit). Even when the particles are identical and the substrate spatially symmetric, a sinusoidal external driving of appropriate amplitude and frequency may lead to spontaneous symmetry breaking in the form of a permanent directed motion of the dimer. Thermal noise restores ergodicity and thus zero net velocity, but entails arbitrarily fast diffusion of the dimer for sufficiently weak noise. Moreover, upon application of a static bias force, the dimer exhibits a motion opposite to that force (absolute negative mobility). The key requirement for all these effects is a nonconvex interaction potential of the two particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurihara, Takayuki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Makoto; Karube, Shutaro; Oto, Kenichi; Otani, YoshiChika; Suemoto, Tohru
2018-03-01
We exploit an intense terahertz magnetic near field combined with femtosecond laser excitation to break the symmetry of photoinduced spin reorientation paths in ErFeO3 . We succeed in aligning macroscopic magnetization reaching up to 80% of total magnetization in the sample to selectable orientations by adjusting the time delay between terahertz and optical pump pulses. The spin dynamics are well reproduced by equations of motion, including time-dependent magnetic potential. We show that the direction of the generated magnetization is determined by the transient direction of spin tilting and the magnetic field at the moment of photoexcitation.
Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking Turing-Type Pattern Formation in a Confined Dictyostelium Cell Mass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawai, Satoshi; Maeda, Yasuo; Sawada, Yasuji
2000-09-01
We have discovered a new type of patterning which occurs in a two-dimensionally confined cell mass of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Besides the longitudinal structure reported earlier, we observed a spontaneous symmetry breaking spot pattern whose wavelength shows similar strain dependency to that of the longitudinal pattern. We propose that these structures are due to a reaction-diffusion Turing instability similar to the one which has been exemplified by CIMA (chlorite-iodide-malonic acid) reaction. The present finding may exhibit the first biochemical Turing structure in a developmental system with a controllable boundary condition.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking and strong deformations in metal adsorbed graphene sheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jalbout, A. F.; Ortiz, Y. P.; Seligman, T. H.
2013-03-01
We study the adsorption of Li to graphene flakes simulated as aromatic molecules. Surprisingly the out of plane deformation is much stronger for the double adsorption from both sides to the same ring than for a single adsorption, although a symmetric solution seems possible. We thus have an interesting case of spontaneous symmetry breaking. While we cannot rule out a Jahn Teller deformation with certainty, this explanation seems unlikely and other options are discussed. We find a similar behavior for boron-nitrogen sheets, and also for other light alkalines as adsorbants.
Alvaro Calle Cordon,Manuel Pavon Valderrama,Enrique Ruiz Arriola
2012-02-01
We study the interplay between charge symmetry breaking and renormalization in the NN system for S-waves. We find a set of universality relations which disentangle explicitly the known long distance dynamics from low energy parameters and extend them to the Coulomb case. We analyze within such an approach the One-Boson-Exchange potential and the theoretical conditions which allow to relate the proton-neutron, proton-proton and neutron-neutron scattering observables without the introduction of extra new parameters and providing good phenomenological success.
Breaking of axial symmetry in excited heavy nuclei as identified in giant dipole resonance data
Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Massarczyk, R.
2017-11-28
Here, a recent theoretical prediction of a breaking of axial symmetry in quasi all heavy nuclei is confronted to a new critical analysis of photon strength functions of nuclei in the valley of stability. For the photon strength in the isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR) regime a parameterization of GDR shapes by the sum of three Lorentzians (TLO) is extrapolated to energies below and above the IVGDR. The impact of non-GDR modes adding to the low energy slope of photon strength is discussed including recent data on photon scattering and other radiative processes. These are shown to be concentrated inmore » energy regions where various model calculations predict intermediate collective strength; thus they are obviously separate from the IVGDR tail. The triple Lorentzian (TLO) ansatz for giant dipole resonances is normalized in accordance to the dipole sum rule. The nuclear droplet model with surface dissipation accounts well for positions and widths without local, nuclide specific, parameters. Very few and only global parameters are needed when a breaking of axial symmetry already in the valley of stability is admitted and hence a reliable prediction for electric dipole strength functions also outside of it is expected.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shi-Chen; Yu, Sen-Jiang; He, Linghui; Ni, Yong
2018-03-01
Complex surface patterns generated by nonlinear buckling originate from various symmetry-breaking instabilities. Identifying possible key factors that regulate the instability modes is critical to reveal the mechanism of the surface pattern selection. In this paper, how another two factors (ridge cracking and interface sliding) including Poisson's ratio influence the morphological symmetry breaking in straight-sided blisters are systematically studied. Morphology diagrams from stability analysis show that ridge cracking and low Poisson's ratio promote symmetric instability mode and favor bubble-like blisters while interface sliding and high Poisson's ratio facilitate antisymmetric instability mode and result in telephone cord buckles. The analytical predictions are evidenced by experimental observations on annealed silicon nitride films on glass substrates and confirmed by nonlinear numerical simulations. This study explains how and why the rarely observed bubble-like blisters in accompany with ridge crack can appear in brittle thin films in comparison with the ubiquitously observed telephone cord buckles that usually form as the development of an antisymmetric instability mode when straight-sided blisters undergo the super-critical isotropic compression.
García-Senz, D.; Cabezón, R. M.; Thielemann, F. K.
Currently the number of models aimed at explaining the phenomena of type Ia supernovae is high and distinguishing between them is a must. In this work we explore the influence of rotation on the evolution of the nuclear flame that drives the explosion in the so-called gravitational confined detonation models. Assuming that the flame starts in a pointlike region slightly above the center of the white dwarf (WD) and adding a moderate amount of angular velocity to the star we follow the evolution of the deflagration using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. We find that the results are very dependentmore » on the angle between the rotational axis and the line connecting the initial bubble of burned material with the center of the WD at the moment of ignition. The impact of rotation is larger for angles close to 90° because the Coriolis force on a floating element of fluid is maximum and its principal effect is to break the symmetry of the deflagration. Such symmetry breaking weakens the convergence of the nuclear flame at the antipodes of the initial ignition volume, changing the environmental conditions around the convergence region with respect to non-rotating models. These changes seem to disfavor the emergence of a detonation in the compressed volume at the antipodes and may compromise the viability of the so-called gravitational confined detonation mechanism.« less
Magnetism and local symmetry breaking in a Mott insulator with strong spin orbit interactions
Lu, L.; Song, M.; Liu, W.
2017-02-09
Study of the combined effects of strong electronic correlations with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) represents a central issue in quantum materials research. Predicting emergent properties represents a huge theoretical problem since the presence of SOC implies that the spin is not a good quantum number. Existing theories propose the emergence of a multitude of exotic quantum phases, distinguishable by either local point symmetry breaking or local spin expectation values, even in materials with simple cubic crystal structure such as Ba 2NaOsO 6. Experimental tests of these theories by local probes are highly sought for. Our local measurements designed to concurrently probemore » spin and orbital/lattice degrees of freedom of Ba 2NaOsO 6 provide such tests. As a result, we show that a canted ferromagnetic phase which is preceded by local point symmetry breaking is stabilized at low temperatures, as predicted by quantum theories involving multipolar spin interactions.« less
Tadpole-induced electroweak symmetry breaking and pNGB Higgs models
Harnik, Roni; Howe, Kiel; Kearney, John
We investigate induced electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) in models in which the Higgs is a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (pNGB). In pNGB Higgs models, Higgs properties and precision electroweak measurements imply a hierarchy between the EWSB and global symmetry-breaking scales,more » $$v_H \\ll f_H$$. When the pNGB potential is generated radiatively, this hierarchy requires fine-tuning to a degree of at least $$\\sim v_H^2/f_H^2$$. We show that if Higgs EWSB is induced by a tadpole arising from an auxiliary sector at scale $$f_\\Sigma \\ll v_H$$, this tuning is significantly ameliorated or can even be removed. We present explicit examples both in Twin Higgs models and in Composite Higgs models based on $SO(5)/SO(4)$. For the Twin case, the result is a fully natural model with $$f_H \\sim 1$$ TeV and the lightest colored top partners at 2 TeV. These models also have an appealing mechanism to generate the scales of the auxiliary sector and Higgs EWSB directly from the scale $$f_H$$, with a natural hierarchy $$f_\\Sigma \\ll v_H \\ll f_H \\sim{\\rm TeV}$$. Finally, the framework predicts modified Higgs coupling as well as new Higgs and vector states at LHC13.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cathcart, Nicole; Kitaev, Vladimir
2016-09-01
A powerful approach to augment the diversity of well-defined metal nanoparticle (MNP) morphologies, essential for MNP advanced applications, is symmetry breaking combined with seeded growth. Utilizing this approach enabled the formation of bimorphic silver nanoparticles (bi-AgNPs) consisting of two shapes linked by one regrowth point. Bi-AgNPs were formed by using an adsorbing polymer, poly(acrylic acid), PAA, to block the surface of a decahedral AgNP seed and restricting growth of new silver to a single nucleation point. First, we have realized 2-D growth of platelets attached to decahedra producing nanoscale shapes reminiscent of apples, fishes, mushrooms and kites. 1-D bimorphic growth of rods (with chloride) and 3-D bimorphic growth of cubes and bipyramids (with bromide) were achieved by using halides to induce preferential (100) stabilization over (111) of platelets. Furthermore, the universality of the formation of bimorphic nanoparticles was demonstrated by using different seeds. Bi-AgNPs exhibit strong SERS enhancement due to regular cavities at the necks. Overall, the reported approach to symmetry breaking and bimorphic nanoparticle growth offers a powerful methodology for nanoscale shape design.
Resonances of the Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Sector in unitarized Higgs-EFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Delgado, Rafael L.; Dobado, Antonio
2017-01-01
Because of the gap between the known 100 GeV scale and any new physics, it is natural to formulate an effective Lagrangian (HEFT) with the particles of the Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Sector (WL,ZL and h). To use it with any new particles and resonances that may be found at the LHC we extend it by means of dispersion relations that yield unitarized amplitudes valid even in the presence of new strong interactions. We have studied several such methods (Inverse Amplitude, N/D, Improved K-matrix, etc.) to assess the systematics, and find that they give qualitatively similar results and succesfully produce unitary amplitudes in the nonperturbative regime. We have computed all the necessary one-loop amplitudes in the HEFT and unitarized them numerically with those methods. We are thus in a position to describe new physics in the 0.5 TeV-3 TeV (region of validity of our approximations: the effective theory and the equivalence theorem to substitute WL, ZL by the Goldstone bosons of electroweak symmetry breaking). We have also computed the coupling of the EWSBS to the top-antitop and two-photon channels to describe resonances that decay through them or to study their photon-photon production, for example. The approach is universal and useful for many BSM theories at low energy. Funded by spanish grant MINECO:FPA2014-53375-C2-1-P.
Time-reversal symmetry breaking with acoustic pumping of nanophotonic circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohn, Donggyu B.; Kim, Seunghwi; Bahl, Gaurav
2018-02-01
Achieving non-reciprocal light propagation via stimuli that break time-reversal symmetry, without magneto-optics, remains a major challenge for integrated nanophotonic devices. Recently, optomechanical microsystems in which light and vibrational modes are coupled through ponderomotive forces have demonstrated strong non-reciprocal effects through a variety of techniques, but always using optical pumping. None of these approaches has demonstrated bandwidth exceeding that of the mechanical system, and all of them require optical power; these are both fundamental and practical issues. Here, we resolve both challenges by breaking time-reversal symmetry using a two-dimensional acoustic pump that simultaneously provides a non-zero overlap integral for light-sound interaction and also satisfies the necessary phase-matching. We use this technique to produce a non-reciprocal modulator (a frequency shifting isolator) by means of indirect interband scattering. We demonstrate mode conversion asymmetry up to 15 dB and efficiency as high as 17% over a bandwidth exceeding 1 GHz.
Breaking of axial symmetry in excited heavy nuclei as identified in giant dipole resonance data
Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Massarczyk, R.
Here, a recent theoretical prediction of a breaking of axial symmetry in quasi all heavy nuclei is confronted to a new critical analysis of photon strength functions of nuclei in the valley of stability. For the photon strength in the isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR) regime a parameterization of GDR shapes by the sum of three Lorentzians (TLO) is extrapolated to energies below and above the IVGDR. The impact of non-GDR modes adding to the low energy slope of photon strength is discussed including recent data on photon scattering and other radiative processes. These are shown to be concentrated inmore » energy regions where various model calculations predict intermediate collective strength; thus they are obviously separate from the IVGDR tail. The triple Lorentzian (TLO) ansatz for giant dipole resonances is normalized in accordance to the dipole sum rule. The nuclear droplet model with surface dissipation accounts well for positions and widths without local, nuclide specific, parameters. Very few and only global parameters are needed when a breaking of axial symmetry already in the valley of stability is admitted and hence a reliable prediction for electric dipole strength functions also outside of it is expected.« less
Cathcart, Nicole; Kitaev, Vladimir
2016-09-08
A powerful approach to augment the diversity of well-defined metal nanoparticle (MNP) morphologies, essential for MNP advanced applications, is symmetry breaking combined with seeded growth. Utilizing this approach enabled the formation of bimorphic silver nanoparticles (bi-AgNPs) consisting of two shapes linked by one regrowth point. Bi-AgNPs were formed by using an adsorbing polymer, poly(acrylic acid), PAA, to block the surface of a decahedral AgNP seed and restricting growth of new silver to a single nucleation point. First, we have realized 2-D growth of platelets attached to decahedra producing nanoscale shapes reminiscent of apples, fishes, mushrooms and kites. 1-D bimorphic growth of rods (with chloride) and 3-D bimorphic growth of cubes and bipyramids (with bromide) were achieved by using halides to induce preferential (100) stabilization over (111) of platelets. Furthermore, the universality of the formation of bimorphic nanoparticles was demonstrated by using different seeds. Bi-AgNPs exhibit strong SERS enhancement due to regular cavities at the necks. Overall, the reported approach to symmetry breaking and bimorphic nanoparticle growth offers a powerful methodology for nanoscale shape design.
Tadpole-induced electroweak symmetry breaking and pNGB Higgs models
Harnik, Roni; Howe, Kiel; Kearney, John
2017-03-22
We investigate induced electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) in models in which the Higgs is a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (pNGB). In pNGB Higgs models, Higgs properties and precision electroweak measurements imply a hierarchy between the EWSB and global symmetry-breaking scales,more » $$v_H \\ll f_H$$. When the pNGB potential is generated radiatively, this hierarchy requires fine-tuning to a degree of at least $$\\sim v_H^2/f_H^2$$. We show that if Higgs EWSB is induced by a tadpole arising from an auxiliary sector at scale $$f_\\Sigma \\ll v_H$$, this tuning is significantly ameliorated or can even be removed. We present explicit examples both in Twin Higgs models and in Composite Higgs models based on $SO(5)/SO(4)$. For the Twin case, the result is a fully natural model with $$f_H \\sim 1$$ TeV and the lightest colored top partners at 2 TeV. These models also have an appealing mechanism to generate the scales of the auxiliary sector and Higgs EWSB directly from the scale $$f_H$$, with a natural hierarchy $$f_\\Sigma \\ll v_H \\ll f_H \\sim{\\rm TeV}$$. Finally, the framework predicts modified Higgs coupling as well as new Higgs and vector states at LHC13.« less
On the plasmonic properties of a symmetry-breaking silver nanoring structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Bozhi; Sun, Cheng
2018-07-01
This work reports on a study regarding the plasmonic properties of a symmetry-breaking silver nanoring structure, in the wavelength range of 0.6-4.5 μm. A broken silver ring with a certain angle, as well as a full ring composed of silver and other metallic/dielectric materials, are proposed. The extinction efficiencies of the nanostructure are numerically calculated with several parameters being varied, including the broken angle, the inner and outer radii, and the thickness of the broken ring, as well as the material in the composite full ring. Multiple plasmonic resonances are observed in the extinction efficiency curves, which are attributed to the quadrupolar, octupolar, and hexadecapolar resonance modes that are revealed by the electric field distributions. The results demonstrate that the high-order modes can be altered, by varying the value of the broken angle of the ring. It is also illustrated that the resonance wavelength and the full width at half maximum of certain high-order plasmonic resonance peaks can be tuned in the wavelength range studied, by adjusting the values of the geometrical parameters of the nanoring. The plasmonic characteristics of the symmetry-breaking nanoring structure revealed in this study, provide a great platform for the designs of plasmonic devices utilizing the high-order plasmonic resonances. Besides, it is also proposed a scheme to switch the device between the multi-wavelength and single-wavelength modes.
Heat-induced symmetry breaking in ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) escape behavior
Chung, Yuan-Kai
2017-01-01
The collective egress of social insects is important in dangerous situations such as natural disasters or enemy attacks. Some studies have described the phenomenon of symmetry breaking in ants, with two exits induced by a repellent. However, whether symmetry breaking occurs under high temperature conditions, which are a common abiotic stress, remains unknown. In our study, we deposited a group of Polyrhachis dives ants on a heated platform and counted the number of escaping ants with two identical exits. We discovered that ants asymmetrically escaped through two exits when the temperature of the heated platform was >32.75°C. The degree of asymmetry increased linearly with the temperature of the platform. Furthermore, the higher the temperature of heated platform was, the more ants escaped from the heated platform. However, the number of escaping ants decreased for 3 min when the temperature was higher than the critical thermal limit (39.46°C), which is the threshold for ants to endure high temperature without a loss of performance. Moreover, the ants tended to form small groups to escape from the thermal stress. A preparatory formation of ant grouping was observed before they reached the exit, indicating that the ants actively clustered rather than accidentally gathered at the exits to escape. We suggest that a combination of individual and grouping ants may help to optimize the likelihood of survival during evacuation. PMID:28355235
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in active droplets provides a generic route to motility
Tjhung, Elsen; Marenduzzo, Davide; Cates, Michael E.
2012-01-01
We explore a generic mechanism whereby a droplet of active matter acquires motility by the spontaneous breakdown of a discrete symmetry. The model we study offers a simple representation of a “cell extract” comprising, e.g., a droplet of actomyosin solution. (Such extracts are used experimentally to model the cytoskeleton). Actomyosin is an active gel whose polarity describes the mean sense of alignment of actin fibres. In the absence of polymerization and depolymerization processes (‘treadmilling’), the gel’s dynamics arises solely from the contractile motion of myosin motors; this should be unchanged when polarity is inverted. Our results suggest that motility can arise in the absence of treadmilling, by spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) of polarity inversion symmetry. Adapting our model to wall-bound cells in two dimensions, we find that as wall friction is reduced, treadmilling-induced motility falls but SSB-mediated motility rises. The latter might therefore be crucial in three dimensions where frictional forces are likely to be modest. At a supracellular level, the same generic mechanism can impart motility to aggregates of nonmotile but active bacteria; we show that SSB in this (extensile) case leads generically to rotational as well as translational motion. PMID:22797894
Mahdy, M R C; Danesh, Md; Zhang, Tianhang; Ding, Weiqiang; Rivy, Hamim Mahmud; Chowdhury, Ariful Bari; Mehmood, M Q
2018-02-16
The stimulating connection between the reversal of near-field plasmonic binding force and the role of symmetry-breaking has not been investigated comprehensively in the literature. In this work, the symmetry of spherical plasmonic heterodimer-setup is broken forcefully by shining the light from a specific side of the set-up instead of impinging it from the top. We demonstrate that for the forced symmetry-broken spherical heterodimer-configurations: reversal of lateral and longitudinal near-field binding force follow completely distinct mechanisms. Interestingly, the reversal of longitudinal binding force can be easily controlled either by changing the direction of light propagation or by varying their relative orientation. This simple process of controlling binding force may open a novel generic way of optical manipulation even with the heterodimers of other shapes. Though it is commonly believed that the reversal of near-field plasmonic binding force should naturally occur for the presence of bonding and anti-bonding modes or at least for the Fano resonance (and plasmonic forces mostly arise from the surface force), our study based on Lorentz-force dynamics suggests notably opposite proposals for the aforementioned cases. Observations in this article can be very useful for improved sensors, particle clustering and aggregation.
Rotational Symmetry Breaking in a Trigonal Superconductor Nb-doped Bi 2 Se 3
Asaba, Tomoya; Lawson, B. J.; Tinsman, Colin
2017-01-27
The search for unconventional superconductivity has been focused on materials with strong spin-orbit coupling and unique crystal lattices. Doped bismuth selenide (Bi 2Se 3) is a strong candidate, given the topological insulator nature of the parent compound and its triangular lattice. The coupling between the physical properties in the superconducting state and its underlying crystal symmetry is a crucial test for unconventional superconductivity. In this paper, we report direct evidence that the superconducting magnetic response couples strongly to the underlying trigonal crystal symmetry in the recently discovered superconductor with trigonal crystal structure, niobium (Nb)-doped Bi 2Se 3. As a result,more » the in-plane magnetic torque signal vanishes every 60°. More importantly, the superconducting hysteresis loop amplitude is enhanced along one preferred direction, spontaneously breaking the rotational symmetry. This observation indicates the presence of nematic order in the superconducting ground state of Nb-doped Bi 2Se 3.« less
Viktorinová, Ivana; Henry, Ian; Tomancak, Pavel
2017-11-01
Symmetry breaking is involved in many developmental processes that form bodies and organs. One of them is the epithelial rotation of developing tubular and acinar organs. However, how epithelial cells move, how they break symmetry to define their common direction, and what function rotational epithelial motions have remains elusive. Here, we identify a dynamic actomyosin network that breaks symmetry at the basal surface of the Drosophila follicle epithelium of acinar-like primitive organs, called egg chambers, and may represent a candidate force-generation mechanism that underlies the unidirectional motion of this epithelial tissue. We provide evidence that the atypical cadherin Fat2, a key planar cell polarity regulator in Drosophila oogenesis, directs and orchestrates transmission of the intracellular actomyosin asymmetry cue onto a tissue plane in order to break planar actomyosin symmetry, facilitate epithelial rotation in the opposite direction, and direct the elongation of follicle cells. In contrast, loss of this rotational motion results in anisotropic non-muscle Myosin II pulses that are disorganized in plane and causes cell deformations in the epithelial tissue of Drosophila eggs. Our work demonstrates that atypical cadherins play an important role in the control of symmetry breaking of cellular mechanics in order to facilitate tissue motion and model epithelial tissue. We propose that their functions may be evolutionarily conserved in tubular/acinar vertebrate organs.
Henry, Ian; Tomancak, Pavel
2017-01-01
Symmetry breaking is involved in many developmental processes that form bodies and organs. One of them is the epithelial rotation of developing tubular and acinar organs. However, how epithelial cells move, how they break symmetry to define their common direction, and what function rotational epithelial motions have remains elusive. Here, we identify a dynamic actomyosin network that breaks symmetry at the basal surface of the Drosophila follicle epithelium of acinar-like primitive organs, called egg chambers, and may represent a candidate force-generation mechanism that underlies the unidirectional motion of this epithelial tissue. We provide evidence that the atypical cadherin Fat2, a key planar cell polarity regulator in Drosophila oogenesis, directs and orchestrates transmission of the intracellular actomyosin asymmetry cue onto a tissue plane in order to break planar actomyosin symmetry, facilitate epithelial rotation in the opposite direction, and direct the elongation of follicle cells. In contrast, loss of this rotational motion results in anisotropic non-muscle Myosin II pulses that are disorganized in plane and causes cell deformations in the epithelial tissue of Drosophila eggs. Our work demonstrates that atypical cadherins play an important role in the control of symmetry breaking of cellular mechanics in order to facilitate tissue motion and model epithelial tissue. We propose that their functions may be evolutionarily conserved in tubular/acinar vertebrate organs. PMID:29176774
Shen, Zhaocun; Jiang, Yuqian; Wang, Tianyu; Liu, Minghua
2015-12-30
Supramolecular symmetry breaking, in which chiral assemblies with imbalanced right- and left-handedness emerge from achiral molecular building blocks, has been achieved in the organogels of a C3-symmetric molecule only via π-π stacking. Specifically, an achiral C3-symmetric benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate substituted with methyl cinnamate through ester bond was found to form organogels in various organic solvents. More interestingly, when gels formed in cyclohexane, symmetry breaking occurred; i.e., optically active organogels together with the helical nanofibers with predominant handedness were obtained. Furthermore, the stochastically appeared imbalanced helicity could be driven to desired handedness by utilizing slight chiral solvents such as (R)- or (S)-terpinen-4-ol. Remarkably, the handedness of supramolecular assemblies thus formed could be kept even when the chiral solvents were removed. For the first time, we show that symmetry breaking can occur in supramolecular gel system driven exclusively through π-π stacking.
Zhang, Kenan; Bao, Changhua; Gu, Qiangqiang; Ren, Xiao; Zhang, Haoxiong; Deng, Ke; Wu, Yang; Li, Yuan; Feng, Ji; Zhou, Shuyun
2016-12-09
Transition metal dichalcogenide MoTe 2 is an important candidate for realizing the newly predicted type-II Weyl fermions, for which the breaking of the inversion symmetry is a prerequisite. Here we present direct spectroscopic evidence for the inversion symmetry breaking in the low-temperature phase of MoTe 2 by systematic Raman experiments and first-principles calculations. We identify five lattice vibrational modes that are Raman-active only in the low-temperature noncentrosymmetric structure. A hysteresis is also observed in the peak intensity of inversion symmetry-activated Raman modes, confirming a temperature-induced structural phase transition with a concomitant change in the inversion symmetry. Our results provide definitive evidence for the low-temperature noncentrosymmetric T d phase from vibrational spectroscopy, and suggest MoTe 2 as an ideal candidate for investigating the temperature-induced topological phase transition.
Zhang, Kenan; Bao, Changhua; Gu, Qiangqiang; Ren, Xiao; Zhang, Haoxiong; Deng, Ke; Wu, Yang; Li, Yuan; Feng, Ji; Zhou, Shuyun
2016-01-01
Transition metal dichalcogenide MoTe2 is an important candidate for realizing the newly predicted type-II Weyl fermions, for which the breaking of the inversion symmetry is a prerequisite. Here we present direct spectroscopic evidence for the inversion symmetry breaking in the low-temperature phase of MoTe2 by systematic Raman experiments and first-principles calculations. We identify five lattice vibrational modes that are Raman-active only in the low-temperature noncentrosymmetric structure. A hysteresis is also observed in the peak intensity of inversion symmetry-activated Raman modes, confirming a temperature-induced structural phase transition with a concomitant change in the inversion symmetry. Our results provide definitive evidence for the low-temperature noncentrosymmetric Td phase from vibrational spectroscopy, and suggest MoTe2 as an ideal candidate for investigating the temperature-induced topological phase transition. PMID:27934874
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Kenan; Bao, Changhua; Gu, Qiangqiang; Ren, Xiao; Zhang, Haoxiong; Deng, Ke; Wu, Yang; Li, Yuan; Feng, Ji; Zhou, Shuyun
2016-12-01
Transition metal dichalcogenide MoTe2 is an important candidate for realizing the newly predicted type-II Weyl fermions, for which the breaking of the inversion symmetry is a prerequisite. Here we present direct spectroscopic evidence for the inversion symmetry breaking in the low-temperature phase of MoTe2 by systematic Raman experiments and first-principles calculations. We identify five lattice vibrational modes that are Raman-active only in the low-temperature noncentrosymmetric structure. A hysteresis is also observed in the peak intensity of inversion symmetry-activated Raman modes, confirming a temperature-induced structural phase transition with a concomitant change in the inversion symmetry. Our results provide definitive evidence for the low-temperature noncentrosymmetric Td phase from vibrational spectroscopy, and suggest MoTe2 as an ideal candidate for investigating the temperature-induced topological phase transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Natasha; Gupta, A. K.
2017-04-01
Motivated by connections between the inputs and outputs of several transport mechanisms and multi-species functionalities, we studied an open system of a two-species totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with narrow entrances, which assimilate the synergy of the particles with the surrounding environment through Langmuir kinetics (LK). We analyzed the model within the framework of mean-field theory, and examined complex phenomena such as boundary-induced phase transitions and spontaneous symmetry breaking for variant conditions of attachment and detachment rates. Based on the theoretical investigations we obtained the phase boundaries for various symmetric and asymmetric phases. Our finding displays a prolific behavior, highlighting the significant effect of LK rates on symmetry breaking. It is found that for lower orders of LK rates, the number of symmetrical and asymmetrical phases increases notably, while for their higher orders symmetry breaking disappears, revealing that the presence of bulk non-conserving processes can resume/break the uniformity between two species. The critical value of LK rates beyond which the asymmetrical phases disappears is identified. The theoretical findings are explored by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The effect of the system size and symmetry breaking incident on the Monte Carlo simulation results has also been examined based on particle density histograms.
Experimental Guidance for Isospin Symmetry Breaking Calculations via Single Neutron Pickup Reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leach, K. G.; Garrett, P. E.; Bangay, J. C.; Bianco, L.; Demand, G. A.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Phillips, A. A.; Rand, E. T.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wong, J.; Ball, G.; Faestermann, T.; Krücken, R.; Hertenberger, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; Towner, I. S.
2013-03-01
Recent activity in superallowed isospin-symmetry-breaking correction calculations has prompted interest in experimental confirmation of these calculation techniques. The shellmodel set of Towner and Hardy (2008) include the opening of specific core orbitals that were previously frozen. This has resulted in significant shifts in some of the δC values, and an improved agreement of the individual corrected {F}t values with the adopted world average of the 13 cases currently included in the high-precision evaluation of Vud. While the nucleus-to-nucleus variation of {F}t is consistent with the conserved-vector-current (CVC) hypothesis of the Standard Model, these new calculations must be thoroughly tested, and guidance must be given for their improvement. Presented here are details of a 64Zn(ěcd, t)63Zn experiment, undertaken to provide such guidance.
Symmetry breaking and uniqueness for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
Dascaliuc, Radu; Thomann, Enrique; Waymire, Edward C., E-mail: waymire@math.oregonstate.edu
2015-07-15
The present article establishes connections between the structure of the deterministic Navier-Stokes equations and the structure of (similarity) equations that govern self-similar solutions as expected values of certain naturally associated stochastic cascades. A principle result is that explosion criteria for the stochastic cascades involved in the probabilistic representations of solutions to the respective equations coincide. While the uniqueness problem itself remains unresolved, these connections provide interesting problems and possible methods for investigating symmetry breaking and the uniqueness problem for Navier-Stokes equations. In particular, new branching Markov chains, including a dilogarithmic branching random walk on the multiplicative group (0, ∞), naturallymore » arise as a result of this investigation.« less
Chiral symmetry breaking during the self-assembly of monolayers from achiral purine molecules.
Sowerby, S J; Heckl, W M; Petersen, G B
1996-11-01
Scanning tunneling microscopy was used to investigate the structure of the two-dimensional adsorbate formed by molecular self-assembly of the purine base, adenine, on the surfaces of the naturally occurring mineral molybdenite and the synthetic crystal highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Although formed from adenine, which is achiral, the observed adsorbate surface structures were enantiomorphic on molybdenite. This phenomenon suggests a mechanism for the introduction of a localized chiral symmetry break by the spontaneous crystallization of these prebiotically available molecules on inorganic surfaces and may have some role in the origin of biomolecular optical asymmetry. The possibility that purine-pyrimidine arrays assembled on naturally occurring mineral surfaces might act as possible templates for biomolecular assembly is discussed.
Symmetry-Breaking Bifurcation in the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation with Symmetric Potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirr, E.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Pelinovsky, D. E.
2011-12-01
We consider the focusing (attractive) nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with an external, symmetric potential which vanishes at infinity and supports a linear bound state. We prove that the symmetric, nonlinear ground states must undergo a symmetry breaking bifurcation if the potential has a non-degenerate local maxima at zero. Under a generic assumption we show that the bifurcation is either a subcritical or supercritical pitchfork. In the particular case of double-well potentials with large separation, the power of nonlinearity determines the subcritical or supercritical character of the bifurcation. The results are obtained from a careful analysis of the spectral properties of the ground states at both small and large values for the corresponding eigenvalue parameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mauksch, Michael; Wei, Shengwei; Freund, Matthias; Zamfir, Alexandru; Tsogoeva, Svetlana B.
2010-02-01
The origin of the single chirality of most biomolecules is still a great puzzle. Carbohydrates could form in the formose reaction, which is proposed to be autocatalytic and contains aldol reaction steps. Based on our earlier observation of organoautocatalysis and spontaneous enantioenrichment in absence of deliberate chiral influences in the aldol reaction of acetone and p-nitrobenzaldehyde we suggest that a similar effect might be present also in the aldol reactions involved in gluconeogenesis. Herein we show that reactant precipitation observed in our earlier reported experiments does not affect the asymmetric autocatalysis in the aldol reaction we studied. We explain the phenomenon of spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking in such organocatalytic homogenous systems qualitatively by non-linear reaction network kinetics and classical transition state theory.
Symmetry breaking gives rise to energy spectra of three states of matter
Bolmatov, Dima; Musaev, Edvard T.; Trachenko, K.
2013-01-01
A fundamental task of statistical physics is to start with a microscopic Hamiltonian, predict the system's statistical properties and compare them with observable data. A notable current fundamental challenge is to tell whether and how an interacting Hamiltonian predicts different energy spectra, including solid, liquid and gas phases. Here, we propose a new idea that enables a unified description of all three states of matter. We introduce a generic form of an interacting phonon Hamiltonian with ground state configurations minimising the potential. Symmetry breaking SO(3) to SO(2), from the group of rotations in reciprocal space to its subgroup, leads to emergence of energy gaps of shear excitations as a consequence of the Goldstone theorem, and readily results in the emergence of energy spectra of solid, liquid and gas phases. PMID:24077388
Spiechowicz, Jakub; Łuczka, Jerzy; Hänggi, Peter
2016-01-01
We study far from equilibrium transport of a periodically driven inertial Brownian particle moving in a periodic potential. As detected for a SQUID ratchet dynamics, the mean square deviation of the particle position from its average may involve three distinct intermediate, although extended diffusive regimes: initially as superdiffusion, followed by subdiffusion and finally, normal diffusion in the asymptotic long time limit. Even though these anomalies are transient effects, their lifetime can be many, many orders of magnitude longer than the characteristic time scale of the setup and turns out to be extraordinarily sensitive to the system parameters like temperature or the potential asymmetry. In the paper we reveal mechanisms of diffusion anomalies related to ergodicity of the system, symmetry breaking of the periodic potential and ultraslow relaxation of the particle velocity towards its steady state. Similar sequences of the diffusive behaviours could be detected in various systems including, among others, colloidal particles in random potentials, glass forming liquids and granular gases. PMID:27492219
Sequence selection by dynamical symmetry breaking in an autocatalytic binary polymer model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fellermann, Harold; Tanaka, Shinpei; Rasmussen, Steen
2017-12-01
Template-directed replication of nucleic acids is at the essence of all living beings and a major milestone for any origin of life scenario. We present an idealized model of prebiotic sequence replication, where binary polymers act as templates for their autocatalytic replication, thereby serving as each others reactants and products in an intertwined molecular ecology. Our model demonstrates how autocatalysis alters the qualitative and quantitative system dynamics in counterintuitive ways. Most notably, numerical simulations reveal a very strong intrinsic selection mechanism that favors the appearance of a few population structures with highly ordered and repetitive sequence patterns when starting from a pool of monomers. We demonstrate both analytically and through simulation how this "selection of the dullest" is caused by continued symmetry breaking through random fluctuations in the transient dynamics that are amplified by autocatalysis and eventually propagate to the population level. The impact of these observations on related prebiotic mathematical models is discussed.
The chiral magnetic effect and chiral symmetry breaking in SU(3) quenched lattice gauge theory
Braguta, V. V., E-mail: braguta@mail.ru; Buividovich, P. V., E-mail: buividovich@itep.ru; Kalaydzhyan, T., E-mail: tigran.kalaydzhyan@desy.de
2012-04-15
We study some properties of the non-Abelian vacuum induced by strong external magnetic field. We perform calculations in the quenched SU(3) lattice gauge theory with tadpole-improved Luescher-Weisz action and chirally invariant lattice Dirac operator. The following results are obtained: The chiral symmetry breaking is enhanced by the magnetic field. The chiral condensate depends on the strength of the applied field as a power function with exponent {nu} = 1.6 {+-} 0.2. There is a paramagnetic polarization of the vacuum. The corresponding susceptibility and other magnetic properties are calculated and compared with the theoretical estimations. There are nonzero local fluctuations ofmore » the chirality and electromagnetic current, which grow with the magnetic field strength. These fluctuations can be a manifestation of the Chiral Magnetic Effect.« less
Symmetry-Breaking Phase Transition without a Peierls Instability in Conducting Monoatomic Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blumenstein, C.; Schäfer, J.; Morresi, M.; Mietke, S.; Matzdorf, R.; Claessen, R.
2011-10-01
The one-dimensional (1D) model system Au/Ge(001), consisting of linear chains of single atoms on a surface, is scrutinized for lattice instabilities predicted in the Peierls paradigm. By scanning tunneling microscopy and electron diffraction we reveal a second-order phase transition at 585 K. It leads to charge ordering with transversal and vertical displacements and complex interchain correlations. However, the structural phase transition is not accompanied by the electronic signatures of a charge density wave, thus precluding a Peierls instability as origin. Instead, this symmetry-breaking transition exhibits three-dimensional critical behavior. This reflects a dichotomy between the decoupled 1D electron system and the structural elements that interact via the substrate. Such substrate-mediated coupling between the wires thus appears to have been underestimated also in related chain systems.
Accretion of a symmetry-breaking scalar field by a Schwarzschild black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Traykova, Dina; Braden, Jonathan; Peiris, Hiranya V.
2018-01-01
We simulate the behaviour of a Higgs-like field in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole using a highly accurate numerical framework. We consider both the limit of the zero-temperature Higgs potential and a toy model for the time-dependent evolution of the potential when immersed in a slowly cooling radiation bath. Through these numerical investigations, we aim to improve our understanding of the non-equilibrium dynamics of a symmetry-breaking field (such as the Higgs) in the vicinity of a compact object such as a black hole. Understanding this dynamics may suggest new approaches for studying properties of scalar fields using black holes as a laboratory. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Higgs Cosmology'.
Dynamic Transition and Resonance in Coupled Oscillators Under Symmetry-Breaking Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, J.; Choi, M. Y.; Chung, M. S.; Yoon, B.-G.
2013-06-01
We investigate numerically the dynamic properties of a system of globally coupled oscillators driven by periodic symmetry-breaking fields in the presence of noise. The phase distribution of the oscillators is computed and a dynamic transition is disclosed. It is further found that the stochastic resonance is closely related to the behavior of the dynamic order parameter, which is in turn explained by the formation of a bi-cluster in the system. Here noise tends to symmetrize the motion of the oscillators, facilitating the bi-cluster formation. The observed resonance appears to be of the same class as the resonance present in the two-dimensional Ising model under oscillating fields.
Pion properties at finite isospin chemical potential with isospin symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zuqing; Ping, Jialun; Zong, Hongshi
2017-12-01
Pion properties at finite temperature, finite isospin and baryon chemical potentials are investigated within the SU(2) NJL model. In the mean field approximation for quarks and random phase approximation fpr mesons, we calculate the pion mass, the decay constant and the phase diagram with different quark masses for the u quark and d quark, related to QCD corrections, for the first time. Our results show an asymmetry between μI <0 and μI >0 in the phase diagram, and different values for the charged pion mass (or decay constant) and neutral pion mass (or decay constant) at finite temperature and finite isospin chemical potential. This is caused by the effect of isospin symmetry breaking, which is from different quark masses. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175088, 11475085, 11535005, 11690030) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (020414380074)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlandi, Javier G.; Casademunt, Jaume
2017-05-01
We introduce a coarse-grained stochastic model for the spontaneous activity of neuronal cultures to explain the phenomenon of noise focusing, which entails localization of the noise activity in excitable networks with metric correlations. The system is modeled as a continuum excitable medium with a state-dependent spatial coupling that accounts for the dynamics of synaptic connections. The most salient feature is the emergence at the mesoscale of a vector field V (r ) , which acts as an advective carrier of the noise. This entails an explicit symmetry breaking of isotropy and homogeneity that stems from the amplification of the quenched fluctuations of the network by the activity avalanches, concomitant with the excitable dynamics. We discuss the microscopic interpretation of V (r ) and propose an explicit construction of it. The coarse-grained model shows excellent agreement with simulations at the network level. The generic nature of the observed phenomena is discussed.
Electroweak symmetry breaking and collider signatures in the next-to-minimal composite Higgs model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niehoff, Christoph; Stangl, Peter; Straub, David M.
2017-04-01
We conduct a detailed numerical analysis of the composite pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Higgs model based on the next-to-minimal coset SO(6)/SO(5) ≅ SU(4)/Sp(4), featuring an additional SM singlet scalar in the spectrum, which we allow to mix with the Higgs boson. We identify regions in parameter space compatible with all current exper-imental constraints, including radiative electroweak symmetry breaking, flavour physics, and direct searches at colliders. We find the additional scalar, with a mass predicted to be below a TeV, to be virtually unconstrained by current LHC data, but potentially in reach of run 2 searches. Promising indirect searches include rare semi-leptonic B decays, CP violation in B s mixing, and the electric dipole moment of the neutron.
Compagnon, Julien; Barone, Vanessa; Rajshekar, Srivarsha; Kottmeier, Rita; Pranjic-Ferscha, Kornelija; Behrndt, Martin; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp
2014-12-22
Kupffer's vesicle (KV) is the zebrafish organ of laterality, patterning the embryo along its left-right (LR) axis. Regional differences in cell shape within the lumen-lining KV epithelium are essential for its LR patterning function. However, the processes by which KV cells acquire their characteristic shapes are largely unknown. Here, we show that the notochord induces regional differences in cell shape within KV by triggering extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation adjacent to anterior-dorsal (AD) regions of KV. This localized ECM deposition restricts apical expansion of lumen-lining epithelial cells in AD regions of KV during lumen growth. Our study provides mechanistic insight into the processes by which KV translates global embryonic patterning into regional cell shape differences required for its LR symmetry-breaking function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Observation of scale invariance and conformal symmetry breaking in expanding Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elliott, Ethan; Joseph, James; Thomas, John
2014-05-01
We precisely test scale invariance and examine local thermal equilibrium in the hydrodynamic expansion of a Fermi gas of atoms as a function of interaction strength. After release from an anisotropic optical trap, we observe that a resonantly interacting gas obeys scale-invariant hydrodynamics, where the mean square cloud size
Enhanced Circular Dichroism via Symmetry Breaking in a Chiral Plasmonic Nanoparticle Oligomer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, Khai Q.
2018-02-01
A chiral plasmonic nanoparticle oligomer, consisting of four symmetrically arranged nanodisks of different heights and having different optical absorption responses to left and right-handed circularly polarized light illumination, has been experimentally reported in the literature. The resulting circular dichroism (CD) signal was detectable with state of the art CD spectrometers but was much weaker than those of existing chiral nanostructures, i.e., three-dimensional (3-D) chiral metamaterials. In this letter, via symmetry breaking in such an oligomer, the author demonstrates that the CD can be enhanced up to six times compared to that of a symmetric oligomer, and is in the range of a relevant 3-D chiral metamolecule. Through investigation of geometrical parameters including particle size, asymmetric and symmetric gaps, the CD evolution was reported, which provides a useful guideline for design of two-dimensional chiral oligomers adopted as efficient probes for CD spectroscopic applications.
Accretion of a symmetry-breaking scalar field by a Schwarzschild black hole.
Traykova, Dina; Braden, Jonathan; Peiris, Hiranya V
2018-03-06
We simulate the behaviour of a Higgs-like field in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole using a highly accurate numerical framework. We consider both the limit of the zero-temperature Higgs potential and a toy model for the time-dependent evolution of the potential when immersed in a slowly cooling radiation bath. Through these numerical investigations, we aim to improve our understanding of the non-equilibrium dynamics of a symmetry-breaking field (such as the Higgs) in the vicinity of a compact object such as a black hole. Understanding this dynamics may suggest new approaches for studying properties of scalar fields using black holes as a laboratory.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs Cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Columnar shifts as symmetry-breaking degrees of freedom in molecular perovskites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boström, Hanna L. B.; Hill, Joshua A.; Goodwin, Andrew L.
We introduce columnar shifts---collective rigid-body translations---as a structural degree of freedom relevant to the phase behaviour of molecular perovskites ABX$_{\\textrm3}$ (X = molecular anion). Like the well-known octahedral tilts of conventional perovskites, shifts also preserve the octahedral coordination geometry of the B-site cation in molecular perovskites, and so are predisposed to influencing the low-energy dynamics and displacive phase transitions of these topical systems. We present a qualitative overview of the interplay between shift activation and crystal symmetry breaking, and introduce a generalised terminology to allow characterisation of simple shift distortions, drawing analogy to the "Glazer notation" for octahedral tilts. We apply our approach to the interpretation of a representative selection of azide and formate perovskite structures, and discuss the implications for functional exploitation of shift degrees of freedom in negative thermal expansion materials and hybrid ferroelectrics.
The glassy random laser: replica symmetry breaking in the intensity fluctuations of emission spectra
Antenucci, Fabrizio; Crisanti, Andrea; Leuzzi, Luca
2015-01-01
The behavior of a newly introduced overlap parameter, measuring the correlation between intensity fluctuations of waves in random media, is analyzed in different physical regimes, with varying amount of disorder and non-linearity. This order parameter allows to identify the laser transition in random media and describes its possible glassy nature in terms of emission spectra data, the only data so far accessible in random laser measurements. The theoretical analysis is performed in terms of the complex spherical spin-glass model, a statistical mechanical model describing the onset and the behavior of random lasers in open cavities. Replica Symmetry Breaking theory allows to discern different kinds of randomness in the high pumping regime, including the most complex and intriguing glassy randomness. The outcome of the theoretical study is, eventually, compared to recent intensity fluctuation overlap measurements demonstrating the validity of the theory and providing a straightforward interpretation of qualitatively different spectral behaviors in different random lasers. PMID:26616194
Probing strong electroweak symmetry breaking dynamics through quantum interferometry at the LHC
Murayama, Hitoshi; Rentala, Vikram; Shu, Jing
2015-12-07
Here, we present a new probe of strongly coupled electroweak symmetry breaking at the 14 TeV LHC by measuring a phase shift in the event distribution of the decay azimuthal angles in massive gauge boson scattering. One generically expects a large phase shift in the longitudinal gauge boson scattering amplitude due to the presence of broad resonances. This phase shift is observable as an interference effect between the strongly interacting longitudinal modes and the transverse modes of the gauge bosons. We find that even very broad resonances of masses up to 900 GeV can be probed at 3σ significance withmore » a 3000 fb -1 run of the LHC by using this technique. We also present the estimated reach for a future 50 TeV proton-proton collider.« less
Wang, Pengfei; Wu, Siyu; Tian, Cheng; Yu, Guimei; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Guansong; Mao, Chengde
2016-10-11
Current tile-based DNA self-assembly produces simple repetitive or highly symmetric structures. In the case of 2D lattices, the unit cell often contains only one basic tile because the tiles often are symmetric (in terms of either the backbone or the sequence). In this work, we have applied retrosynthetic analysis to determine the minimal asymmetric units for complex DNA nanostructures. Such analysis guides us to break the intrinsic structural symmetries of the tiles to achieve high structural complexities. This strategy has led to the construction of several DNA nanostructures that are not accessible from conventional symmetric tile designs. Along with previous studies, herein we have established a set of four fundamental rules regarding tile-based assembly. Such rules could serve as guidelines for the design of DNA nanostructures.
Symmetry breaking, phase separation and anomalous fluctuations in driven granular gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meerson, Baruch; Pöschel, Thorsten; Sasorov, Pavel V.; Schwager, Thomas
2003-03-01
What is the role of noise, caused by the discrete nature of particles, in granular dynamics? We address this question by considering a simple driven granular system: an ensemble of nearly elastically colliding hard spheres in a rectangular box, driven by a rapidly vibrating side wall at zero gravity. The elementary state of this system is a strip of enhanced particle density away from the driving wall. Granular hydrodynamics (GHD) predicts a symmetry breaking instability of this state, when the aspect ratio of the confining box exceeds a threshold value, while the average density of the gas is within a ``spinodal interval". At large aspect ratios this instability leads to phase separation similar to that in van der Waals gas. In the present work (see cond-mat/0208286) we focus on the system behavior around the threshold of the symmetry-breaking instability. We put GHD into a quantitative test by performing extensive event-driven molecular dynamic simulations in 2D. Please watch the movies of the simulations at http://summa.physik.hu-berlin.de/ kies/HD/. We found that the supercritical bifurcation curve, predicted by GHD, agrees with the simulations well below and well above the instability threshold. In a wide region of aspect ratios around the threshold the system is dominated by fluctuations. We checked that the fluctuation strength goes down when the number of particles increases. However, fluctuations remain strong (and the critical region wide) even for as many as 4 ot 10^4 particles. We conclude by suggesting that fluctuations may put a severe limitation on the validity of continuum theories of granular flow in systems with a moderately large number of particles.
Two-dimensional symmetry breaking of fluid density distribution in closed nanoslits.
Berim, Gersh O; Ruckenstein, Eli
2008-01-14
Stable and metastable fluid density distributions (FDDs) in a closed nanoslit between two identical parallel solid walls have been identified on the basis of a nonlocal canonical ensemble density functional theory. Similar to Monte Carlo simulations, periodicity of the FDD in one of the lateral (parallel to the walls surfaces) directions, denoted as the x direction, was assumed. In the other lateral direction, y direction, the FDD was considered uniform. It was found that depending on the average fluid density in the slit, both uniform as well as nonuniform FDDs in the x direction can occur. The uniform FDDs are either symmetric or asymmetric about the middle plane between walls; the latter FDD being the consequence of a symmetry breaking across the slit. The nonuniform FDDs in the x direction occur either in the form of a bump on a thin liquid film covering the walls or as a liquid bridge between those walls and provide symmetry breaking in the x direction. For small and large average densities, the stable state is uniform in the x direction and is symmetric about the middle plane between walls. In the intermediate range of the average density and depending on the length L(x) of the FDD period, the stable state can be represented either by a FDD, which is uniform in the x direction and asymmetric about the middle of the slit (small values of L(x)), or by a bump- and bridgelike FDD for intermediate and large values of L(x), respectively. These results are in agreement with the Monte Carlo simulations performed earlier by other authors. Because the free energy of the stable state decreases monotonically with increasing L(x), one can conclude that the real period is very large (infinite) and that for the values of the parameters employed, a single bridge of finite length over the entire slit is generated.
Bakke, K., E-mail: kbakke@fisica.ufpb.br; Furtado, C., E-mail: furtado@fisica.ufpb.br; Belich, H., E-mail: belichjr@gmail.com
2016-09-15
From the modified Maxwell theory coupled to gravity, we establish a possible scenario of the violation of the Lorentz symmetry and write an effective metric for the cosmic string spacetime. Then, we investigate the arising of an analogue of the Anandan quantum phase for a relativistic Dirac neutral particle with a permanent magnetic dipole moment in the cosmic string spacetime under Lorentz symmetry breaking effects. Besides, we analyse the influence of the effects of the Lorentz symmetry violation and the topology of the defect on the Aharonov–Casher geometric quantum phase in the nonrelativistic limit.
The μ- τ reflection symmetry of Dirac neutrinos and its breaking effect via quantum corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, Zhi-zhong; Zhang, Di; Zhu, Jing-yu
2017-11-01
Given the Dirac neutrino mass term, we explore the constraint conditions which allow the corresponding mass matrix to be invariant under the μ- τ reflection transformation, leading us to the phenomenologically favored predictions θ 23 = π/4 and δ = 3 π/2 in the standard parametrization of the 3 × 3 lepton flavor mixing matrix. If such a flavor symmetry is realized at a superhigh energy scale Λ μτ , we investigate how it is spontaneously broken via the one-loop renormalization-group equations (RGEs) running from Λ μτ down to the Fermi scale ΛF. Such quantum corrections to the neutrino masses and flavor mixing parameters are derived, and an analytical link is established between the Jarlskog invariants of CP violation at Λ μτ and ΛF. Some numerical examples are also presented in both the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the type-II two-Higgs-doublet model, to illustrate how the octant of θ 23, the quadrant of δ and the neutrino mass ordering are correlated with one another as a result of the RGE-induced μ-τ reflection symmetry breaking effects.
Beecher, Alexander N.; Semonin, Octavi E.; Skelton, Jonathan M.; ...
2016-09-21
Lead halide perovskites such as methylammonium lead triiodide (CH 3NH 3PbI 3) have outstanding optical and electronic properties for photovoltaic applications, yet a full understanding of how this solution-processable material works so well is currently missing. Previous research has revealed that CH 3NH 3PbI 3 possesses multiple forms of static disorder regardless of preparation method, which is surprising in light of its excellent performance. Using high energy resolution inelastic X-ray (HERIX) scattering, we measure phonon dispersions in CH 3NH 3PbI 3 and find direct evidence for another form of disorder in single crystals: large-amplitude anharmonic zone edge rotational instabilities ofmore » the PbI 6 octahedral that persist to room temperature and above, left over from structural phase transitions that take place tens to hundreds of degrees below. Phonon calculations show that the orientations of the methylammonium (CH 3NH 3 +) couple strongly and cooperatively to these modes. The result is a noncentrosymmetric, instantaneous local structure, which we observe in atomic pair distribution function (PDF) measurements. This local symmetry breaking is unobservable by Bragg diffraction but can explain key material properties such as the structural phase sequence, ultralow thermal transport, and large minority charge carrier lifetimes despite moderate carrier mobility. In conclusion, from the PDF we estimate the size of the fluctuating symmetry broken domains to be between 1 and 3 nm in diameter.« less
Mirror symmetry breaking of silicon polymers--from weak bosons to artificial helix.
Fujiki, Michiya
2009-01-01
From elemental particles to human beings, matter and living worlds in our universe are dissymmetric with respect to mirror symmetry. Since the early 19th century, the origin of biomolecular handedness has been puzzling scientists. Nature's elegant bottom-up preference, however, sheds light on new concepts of generating, amplifying, and switching artificial polymers, supramolecules, liquid crystals, and organic crystals that can exhibit ambidextrous circular dichroism in the UV/Visible region with efficiency in production under milder ambient conditions. In the 1920s, Kipping, who first synthesized polysilanes with phenyl groups, had much interest in the handedness of inorganic and organic substances from 1898 to 1909 in his early research life. Polysilanes--which are soluble Si-Si bonded chain-like near-UV chromophores that carry a rich variety of organic groups--may become a bridge between animate and inanimate polymer systems. The present account focuses on several mirror symmetry breaking phenomena exemplified in polysilanes carrying chiral and/or achiral side groups, which are in isotropic dilute solution, as polymer particles dispersed in solution, and in a double layer film immobilized at the solid surface, and subtle differences in the helix, by dictating ultimately ultraweak chiral forces at subatomic, atomic, and molecular levels. Copyright 2009 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Symmetry Breaking in Space-Time Hierarchies Shapes Brain Dynamics and Behavior.
Pillai, Ajay S; Jirsa, Viktor K
2017-06-07
In order to maintain brain function, neural activity needs to be tightly coordinated within the brain network. How this coordination is achieved and related to behavior is largely unknown. It has been previously argued that the study of the link between brain and behavior is impossible without a guiding vision. Here we propose behavioral-level concepts and mechanisms embodied as structured flows on manifold (SFM) that provide a formal description of behavior as a low-dimensional process emerging from a network's dynamics dependent on the symmetry and invariance properties of the network connectivity. Specifically, we demonstrate that the symmetry breaking of network connectivity constitutes a timescale hierarchy resulting in the emergence of an attractive functional subspace. We show that behavior emerges when appropriate conditions imposed upon the couplings are satisfied, justifying the conductance-based nature of synaptic couplings. Our concepts propose design principles for networks predicting how behavior and task rules are represented in real neural circuits and open new avenues for the analyses of neural data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anagnostopoulos, Konstantinos N.; Azuma, Takehiro; Ito, Yuta; Nishimura, Jun; Papadoudis, Stratos Kovalkov
2018-02-01
In recent years the complex Langevin method (CLM) has proven a powerful method in studying statistical systems which suffer from the sign problem. Here we show that it can also be applied to an important problem concerning why we live in four-dimensional spacetime. Our target system is the type IIB matrix model, which is conjectured to be a nonperturbative definition of type IIB superstring theory in ten dimensions. The fermion determinant of the model becomes complex upon Euclideanization, which causes a severe sign problem in its Monte Carlo studies. It is speculated that the phase of the fermion determinant actually induces the spontaneous breaking of the SO(10) rotational symmetry, which has direct consequences on the aforementioned question. In this paper, we apply the CLM to the 6D version of the type IIB matrix model and show clear evidence that the SO(6) symmetry is broken down to SO(3). Our results are consistent with those obtained previously by the Gaussian expansion method.
Zeljkovic, Ilija; Okada, Yoshinori; Serbyn, Maksym; ...
2015-02-16
The tunability of topological surface states and controllable opening of the Dirac gap are of fundamental and practical interest in the field of topological materials. In the newly discovered topological crystalline insulators (TCIs), theory predicts that the Dirac node is protected by a crystalline symmetry and that the surface state electrons can acquire a mass if this symmetry is broken. Recent studies have detected signatures of a spontaneously generated Dirac gap in TCIs; however, the mechanism of mass formation remains elusive. In this work, we present scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) measurements of the TCI Pb 1-xSn xSe for a widemore » range of alloy compositions spanning the topological and non-topological regimes. The STM topographies reveal a symmetry-breaking distortion on the surface, which imparts mass to the otherwise massless Dirac electrons—a mechanism analogous to the long sought-after Higgs mechanism in particle physics. Interestingly, the measured Dirac gap decreases on approaching the trivial phase, whereas the magnitude of the distortion remains nearly constant. Our data and calculations reveal that the penetration depth of Dirac surface states controls the magnitude of the Dirac mass. At the limit of the critical composition, the penetration depth is predicted to go to infinity, resulting in zero mass, consistent with our measurements. Lastly, we discover the existence of surface states in the non-topological regime, which have the characteristics of gapped, double-branched Dirac fermions and could be exploited in realizing superconductivity in these materials.« less
Natural little hierarchy for SUSY from radiative breaking of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bae, Kyu Jung; Baer, Howard; Serce, Hasan
2015-01-01
While LHC8 Higgs mass and sparticle search constraints favor a multi-TeV value of soft SUSY breaking terms, electroweak naturalness favors a superpotential Higgsino mass μ ˜100 - 200 GeV : the mismatch results in an apparent little hierarchy characterized by μ ≪msoft (with msoft˜m3 /2 in gravity mediation). It has been suggested that the little hierarchy arises from a mismatch between Peccei-Quinn (PQ) and hidden sector intermediate scales vPQ≪mhidden . We examine the Murayama-Suzuki-Yanagida model of radiatively driven PQ symmetry breaking which not only generates a weak scale value of μ but also produces intermediate scale Majorana masses for right-hand neutrinos. For this model, we show ranges of parameter choices with multi-TeV values of m3 /2 which can easily generate values of μ ˜100 - 200 GeV so that the apparent little hierarchy suggested from data emerges quite naturally. In such a scenario, dark matter would be comprised of an axion plus a Higgsino-like weakly-interacting massive particle admixture where the axion mass and Higgsino masses are linked by the value of the PQ scale. The required light Higgsinos should ultimately be detected at a linear e+e- collider with √{s }>2 m (Higgsino) .
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a two-lane model for bidirectional overtaking traffic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Appert-Rolland, C.; Hilhorst, H. J.; Schehr, G.
2010-08-01
Firstly, we consider a unidirectional flux \\bar {\\omega } of vehicles, each of which is characterized by its 'natural' velocity v drawn from a distribution P(v). The traffic flow is modeled as a collection of straight 'world lines' in the time-space plane, with overtaking events represented by a fixed queuing time τ imposed on the overtaking vehicle. This geometrical model exhibits platoon formation and allows, among many other things, for the calculation of the effective average velocity w\\equiv \\phi (v) of a vehicle of natural velocity v. Secondly, we extend the model to two opposite lanes, A and B. We argue that the queuing time τ in one lane is determined by the traffic density in the opposite lane. On the basis of reasonable additional assumptions we establish a set of equations that couple the two lanes and can be solved numerically. It appears that above a critical value \\bar {\\omega }_{\\mathrm {c}} of the control parameter \\bar {\\omega } the symmetry between the lanes is spontaneously broken: there is a slow lane where long platoons form behind the slowest vehicles, and a fast lane where overtaking is easy due to the wide spacing between the platoons in the opposite direction. A variant of the model is studied in which the spatial vehicle density \\bar {\\rho } rather than the flux \\bar {\\omega } is the control parameter. Unequal fluxes \\bar {\\omega }_{\\mathrm {A}} and \\bar {\\omega }_{\\mathrm {B}} in the two lanes are also considered. The symmetry breaking phenomenon exhibited by this model, even though no doubt hard to observe in pure form in real-life traffic, nevertheless indicates a tendency of such traffic.
Highly excited symmetry-breaking infrared and THz transitions in methanol-D 1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukhopadhyay, Indranath
2004-06-01
In this paper, symmetry-breaking transitions have been identified in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Terra Hertz (THz) fast scan spectra of asymmetrically deuterated methanol CH 2DOH involving three quanta of the lowest lying vibrational state ( ν1). These transitions have an upper state belonging to highly excited torsional state with the torsional quantum number v=11 (e 5) (with the axial component of total rotational angular momentum K=5 and 6) in the Internal Axis Method (IAM) formalism developed by Quade and his co-workers [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146 (1991) 238; J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146 (1991) 252], which was later extended by Mukhopadhyay [Spectrochim. Acta A 53 (1997) 2457; Spectrochim. Acta A 53 (1997) 1947] to include highly excited torsional-rotational states. The originating lower states belong to the o 1 ( v=3) with K=4 and 5. In analogy with pure methanol these transitions terminate to the third excited torsional state, which has very small torsional matrix elements to be observable in normal FTIR spectra. The location of the e 5 states suggests that the calculated energy levels using the parameters of Liu and Quade [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146 (1991) 252] are reasonable and very helpful to assign such highly excited transitions, considering that their studies include low angular momentum states. In addition the very existence of these transitions proves that the matrix elements calculated by Mukhopadhyay [Spectrochim. Acta A 53 (1997) 1947] are very useful and dependable. Thus they represent a valuable tool for entangling the complex spectrum of this asymmetrically deuterated methanol. In order to provide confirmatory evidence the THz spectra obtained using the Fast Scanning Submillimeter Spectroscopy Technique (FASSST) at the Ohio State University [Rev. Instr. 68 (1997) 1675; Anal. Chem. 70 (1998) 719A] were searched for the ground state transitions that can be calculated precisely from IR combination relations. All the transitions that can be
Marangoni-induced symmetry-breaking pattern selection on viscous fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Li; Denner, Fabian; Morgan, Neal; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele
2016-11-01
Symmetry breaking transitions on curved surfaces are found in a wide range of dissipative systems, ranging from asymmetric cell divisions to structure formation in thin films. Inherent within the nonlinearities are the associated curvilinear geometry, the elastic stretching, bending and the various fluid dynamical processes. We present a generalised Swift-Hohenberg pattern selection theory on a thin, curved and viscous films in the presence of non-trivial Marangoni effect. Testing the theory with experiments on soap bubbles, we observe the film pattern selection to mimic that of the elastic wrinkling morphology on a curved elastic bilayer in regions of slow viscous flow. By examining the local state of damping of surface capillary waves we attempt to establish an equivalence between the Marangoni fluid dynamics and the nonlinear elastic shell theory above the critical wavenumber of the instabilities and propose a possible explanation for the perceived elastic-fluidic duality. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Shell University Technology Centre for fuels and lubricants.
Yi, Kexi; Rubinstein, Boris; Unruh, Jay R; Guo, Fengli; Slaughter, Brian D; Li, Rong
2013-03-04
Polar body extrusion during oocyte maturation is critically dependent on asymmetric positioning of the meiotic spindle, which is established through migration of the meiosis I (MI) spindle/chromosomes from the oocyte interior to a subcortical location. In this study, we show that MI chromosome migration is biphasic and driven by consecutive actin-based pushing forces regulated by two actin nucleators, Fmn2, a formin family protein, and the Arp2/3 complex. Fmn2 was recruited to endoplasmic reticulum structures surrounding the MI spindle, where it nucleated actin filaments to initiate an initially slow and poorly directed motion of the spindle away from the cell center. A fast and highly directed second migration phase was driven by actin-mediated cytoplasmic streaming and occurred as the chromosomes reach a sufficient proximity to the cortex to activate the Arp2/3 complex. We propose that decisive symmetry breaking in mouse oocytes results from Fmn2-mediated perturbation of spindle position and the positive feedback loop between chromosome signal-induced Arp2/3 activation and Arp2/3-orchestrated cytoplasmic streaming that transports the chromosomes.
Electroweak Symmetry Breaking and the Higgs Boson: Confronting Theories at Colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azatov, Aleksandr; Galloway, Jamison
2013-01-01
In this review, we discuss methods of parsing direct information from collider experiments regarding the Higgs boson and describe simple ways in which experimental likelihoods can be consistently reconstructed and interfaced with model predictions in pertinent parameter spaces. We review prevalent scenarios for extending the electroweak symmetry breaking sector and emphasize their predictions for nonstandard Higgs phenomenology that could be observed in large hadron collider (LHC) data if naturalness is realized in particular ways. Specifically we identify how measurements of Higgs couplings can be used to imply the existence of new physics at particular scales within various contexts. The most dominant production and decay modes of the Higgs-like state observed in the early data sets have proven to be consistent with predictions of the Higgs boson of the Standard Model, though interesting directions in subdominant channels still exist and will require our careful attention in further experimental tests. Slightly anomalous rates in certain channels at the early LHC have spurred effort in model building and spectra analyses of particular theories, and we discuss these developments in some detail. Finally, we highlight some parameter spaces of interest in order to give examples of how the data surrounding the new state can most effectively be used to constrain specific models of weak scale physics.
On the binding energy and the charge symmetry breaking in A ≤ 16 Λ-hypernuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Botta, E.; Bressani, T.; Feliciello, A.
2017-04-01
In recent years, several experiments using magnetic spectrometers provided high precision results in the field of Hypernuclear Physics. In particular, the accurate determination of the Λ-binding energy, BΛ, contributed to stimulate considerably the discussion about the Charge Symmetry Breaking effect in Λ-hypernuclei isomultiplets. We have reorganized the results from the FINUDA experiment and we have obtained a series of BΛ values for Λ-hypernuclei with A≤ 16 by taking into account data only from magnetic spectrometers implementing an absolute calibration of the energy scale (FINUDA at DAΦNE and electroproduction experiments at JLab and at MaMi). We have then critically revisited the results obtained at KEK by the SKS Collaboration in order to make possible a direct comparison between data from experiments with and without such an absolute energy scale. A synopsis of recent spectrometric measurements of BΛ is presented, including also emulsion experiment results. Several interesting conclusions are drawn, among which the equality within the errors of BΛ for the A = 7 , 12 , 16 isomultiplets, based only on recent spectrometric data. This observation is in nice agreement with a recent theoretical prediction. Ideas for possible new measurements which should improve the present experimental knowledge are finally put forward.
Javvaji, Brahmanandam; He, Bo; Zhuang, Xiaoying
2018-06-01
Graphene is a non-piezoelectric material. Engineering the piezoelectricity in graphene is possible with the help of impurities, defects and structural modifications. This study reports the mechanism of strain induced polarization and the estimation of piezoelectric and flexoelectric coefficients for graphene system. The combination of charge-dipole potential and the strong many-body potential is employed for describing the inter-atomic interactions. The breaking of symmetry in graphene material is utilized to generate the polarization. Pristine graphene, graphene with circular defect, graphene with triangular defect and trapezium-shaped graphene are considered. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for straining the graphene atomic systems. The optimization of charge-dipole potential functions measure the polarization for these systems. Pristine and circular defect graphene systems show a constant polarization with strain. The polarization is varying with strain for a triangular defected and trapezium-shaped graphene system. The local atomic deformation produces a change in polarization with respect to the strain gradient. Estimated piezo and flexo coefficients motivate the usage of graphene in electro-mechanical devices.
Yi, Kexi; Rubinstein, Boris; Unruh, Jay R.; Guo, Fengli; Slaughter, Brian D.
2013-01-01
Polar body extrusion during oocyte maturation is critically dependent on asymmetric positioning of the meiotic spindle, which is established through migration of the meiosis I (MI) spindle/chromosomes from the oocyte interior to a subcortical location. In this study, we show that MI chromosome migration is biphasic and driven by consecutive actin-based pushing forces regulated by two actin nucleators, Fmn2, a formin family protein, and the Arp2/3 complex. Fmn2 was recruited to endoplasmic reticulum structures surrounding the MI spindle, where it nucleated actin filaments to initiate an initially slow and poorly directed motion of the spindle away from the cell center. A fast and highly directed second migration phase was driven by actin-mediated cytoplasmic streaming and occurred as the chromosomes reach a sufficient proximity to the cortex to activate the Arp2/3 complex. We propose that decisive symmetry breaking in mouse oocytes results from Fmn2-mediated perturbation of spindle position and the positive feedback loop between chromosome signal-induced Arp2/3 activation and Arp2/3-orchestrated cytoplasmic streaming that transports the chromosomes. PMID:23439682
Brihaye, Yves; Caebergs, Thierry; Hartmann, Betti
2009-09-15
We investigate the properties of interacting Q-balls and boson stars that sit on top of each other in great detail. The model that describes these solutions is essentially a (gravitating) two-scalar field model where both scalar fields are complex. We construct interacting Q-balls or boson stars with arbitrarily small charges but finite mass. We observe that in the interacting case--where the interaction can be either due to the potential or due to gravity--two types of solutions exist for equal frequencies: one for which the two-scalar fields are equal, but also one for which the two-scalar fields differ. This constitutes amore » symmetry breaking in the model. While for Q-balls asymmetric solutions have always corresponding symmetric solutions and are thus likely unstable to decay to symmetric solutions with lower energy, there exists a parameter regime for interacting boson stars, where only asymmetric solutions exist. We present the domain of existence for two interacting nonrotating solutions as well as for solutions describing the interaction between rotating and nonrotating Q-balls and boson stars, respectively.« less
van den Brink, Susanne C.; Baillie-Johnson, Peter; Balayo, Tina; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Nowotschin, Sonja; Turner, David A.; Martinez Arias, Alfonso
2014-01-01
Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are clonal populations derived from preimplantation mouse embryos that can be propagated in vitro and, when placed into blastocysts, contribute to all tissues of the embryo and integrate into the normal morphogenetic processes, i.e. they are pluripotent. However, although they can be steered to differentiate in vitro into all cell types of the organism, they cannot organise themselves into structures that resemble embryos. When aggregated into embryoid bodies they develop disorganised masses of different cell types with little spatial coherence. An exception to this rule is the emergence of retinas and anterior cortex-like structures under minimal culture conditions. These structures emerge from the cultures without any axial organisation. Here, we report that small aggregates of mESCs, of about 300 cells, self-organise into polarised structures that exhibit collective behaviours reminiscent of those that cells exhibit in early mouse embryos, including symmetry breaking, axial organisation, germ layer specification and cell behaviour, as well as axis elongation. The responses are signal specific and uncouple processes that in the embryo are tightly associated, such as specification of the anteroposterior axis and anterior neural development, or endoderm specification and axial elongation. We discuss the meaning and implications of these observations and the potential uses of these structures which, because of their behaviour, we suggest to call ‘gastruloids’. PMID:25371360
Self-energy functional theory with symmetry breaking for disordered lattice bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hügel, Dario; Strand, Hugo U. R.; Pollet, Lode
2018-07-01
We extend the self-energy functional theory to the case of interacting lattice bosons in the presence of symmetry breaking and quenched disorder. The self-energy functional we derive depends only on the self-energies of the disorder-averaged propagators, allowing for the construction of general non-perturbative approximations. Using a simple single-site reference system with only three variational parameters, we are able to reproduce numerically exact quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) results on local observables of the Bose–Hubbard model with box disorder with high accuracy. At strong interactions, the phase boundaries are reproduced qualitatively but shifted with respect to the ones observed with QMC due to the extremely low condensate fraction in the superfluid phase. Deep in the strongly-disordered weakly-interacting regime, the simple reference system employed is insufficient and no stationary solutions can be found within its restricted variational subspace. By systematically analyzing thermodynamical observables and the spectral function, we find that the strongly interacting Bose glass is characterized by different regimes, depending on which local occupations are activated as a function of the disorder strength. We find that the particles delocalize into isolated superfluid lakes over a strongly localized background around maximally-occupied sites whenever these sites are particularly rare. Our results indicate that the transition from the Bose glass to the superfluid phase around unit filling at strong interactions is driven by the percolation of superfluid lakes which form around doubly occupied sites.
Tortora, Luana; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.
2011-01-01
In many colloidal systems, an orientationally ordered nematic (N) phase emerges from the isotropic (I) melt in the form of spindle-like birefringent tactoids. In cases studied so far, the tactoids always reveal a mirror-symmetric nonchiral structure, sometimes even when the building units are chiral. We report on chiral symmetry breaking in the nematic tactoids formed in molecularly nonchiral polymer-crowded aqueous solutions of low-molecular weight disodium cromoglycate. The parity is broken by twisted packing of self-assembled molecular aggregates within the tactoids as manifested by the observed optical activity. Fluorescent confocal microscopy reveals that the chiral N tactoids are located at the boundaries of cells. We explain the chirality induction as a replacement of energetically costly splay packing of the aggregates within the curved bipolar tactoidal shape with twisted packing. The effect represents a simple pathway of macroscopic chirality induction in an organic system with no molecular chirality, as the only requirements are orientational order and curved shape of confinement. PMID:21402929
Wu, Yilei; Young, Ryan M; Frasconi, Marco; Schneebeli, Severin T; Spenst, Peter; Gardner, Daniel M; Brown, Kristen E; Würthner, Frank; Stoddart, J Fraser; Wasielewski, Michael R
2015-10-21
We report on a visible-light-absorbing chiral molecular triangle composed of three covalently linked 1,6,7,12-tetra(phenoxy)perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) units. The rigid triangular architecture reduces the electronic coupling between the PDIs, so ultrafast symmetry-breaking charge separation is kinetically favored over intramolecular excimer formation, as revealed by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Photoexcitation of the PDI triangle dissolved in CH2Cl2 gives PDI(+•)-PDI(-•) in τCS = 12.0 ± 0.2 ps. Fast subsequent intramolecular electron/hole hopping can equilibrate the six possible energetically degenerate ion-pair states, as suggested by electron paramagnetic resonance/electron-nuclear double resonance spectroscopy, which shows that one-electron reduction of the PDI triangle results in complete electron sharing among the three PDIs. Charge recombination of PDI(+•)-PDI(-•) to the ground state occurs in τCR = 1.12 ± 0.01 ns with no evidence of triplet excited state formation.
Current-current interactions, dynamical symmetry-breaking, and quantum chromodynamics
Neuenschwander, D.E. Jr.
1983-01-01
Quantum Chromodynamics with massive gluons (gluon mass triple bond xm/sub p/) in a contact-interaction limit called CQCD (strong coupling g..-->..infinity; x..-->..infinity), despite its non-renormalizability and lack of hope of confinement, is nevertheless interesting for at least two reasons. Some authors have suggested a relation between 4-Fermi and Yang-Mills theories. If g/x/sup 2/ much less than 1, then CQCD is not merely a 4-Fermi interaction, but includes 4,6,8 etc-Fermi non-Abelian contact interactions. With possibility of infrared slavery, perturbative evaluation of QCD in the infrared is a dubious practice. However, if g/sup 2//x/sup 2/ much less than 1 in CQCD, then themore » simplest 4-Fermi interaction is dominant, and CQCD admits perturbative treatment, but only in the infrared. With the dominant interaction, a dynamical Nambu-Goldstone realization of chiral symmetry-breaking (XSB) is found. Although in QCD the relation between confinement and XSB is controversial, XSB occurs in CQCD provided confinement is sacrificed.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kononova, Olga; Jones, Lee; Barsegov, V.
2013-09-01
Cooperativity is a hallmark of proteins, many of which show a modular architecture comprising discrete structural domains. Detecting and describing dynamic couplings between structural regions is difficult in view of the many-body nature of protein-protein interactions. By utilizing the GPU-based computational acceleration, we carried out simulations of the protein forced unfolding for the dimer WW - WW of the all-β-sheet WW domains used as a model multidomain protein. We found that while the physically non-interacting identical protein domains (WW) show nearly symmetric mechanical properties at low tension, reflected, e.g., in the similarity of their distributions of unfolding times, these properties become distinctly different when tension is increased. Moreover, the uncorrelated unfolding transitions at a low pulling force become increasingly more correlated (dependent) at higher forces. Hence, the applied force not only breaks "the mechanical symmetry" but also couples the physically non-interacting protein domains forming a multi-domain protein. We call this effect "the topological coupling." We developed a new theory, inspired by order statistics, to characterize protein-protein interactions in multi-domain proteins. The method utilizes the squared-Gaussian model, but it can also be used in conjunction with other parametric models for the distribution of unfolding times. The formalism can be taken to the single-molecule experimental lab to probe mechanical cooperativity and domain communication in multi-domain proteins.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in time-reversal-symmetry breaking topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Cui-Zu; Li, Mingda
2016-03-01
The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE), the last member of Hall family, was predicted to exhibit quantized Hall conductivity {σyx}=\\frac{{{e}2}}{h} without any external magnetic field. The QAHE shares a similar physical phenomenon with the integer quantum Hall effect (QHE), whereas its physical origin relies on the intrinsic topological inverted band structure and ferromagnetism. Since the QAHE does not require external energy input in the form of magnetic field, it is believed that this effect has unique potential for applications in future electronic devices with low-power consumption. More recently, the QAHE has been experimentally observed in thin films of the time-reversal symmetry breaking ferromagnetic (FM) topological insulators (TI), Cr- and V- doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3. In this topical review, we review the history of TI based QAHE, the route to the experimental observation of the QAHE in the above two systems, the current status of the research of the QAHE, and finally the prospects for future studies.
Achiral symmetry breaking and positive Gaussian modulus lead to scalloped colloidal membranes
Gibaud, Thomas; Kaplan, C. Nadir; Sharma, Prerna; Zakhary, Mark J.; Ward, Andrew; Oldenbourg, Rudolf; Meyer, Robert B.; Kamien, Randall D.; Powers, Thomas R.; Dogic, Zvonimir
2017-01-01
In the presence of a nonadsorbing polymer, monodisperse rod-like particles assemble into colloidal membranes, which are one-rod-length–thick liquid-like monolayers of aligned rods. Unlike 3D edgeless bilayer vesicles, colloidal monolayer membranes form open structures with an exposed edge, thus presenting an opportunity to study elasticity of fluid sheets. Membranes assembled from single-component chiral rods form flat disks with uniform edge twist. In comparison, membranes composed of a mixture of rods with opposite chiralities can have the edge twist of either handedness. In this limit, disk-shaped membranes become unstable, instead forming structures with scalloped edges, where two adjacent lobes with opposite handedness are separated by a cusp-shaped point defect. Such membranes adopt a 3D configuration, with cusp defects alternatively located above and below the membrane plane. In the achiral regime, the cusp defects have repulsive interactions, but away from this limit we measure effective long-ranged attractive binding. A phenomenological model shows that the increase in the edge energy of scalloped membranes is compensated by concomitant decrease in the deformation energy due to Gaussian curvature associated with scalloped edges, demonstrating that colloidal membranes have positive Gaussian modulus. A simple excluded volume argument predicts the sign and magnitude of the Gaussian curvature modulus that is in agreement with experimental measurements. Our results provide insight into how the interplay between membrane elasticity, geometrical frustration, and achiral symmetry breaking can be used to fold colloidal membranes into 3D shapes. PMID:28411214
van den Brink, Susanne C; Baillie-Johnson, Peter; Balayo, Tina; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Nowotschin, Sonja; Turner, David A; Martinez Arias, Alfonso
2014-11-01
Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are clonal populations derived from preimplantation mouse embryos that can be propagated in vitro and, when placed into blastocysts, contribute to all tissues of the embryo and integrate into the normal morphogenetic processes, i.e. they are pluripotent. However, although they can be steered to differentiate in vitro into all cell types of the organism, they cannot organise themselves into structures that resemble embryos. When aggregated into embryoid bodies they develop disorganised masses of different cell types with little spatial coherence. An exception to this rule is the emergence of retinas and anterior cortex-like structures under minimal culture conditions. These structures emerge from the cultures without any axial organisation. Here, we report that small aggregates of mESCs, of about 300 cells, self-organise into polarised structures that exhibit collective behaviours reminiscent of those that cells exhibit in early mouse embryos, including symmetry breaking, axial organisation, germ layer specification and cell behaviour, as well as axis elongation. The responses are signal specific and uncouple processes that in the embryo are tightly associated, such as specification of the anteroposterior axis and anterior neural development, or endoderm specification and axial elongation. We discuss the meaning and implications of these observations and the potential uses of these structures which, because of their behaviour, we suggest to call 'gastruloids'. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javvaji, Brahmanandam; He, Bo; Zhuang, Xiaoying
2018-06-01
Graphene is a non-piezoelectric material. Engineering the piezoelectricity in graphene is possible with the help of impurities, defects and structural modifications. This study reports the mechanism of strain induced polarization and the estimation of piezoelectric and flexoelectric coefficients for graphene system. The combination of charge-dipole potential and the strong many-body potential is employed for describing the inter-atomic interactions. The breaking of symmetry in graphene material is utilized to generate the polarization. Pristine graphene, graphene with circular defect, graphene with triangular defect and trapezium-shaped graphene are considered. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for straining the graphene atomic systems. The optimization of charge-dipole potential functions measure the polarization for these systems. Pristine and circular defect graphene systems show a constant polarization with strain. The polarization is varying with strain for a triangular defected and trapezium-shaped graphene system. The local atomic deformation produces a change in polarization with respect to the strain gradient. Estimated piezo and flexo coefficients motivate the usage of graphene in electro-mechanical devices.
Magnetic order induces symmetry breaking in the single-crystalline orthorhombic CuMnAs semimetal
Emmanouilidou, Eve; Cao, Huibo; Tang, Peizhe
2017-12-04
Recently, orthorhombic CuMnAs has been proposed to be a magnetic material where topological fermions exist around the Fermi level. Here we report the magnetic structure of the orthorhombic Cu 0.95MnAs and Cu 0.98Mn 0.96As single crystals. While Cu 0.95MnAs is a commensurate antiferromagnet below 360 K with a propagation vector of k = 0,Cu 0.98Mn 0.96As undergoes a second-order paramagnetic to incommensurate antiferromagnetic phase transition at 320 K with k = (0.1,0,0), followed by a second-order incommensurate to commensurate antiferromagnetic phase transition at 230 K. In the commensurate antiferromagnetic state, the Mn spins order parallel to the crystallographic b axismore » but antiparallel to their nearest neighbors, with the spin orientation along the b axis. This magnetic order breaks S 2z, the two-fold rotational symmetry around the c axis, resulting in finite band gaps at the crossing point and the disappearance of the massless topological fermions. Furthermore, our first-principles calculations suggest that orthorhombic CuMnAs can still host spin-polarized surface states and signature induced by nontrivial topology, which makes it a promising candidate for antiferromagnetic spintronics.« less
Symmetry breaking motion of a vortex pair in a driven cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McHugh, John; Osman, Kahar; Farias, Jason
2002-11-01
The two-dimensional driven cavity problem with an anti-symmetric sinusoidal forcing has been found to exhibit a subcritical symmetry breaking bifurcation (Farias and McHugh, Phys. Fluids, 2002). Equilibrium solutions are either a symmetric vortex pair or an asymmetric motion. The asymmetric motion is an asymmetric vortex pair at low Reynolds numbers, but merges into a three vortex motion at higher Reynolds numbers. The asymmetric solution is obtained by initiating the flow with a single vortex centered in the domain. Symmetric motion is obtained with no initial vortex, or weak initial vortex. The steady three-vortex motion occurs at a Reynolds number of approximately 3000, where the symmetric vortex pair has already gone through a Hopf bifurcation. Further two-dimensional results show that forcing with two full oscillations across the top of the cavity results in two steady vortex motions, depending on initial conditions. Three-dimensional results have even more steady solutions. The results are computational and theoretical.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Li; Tian, Shou-Fu; Feng, Lian-Li
2017-12-01
In this paper, we consider the (2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation, which describes the interaction of a Riemann wave propagating along the y-axis with a long wave along the x-axis. By virtue of the truncated Painlevé expansion method, we obtain the nonlocal symmetry, Bäcklund transformation and Schwarzian form of the equation. Furthermore, by using the consistent Riccati expansion (CRE), we prove that the breaking soliton equation is solvable. Based on the consistent tan-function expansion, we explicitly derive the interaction solutions between solitary waves and cnoidal periodic waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Naixie; Zheng, Hui; Ong, Shyue Ping; Luo, Jian
2018-02-01
First-order interfacial phaselike transformations that break the mirror symmetry of the symmetric ∑5 (210 ) tilt grain boundary (GB) are discovered by combining a modified genetic algorithm with hybrid Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. Density functional theory calculations confirm this prediction. This first-order coupled structural and adsorption transformation, which produces two variants of asymmetric bilayers, vanishes at an interfacial critical point. A GB complexion (phase) diagram is constructed via semigrand canonical ensemble atomistic simulations for the first time.
Symmetry breaking and excitonic effects on optical properties of defective nanographenes
Noguchi, Yoshifumi, E-mail: y.noguchi@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Sugino, Osamu
2015-02-14
We investigate optical properties of the nanographene family and predict a defect induced effect by utilizing the all-electron first-principles GW+Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) method based on the many-body perturbation theory. As an accuracy check of the GW+BSE, photoabsorption spectra are calculated for a grossly warped nanographene (C{sub 80}H{sub 30}), which was very recently synthesized [Kawasumi et al., Nat. Chem. 5, 739–744 (2013)]. The calculated spectra are found to faithfully reproduce the shape, height, and position of the measured peaks. Then the method is applied to the flat nanographene without defect (C{sub 24}H{sub 12} and C{sub 38}H{sub 16}), the curved ones withmore » single defect (C{sub 20}H{sub 10}, C{sub 28}H{sub 14}, and C{sub 32}H{sub 16}), and fragments of C{sub 80}H{sub 30} with double defect (C{sub 36}H{sub 16} and C{sub 42}H{sub 20}). The existence of the defects significantly changes the optical spectra. In particular, the interaction between the defects is found to break the symmetry of the atomic geometries and enhance the excitonic effect, thereby generating the extra peaks at the lower photon energy side of the main peak. The present results might help explain the origin of the first two peaks experimentally observed for C{sub 80}H{sub 30}.« less
Field-induced cluster spin glass and inverse symmetry breaking enhanced by frustration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, M.; Zimmer, F. M.; Magalhaes, S. G.
2018-03-01
We consider a cluster disordered model to study the interplay between short- and long-range interactions in geometrically frustrated spin systems under an external magnetic field (h). In our approach, the intercluster long-range disorder (J) is analytically treated to get an effective cluster model that is computed exactly. The clusters follow a checkerboard lattice with first-neighbor (J1) and second-neighbor (J2) interactions. We find a reentrant transition from the cluster spin-glass (CSG) state to a paramagnetic (PM) phase as the temperature decreases for a certain range of h. This inverse symmetry breaking (ISB) appears as a consequence of both quenched disorder with frustration and h, that introduce a CSG state with higher entropy than the polarized PM phase. The competitive scenario introduced by antiferromagnetic (AF) short-range interactions increases the CSG state entropy, leading to continuous ISB transitions and enhancing the ISB regions, mainly in the geometrically frustrated case (J1 =J2). Remarkably, when strong AF intracluster couplings are present, field-induced CSG phases can be found. These CSG regions are strongly related to the magnetization plateaus observed in this cluster disordered system. In fact, it is found that each field-induced magnetization jump brings a CSG region. We notice that geometrical frustration, as well as cluster size, play an important role in the magnetization plateaus and, therefore, are also relevant in the field-induced glassy states. Our findings suggest that competing interactions support ISB and field-induced CSG phases in disordered cluster systems under an external magnetic field.
Lucarini, Valerio; Fraedrich, Klaus
2009-08-01
Starting from the classical Saltzman two-dimensional convection equations, we derive via a severe spectral truncation a minimal 10 ODE system which includes the thermal effect of viscous dissipation. Neglecting this process leads to a dynamical system which includes a decoupled generalized Lorenz system. The consideration of this process breaks an important symmetry and couples the dynamics of fast and slow variables, with the ensuing modifications to the structural properties of the attractor and of the spectral features. When the relevant nondimensional number (Eckert number Ec) is different from zero, an additional time scale of O(Ec(-1)) is introduced in the system, as shown with standard multiscale analysis and made clear by several numerical evidences. Moreover, the system is ergodic and hyperbolic, the slow variables feature long-term memory with 1/f(3/2) power spectra, and the fast variables feature amplitude modulation. Increasing the strength of the thermal-viscous feedback has a stabilizing effect, as both the metric entropy and the Kaplan-Yorke attractor dimension decrease monotonically with Ec. The analyzed system features very rich dynamics: it overcomes some of the limitations of the Lorenz system and might have prototypical value in relevant processes in complex systems dynamics, such as the interaction between slow and fast variables, the presence of long-term memory, and the associated extreme value statistics. This analysis shows how neglecting the coupling of slow and fast variables only on the basis of scale analysis can be catastrophic. In fact, this leads to spurious invariances that affect essential dynamical properties (ergodicity, hyperbolicity) and that cause the model losing ability in describing intrinsically multiscale processes.
Symmetry breaking in the opinion dynamics of a multi-group project organization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Zhen-Tao; Zhou, Jing; Li, Ping; Chen, Xing-Guang
2012-10-01
A bounded confidence model of opinion dynamics in multi-group projects is presented in which each group's opinion evolution is driven by two types of forces: (i) the group's cohesive force which tends to restore the opinion back towards the initial status because of its company culture; and (ii) nonlinear coupling forces with other groups which attempt to bring opinions closer due to collaboration willingness. Bifurcation analysis for the case of a two-group project shows a cusp catastrophe phenomenon and three distinctive evolutionary regimes, i.e., a deadlock regime, a convergence regime, and a bifurcation regime in opinion dynamics. The critical value of initial discord between the two groups is derived to discriminate which regime the opinion evolution belongs to. In the case of a three-group project with a symmetric social network, both bifurcation analysis and simulation results demonstrate that if each pair has a high initial discord, instead of symmetrically converging to consensus with the increase of coupling scale as expected by Gabbay's result (Physica A 378 (2007) p. 125 Fig. 5), project organization (PO) may be split into two distinct clusters because of the symmetry breaking phenomenon caused by pitchfork bifurcations, which urges that apart from divergence in participants' interests, nonlinear interaction can also make conflict inevitable in the PO. The effects of two asymmetric level parameters are tested in order to explore the ways of inducing dominant opinion in the whole PO. It is found that the strong influence imposed by a leader group with firm faith on the flexible and open minded follower groups can promote the formation of a positive dominant opinion in the PO.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeuchi, Hiromitsu; Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Tsubota, Makoto; Nitta, Muneto
2013-05-01
In brane cosmology, the Big Bang is hypothesized to occur by the annihilation of the brane-anti-brane pair in a collision, where the branes are three-dimensional objects in a higher-dimensional Universe. Spontaneous symmetry breaking accompanied by the formation of lower-dimensional topological defects, e.g. cosmic strings, is triggered by the so-called `tachyon condensation', where the existence of tachyons is attributable to the instability of the brane-anti-brane system. Here, we discuss the closest analogue of the tachyon condensation in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. We consider annihilation of domain walls, namely branes, in strongly segregated two-component condensates, where one component is sandwiched by two domains of the other component. In this system, the process of the brane annihilation can be projected effectively as ferromagnetic ordering dynamics onto a two-dimensional space. Based on this correspondence, three-dimensional formation of vortices from a domain-wall annihilation is considered to be a kink formation due to spontaneous symmetry breaking in the two-dimensional space. We also discuss a mechanism to create a `vorton' when the sandwiched component has a vortex string bridged between the branes. We hope that this study motivates experimental researches to realize this exotic phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking in superfluid systems.
Steele, T G; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Contreras, D; Mann, R B
2014-05-02
We consider the generation of dark matter mass via radiative electroweak symmetry breaking in an extension of the conformal standard model containing a singlet scalar field with a Higgs portal interaction. Generating the mass from a sequential process of radiative electroweak symmetry breaking followed by a conventional Higgs mechanism can account for less than 35% of the cosmological dark matter abundance for dark matter mass M(s)>80 GeV. However, in a dynamical approach where both Higgs and scalar singlet masses are generated via radiative electroweak symmetry breaking, we obtain much higher levels of dark matter abundance. At one-loop level we find abundances of 10%-100% with 106 GeV
The search for new resonances in strong symmetry breaking scenarios with the ATLAS detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, Merlin
Using the most recent data collected by the ATLAS detector in pp collisions delivered by the LHC at 7 and 8 TeV, this thesis shall establish severe constraints on a variety of models going beyond the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. More particularly, two types of hypothetical particles, existing in various theoretical models shall be studied and probed. The first type will be the search for vector-like quarks (VLQ) produced in pp collisions through electroweak couplings with the u and d quarks. The quest for these particles will be made as they decay into either W(ℓnu)+jet or Z(ℓℓ)+jet. There exist theoretical arguments that establish that, under certain reasonable conditions, single production of VLQ dominates over production in pairs. The particular topology of such events enables the implementation of effective techniques to extract signal over electroweak background. The second type is the search for resonant particles decaying to WZ when the gauge bosons W and Z decay leptonically. The final states detected by ATLAS therefore contain three leptons (e, or mu) and missing transverse energy. The distribution of the invariant mass of these objects will then be examined to determine the presence or absence of new resonances that manifest themselves as localized excesses in m(WZ). Despite the fact that, at first glance, these two new types of particles have very little in common, they are in fact both closely linked to electroweak symmetry breaking. In many theoretical models, the hypothetical existence of VLQ is put forward to counteract the top quark's contribution to radiative loop corrections of the Higgs mass, a calculation which assumes that the Higgs is an elementary particle. Concurrently, other models foretelling the existence WZ resonances alternatively suggest that the Higgs is a composite particle, completely rewriting the whole Higgs sector of the SM. In this perspective, the two analyses presented in this thesis have a fundamental link
Spin rotational symmetry breaking by orbital current patterns in two-leg Cu-O Hubbard ladders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chudzinski, Piotr; Gabay, Marc; Giamarchi, Thierry
2010-03-01
In the weak-coupling limit, we study, as a function of doping, two-leg ladders with a unit cell containing both Cu and O atoms. For purely repulsive interactions, using bosonization and a novel RG scheme, we find that in a broad region of the phase diagram, the ground state consists of a pattern of orbital currents (OCP) defined on the top of an incommensurate density wave. The internal symmetry of the OCP is specific for the ladder structure, different than the ones suggested up to now for 2D cuprates. We focus on this OCP and look for measurable signals of its existence: we compute magnetic fields induced within the ladder and we check what kind of changes in the phase diagram one may expect due to SU(2) spin-rotational symmetry breaking. We also investigate a single impurity problem (incl. OCP): we discuss if Kondo physics is at play, and make qualitative predictions about the nature of impurity backscattering. This enables us to show the influence of SU(2) symmetry breaking on conductivity. We estimate the value of gap opened due to the OCP, give analytic expressions for correlation functions and discuss magnetic properties of a new phase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schertzer, D. J. M.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.
2016-12-01
Multifractal fields, whose definition is rather independent of their domain dimension, have opened a new approach of geophysics enabling to explore its spatial extension that is of prime importance as underlined by the expression "spatial chaos". However multifractals have been until recently restricted to be scalar valued, i.e. to one-dimensional codomains. This has prevented to deal with the key question of complex component interactions and their non trivial symmetries. We first emphasize that the Lie algebra of stochastic generators of cascade processes enables us to generalize multifractals to arbitrarily large codomains, e.g. flows of vector fields on large dimensional manifolds. In particular, we have recently investigated the neat example of stable Levy generators on Clifford algebra that have a number of seductive properties, e.g. universal statistical and robust algebra properties, both defining the basic symmetries of the corresponding fields (Schertzer and Tchiguirinskaia, 2015). These properties provide a convenient multifractal framework to study both the symmetries of the fields and how they stochastically break the symmetries of the underlying equations due to boundary conditions, large scale rotations and forcings. These developments should help us to answer to challenging questions such as the climatology of (exo-) planets based on first principles (Pierrehumbert, 2013), to fully address the question of the limitations of quasi- geostrophic turbulence (Schertzer et al., 2012) and to explore the peculiar phenomenology of turbulent dynamics of the atmosphere or oceans that is neither two- or three-dimensional. Pierrehumbert, R.T., 2013. Strange news from other stars. Nature Geoscience, 6(2), pp.8183. Schertzer, D. et al., 2012. Quasi-geostrophic turbulence and generalized scale invariance, a theoretical reply. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, pp.327336. Schertzer, D. & Tchiguirinskaia, I., 2015. Multifractal vector fields and stochastic Clifford algebra
Cui, Yao; Bulik, Ireneusz W; Jiménez-Hoyos, Carlos A; Henderson, Thomas M; Scuseria, Gustavo E
2013-10-21
We study the spectra of the molecular orbital Hessian (stability matrix) and random-phase approximation (RPA) Hamiltonian of broken-symmetry Hartree-Fock solutions, focusing on zero eigenvalue modes. After all negative eigenvalues are removed from the Hessian by following their eigenvectors downhill, one is left with only positive and zero eigenvalues. Zero modes correspond to orbital rotations with no restoring force. These rotations determine states in the Goldstone manifold, which originates from a spontaneously broken continuous symmetry in the wave function. Zero modes can be classified as improper or proper according to their different mathematical and physical properties. Improper modes arise from symmetry breaking and their restoration always lowers the energy. Proper modes, on the other hand, correspond to degeneracies of the wave function, and their symmetry restoration does not necessarily lower the energy. We discuss how the RPA Hamiltonian distinguishes between proper and improper modes by doubling the number of zero eigenvalues associated with the latter. Proper modes in the Hessian always appear in pairs which do not double in RPA. We present several pedagogical cases exemplifying the above statements. The relevance of these results for projected Hartree-Fock methods is also addressed.
Shamim, S; Mahapatra, S; Scappucci, G; Klesse, W M; Simmons, M Y; Ghosh, A
2014-06-13
We report experimental evidence of a remarkable spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking in two-dimensional electron systems formed by atomically confined doping of phosphorus (P) atoms inside bulk crystalline silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge). Weak localization corrections to the conductivity and the universal conductance fluctuations were both found to decrease rapidly with decreasing doping in the Si:P and Ge:P delta layers, suggesting an effect driven by Coulomb interactions. In-plane magnetotransport measurements indicate the presence of intrinsic local spin fluctuations at low doping, providing a microscopic mechanism for spontaneous lifting of the time-reversal symmetry. Our experiments suggest the emergence of a new many-body quantum state when two-dimensional electrons are confined to narrow half-filled impurity bands.
Whitney, Robert S; Schomerus, Henning; Kopp, Marten
2009-11-01
In this work-the second of a pair of articles-we consider transport through spatially symmetric quantum dots with leads whose widths or positions do not obey the spatial symmetry. We use the semiclassical theory of transport to find the symmetry-induced contributions to weak localization corrections and universal conductance fluctuations for dots with left-right, up-down, inversion, and fourfold symmetries. We show that all these contributions are suppressed by asymmetric leads; however, they remain finite whenever leads intersect with their images under the symmetry operation. For an up-down symmetric dot, this means that the contributions can be finite even if one of the leads is completely asymmetric. We find that the suppression of the contributions to universal conductance fluctuations is the square of the suppression of contributions to weak localization. Finally, we develop a random-matrix theory model which enables us to numerically confirm these results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viedma, Cristobal
2007-05-01
Chiral symmetry breaking occurs when a physical or chemical process spontaneously generates a large excess of one of the two enantiomers-left-handed (L) or right-handed (D)--with no preference as to which of the two enantiomers is produced. From the viewpoint of energy, these two enantiomers can exist with an equal probability, and inorganic processes that involve chiral products commonly yield a racemic mixture of both. The fact that biologically relevant molecules exist only as one of the two enantiomers is a fascinating example of complete symmetry breaking in chirality and has long intrigued the science community. The origin of this selective chirality has remained a fundamental enigma with regard to the origin of life since the time of Pasteur, some 140 years ago. Here, it is shown that two populations of chiral crystals of left and right hand cannot coexist in solution: one of the chiral populations disappears in an irreversible autocatalytic process that nurtures the other one. Final and complete chiral purity seems to be an inexorable fate in the course of the common process of growth-dissolution. This unexpected chiral symmetry breaking can be explained by the feedback between the thermodynamic control of dissolution and the kinetics of the growth process near equilibrium. This ``thermodynamic-kinetic feedback near equilibrium'' is established as a mechanism to achieve complete chiral purity in solid state from a previously solid racemic medium. The way in which this mechanism could operate in solutions of chiral biomolecules is described. Finally, based on this mechanism, experiments designed to search for chiral purity in a new way are proposed: chiral purity of amino acids or biopolymers is predicted in solid phase from a previously solid racemic medium. This process may have played a key role in the origin of biochirality.
Isospin symmetry breaking and large-scale shell-model calculations with the Sakurai-Sugiura method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizusaki, Takahiro; Kaneko, Kazunari; Sun, Yang; Tazaki, Shigeru
2015-05-01
Recently isospin symmetry breaking for mass 60-70 region has been investigated based on large-scale shell-model calculations in terms of mirror energy differences (MED), Coulomb energy differences (CED) and triplet energy differences (TED). Behind these investigations, we have encountered a subtle problem in numerical calculations for odd-odd N = Z nuclei with large-scale shell-model calculations. Here we focus on how to solve this subtle problem by the Sakurai-Sugiura (SS) method, which has been recently proposed as a new diagonalization method and has been successfully applied to nuclear shell-model calculations.
Correlational signatures of time-reversal symmetry breaking in two-dimensional flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hogg, Charlie; Ouellette, Nicholas
2015-11-01
Classical turbulence theories posit that broken spatial symmetries should be (statistically) restored at small scales. But since turbulent flows are inherently dissipative, time reversal symmetry is expected to remain broken throughout the cascade. However, the precise dynamical signature of this broken symmetry is not well understood. Recent work has shed new light on this fundamental question by considering the Lagrangian structure functions of power. Here, we take a somewhat different approach by studying the Lagrangian correlation functions of velocity and acceleration. We measured these correlations using particle tracking velocimetry in a quasi-two-dimensional electromagnetically driven flow that displayed net inverse energy transfer. We show that the correlation functions of the velocity and acceleration magnitudes are not symmetric in time, and that the degree of asymmetry can be related to the flux of energy between scales, suggesting that the asymmetry has a dynamical origin.
Wang, Eryin; Lu, Xiaobo; Ding, Shijie; ...
2016-08-22
Graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has emerged as a model van der Waals heterostructure as the superlattice potential, which is induced by lattice mismatch and crystal orientation, gives rise to various novel quantum phenomena, such as the self-similar Hofstadter butterfly states. Although the newly generated second-generation Dirac cones (SDCs) are believed to be crucial for understanding such intriguing phenomena, fundamental knowledge of SDCs, such as locations and dispersion, and the effect of inversion symmetry breaking on the gap opening, still remains highly debated due to the lack of direct experimental results. In this work we report direct experimental results on themore » dispersion of SDCs in 0°-aligned graphene/h-BN heterostructures using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Our data unambiguously reveal SDCs at the corners of the superlattice Brillouin zone, and at only one of the two superlattice valleys. Moreover, gaps of approximately 100 meV and approximately 160 meV are observed at the SDCs and the original graphene Dirac cone, respectively. Our work highlights the important role of a strong inversion-symmetry-breaking perturbation potential in the physics of graphene/h-BN, and fills critical knowledge gaps in the band structure engineering of Dirac fermions by a superlattice potential.« less
Minegishi, Katsura; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Ajima, Rieko; Takaoka, Katsuyoshi; Shinohara, Kyosuke; Ikawa, Yayoi; Nishimura, Hiromi; McMahon, Andrew P; Willert, Karl; Okada, Yasushi; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Shi, Dongbo; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Igarashi, Yasunobu; Yamaguchi, Terry P; Shimono, Akihiko; Shiratori, Hidetaka; Hamada, Hiroshi
2017-03-13
Polarization of node cells along the anterior-posterior axis of mouse embryos is responsible for left-right symmetry breaking. How node cells become polarized has remained unknown, however. Wnt5a and Wnt5b are expressed posteriorly relative to the node, whereas genes for Sfrp inhibitors of Wnt signaling are expressed anteriorly. Here we show that polarization of node cells is impaired in Wnt5a -/- Wnt5b -/- and Sfrp mutant embryos, and also in the presence of a uniform distribution of Wnt5a or Sfrp1, suggesting that Wnt5 and Sfrp proteins act as instructive signals in this process. The absence of planar cell polarity (PCP) core proteins Prickle1 and Prickle2 in individual cells or local forced expression of Wnt5a perturbed polarization of neighboring wild-type cells. Our results suggest that opposing gradients of Wnt5a and Wnt5b and of their Sfrp inhibitors, together with intercellular signaling via PCP proteins, polarize node cells along the anterior-posterior axis for breaking of left-right symmetry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Claassen, Martin; Jiang, Hong -Chen; Moritz, Brian; ...
2017-10-30
The search for quantum spin liquids in frustrated quantum magnets recently has enjoyed a surge of interest, with various candidate materials under intense scrutiny. However, an experimental confirmation of a gapped topological spin liquid remains an open question. Here, we show that circularly polarized light can provide a knob to drive frustrated Mott insulators into a chiral spin liquid, realizing an elusive quantum spin liquid with topological order. We find that the dynamics of a driven Kagome Mott insulator is well-captured by an effective Floquet spin model, with heating strongly suppressed, inducing a scalar spin chirality S i · (Smore » j × S k) term which dynamically breaks time-reversal while preserving SU(2) spin symmetry. We fingerprint the transient phase diagram and find a stable photo-induced chiral spin liquid near the equilibrium state. Furthermore, the results presented suggest employing dynamical symmetry breaking to engineer quantum spin liquids and access elusive phase transitions that are not readily accessible in equilibrium.« less
Kou, Liangzhi; Hu, Feiming; Yan, Binghai; Frauenheim, Thomas; Chen, Changfeng
2014-07-07
Developing graphene-based nanoelectronics hinges on opening a band gap in the electronic structure of graphene, which is commonly achieved by breaking the inversion symmetry of the graphene lattice via an electric field (gate bias) or asymmetric doping of graphene layers. Here we introduce a new design strategy that places a bilayer graphene sheet sandwiched between two cladding layers of materials that possess strong spin-orbit coupling (e.g., Bi2Te3). Our ab initio and tight-binding calculations show that a proximity enhanced spin-orbit coupling effect opens a large (44 meV) band gap in bilayer graphene without breaking its lattice symmetry, and the band gap can be effectively tuned by an interlayer stacking pattern and significantly enhanced by interlayer compression. The feasibility of this quantum-well structure is demonstrated by recent experimental realization of high-quality heterojunctions between graphene and Bi2Te3, and this design also conforms to existing fabrication techniques in the semiconductor industry. The proposed quantum-well structure is expected to be especially robust since it does not require an external power supply to open and maintain a band gap, and the cladding layers provide protection against environmental degradation of the graphene layer in its device applications.
Fuchs, Christiane; Scheinast, Matthias; Pasteiner, Waltraud; Lagger, Sabine; Hofner, Manuela; Hoellrigl, Alexandra; Schultheis, Martina; Weitzer, Georg
2012-01-01
Aggregation of embryonic stem cells gives rise to embryoid bodies (EBs) which undergo developmental processes reminiscent of early eutherian embryonic development. Development of the three germ layers suggests that gastrulation takes place. In vivo, gastrulation is a highly ordered process but in EBs only few data support the hypothesis that self-organization of differentiating cells leads to morphology, reminiscent of the early gastrula. Here we demonstrate that a timely implantation-like process is a prerequisite for the breaking of the radial symmetry of suspended EBs. Attached to a surface, EBs develop a bilateral symmetry and presumptive mesodermal cells emerge between the center of the EBs and a horseshoe-shaped ridge of cells. The development of an epithelial sheet of cells on one side of the EBs allows us to define an 'anterior' and a 'posterior' end of the EBs. In the mesodermal area, first cardiomyocytes (CMCs) develop mainly next to this epithelial sheet of cells. Development of twice as many CMCs at the 'left' side of the EBs breaks the bilateral symmetry and suggests that cardiomyogenesis reflects a local or temporal asymmetry in EBs. The asymmetric appearance of CMCs but not the development of mesoderm can be disturbed by ectopic expression of the muscle-specific protein Desmin. Later, the bilateral morphology becomes blurred by an apparently chaotic differentiation of many cell types. The absence of comparable structures in aggregates of cardiovascular progenitor cells isolated from the heart demonstrates that the self-organization of cells during a gastrulation-like process is a unique feature of embryonic stem cells. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Effects of grand unification interactions on weak symmetry breaking in supergravity theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moxhay, Peter; Yamamoto, Katsuji
Possible effects of grand unification interactions on SU(2) × U(1) breaking are investigated by explicitly considering a supersymmetric SU(5) model coupled to N = 1 supergravity. Some remarkable features concerning the effects of renormalization on the effective soft supersymmetry breaking terms of SU(5) in the GUT region MP - MG are clarified, which are relevant for determining the SU(3) × SU(2) × U(1) theory below MG. In particular, the (mass) 2 of the Higgs doublets, g Hm g2and g overlineHm g2, might become significantly small at M G (g H ⋍ g overlineH ≈ 0.1) through the effect of SU(5) couplings such as overlineHø EH . Then, gH can rather easily become negative below MG, so as to realize SU(2) × U(1) breaking naturally even for the "diet" top quark case ( mt ≈ 40 GeV). On the other hand, if g H ⋍ g overlineH ⋍ 1 at M G by neglecting the grand unification interactions, some careful tuning of μ32/ mg2 is required with an accuracy ⪅10 -2 to achieve SU(2) × U(1) breaking with "diet" top quark, though a mass term μ 32( overlineHH) may be present.
Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory
Biernat, Elmer P.; Pena, Maria Teresa; Ribiero, Jose' Emilio F.
2016-03-01
We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for pi-pi-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.
Bulk Rotational Symmetry Breaking in Kondo Insulator SmB 6
Xiang, Z.; Lawson, B.; Asaba, T.; ...
2017-09-25
The Kondo insulator samarium hexaboride (SmB 6) has been intensely studied in recent years as a potential candidate of a strongly correlated topological insulator. One of the most exciting phenomena observed in SmB 6 is the clear quantum oscillations appearing in magnetic torque at a low temperature despite the insulating behavior in resistance. These quantum oscillations show multiple frequencies and varied effective masses. The origin of quantum oscillation is, however, still under debate with evidence of both two-dimensional Fermi surfaces and three-dimensional Fermi surfaces. Here, we carry out angle-resolved torque magnetometry measurements in a magnetic field up to 45 Tmore » and a temperature range down to 40 mK. With the magnetic field rotated in the (010) plane, the quantum oscillation frequency of the strongest oscillation branch shows a fourfold rotational symmetry. However, in the angular dependence of the amplitude of the same branch, this fourfold symmetry is broken and, instead, a twofold symmetry shows up, which is consistent with the prediction of a two-dimensional Lifshitz-Kosevich model. No deviation of Lifshitz-Kosevich behavior is observed down to 40 mK. Our results suggest the existence of multiple light-mass surface states in SmB 6, with their mobility significantly depending on the surface disorder level.« less
Minimal S U ( 3 ) × S U ( 3 ) symmetry breaking patterns
Bai, Yang; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.
Here, we study the vacua of anmore » $$SU(3)\\times SU(3)$$-symmetric model with a bifundamental scalar. Structures of this type appear in various gauge theories such as the Renormalizable Coloron Model, which is an extension of QCD, or the Trinification extension of the electroweak group. In other contexts, such as chiral symmetry, $$SU(3)\\times SU(3)$$ is a global symmetry. As opposed to more general $$SU(N)\\times SU(N)$$ symmetric models, the $N=3$ case is special due to the presence of a trilinear scalar term in the potential. We find that the most general tree-level potential has only three types of minima: one that preserves the diagonal $SU(3)$ subgroup, one that is $$SU(2)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$$ symmetric, and a trivial one where the full symmetry remains unbroken. The phase diagram is complicated, with some regions where there is a unique minimum, and other regions where two minima coexist.« less
Minimal S U ( 3 ) × S U ( 3 ) symmetry breaking patterns
Bai, Yang; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.
2018-03-16
Here, we study the vacua of anmore » $$SU(3)\\times SU(3)$$-symmetric model with a bifundamental scalar. Structures of this type appear in various gauge theories such as the Renormalizable Coloron Model, which is an extension of QCD, or the Trinification extension of the electroweak group. In other contexts, such as chiral symmetry, $$SU(3)\\times SU(3)$$ is a global symmetry. As opposed to more general $$SU(N)\\times SU(N)$$ symmetric models, the $N=3$ case is special due to the presence of a trilinear scalar term in the potential. We find that the most general tree-level potential has only three types of minima: one that preserves the diagonal $SU(3)$ subgroup, one that is $$SU(2)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$$ symmetric, and a trivial one where the full symmetry remains unbroken. The phase diagram is complicated, with some regions where there is a unique minimum, and other regions where two minima coexist.« less
Optical probes of symmetry breaking in magnetic and superconducting BaFe2(As1-xPx)2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orenstein, Joseph
The discovery of iron pnictide superconductors has opened promising new directions in the effort to fully understand the phenomenon of high-Tc, with a focus on the connections between superconductivity, magnetism, and electronic nematicity. The BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 (P:Ba122) system in particular has received attention because isovalent substitution of As for P generates less disorder than doping on the Fe site. The phase diagram of P:Ba122 is characterized by a line of simultaneous antiferromagnetic (AF) and tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transitions, Ts (x) , that penetrates the superconducting dome at x =0.28, just below optimal doping (xopt = 0.30). In this work, we use spatially-resolved optical polarimetry and photomodulated reflectance to detect linear birefringence and therefore breaking of 4-fold rotational (C4) symmetry. In underdoped (x<0.28) samples, birefringence appears at T>Tsand grows continuously with decreasing T . The birefringence is unidirectional in a large (300 μm x300 μm) field of view, suggesting that C4 breaking in this range of T is caused by residual strain that couples to a diverging nematic susceptibility. Birefringence maps just below Ts (x) show the appearance of domains, indicating the onset of spontaneous symmetry breaking to an AF ground state. Surprisingly, in samples with x>0.28, in which the low T phase is superconducting/ tetragonal rather than AF/orthorhombic, C4 breaking is observed as well, with an abrupt onset and domain formation at 55 K. We tentatively associate these features with a transition to an AF phase induced by residual strain, as previously proposed [H.-H. Kuo et al. Phys. Rev. B86, 134507 (2012)] to account for structure in resistivity vs. T. Time-resolved photomodulation allow us to follow the amplitude of the AF order with time following pulsed photoexcitation. Below Tc the AF order at first weakens , but then strengthens in response to the photoinduced weakening of superconductivity. This complex time evolution is
Thermodynamic Identities and Symmetry Breaking in Short-Range Spin Glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arguin, L.-P.; Newman, C. M.; Stein, D. L.
2015-10-01
We present a technique to generate relations connecting pure state weights, overlaps, and correlation functions in short-range spin glasses. These are obtained directly from the unperturbed Hamiltonian and hold for general coupling distributions. All are satisfied in phases with simple thermodynamic structure, such as the droplet-scaling and chaotic pairs pictures. If instead nontrivial mixed-state pictures hold, the relations suggest that replica symmetry is broken as described by a Derrida-Ruelle cascade, with pure state weights distributed as a Poisson-Dirichlet process.
dRGT theory of massive gravity from spontaneous symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torabian, Mahdi
2018-05-01
In this note we propose a topological action for a Poincare times diffeomorphism invariant gauge theory. We show that there is Higgs phase where the gauge symmetry is spontaneous broken to a diagonal Lorentz subgroup and gives the Einstein-Hilbert action plus the dRGT potential terms. In this vacuum, there are five (three from Goldstone modes) propagating degrees of freedom which form polarizations of a massive spin 2 particle, an extra healthy heavy scalar (Higgs) mode and no Boulware-Deser ghost mode. We further show that the action can be derived in a limit from a topological de Sitter invariant gauge theory in 4 dimensions.
Inducing Propulsion of Colloidal Dimers by Breaking the Symmetry in Electrohydrodynamic Flow.
Ma, Fuduo; Yang, Xingfu; Zhao, Hui; Wu, Ning
2015-11-13
We show that dielectric colloidal dimers with broken symmetry in geometry, composition, or interfacial charges can all propel in directions that are perpendicular to the applied ac electric field. The asymmetry in particle properties ultimately results in an unbalanced electrohydrodynamic flow on two sides of the particles. Consistent with scaling laws, the propulsion direction, speed, and orientation of dimers can be conveniently tuned by frequency. The new propulsion mechanism revealed here is important for building colloidal motors and studying collective behavior of active matter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leach, K. G.; Garrett, P. E.; Towner, I. S.; Ball, G. C.; Bildstein, V.; Brown, B. A.; Demand, G. A.; Faestermann, T.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Hertenberger, R.; Krücken, R.; Phillips, A. A.; Rand, E. T.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wirth, H.-F.; Wong, J.
2013-06-01
With the recent inclusion of core orbitals to the radial-overlap component of the isospin-symmetry-breaking (ISB) corrections for superallowed Fermi β decay, experimental data are needed to test the validity of the theoretical model. This work reports measurements of single-neutron pickup reaction spectroscopic factors into 63Zn, one neutron away from 62Zn, the superallowed daughter of 62Ga. The experiment was performed using a 22-MeV polarized deuteron beam, a Q3D magnetic spectrograph, and a cathode-strip focal-plane detector to analyze outgoing tritons at nine angles between 10∘ and 60∘. Angular distributions and vector analyzing powers were obtained for all 162 observed states in 63Zn, including 125 newly observed levels, up to an excitation energy of 4.8 MeV. Spectroscopic factors are extracted and compared to several shell-model predictions, and implications for the ISB calculations are discussed.
Han, Sang Eon; Hoard, Brittany R.; Han, Sang M.
Provided is a method for fabricating a nanopatterned surface. The method includes forming a mask on a substrate, patterning the substrate to include a plurality of symmetry-breaking surface corrugations, and removing the mask. The mask includes a pattern defined by mask material portions that cover first surface portions of the substrate and a plurality of mask space portions that expose second surface portions of the substrate, wherein the plurality of mask space portions are arranged in a lattice arrangement having a row and column, and the row is not oriented parallel to a [110] direction of the substrate. The patterningmore » the substrate includes anisotropically removing portions of the substrate exposed by the plurality of spaces.« less
Manipulating one-way space wave and its refraction by time-reversal and parity symmetry breaking
Poo, Yin; He, Cheng; Xiao, Chao; Lu, Ming-Hui; Wu, Rui-Xin; Chen, Yan-Feng
2016-01-01
One-way transmission and negative refraction are the exotic wave properties founded in photonic crystals which attract a great attention due to their promising applications in photonic devices. How to integrate such two phenomena in one material or device is interesting and valuable. In this work, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that one-way electromagnetic space wave can be realized by means of two-dimensional magnetic photonic crystals. Simultaneously breaking the time-reversal and parity symmetries of the magnetic photonic crystals designed, we observe oblique incident space wave propagating one-way in the magnetic photonic crystals with positive or negative refraction occurring at interfaces, which can be manipulated upon the incident angle and operating frequency. Our work may offer a potential platform to realize some exotic photoelectronic and microwave devices such as one-way imaging and one-way cloaking. PMID:27387438
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zurek, Wojciech Hubert
2007-11-01
Measurements transfer information about a system to the apparatus and then, further on, to observers and (often inadvertently) to the environment. I show that even imperfect copying essential in such situations restricts possible unperturbed outcomes to an orthogonal subset of all possible states of the system, thus breaking the unitary symmetry of its Hilbert space implied by the quantum superposition principle. Preferred outcome states emerge as a result. They provide a framework for “wave-packet collapse,” designating terminal points of quantum jumps and defining the measured observable by specifying its eigenstates. In quantum Darwinism, they are the progenitors of multiple copies spread throughout the environment—the fittest quantum states that not only survive decoherence, but subvert the environment into carrying information about them—into becoming a witness.
Bartynski, Andrew N; Gruber, Mark; Das, Saptaparna; Rangan, Sylvie; Mollinger, Sonya; Trinh, Cong; Bradforth, Stephen E; Vandewal, Koen; Salleo, Alberto; Bartynski, Robert A; Bruetting, Wolfgang; Thompson, Mark E
2015-04-29
Low open-circuit voltages significantly limit the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices. Typical strategies to enhance the open-circuit voltage involve tuning the HOMO and LUMO positions of the donor (D) and acceptor (A), respectively, to increase the interfacial energy gap or to tailor the donor or acceptor structure at the D/A interface. Here, we present an alternative approach to improve the open-circuit voltage through the use of a zinc chlorodipyrrin, ZCl [bis(dodecachloro-5-mesityldipyrrinato)zinc], as an acceptor, which undergoes symmetry-breaking charge transfer (CT) at the donor/acceptor interface. DBP/ZCl cells exhibit open-circuit voltages of 1.33 V compared to 0.88 V for analogous tetraphenyldibenzoperyflanthrene (DBP)/C60-based devices. Charge transfer state energies measured by Fourier-transform photocurrent spectroscopy and electroluminescence show that C60 forms a CT state of 1.45 ± 0.05 eV in a DBP/C60-based organic photovoltaic device, while ZCl as acceptor gives a CT state energy of 1.70 ± 0.05 eV in the corresponding device structure. In the ZCl device this results in an energetic loss between E(CT) and qV(OC) of 0.37 eV, substantially less than the 0.6 eV typically observed for organic systems and equal to the recombination losses seen in high-efficiency Si and GaAs devices. The substantial increase in open-circuit voltage and reduction in recombination losses for devices utilizing ZCl demonstrate the great promise of symmetry-breaking charge transfer in organic photovoltaic devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, Patrick J.; Rui, Xue; Georgescu, Alexandru B.; Disa, Ankit S.; Longo, Paolo; Okunishi, Eiji; Walker, Fred; Ahn, Charles H.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Klie, Robert F.
2017-05-01
Epitaxial strain, layer confinement, and inversion symmetry breaking have emerged as powerful new approaches to control the electronic and atomic-scale structural properties of complex metal oxides. Trivalent rare-earth (RE) nickelate R E NiO3 heterostructures have been shown to be exemplars since the orbital occupancy, degeneracy, and, consequently, electronic/magnetic properties can be altered as a function of epitaxial strain, layer thickness, and superlattice structure. One recent example is the tricomponent LaTiO3-LaNiO3-LaAlO3 superlattice which exhibits charge transfer and orbital polarization as the result of its interfacial dipole electric field. A crucial step towards control of these parameters for future electronic and magnetic device applications is to develop an understanding of both the magnitude and range of the octahedral network's response towards interfacial strain and electric fields. An approach that provides atomic-scale resolution and sensitivity towards the local octahedral distortions and orbital occupancy is therefore required. Here, we employ atomic-resolution imaging coupled with electron spectroscopies and first-principles theory to examine the role of interfacial charge transfer and symmetry breaking in a tricomponent nickelate superlattice system. We find that nearly complete charge transfer occurs between the LaTiO3 and LaNiO3 layers, resulting in a mixed Ni2 +/Ni3 + valence state. We further demonstrate that this charge transfer is highly localized with a range of about 1 unit cell within the LaNiO3 layers. We also show how Wannier-function-based electron counting provides a simple physical picture of the electron distribution that connects directly with formal valence charges. The results presented here provide important feedback to synthesis efforts aimed at stabilizing new electronic phases that are not accessible by conventional bulk or epitaxial film approaches.
Roy, S; Joshi, Amish G; Chatterjee, S; Ghosh, Anup K
2018-06-07
X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to study the structural and morphological characteristics of cobalt doped tin(iv) oxide (Sn1-xCoxO2; 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.04) nanocrystals synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation technique. Electronic structure analysis using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) shows the formation of tin interstitials (Sni) and reduction of oxygen vacancies (VO) in the host lattice on Co doping and that the doped Co exists in mixed valence states of +2 and +3. Using XRD, the preferential position of the Sni and doped Co in the unit cell of the nanocrystals have been estimated. Rietveld refinement of XRD data shows that samples are of single phase and variation of lattice constants follows Vegard's law. XRD and TEM measurements show that the crystallite size of the nanocrystals decrease with increase in Co doping concentration. SAED patterns confirm the monocrystalline nature of the samples. The study of the lattice dynamics using Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy shows the existence of many disorder activated forbidden optical phonon modes, along with the corresponding classical modes, signifying Co induced local symmetry breaking in the nanocrystals. UV-Vis spectroscopy shows that the optical band gap has red shifted with increase in doping concentration. The study of Urbach energy confirms the increase in disorder in the nanocrystals with Co doping. Local symmetry breaking induced UV emission along with violet, blue and green luminescence has been observed from the PL study. The spectral contribution of UV emission decreases and green luminescence increases with increase in doping. Using PL, in conjunction with Raman spectroscopy, the type of oxygen vacancy induced in the nanocrystals on Co doping has been confirmed and the position of the defect levels in the forbidden zone (w.r.t. the optical band gap) has been studied.
Forbidden phonon: Dynamical signature of bond symmetry breaking in the iron chalcogenides
Fobes, David M.; Zaliznyak, Igor A.; Tranquada, John M.; ...
2016-09-01
Investigation of the inelastic neutron scattering spectra in Fe 1+yTe 1₋xSe x near a signature wave vector Q=(1,0,0) for the bond-order wave (BOW) formation of parent compound Fe 1+yTe reveals an acoustic-phonon-like dispersion present in all structural phases. While a structural Bragg peak accompanies the mode in the low-temperature phase of Fe 1+yTe, it is absent in the high-temperature tetragonal phase, where Bragg scattering at this Q is forbidden by symmetry. Notably, this mode is also observed in superconducting FeTe 0.55Se 0.45, where structural and magnetic transitions are suppressed, and no BOW has been observed. Lastly, the presence of thismore » “forbidden” phonon indicates that the lattice symmetry is dynamically or locally broken by magneto-orbital BOW fluctuations, which are strongly coupled to lattice in these materials.« less
Spectroscopic Visualization of Inversion and Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking Weyl Semi-metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beidenkopf, Haim
A defining property of a topological material is the existence of surface bands that cannot be realized but as the termination of a topological bulk. In a Weyl semi-metal these surface states are in the form of Fermi-arcs. Their open-contour Fermi-surface curves between pairs of surface projections of bulk Weyl cones. Such Dirac-like bulk bands, as opposed to the gapped bulk of topological insulators, land a unique opportunity to examine the deep notion of bulk to surface correspondence. We study the intricate properties both of inversion symmetry broken and of time-reversal symmetry broken Weyl semimetals using scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We visualize the Fermi arc states on the surface of the non-centrosymmetric Weyl semi-metal TaAs. Using the distinct structure and spatial distribution of the wavefunctions associated with the different topological and trivial bands we detect the scattering processes that involve Fermi arcs. Each of these imaged scattering processes entails information on the unique nature of Fermi arcs and their correspondence to the topological bulk. We further visualize the magnetic response of the candidate magnetic Weyl semimetal GdPtBi in which the magnetic order parameter is coupled to the topological classification. European Research Council (ERC-StG no. 678702, TOPO-NW\\x9D), the Israel Science Foundation (ISF), and the United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF).
Isoscalar neutron-proton pairing and SU(4)-symmetry breaking in Gamow-Teller transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaneko, K.; Sun, Y.; Mizusaki, T.
2018-05-01
The isoscalar neutron-proton pairing is thought to be important for nuclei with equal number of protons and neutrons but its manifestation in structure properties remains to be understood. We investigate the Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions for the f7 /2-shell nuclei in large-scale shell-model calculations with the realistic Hamiltonian. We show that the isoscalar T =0 ,Jπ=1+ neutron-proton pairing interaction plays a decisive role for the concentration of GT strengths at the first-excited 11+ state in 42Sc, and that the suppression of these strengths in 46V, 50Mn, and 54Co is mainly caused by the spin-orbit force supplemented by the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. Based on the good reproduction of the charge-exchange reaction data, we further analyze the interplay between the isoscalar and isovector pairing correlations. We conclude that even for the most promising A =42 nuclei where the SU(4) isoscalar-isovector-pairing symmetry is less broken, the probability of forming an isoscalar neutron-proton pairing condensation is less than 60% as compared to the expectation at the SU(4)-symmetry limit.
Gapless bosonic excitation without symmetry breaking: An algebraic spin liquid with soft gravitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Cenke
2006-12-01
A quantum ground state of matter is realized in a bosonic model on a three-dimensional fcc lattice with emergent low energy excitations. The phase obtained is a stable gapless boson liquid phase, with algebraic boson density correlations. The stability of this phase is protected against the instanton effect and superfluidity by self-duality and large gauge symmetries on both sides of the duality. The gapless collective excitations of this phase closely resemble the graviton, although they have a soft ω˜k2 dispersion relation. There are three branches of gapless excitations in this phase, one of which is gapless scalar trace mode, the other two have the same polarization and gauge symmetries as the gravitons. The dynamics of this phase is described by a set of Maxwell’s equations. The defects carrying gauge charges can drive the system into the superfluid order when the defects are condensed; also the topological defects are coupled to the dual gauge field in the same manner as the charge defects couple to the original gauge field, after the condensation of the topological defects, the system is driven into the Mott insulator phase. In the two-dimensional case, the gapless soft graviton as well as the algebraic liquid phase are destroyed by the vertex operators in the dual theory, and the stripe order is most likely to take place close to the two-dimensional quantum critical point at which the vertex operators are tuned to zero.
Symmetry-Breaking Transitions in RECuAs 2-xP x (RE=Sm, Gd, Ho, and Er)
Mozharivskyj, Yurij
Structural changes resulting in lower symmetries can be understood in terms of electronic instabilities and Coulomb interactions. The interplay of these two interrelated factors is complicated and difficult to analyze. The RECuAs 2-xP x phases, because of the variation in the chemical content (As/P substitution), allow, with the aid of band structures, Madelung energies and Landau theory, a partial unraveling of the forces important in the symmetry-breaking transitions in RECuAs 2-xP x (RE = Sm, Gd, Ho and Er). Distortions of the P layers in SmCu 1.15P 2, GdCuP 2.20 and ErCuP 2 are usefully thought of asmore » generalized Peierls distortions, i.e., they lower the electronic (and total) energy and lead to more stable structures. On the other hand, the P4/nmm → Pmmn transitions, which are observed in all studied arsenophosphide series and occur upon substitution of P for As, originate from the B1g vibrational mode and are structural adaptations to smaller P atoms. These transitions provide tighter atomic packing and better Coulomb interactions. Configurational contribution to the entropy becomes important in stabilizing the mixed occupancy in the RECuAs 2-xP x arsenophosphides. While geometric and electronic factors favor separation of the As and P atoms over two different crystallographic sites, configurational entropy stabilizes the As/P mixing on these two sites.;Progress in the research on RECuAs 2-xP x was dependent upon the ability of Landau theory to predict, explain and dismiss structural models and transitions. The space group Pmmn (arising from the B 1g vibrational mode) in all mixed arsenophosphides and the existence of these mixed arsenophosphides followed from the analysis of GdCuAs 2 and GdCuP 2, using Landau theory. The impossibility of obtaining the high-symmetry structure (P4/nmm) and the low symmetry structure (Pnmm) at the same temperature for the displacive continuous symmetry-breaking transition P4/ nmm → Pmmn led to the conclusion, later
Momentum-resolved hidden-order gap reveals symmetry breaking and origin of entropy loss in URu2Si2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bareille, C.; Boariu, F. L.; Schwab, H.; Lejay, P.; Reinert, F.; Santander-Syro, A. F.
2014-07-01
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in physical systems leads to salient phenomena at all scales, from the Higgs mechanism and the emergence of the mass of the elementary particles, to superconductivity and magnetism in solids. The hidden-order state arising below 17.5 K in URu2Si2 is a puzzling example of one of such phase transitions: its associated broken symmetry and gap structure have remained longstanding riddles. Here we directly image how, across the hidden-order transition, the electronic structure of URu2Si2 abruptly reconstructs. We observe an energy gap of 7 meV opening over 70% of a large diamond-like heavy-fermion Fermi surface, resulting in the formation of four small Fermi petals, and a change in the electronic periodicity from body-centred tetragonal to simple tetragonal. Our results explain the large entropy loss in the hidden-order phase, and the similarity between this phase and the high-pressure antiferromagnetic phase found in quantum-oscillation experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Y.; Nikitin, A. M.; Araizi, G. K.; Huang, Y. K.; Matsushita, Y.; Naka, T.; de Visser, A.
2016-06-01
Recently it was demonstrated that Sr intercalation provides a new route to induce superconductivity in the topological insulator Bi2Se3. Topological superconductors are predicted to be unconventional with an odd-parity pairing symmetry. An adequate probe to test for unconventional superconductivity is the upper critical field, Bc2. For a standard BCS layered superconductor Bc2 shows an anisotropy when the magnetic field is applied parallel and perpendicular to the layers, but is isotropic when the field is rotated in the plane of the layers. Here we report measurements of the upper critical field of superconducting SrxBi2Se3 crystals (Tc = 3.0 K). Surprisingly, field-angle dependent magnetotransport measurements reveal a large anisotropy of Bc2 when the magnet field is rotated in the basal plane. The large two-fold anisotropy, while six-fold is anticipated, cannot be explained with the Ginzburg-Landau anisotropic effective mass model or flux flow induced by the Lorentz force. The rotational symmetry breaking of Bc2 indicates unconventional superconductivity with odd-parity spin-triplet Cooper pairs (Δ4-pairing) recently proposed for rhombohedral topological superconductors, or might have a structural nature, such as self-organized stripe ordering of Sr atoms.
Pan, Y; Nikitin, A M; Araizi, G K; Huang, Y K; Matsushita, Y; Naka, T; de Visser, A
2016-06-28
Recently it was demonstrated that Sr intercalation provides a new route to induce superconductivity in the topological insulator Bi2Se3. Topological superconductors are predicted to be unconventional with an odd-parity pairing symmetry. An adequate probe to test for unconventional superconductivity is the upper critical field, Bc2. For a standard BCS layered superconductor Bc2 shows an anisotropy when the magnetic field is applied parallel and perpendicular to the layers, but is isotropic when the field is rotated in the plane of the layers. Here we report measurements of the upper critical field of superconducting SrxBi2Se3 crystals (Tc = 3.0 K). Surprisingly, field-angle dependent magnetotransport measurements reveal a large anisotropy of Bc2 when the magnet field is rotated in the basal plane. The large two-fold anisotropy, while six-fold is anticipated, cannot be explained with the Ginzburg-Landau anisotropic effective mass model or flux flow induced by the Lorentz force. The rotational symmetry breaking of Bc2 indicates unconventional superconductivity with odd-parity spin-triplet Cooper pairs (Δ4-pairing) recently proposed for rhombohedral topological superconductors, or might have a structural nature, such as self-organized stripe ordering of Sr atoms.
Pan, Y.; Nikitin, A. M.; Araizi, G. K.; Huang, Y. K.; Matsushita, Y.; Naka, T.; de Visser, A.
2016-01-01
Recently it was demonstrated that Sr intercalation provides a new route to induce superconductivity in the topological insulator Bi2Se3. Topological superconductors are predicted to be unconventional with an odd-parity pairing symmetry. An adequate probe to test for unconventional superconductivity is the upper critical field, Bc2. For a standard BCS layered superconductor Bc2 shows an anisotropy when the magnetic field is applied parallel and perpendicular to the layers, but is isotropic when the field is rotated in the plane of the layers. Here we report measurements of the upper critical field of superconducting SrxBi2Se3 crystals (Tc = 3.0 K). Surprisingly, field-angle dependent magnetotransport measurements reveal a large anisotropy of Bc2 when the magnet field is rotated in the basal plane. The large two-fold anisotropy, while six-fold is anticipated, cannot be explained with the Ginzburg-Landau anisotropic effective mass model or flux flow induced by the Lorentz force. The rotational symmetry breaking of Bc2 indicates unconventional superconductivity with odd-parity spin-triplet Cooper pairs (Δ4-pairing) recently proposed for rhombohedral topological superconductors, or might have a structural nature, such as self-organized stripe ordering of Sr atoms. PMID:27350295
Electronic in-plane symmetry breaking at field-tuned quantum criticality in CeRhIn5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ronning, F.; Helm, T.; Shirer, K. R.; Bachmann, M. D.; Balicas, L.; Chan, M. K.; Ramshaw, B. J.; McDonald, R. D.; Balakirev, F. F.; Jaime, M.; Bauer, E. D.; Moll, P. J. W.
2017-08-01
Electronic nematic materials are characterized by a lowered symmetry of the electronic system compared to the underlying lattice, in analogy to the directional alignment without translational order in nematic liquid crystals. Such nematic phases appear in the copper- and iron-based high-temperature superconductors, and their role in establishing superconductivity remains an open question. Nematicity may take an active part, cooperating or competing with superconductivity, or may appear accidentally in such systems. Here we present experimental evidence for a phase of fluctuating nematic character in a heavy-fermion superconductor, CeRhIn5 (ref. 5). We observe a magnetic-field-induced state in the vicinity of a field-tuned antiferromagnetic quantum critical point at Hc ≈ 50 tesla. This phase appears above an out-of-plane critical field H* ≈ 28 tesla and is characterized by a substantial in-plane resistivity anisotropy in the presence of a small in-plane field component. The in-plane symmetry breaking has little apparent connection to the underlying lattice, as evidenced by the small magnitude of the magnetostriction anomaly at H*. Furthermore, no anomalies appear in the magnetic torque, suggesting the absence of metamagnetism in this field range. The appearance of nematic behaviour in a prototypical heavy-fermion superconductor highlights the interrelation of nematicity and unconventional superconductivity, suggesting nematicity to be common among correlated materials.
Symmetry-breaking dynamics of the finite-size Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model near ground state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yi; Li, Tongcang; Yin, Zhang-qi
2018-01-01
We study the dynamics of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model with a finite number of spins. In the thermodynamic limit, the ground state of the LMG model with an isotropic Hamiltonian in the broken phase breaks to a mean-field ground state with a certain direction. However, when the spin number N is finite, the exact ground state is always unique and is not given by a classical mean-field ground state. Here, we prove that when N is large but finite, through a tiny external perturbation, a localized state which is close to a mean-field ground state can be prepared, which mimics spontaneous symmetry breaking. Also, we find the localized in-plane spin polarization oscillates with two different frequencies ˜O (1 /N ) , and the lifetime of the localized state is long enough to exhibit this oscillation. We numerically test the analytical results and find that they agree very well with each other. Finally, we link the phenomena to quantum time crystals and time quasicrystals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharyya, Debankur; Paul, Shibashis; Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar
2018-04-01
We consider the Brownian motion of a collection of particles each with an additional degree of freedom. The degree of freedom of a particle (or, in general, a molecule) can assume distinct values corresponding to certain states or conformations. The time evolution of the additional degree of freedom of a particle is guided by those of its neighbors as well as the temperature of the system. We show that the local averaging over these degrees of freedom results in emergence of a collective order in the dynamics in the form of selection or dominance of one of the isomers leading to a symmetry-broken state. Our statistical model captures the basic features of homochirality, e.g., autocatalysis and chiral inhibition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Chaofan; Poole, Robert J.; Willis, Ashley P.; Dennis, David J. C.
2017-03-01
Experimental results reveal that the asymmetric flow of shear-thinning fluid through a cylindrical pipe, which was previously associated with the laminar-turbulent transition process, appears to have the characteristics of a nonhysteretic, supercritical instability of the laminar base state. Contrary to what was previously believed, classical transition is found to be responsible for returning symmetry to the flow. An absence of evidence of the instability in simulations (either linear or nonlinear) suggests that an element of physics is lacking in the commonly used rheological model for inelastic shear-thinning fluids. These unexpected discoveries raise new questions regarding the stability of these practically important fluids and how they can be successfully modeled.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goings, Joshua James
Time-dependent electronic structure theory has the power to predict and probe the ways electron dynamics leads to useful phenomena and spectroscopic data. Here we report several advances and extensions of broken-symmetry time-dependent electronic structure theory in order to capture the flexibility required to describe non-equilibrium spin dynamics, as well as electron dynamics for chiroptical properties and vibrational effects. In the first half, we begin by discussing the generalization of self-consistent field methods to the so-called two-component structure in order to capture non-collinear spin states. This means that individual electrons are allowed to take a superposition of spin-1/2 projection states, instead of being constrained to either spin-up or spin-down. The system is no longer a spin eigenfunction, and is known a a spin-symmetry broken wave function. This flexibility to break spin symmetry may lead to variational instabilities in the approximate wave function, and we discuss how these may be overcome. With a stable non-collinear wave function in hand, we then discuss how to obtain electronic excited states from the non-collinear reference, along with associated challenges in their physical interpretation. Finally, we extend the two-component methods to relativistic Hamiltonians, which is the proper setting for describing spin-orbit driven phenomena. We describe the first implementation of the explicit time propagation of relativistic two-component methods and how this may be used to capture spin-forbidden states in electronic absorption spectra. In the second half, we describe the extension of explicitly time-propagated wave functions to the simulation of chiroptical properties, namely circular dichroism (CD) spectra of chiral molecules. Natural circular dichroism, that is, CD in the absence of magnetic fields, originates in the broken parity symmetry of chiral molecules. This proves to be an efficient method for computing circular dichroism spectra
Time-Reversal Symmetry-Breaking Nematic Insulators near Quantum Spin Hall Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Fei; MacDonald, A. H.
2018-05-01
We study the phase diagram of a model quantum spin Hall system as a function of band inversion and band-coupling strength, demonstrating that when band hybridization is weak, an interaction-induced nematic insulator state emerges over a wide range of band inversion. This property is a consequence of the long-range Coulomb interaction, which favors interband phase coherence that is weakly dependent on momentum and therefore frustrated by the single-particle Hamiltonian at the band inversion point. For weak band hybridization, interactions convert the continuous gap closing topological phase transition at inversion into a pair of continuous phase transitions bounding a state with broken time-reversal and rotational symmetries. At intermediate band hybridization, the topological phase transition proceeds instead via a quantum anomalous Hall insulator state, whereas at strong hybridization interactions play no role. We comment on the implications of our findings for InAs/GaSb and HgTe/CdTe quantum spin Hall systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Fu-Lai; Leung, Kwan-tai; Chen, Hsuan-Yi
2016-07-01
Actin-based motility is important for many cellular processes. In this article we extend our previous studies of an actin-propelled circular disk in two dimensions to an actin-propelled spherical bead in three dimensions. We find that for an achiral load the couplings between the motion of the load and the actin network induce a series of bifurcations, starting with a transition from rest to moving state, followed by a transition from straight to planar curves, and finally a further transition from motion in a plane to one with torsion. To address the intriguing, experimentally observed chiral motility of the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, we also study the motility of a spherical load with a built-in chirality. For such a chiral load, stable circular trajectories are no longer found in numerical simulations. Instead, helical trajectories with handedness that depends on the chirality of the load are found. Our results reveal the relation between the symmetry of actin network and the trajectories of actin-propelled loads.
Time-Reversal Symmetry-Breaking Nematic Insulators near Quantum Spin Hall Phase Transitions.
Xue, Fei; MacDonald, A H
2018-05-04
We study the phase diagram of a model quantum spin Hall system as a function of band inversion and band-coupling strength, demonstrating that when band hybridization is weak, an interaction-induced nematic insulator state emerges over a wide range of band inversion. This property is a consequence of the long-range Coulomb interaction, which favors interband phase coherence that is weakly dependent on momentum and therefore frustrated by the single-particle Hamiltonian at the band inversion point. For weak band hybridization, interactions convert the continuous gap closing topological phase transition at inversion into a pair of continuous phase transitions bounding a state with broken time-reversal and rotational symmetries. At intermediate band hybridization, the topological phase transition proceeds instead via a quantum anomalous Hall insulator state, whereas at strong hybridization interactions play no role. We comment on the implications of our findings for InAs/GaSb and HgTe/CdTe quantum spin Hall systems.
Carbon nanorings with inserted acenes: Breaking symmetry in excited state dynamics
Franklin-Mergarejo, R.; Alvarez, D. Ondarse; Tretiak, S.; ...
2016-08-10
Conjugated cycloparaphenylene rings have unique electronic properties being the smallest segments of carbon nanotubes. Their conjugated backbones support delocalized electronic excitations, which dynamics is strongly influenced by cyclic geometry. Here we present a comparative theoretical study of the electronic and vibrational energy relaxation and redistribution in photoexcited cycloparaphenylene carbon nanorings with inserted naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene units using non-adiabatic excited-state molecular dynamics simulations. Calculated excited state structures reflect modifications of optical selection rules and appearance of low-energy electronic states localized on the acenes due to gradual departure from a perfect circular symmetry. After photoexcitation, an ultrafast electronic energy relaxation tomore » the lowest excited state is observed on the time scale of hundreds of femtoseconds in all molecules studied. Concomitantly, the efficiency of the exciton trapping in the acene raises when moving from naphthalene to anthracene and to tetracene, being negligible in naphthalene, and ~60% and 70% in anthracene and tetracene within the first 500 fs after photoexcitation. Observed photoinduced dynamics is further analyzed in details using induced molecular distortions, delocatization properties of participating electronic states and non-adiabatic coupling strengths. Lastly, our results provide a number of insights into design of cyclic molecular systems for electronic and light-harvesting applications.« less
Explicit chiral symmetry breaking in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schüren, C.; Arriola, E. Ruiz; Goeke, K.
1992-09-01
We consider a chirally symmetric bosonization of the SU(2) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model within the Pauli-Villars regularization scheme. Special attention is paid to the way in which chiral symmetry is broken explicitly. The parameters of the model are fixed in the light of chiral perturbation theory by performing a covariant derivative expansion in the presence of external fields. As a by-product we obtain the corresponding low-energy parameters and pion radii as well as some threshold parameters for pion-pion scattering. The nucleon is obtained in terms of the solitonic solutions of the action in the sector with baryon number equal to one. It is found that for a constituent quark mass M ˜ 350 MeV most of the calculated vacuum and pion properties agree reasonably well with the experimental ones and coincide with the region where localized solitons with the right size exist. For this value, however, the scalar and vector pion radii turn out to be very small. A unique determination of the sigma term is proposed, obtaining a value of σ(0) = 41.3 MeV. The scalar nucleon form factor is evaluated in the Breit frame. The extrapolation to the Cheng-Dashen point leads to σ(2 m2) - σ(0) = 7.4 MeV.
A 750 GeV messenger of dark conformal symmetry breaking
Davoudiasl, Hooman; Zhang, Cen
The tentative hints for a diphoton resonance at a mass of ~750 GeV from the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC may be interpreted as first contact with a “dark” sector with a spontaneously broken conformal symmetry. The implied TeV scale of the dark sector may be motivated by the interaction strength required to accommodate a viable thermal relic dark matter (DM) candidate. We model the conformal dynamics using a Randall-Sundrum-type five-dimensional geometry whose IR boundary is identified with the dynamics of the composite dark sector, while the Standard Model (SM) matter content resides on the UV boundary, correspondingmore » to “elementary” fields. We allow the gauge fields to reside in the five-dimensional bulk, which can be minimally chosen to be SU(3)c×U(1)Y. The “dark” radion is identified as the putative 750 GeV resonance. Heavy vectorlike fermions, often invoked to explain the diphoton excess, are not explicitly present in our model and are not predicted to appear in the spectrum of TeV scale states. Our minimal setup favors scalar DM of O(TeV) mass. A generic expectation in this scenario, suggested by DM considerations, is the appearance of vector bosons at ~ few TeV, corresponding to the gluon and hypercharge Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes that couple to UV boundary states with strengths that are suppressed uniformly compared to their SM values. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that these KK modes could be within the reach of the LHC in the coming years.« less
A 750 GeV messenger of dark conformal symmetry breaking
Davoudiasl, Hooman; Zhang, Cen
2016-03-03
The tentative hints for a diphoton resonance at a mass of ~750 GeV from the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC may be interpreted as first contact with a “dark” sector with a spontaneously broken conformal symmetry. The implied TeV scale of the dark sector may be motivated by the interaction strength required to accommodate a viable thermal relic dark matter (DM) candidate. We model the conformal dynamics using a Randall-Sundrum-type five-dimensional geometry whose IR boundary is identified with the dynamics of the composite dark sector, while the Standard Model (SM) matter content resides on the UV boundary, correspondingmore » to “elementary” fields. We allow the gauge fields to reside in the five-dimensional bulk, which can be minimally chosen to be SU(3)c×U(1)Y. The “dark” radion is identified as the putative 750 GeV resonance. Heavy vectorlike fermions, often invoked to explain the diphoton excess, are not explicitly present in our model and are not predicted to appear in the spectrum of TeV scale states. Our minimal setup favors scalar DM of O(TeV) mass. A generic expectation in this scenario, suggested by DM considerations, is the appearance of vector bosons at ~ few TeV, corresponding to the gluon and hypercharge Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes that couple to UV boundary states with strengths that are suppressed uniformly compared to their SM values. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that these KK modes could be within the reach of the LHC in the coming years.« less
Ecological symmetry breaking can favour the evolution of altruism in an action-response game.
Di Paolo, E A
2000-03-21
The evolution of altruistic behaviour is studied in a simple action-response game with a tunable degree of conflict of interest. It is shown that for the continuous, mixed-medium approach no stable polymorphism favours altruism. Ecological dynamics are explored with the addition of a spatial dimension and a local energy variable. A continuous spatial model with finite local range does not introduce any substantial difference in the results with respect to the level of altruism. However, the model illustrates how ecological coupling may lead to the formation of stable spatial patterns in the form of discrete and isolated clusters of players as a consequence of inverse density dependence. A discrete, individual-based model is built in which local interactions are also modelled as occurring within a finite neighbourhood of each individual and spatial positions are not restricted as in lattice models. This model shows substantially different results. A high level of altruism is observed for low (but positive) degrees of conflict and this level decreases linearly for higher degrees of conflict. The evolution of altruism is explained by studying the broken symmetries introduced by the spatial clusters themselves, mainly between their central and peripheral regions which, in combination with the discrete and the stochastic nature of the model, result in the stabilization of strategies in which players behave altruistically towards the same type. As a consequence of the activity of the players, energy resources at the centre of an altruistic cluster are very depleted; so much so that, for low conflict, fitter non-altruistic mutants may initially invade only to become locally extinct due to their less efficient use of energy as their numbers increase. In peripheral regions invader may subsist; however, for geometrical reasons long-lasting genealogies tend to originate only at the centre of a cluster. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobado, Antonio; Guo, Feng-Kun; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.
2015-12-01
We are exploring a generic strongly-interacting Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Sector (EWSBS) with the low-energy effective field theory for the four experimentally known particles (W±L, ZL, h) and its dispersion-relation based unitary extension. In this contribution we provide simple estimates for the production cross-section of pairs of the EWSBS bosons and their resonances at proton-proton colliders as well as in a future e-e+ (or potentially a μ-μ+) collider with a typical few-TeV energy. We examine the simplest production mechanisms, tree-level production through a W (dominant when quantum numbers allow) and the simple effective boson approximation (in which the electroweak bosons are considered as collinear partons of the colliding fermions). We exemplify with custodial isovector and isotensor resonances at 2 TeV, the energy currently being discussed because of a slight excess in the ATLAS 2-jet data. We find it hard, though not unthinkable, to ascribe this excess to one of these WLWL rescattering resonances. An isovector resonance could be produced at a rate smaller than, but close to earlier CMS exclusion bounds, depending on the parameters of the effective theory. The ZZ excess is then problematic and requires additional physics (such as an additional scalar resonance). The isotensor one (that would describe all charge combinations) has smaller cross-section. Supported by the Spanish Excellence Network on Hadronic Physics FIS2014-57026-REDT, by Spanish Grants Universidad Complutense UCM:910309 and Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad MINECO:FPA2011-27853-C02-01, MINECO:FPA2014-53375-C2-1-P, by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and National Natural Science Foundation of China through Funds Provided to the Sino-German CRC 110 “Symmetries and the Emergence of Structure in QCD” (NSFC Grant No. 11261130311) and by NSFC (Grant No. 11165005)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Arindam
Three-dimensional bulk-doped semiconductors, in particular phosphorus (P)-doped silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge), are among the best studied systems for many fundamental concepts in solid state physics, ranging from the Anderson metal-insulator transition to the many-body Coulomb interaction effects on quantum transport. Recent advances in material engineering have led to vertically confined doping of phosphorus (P) atoms inside bulk crystalline silicon and germanium, where the electron transport occurs through one or very few atomic layers, constituting a new and unique platform to investigate many of these phenomena at reduced dimensions. In this talk I shall present results of extensive quantum transport experiments in delta-doped silicon and germanium epilayers, over a wide range of doping density that allow independent tuning of the on-site Coulomb interaction and hopping energy scales. We find that low-frequency flicker noise, or the 1 / f noise, in the electrical conductance of these systems is exceptionally low, and in fact among the lowest when compared with other low-dimensional materials. This is attributed to the physical separation of the conduction electrons, embedded inside the crystalline semiconductor matrix, from the charged fluctuators at the surface. Most importantly, we find a remarkable suppression of weak localization effects, including the quantum correction to conductivity and universal conductance fluctuations, with decreasing doping density or, equivalently, increasing effective on-site Coulomb interaction. In-plane magneto-transport measurements indicate the presence of intrinsic local spin fluctuations at low doping although no signatures of long range magnetic order could be identified. We argue that these results indicate a spontaneous breakdown of time reversal symmetry, which is one of the most fundamental and robust symmetries of nonmagnetic quantum systems. While the microscopic origin of this spontaneous time reversal symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Xiang-Bo; Liu, Bang-Gui
2018-03-01
It is highly desirable to combine the full spin polarization of carriers with modern semiconductor technology for spintronic applications. For this purpose, one needs good crystalline ferromagnetic (or ferrimagnetic) semiconductors with high Curie temperatures. Rutile CrO2 is a half-metallic spintronic material with Curie temperature 394 K and can have nearly full spin polarization at room temperature. Here, we find through first-principles investigation that when a biaxial compressive stress is applied on rutile CrO2, the density of states at the Fermi level decreases with the in-plane compressive strain, there is a structural phase transition to an orthorhombic phase at the strain of -5.6 % , and then appears an electronic phase transition to a semiconductor phase at -6.1 % . Further analysis shows that this structural transition, accompanying the tetragonal symmetry breaking, is induced by the stress-driven distortion and rotation of the oxygen octahedron of Cr, and the half-metal-semiconductor transition originates from the enhancement of the crystal field splitting due to the structural change. Importantly, our systematic total-energy comparison indicates the ferromagnetic Curie temperature remains almost independent of the strain, near 400 K. This biaxial stress can be realized by applying biaxial pressure or growing the CrO2 epitaxially on appropriate substrates. These results should be useful for realizing full (100%) spin polarization of controllable carriers as one uses in modern semiconductor technology.
Electronic in-plane symmetry breaking at field-tuned quantum criticality in CeRhIn5
Helm, T.; Bachmann, M.; Moll, P.J.W.
2017-03-23
Electronic nematicity appears in proximity to unconventional high-temperature superconductivity in the cuprates and iron-arsenides, yet whether they cooperate or compete is widely discussed. While many parallels are drawn between high-T c and heavy fermion superconductors, electronic nematicity was not believed to be an important aspect in their superconductivity. We have found evidence for a field-induced strong electronic in-plane symmetry breaking in the tetragonal heavy fermion superconductor CeRhIn 5. At ambient pressure and zero field, it hosts an anti-ferromagnetic order (AFM) of nominally localized 4f electrons at TN=3.8K(1). Moderate pressure of 17kBar suppresses the AFM order and a dome of superconductivitymore » appears around the quantum critical point. Similarly, a density-wave-like correlated phase appears centered around the field-induced AFM quantum critical point. In this phase, we have now observed electronic nematic behavior.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales-Cifuentes, Josue; Wang, Yilin; Reutt-Robey, Janice; Einstein, T. L.
2014-03-01
An effective pseudopotential mechanism for breaking the inherent sub-lattice symmetry of graphene has been studied using DFT calculations on hexagonal boron nitride. Electrical detection of CF3Cl phase transitions on graphene shows the existence of a commensurate ordered phase in which this can be tested. We study the electronic properties of this phase using VASP ver 5.3.3, with ab initio van der Waals density functionals (vdW-DF1 and vdW-DF2). Consistent with a physisorbed phase, binding energies and charge transfer per CF3Cl molecule are calculated to be on the order of 280meV and 0.01e, respectively. By exploring different coverages and orientations of this ordered phase we are able to open a band gap in some configurations; said gap is in the range of 8 to 80meV depending on the strength of the effective pseudopotential. Furthermore, we calculate the screening of these effects in bi-layer and tri-layer graphene. Work supported by NSF-MRSEC at UMD, grant DMR 05-20471 and NSF-CHE 13-05892.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Ki Hoon; Lee, Changhee; Jeong, Jae-Seung; Min, Hongki; Chung, Suk Bum
For the quantum well in an optical microcavity, the interplay of the Coulomb interaction and the electron-photon coupling can lead to the emergence of bosonic quasiparticles consisting of the exciton and the cavity photon known as polariton, which can form the Bose-Einstein condensate above a threshold density. Additional physics due to the nontrivial Berry phase comes into play when the quantum well consists of the gapped Dirac material such as the transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) MoS2 or WTe2. Specifically, in forming excitons, the electron-photon coupling from the optical selection rule due to the Berry phase competes against, rather than cooperates with, the Coulomb interaction. We find that this competition gives rise to the spontaneous breaking of the rotational symmetry in the polariton condensate and also drives topological phase transition, both novel features in polariton condensation. We also investigate the possible detection of this competition through photoluminescence. This work was supported in part by the Institute for Basic Science of Korea (IBS) under Grant IBS-R009-Y1 and by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under the Basic Science Research Program Grant No. 2015R1D1A1A01058071.
Adhikari, S K
2017-11-22
We study spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB), Josephson oscillation, and self-trapping in a stable, mobile, three-dimensional matter-wave spherical quantum ball self-bound by attractive two-body and repulsive three-body interactions. The SSB is realized by a parity-symmetric (a) one-dimensional (1D) double-well potential or (b) a 1D Gaussian potential, both along the z axis and no potential along the x and y axes. In the presence of each of these potentials, the symmetric ground state dynamically evolves into a doubly-degenerate SSB ground state. If the SSB ground state in the double well, predominantly located in the first well (z > 0), is given a small displacement, the quantum ball oscillates with a self-trapping in the first well. For a medium displacement one encounters an asymmetric Josephson oscillation. The asymmetric oscillation is a consequence of SSB. The study is performed by a variational and a numerical solution of a non-linear mean-field model with 1D parity-symmetric perturbations.
Blanco, Celia; Hochberg, David
2012-12-06
Experimental mechanisms that yield the growth of homochiral copolymers over their heterochiral counterparts have been advocated by Lahav and co-workers. These chiral amplification mechanisms proceed through racemic β-sheet-controlled polymerization operative in both surface crystallites as well as in solution. We develop two complementary theoretical models for these template-induced desymmetrization processes leading to multicomponent homochiral copolymers. First, assuming reversible β-sheet formation, the equilibrium between the free monomer pool and the polymer strand within the template is assumed. This yields coupled nonlinear mass balance equations whose solutions are used to calculate enantiomeric excesses and average lengths of the homochiral chains formed. The second approach is a probabilistic treatment based on random polymerization. The occlusion probabilities depend on the polymerization activation energies for each monomer species and are proportional to the concentrations of the monomers in solution in the constant pool approximation. The monomer occlusion probabilities are represented geometrically in terms of unit simplexes from which conditions for maximizing or minimizing the likelihood for mirror symmetry breaking can be determined.
Importance of d-wave contributions in the charge symmetry breaking reaction dd →4Heπ0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adlarson, P.; Augustyniak, W.; Bardan, W.; Bashkanov, M.; Bergmann, F. S.; Berłowski, M.; Bondar, A.; Büscher, M.; Calén, H.; Ciepał, I.; Clement, H.; Czerwiński, E.; Demmich, K.; Engels, R.; Erven, A.; Erven, W.; Eyrich, W.; Fedorets, P.; Föhl, K.; Fransson, K.; Goldenbaum, F.; Goswami, A.; Grigoryev, K.; Gullström, C.-O.; Hanhart, C.; Heijkenskjöld, L.; Hejny, V.; Hüsken, N.; Jarczyk, L.; Johansson, T.; Kamys, B.; Kemmerling, G.; Khatri, G.; Khoukaz, A.; Khreptak, O.; Kirillov, D. A.; Kistryn, S.; Kleines, H.; Kłos, B.; Krzemień, W.; Kulessa, P.; Kupść, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Lalwani, K.; Lersch, D.; Lorentz, B.; Magiera, A.; Maier, R.; Marciniewski, P.; Mariański, B.; Morsch, H.-P.; Moskal, P.; Ohm, H.; Parol, W.; Perez del Rio, E.; Piskunov, N. M.; Prasuhn, D.; Pszczel, D.; Pysz, K.; Pyszniak, A.; Ritman, J.; Roy, A.; Rudy, Z.; Rundel, O.; Sawant, S.; Schadmand, S.; Schätti-Ozerianska, I.; Sefzick, T.; Serdyuk, V.; Shwartz, B.; Sitterberg, K.; Skorodko, T.; Skurzok, M.; Smyrski, J.; Sopov, V.; Stassen, R.; Stepaniak, J.; Stephan, E.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockhorst, H.; Ströher, H.; Szczurek, A.; Trzciński, A.; Wolke, M.; Wrońska, A.; Wüstner, P.; Yamamoto, A.; Zabierowski, J.; Zieliński, M. J.; Złomańczuk, J.; Żuprański, P.; Żurek, M.; WASA-at-COSY Collaboration
2018-06-01
This letter reports a first quantitative analysis of the contribution of higher partial waves in the charge symmetry breaking reaction dd →4Heπ0 using the WASA-at-COSY detector setup at an excess energy of Q = 60MeV. The determined differential cross section can be parametrized as d σ /d Ω = a + bcos2 θ*, where θ* is the production angle of the pion in the center-of-mass coordinate system, and the results for the parameters are a = (1.55 ± 0.46(stat) + 0.32 - 0.8 (syst)) pb /sr and b = (13.1 ± 2.1 (stat)-2.7+1.0 (syst)) pb /sr. The data are compatible with vanishing p-waves and a sizable d-wave contribution. This finding should strongly constrain the contribution of the Δ isobar to the dd →4Heπ0 reaction and is, therefore, crucial for a quantitative understanding of quark mass effects in nuclear production reactions.
Bakke, K., E-mail: kbakke@fisica.ufpb.br; Belich, H., E-mail: belichjr@gmail.com
2016-10-15
Based on the Standard Model Extension, we investigate relativistic quantum effects on a scalar particle in backgrounds of the Lorentz symmetry violation defined by a tensor field. We show that harmonic-type and linear-type confining potentials can stem from Lorentz symmetry breaking effects, and thus, relativistic bound state solutions can be achieved. We first analyse a possible scenario of the violation of the Lorentz symmetry that gives rise to a harmonic-type potential. In the following, we analyse another possible scenario of the breaking of the Lorentz symmetry that induces both harmonic-type and linear-type confining potentials. In this second case, we alsomore » show that not all values of the parameter associated with the intensity of the electric field are permitted in the search for polynomial solutions to the radial equation, where the possible values of this parameter are determined by the quantum numbers of the system and the parameters associated with the violation of the Lorentz symmetry.« less
Trana, Ethan N; Nocek, Judith M; Woude, Jon Vander; Span, Ingrid; Smith, Stephen M; Rosenzweig, Amy C; Hoffman, Brian M
2016-01-01
We report rapid photo-initiated intra-complex electron transfer (ET) within a `charge-disproportionated' myoglobin (Mb) dimer with greatly enhanced affinity. Two mutually supportive Brownian Dynamics (BD) interface redesign strategies, one a new `heme-filtering' approach, were employed to `break the symmetry' of a Mb homodimer by pairing Mb constructs with complementary highly positive and highly negative net surface charges, introduced through D/E → K and K → E mutations, respectively. BD simulations using a previously developed positive mutant, Mb(+6) = Mb(D44K/D60K/E85K) led to construction of the complementary negative mutant Mb(−6) = Mb(K45E, K63E, K95E). Simulations predict the pair will form a well-defined complex comprising a tight ensemble of conformations with nearly parallel hemes, at a metal-metal distance ~ 18-19 Å. Upon expression and X-ray characterization of the partners, BD predictions were verified through ET photocycle measurements enabled by Zn-Deutoroporphyrin substitution, forming the [ZnMb(−6), Fe3+Mb(+6)] complex. Triplet ET quenching shows charge disproportionation increases the binding constant by no less than ~ 5 orders of magnitude relative to wild-type Mb values. All progress curves for charge separation (CS) and charge recombination (CR) are reproduced by a generalized kinetic model for the inter-protein ET photocycle. The intracomplex ET rate constants for both CS and CR are increased by over 5 orders of magnitude, and their viscosity independence is indicative of true inter-protein ET, rather than dynamic gating as seen in previous studies. The complex displays an unprecedented timecourse for CR of the CS intermediate I. After a laser flash, I forms through photo-induced CS, accumulates to a maximum concentration, then dies away through CR. However, before completely disappearing, I re-appears without another flash and reaches a second maximum before disappearing completely. PMID:27646786
Loiko, V. A., E-mail: loiko@ifanbel.bas-net.by; Konkolovich, A. V.; Zyryanov, V. Ya.
2017-03-15
We have described the method of analyzing and reporting on the results of calculation of the small-angle structure of radiation scattered by a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film with electrically controlled interfacial anchoring. The method is based on the interference approximation of the wave scattering theory and the hard disk model. Scattering from an individual liquid crystal droplet has been described using the anomalous diffraction approximation extended to the case of droplets with uniform and nonuniform interface anchoring at the droplet–polymer boundary. The director field structure in an individual droplet is determined from the solution of the problem of minimizing themore » volume density of the free energy. The electrooptical effect of symmetry breaking in the angular distribution of scattered radiation has been analyzed. This effect means that the intensities of radiation scattered within angles +θ{sub s} and–θ{sub s} relative to the direction of illumination in the scattering plane can be different. The effect is of the interference origin and is associated with asymmetry of the phase shift of the wavefront of an incident wave from individual parts of the droplet, which appears due to asymmetry of the director field structure in the droplet, caused by nonuniform anchoring of liquid crystal molecules with the polymer on its surface. This effect is analyzed in the case of normal illumination of the film depending on the interfacial anchoring at the liquid crystal–polymer interface, the orientation of the optical axes of droplets, their concentration, sizes, anisometry, and polydispersity.« less
Besson, Charlotte; Bernard, Fred; Corson, Francis; Rouault, Hervé; Reynaud, Elodie; Keder, Alyona; Mazouni, Khalil; Schweisguth, François
2015-04-20
During development, cell-fate diversity can result from the unequal segregation of fate determinants at mitosis. Polarization of the mother cell is essential for asymmetric cell division (ACD). It often involves the formation of a cortical domain containing the PAR complex proteins Par3, Par6, and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). In the fly notum, sensory organ precursor cells (SOPs) divide asymmetrically within the plane of the epithelium and along the body axis to generate two distinct cells. Fate asymmetry depends on the asymmetric localization of the PAR complex. In the absence of planar cell polarity (PCP), SOPs divide with a random planar orientation but still asymmetrically, showing that PCP is dispensable for PAR asymmetry at mitosis. To study when and how the PAR complex localizes asymmetrically, we have used a quantitative imaging approach to measure the planar polarization of the proteins Bazooka (Baz, fly Par3), Par6, and aPKC in living pupae. By using imaging of functional GFP-tagged proteins with image processing and computational modeling, we find that Baz, Par6, and aPKC become planar polarized prior to mitosis in a manner independent of the AuroraA kinase and that PCP is required for the planar polarization of Baz, Par6, and aPKC during interphase. This indicates that a "mitosis rescue" mechanism establishes asymmetry at mitosis in PCP mutants. This study therefore identifies PCP as the initial symmetry-breaking signal for the planar polarization of PAR proteins in asymmetrically dividing SOPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baillie-Johnson, Peter; van den Brink, Susanne Carina; Balayo, Tina; Turner, David Andrew; Martinez Arias, Alfonso
2015-11-24
We have developed a protocol improving current Embryoid Body (EB) culture which allows the study of self-organization, symmetry breaking, axial elongation and cell fate specification using aggregates of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) in suspension culture. Small numbers of mESCs are aggregated in basal medium for 48 hr in non-tissue-culture-treated, U-bottomed 96-well plates, after which they are competent to respond to experimental signals. Following treatment, these aggregates begin to show signs of polarized gene expression and gradually alter their morphology from a spherical mass of cells to an elongated, well organized structure in the absence of external asymmetry cues. These structures are not only able to display markers of the three germ layers, but actively display gastrulation-like movements, evidenced by a directional dislodgement of individual cells from the aggregate, which crucially occurs at one region of the elongated structure. This protocol provides a detailed method for the reproducible formation of these aggregates, their stimulation with signals such as Wnt/β-Catenin activation and BMP inhibition and their analysis by single time-point or time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. In addition, we describe modifications to current whole-mount mouse embryo staining procedures for immunocytochemical analysis of specific markers within fixed aggregates. The changes in morphology, gene expression and length of the aggregates can be quantitatively measured, providing information on how signals can alter axial fates. It is envisaged that this system can be applied both to the study of early developmental events such as axial development and organization, and more broadly, the processes of self-organization and cellular decision-making. It may also provide a suitable niche for the generation of cell types present in the embryo that are unobtainable from conventional adherent culture such as spinal cord and motor neurones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Achasov, N. N.; Shestakov, G. N.
2018-03-01
At very high energies, and in the central region (xF≃0 ), the double-Pomeron exchange mechanism gives the dominant contribution to the production of hadrons with the positive C parity and isospin I =0 . Therefore, the observation of resonances in the states with I =1 will be indicative of their production or decay with the isotopic symmetry breaking. Here, we bear in mind the cases of the anomalous breaking of the isotopic symmetry, i.e., when the cross section of the process breaking the isospin is not of the order of 10-4 of the cross section of the allowed process but of the order of 1%. The paper draws attention to the reactions p p →p (f1(1285 )/f1(1420 ))p →p (π+π-π0)p and p p →p (K K ¯)p →p (a00(980 ))p →p (η π0)p , in which a similar situation can be realized, owing to the K K ¯ loop mechanisms of the breaking of isotopic symmetry. We note that there is no visible background in the π+π-π0 and η π0 channels. Observation of the process p p →p (f1(1285 ))p →p (π+π-π0)p would be a confirmation of the first results from the VES and BESIII detectors, indicating the very large isospin breaking in the decay f1(1285 ))→π+π-π0.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adler, Stephen L.
2017-07-01
We continue our study of Coleman-Weinberg symmetry breaking induced by a third rank antisymmetric tensor scalar, in the context of the SU(8) model (Adler 2014 Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 29 1450130) we proposed earlier. We focus in this paper on qualitative features that will determine whether the model can make contact with the observed particle spectrum. We discuss the mechanism for giving the spin \\frac{3}{2} field a mass by the BEH mechanism, and analyze the remaining massless spin \\frac{1}{2} fermions, the global chiral symmetries, and the running couplings after symmetry breaking. We note that the smallest gluon mass matrix eigenvalue has an eigenvector suggestive of U(1) B-L , and conjecture that the theory runs to an infrared fixed point at which there is a massless gluon with 3 to -1 ratios in generator components. Assuming this, we discuss a mechanism for making contact with the standard model, based on a conjectured asymmetric breaking of Sp(4) to SU(2) subgroups, one of which is the electroweak SU(2), and the other of which is a ‘technicolor’ group that binds the original SU(8) model fermions, which play the role of ‘preons’, into composites. Quarks can emerge as 5 preon composites and leptons as 3 preon composites, with consequent stability of the proton against decay to a single lepton plus a meson. A composite Higgs boson can emerge as a two preon composite. Since anomaly matching for the relevant conserved global symmetry current is not obeyed by three fermion families, emergence of three composite families requires formation of a Goldstone boson with quantum numbers matching this current, which can be a light dark matter candidate.
Altmeyer, S; Do, Y; Marques, F; Lopez, J M
2012-10-01
The nonlinear dynamics of Taylor-Couette flow in a small-aspect-ratio wide-gap annulus in the counterrotating regime is investigated by solving the full three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The system is invariant under arbitrary rotations about the axis, reflection about the annulus midplane, and time translations. A systematic investigation is presented both in terms of the flow physics elucidated from the numerical simulations and from a dynamical system perspective provided by equivariant normal form theory. The dynamics are primarily associated with the behavior of the jet of angular momentum that emerges from the inner cylinder boundary layer at about the midplane. The sequence of bifurcations as the differential rotation is increased consists of an axisymmetric Hopf bifurcation breaking the reflection symmetry of the basic state leading to an axisymmetric limit cycle with a half-period-flip spatiotemporal symmetry. This undergoes a Hopf bifurcation breaking axisymmetry, leading to quasiperiodic solutions evolving on a 2-torus that is setwise symmetric. These undergo a further Hopf bifurcation, introducing a third incommensurate frequency leading to a 3-torus that is also setwise symmetric. On the 3-torus, as the differential rotation is further increased, a saddle-node-invariant-circle bifurcation takes place, destroying the 3-torus and leaving a pair of symmetrically related 2-tori states on which all symmetries of the system have been broken.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Ludi; Xin, Yan; Zhu, Huiwen; Xu, Hong; Luo, Sijun; Talbayev, Diyar; Stanislavchuk, T. N.; Sirenko, A. A.; Mao, Zhiqiang
2014-03-01
Materials with colossal permittivity (CP) at room temperature hold tremendous promise in modern microelectronics as well as high-energy-density storage applications. Despite several proposed mechanisms that lead torecent discoveries of a series of new CP materials such as Nb, In co-doped TiO2 and CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics, it is imperative to find other approaches which can further guide the search for new CP materials. In this talk, we will demonstrate a new mechanism for CP: the breaking of mirror reflection symmetry of lattice can cause CP. This mechanism was revealed in a new layered iridate Ba7Ir3O13+x (BIO) thin film we recently discovered. Structural characterization of BIO films show that its mirror reflection symmetry is broken along b-axis, but preserved along a- and c-axes. Dielectric property measurements of BIO films at room temperature show a CP (103-10<4) along the in-plane direction, but a much smaller permittivity (10- 20) along the c-axis, in the 102- 106 Hz frequency range. Such unusually large anisotropy in permittivity testifies to the significant role of the structural in-plane mirror reflection symmetry breaking in inducing CP. This work is supported by DOD-ARO under Grant No. W911NF0910530.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Man; Lou, Sen Yue
2018-05-01
In natural and social science, many events happened at different space-times may be closely correlated. Two events, A (Alice) and B (Bob) are defined as correlated if one event is determined by another, say, B = f ˆ A for suitable f ˆ operators. A nonlocal AB-KdV system with shifted-parity (Ps, parity with a shift), delayed time reversal (Td, time reversal with a delay) symmetry where B =Ps ˆ Td ˆ A is constructed directly from the normal KdV equation to describe two-area physical event. The exact solutions of the AB-KdV system, including PsTd invariant and PsTd symmetric breaking solutions are shown by different methods. The PsTd invariant solution show that the event happened at A will happen also at B. These solutions, such as single soliton solutions, infinitely many singular soliton solutions, soliton-cnoidal wave interaction solutions, and symmetry reduction solutions etc., show the AB-KdV system possesses rich structures. Also, a special Bäcklund transformation related to residual symmetry is presented via the localization of the residual symmetry to find interaction solutions between the solitons and other types of the AB-KdV system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belich, H.; Bakke, K.
2015-07-01
We start by investigating the arising of a spin-orbit coupling and a Darwin-type term that stem from Lorentz symmetry breaking effects in the CPT-odd sector of the Standard Model Extension. Then, we establish a possible scenario of the violation of the Lorentz symmetry that gives rise to a linear confining potential and an effective electric field in which determines the spin-orbit coupling for a neutral particle analogous to the Rashba coupling [E. I. Rashba, Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 1109 (1960)]. Finally, we confine the neutral particle to a quantum dot [W.-C. Tan and J. C. Inkson, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1635 (1996)] and analyze the influence of the linear confining potential and the spin-orbit coupling on the spectrum of energy.
Barker, J A T; Singh, D; Thamizhavel, A; Hillier, A D; Lees, M R; Balakrishnan, G; Paul, D McK; Singh, R P
2015-12-31
The superconductivity of the noncentrosymmetric compound La(7)Ir(3) is investigated using muon spin rotation and relaxation. Zero-field measurements reveal the presence of spontaneous static or quasistatic magnetic fields below the superconducting transition temperature T(c)=2.25 K-a clear indication that the superconducting state breaks time-reversal symmetry. Furthermore, transverse-field rotation measurements suggest that the superconducting gap is isotropic and that the pairing symmetry of the superconducting electrons is predominantly s wave with an enhanced binding strength. The results indicate that the superconductivity in La(7)Ir(3) may be unconventional and paves the way for further studies of this family of materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khunjua, T. G.; Klimenko, K. G.; Zhokhov, R. N.
2018-03-01
In this paper the phase structure of dense quark matter has been investigated at zero temperature in the presence of baryon, isospin and chiral isospin chemical potentials in the framework of massless (3 +1 )-dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with two quark flavors. It has been shown that in the large-Nc limit (Nc is the number of colors of quarks) there exists a duality correspondence between the chiral symmetry breaking phase and the charged pion condensation one. The key conclusion of our studies is the fact that chiral isospin chemical potential generates charged pion condensation in dense quark matter with isotopic asymmetry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ripoche, J.; Lacroix, D.; Gambacurta, D.; Ebran, J.-P.; Duguet, T.
2017-01-01
Background: Ab initio many-body methods have been developed over the past ten years to address mid-mass nuclei. In their best current level of implementation, their accuracy is of the order of a few percent error on the ground-state correlation energy. Recently implemented variants of these methods are operating a breakthrough in the description of medium-mass open-shell nuclei at a polynomial computational cost while putting state-of-the-art models of internucleon interactions to the test. Purpose: As progress in the design of internucleon interactions is made, and as questions one wishes to answer are refined in connection with increasingly available experimental data, further efforts must be made to tailor many-body methods that can reach an even higher precision for an even larger number of observable quantum states or nuclei. The objective of the present work is to contribute to such a quest by designing and testing a new many-body scheme. Methods: We formulate a truncated configuration-interaction method that consists of diagonalizing the Hamiltonian in a highly truncated subspace of the total N -body Hilbert space. The reduced Hilbert space is generated via the particle-number projected BCS state along with projected seniority-zero two- and four-quasiparticle excitations. Furthermore, the extent by which the underlying BCS state breaks U(1 ) symmetry is optimized in the presence of the projected two- and four-quasiparticle excitations. This constitutes an extension of the so-called restricted variation after projection method in use within the frame of multireference energy density functional calculations. The quality of the newly designed method is tested against exact solutions of the so-called attractive pairing Hamiltonian problem. Results: By construction, the method reproduces exact results for N =2 and N =4 . For N =(8 ,16 ,20 ) , the error in the ground-state correlation energy is less than (0.006%, 0.1%, 0.15%) across the entire range of
Takatsuka, Kazuo
2017-02-28
The Longuet-Higgins (Berry) phase arising from nonadiabatic dynamics and the Aharonov-Bohm phase associated with the dynamics of a charged particle in the electromagnetic vector potential are well known to be individually a manifestation of a class of the so-called geometrical phase. We herein discuss another similarity between the force working on a charged particle moving in a magnetic field, the Lorentz force, and a force working on nuclei while passing across a region where they have a strong quantum mechanical kinematic (nonadiabatic) coupling with electrons in a molecule. This kinematic force is indeed akin to the Lorentz force in that its magnitude is proportional to the velocity of the relevant nuclei and works in the direction perpendicular to its translational motion. Therefore this Lorentz-like nonadiabatic force is realized only in space of more or equal to three dimensions, thereby highlighting a truly multi-dimensional effect of nonadiabatic interaction. We investigate its physical significance qualitatively in the context of breaking of molecular spatial symmetry, which is not seen otherwise without this force. This particular symmetry breaking is demonstrated in application to a coplanar collision between a planar molecule and an atom sharing the same plane. We show that the atom is guided by this force to the direction out from the plane, resulting in a configuration that distinguishes one side of the mirror plane from the other. This can serve as a trigger for the dynamics towards molecular chirality.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arima, Taka-Hisa
2014-03-01
Pyrochlore-type 5d transition-metal oxide compounds Cd2Os2O7 and R2Ir2O7 (R =rare earth) undergo a metal-insulator transition accompanied by a magnetic transition. Recently, the magnetic structures of Cd2Os2O7 and Eu2Ir2O7 were investigated by means of resonant x-ray magnetic scattering. The x-ray data indicated the all-in/all-out type magnetic order. The all-in/all-out order breaks the time-reversal symmetry, while the spontaneous magnetization is essentially absent. The magnetic order can be viewed as ferroic magnetic octupolar order. The magnetic order is expected to provide several unique physical properties like quadratic magnetization. linear magneto-capacitance, linear magneto-resistance, linear magneto-mechanical coupling and so on. The symmetry breaking results in two non-equivalent domains, ``all-in/all-out'' and ``all-out/all-in.'' Interestingly, some theoretical works predict that a peculiar metallic state would appear on the domain wall. The observation and control of the domain distribution are essential for studying verious exotic physical responses. We have developed an x-ray technique for domain imaging and started studying the effects of external stimuli on the domain distribution. This work was performed in collaboration with S. Tardif, S. Takeshita, H. Ohsumi, D. Uematsu, H. Sagayama, J. J. Ishikawa, S. Nakatsuji, J. Yamaura, and Z. Hiroi.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyland, B.; Svensson, C. E.; Ball, G. C.; Leslie, J. R.; Achtzehn, T.; Albers, D.; Andreoiu, C.; Bricault, P.; Churchman, R.; Cross, D.; Dombsky, M.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Geppert, C.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Hanemaayer, V.; Lassen, J.; Lavoie, J. P.; Melconian, D.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Pearson, M. R.; Phillips, A. A.; Schumaker, M. A.; Smith, M. B.; Towner, I. S.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Wendt, K.; Zganjar, E. F.
2006-09-01
A high-precision branching ratio measurement for the superallowed β+ decay of Ga62 was performed at the Isotope Separator and Accelerator radioactive ion beam facility. Nineteen γ rays emitted following β+ decay of Ga62 were identified, establishing the dominant superallowed branching ratio to be (99.861±0.011)%. Combined with recent half-life and Q-value measurements, this branching ratio yields a superallowed ft value of 3075.6±1.4s for Ga62 decay. These results demonstrate the feasibility of high-precision superallowed branching ratio measurements in the A≥62 mass region and provide the first stringent tests of the large isospin-symmetry-breaking effects predicted for these decays.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bozkaya, Uǧur
2011-12-01
In this research, orbital-optimized third-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (OMP3) and its spin-component and spin-opposite scaled variants (SCS-OMP3 and SOS-OMP3) are introduced. Using a Lagrangian-based approach, an efficient, quadratically convergent algorithm for variational optimization of the molecular orbitals (MOs) for third-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP3) is presented. Explicit equations for response density matrices, the MO gradient, and Hessian are reported in spin-orbital form. The OMP3, SCS-OMP3, and SOS-OMP3 approaches are compared with the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), MP3, coupled-cluster doubles (CCD), optimized-doubles (OD), and coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) methods. All these methods are applied to the O4 +, O3, and seven diatomic molecules. Results demonstrate that the OMP3 and its variants provide significantly better vibrational frequencies than MP3, CCSD, and OD for the molecules where the symmetry-breaking problems are observed. For O4 +, the OMP3 prediction, 1343 cm-1, for ω6 (b3u) mode, where symmetry-breaking appears, is even better than presumably more reliable methods such as Brueckner doubles (BD), 1194 cm-1, and OD, 1193 cm-1, methods (the experimental value is 1320 cm-1). For O3, the predictions of SCS-OMP3 (1143 cm-1) and SOS-OMP3 (1165 cm-1) are remarkably better than the more robust OD method (1282 cm-1); the experimental value is 1089 cm-1. For the seven diatomics, again the SCS-OMP3 and SOS-OMP3 methods provide the lowest average errors, |Δωe| = 44 and |Δωe| = 35 cm-1, respectively, while for OD, |Δωe| = 161 cm-1and CCSD |Δωe| = 106 cm-1. Hence, the OMP3 and especially its spin-scaled variants perform much better than the MP3, CCSD, and more robust OD approaches for considered test cases. Therefore, considering both the computational cost and the reliability, SCS-OMP3 and SOS-OMP3 appear to be the best methods for the symmetry-breaking cases, based on
Bozkaya, Uğur
2011-12-14
In this research, orbital-optimized third-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (OMP3) and its spin-component and spin-opposite scaled variants (SCS-OMP3 and SOS-OMP3) are introduced. Using a Lagrangian-based approach, an efficient, quadratically convergent algorithm for variational optimization of the molecular orbitals (MOs) for third-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP3) is presented. Explicit equations for response density matrices, the MO gradient, and Hessian are reported in spin-orbital form. The OMP3, SCS-OMP3, and SOS-OMP3 approaches are compared with the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), MP3, coupled-cluster doubles (CCD), optimized-doubles (OD), and coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) methods. All these methods are applied to the O(4)(+), O(3), and seven diatomic molecules. Results demonstrate that the OMP3 and its variants provide significantly better vibrational frequencies than MP3, CCSD, and OD for the molecules where the symmetry-breaking problems are observed. For O(4)(+), the OMP3 prediction, 1343 cm(-1), for ω(6) (b(3u)) mode, where symmetry-breaking appears, is even better than presumably more reliable methods such as Brueckner doubles (BD), 1194 cm(-1), and OD, 1193 cm(-1), methods (the experimental value is 1320 cm(-1)). For O(3), the predictions of SCS-OMP3 (1143 cm(-1)) and SOS-OMP3 (1165 cm(-1)) are remarkably better than the more robust OD method (1282 cm(-1)); the experimental value is 1089 cm(-1). For the seven diatomics, again the SCS-OMP3 and SOS-OMP3 methods provide the lowest average errors, ∣Δω(e)∣ = 44 and ∣Δω(e)∣ = 35 cm(-1), respectively, while for OD, ∣Δω(e)∣ = 161 cm(-1)and CCSD ∣Δω(e)∣ = 106 cm(-1). Hence, the OMP3 and especially its spin-scaled variants perform much better than the MP3, CCSD, and more robust OD approaches for considered test cases. Therefore, considering both the computational cost and the reliability, SCS-OMP3 and SOS-OMP3 appear to be the
Ievlev, Anton; Alikin, Denis O.; Morozovska, A. N.; ...
2014-12-15
Polarization switching in ferroelectric materials is governed by a delicate interplay between bulk polarization dynamics and screening processes at surfaces and domain walls. Here we explore the mechanism of tip-induced polarization switching in the non-polar cuts of uniaxial ferroelectrics. In this case, in-plane component of polarization vector switches, allowing for detailed observations of resultant domain morphologies. We observe surprising variability of resultant domain morphologies stemming from fundamental instability of formed charged domain wall and associated electric frustration. In particular, we demonstrate that controlling vertical tip position allows the polarity of the switching to be controlled. This represents very unusual formmore » of symmetry breaking where mechanical motion in vertical direction controls the lateral domain growth. The implication of these studies for ferroelectric devices and domain wall electronics are discussed.« less
Kato, Tomohiko; Saita, Takahiro
2011-03-16
The magnetism of Pd(1-x)Mn(x) is investigated theoretically. A localized spin model for Mn spins that interact with short-range antiferromagnetic interactions and long-range ferromagnetic interactions via itinerant d electrons is set up, with no adjustable parameters. A multicanonical Monte Carlo simulation, combined with a procedure of symmetry breaking, is employed to discriminate between the ferromagnetic and spin glass orders. The transition temperature and the low-temperature phase are determined from the temperature variation of the specific heat and the probability distributions of the ferromagnetic order parameter and the spin glass order parameter at different concentrations. The calculation results reveal that only the ferromagnetic phase exists at x < 0.02, that only the spin glass phase exists at x > 0.04, and that the two phases coexist at intermediate concentrations. This result agrees semi-quantitatively with experimental results.
Mikhaylov, Alexander; Uudsemaa, Merle; Trummal, Aleksander; Arias, Eduardo; Moggio, Ivana; Ziolo, Ronald; Cooper, Thomas M; Rebane, Aleksander
2018-04-19
Change of the permanent molecular electric dipole moment, Δμ, in a series of nominally centrosymmetric and noncentrosymmteric ferrocene-phenyleneethynylene oligomers was estimated by measuring the two-photon absorption cross-section spectra of the lower energy metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transitions using femtosecond nonlinear transmission method and was found to vary in the range up to 12 D, with the highest value corresponding to the most nonsymmetric system. Calculations of the Δμ performed by the TD-DFT method show quantitative agreement with the experimental values and reveal that facile rotation of the ferrocene moieties relative to the organic ligand breaks the ground-state inversion symmetry in the nominally symmetric structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okuma, Ryutaro; Yajima, Takeshi; Nishio-Hamane, Daisuke; Okubo, Tsuyoshi; Hiroi, Zenji
2017-03-01
Novel magnetic phases are expected to occur in highly frustrated spin systems. Here, we study the structurally perfect kagome antiferromagnet CdC u3(OH) 6(NO3)2.H2O by magnetization, magnetic torque, and heat capacity measurements using single crystals. An antiferromagnetic order accompanied by a small spontaneous magnetization that surprisingly is confined in the kagome plane sets in at TN˜4 K , well below the nearest-neighbor exchange interaction J /kB=45 K . This suggests that a unique "q =0 " type 120∘ spin structure with "negative" (downward) vector chirality, which breaks the underlying threefold rotational symmetry of the kagome lattice and thus allows a spin canting within the plane, is exceptionally realized in this compound rather than a common one with "positive" (upward) vector chirality. The origin is discussed in terms of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.
Biava, Pier Mario; Burigana, Fabio; Germano, Roberto; Kurian, Philip; Verzegnassi, Claudio; Vitiello, Giuseppe
2017-09-20
A long history of research has pursued the use of embryonic factors isolated during cell differentiation processes for the express purpose of transforming cancer cells back to healthy phenotypes. Recent results have clarified that the substances present at different stages of cell differentiation-which we call stem cell differentiation stage factors (SCDSFs)-are proteins with low molecular weight and nucleic acids that regulate genomic expression. The present review summarizes how these substances, taken at different stages of cellular maturation, are able to retard proliferation of many human tumor cell lines and thereby reprogram cancer cells to healthy phenotypes. The model presented here is a quantum field theory (QFT) model in which SCDSFs are able to trigger symmetry breaking processes during cancer development. These symmetry breaking processes, which lie at the root of many phenomena in elementary particle physics and condensed matter physics, govern the phase transitions of totipotent cells to higher degrees of diversity and order, resulting in cell differentiation. In cancers, which share many genomic and metabolic similarities with embryonic stem cells, stimulated re-differentiation often signifies the phenotypic reversion back to health and non-proliferation. In addition to acting on key components of the cellular cycle, SCDSFs are able to reprogram cancer cells by delicately influencing the cancer microenvironment, modulating the electrochemistry and thus the collective electrodynamic behaviors between dipole networks in biomacromolecules and the interstitial water field. Coherent effects in biological water, which are derived from a dissipative QFT framework, may offer new diagnostic and therapeutic targets at a systemic level, before tumor instantiation occurs in specific tissues or organs. Thus, by including the environment as an essential component of our model, we may push the prevailing paradigm of mutation-driven oncogenesis toward a closer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
KarÄ¾ová, Katarína; Strečka, Jozef; Lyra, Marcelo L.
2018-03-01
The spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg pentagonal chain is investigated with use of the star-triangle transformation, which establishes a rigorous mapping equivalence with the effective spin-1/2 Ising zigzag ladder. The investigated model has a rich ground-state phase diagram including two spectacular quantum antiferromagnetic ground states with a fourfold broken symmetry. It is demonstrated that these long-period quantum ground states arise due to a competition between the effective next-nearest-neighbor and nearest-neighbor interactions of the corresponding spin-1/2 Ising zigzag ladder. The concurrence is used to quantify the bipartite entanglement between the nearest-neighbor Heisenberg spin pairs, which are quantum-mechanically entangled in two quantum ground states with or without spontaneously broken symmetry. The pair correlation functions between the nearest-neighbor Heisenberg spins as well as the next-nearest-neighbor and nearest-neighbor Ising spins were investigated with the aim to bring insight into how a relevant short-range order manifests itself at low enough temperatures. It is shown that the specific heat displays temperature dependencies with either one or two separate round maxima.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadrzadeh, M.; Langari, A.
2018-06-01
We study the effect of quantum fluctuations by means of a transverse magnetic field (Γ) on the highly degenerate ground state of antiferromagnetic J1 -J2 Ising model on the square lattice, at the limit J2 /J1 = 0.5 . We show that harmonic quantum fluctuations based on single spin flips can not lift such degeneracy, however an-harmonic quantum fluctuations based on multi spin cluster flip excitations lift the degeneracy toward a unique ground state with string-valence bond solid (VBS) nature. A cluster operator formalism has been implemented to incorporate an-harmonic quantum fluctuations. We show that cluster-type excitations of the model lead not only to lower the excitation energy compared with a single-spin flip but also to lift the extensive degeneracy in favor of a string-VBS state, which breaks lattice rotational symmetry with only two fold degeneracy. The tendency toward the broken symmetry state is justified by numerical exact diagonalization. Moreover, we introduce a map to find the relation between the present model on the checkerboard and square lattices.
Dmitrasinovic, V.; Toki, H.; Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047
2006-02-15
We make a critical comparison of several versions of instanton-induced interactions present in the literature, all based on ITEP group's extension to three colours and flavours of 't Hooft's effective lagrangian, with the predictions of the phenomenological Kobayashi-Kondo-Maskawa (KKM) chiral quark lagrangian. We analyze the effects of all versions of the effective U {sub A} (1) symmetry breaking interactions on light hadron spectra in the non-relativistic constituent quark model. We show that the KKMT force, when used as a residual hyperfine interaction reproduces the correct ordering of pseudoscalar and vector mesons even without explicitly taking chiral symmetry into account. Moreover,more » the nucleon spectra are also correctly reproduced, only the Roper resonance remains too high, albeit lower than usual, at 1660 MeV. The latter's lower than expected mass is not due to a small excitation energy, as in the Glozman-Riska (GR) model, but to a combination of colour, flavour, and spatial wave function properties that enhance the relevant matrix elements. The KKMT interaction explicitly depends on flavour and spin of the quarks, but unlike the GR flavour-spin one it has a firm footing in QCD. In the process we provide several technical advances, in particular we show the first explicit derivation of the three-body Fierz transformation and apply it to the KKM interaction. We also discuss the ambiguities associated with the colour degree of freedom.« less
Webber, C J
2001-05-01
This article shows analytically that single-cell learning rules that give rise to oriented and localized receptive fields, when their synaptic weights are randomly and independently initialized according to a plausible assumption of zero prior information, will generate visual codes that are invariant under two-dimensional translations, rotations, and scale magnifications, provided that the statistics of their training images are sufficiently invariant under these transformations. Such codes span different image locations, orientations, and size scales with equal economy. Thus, single-cell rules could account for the spatial scaling property of the cortical simple-cell code. This prediction is tested computationally by training with natural scenes; it is demonstrated that a single-cell learning rule can give rise to simple-cell receptive fields spanning the full range of orientations, image locations, and spatial frequencies (except at the extreme high and low frequencies at which the scale invariance of the statistics of digitally sampled images must ultimately break down, because of the image boundary and the finite pixel resolution). Thus, no constraint on completeness, or any other coupling between cells, is necessary to induce the visual code to span wide ranges of locations, orientations, and size scales. This prediction is made using the theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking, which we have previously shown can also explain the data-driven self-organization of a wide variety of transformation invariances in neurons' responses, such as the translation invariance of complex cell response.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brading, Katherine; Castellani, Elena
2010-01-01
Preface; Copyright acknowledgements; List of contributors; 1. Introduction; Part I. Continuous Symmetries: 2. Classic texts: extracts from Weyl and Wigner; 3. Review paper: On the significance of continuous symmetry to the foundations of physics C. Martin; 4. The philosophical roots of the gauge principle: Weyl and transcendental phenomenological idealism T. Ryckman; 5. Symmetries and Noether's theorems K. A. Brading and H. R. Brown; 6. General covariance, gauge theories, and the Kretschmann objection J. Norton; 7. The interpretation of gauge symmetry M. Redhead; 8. Tracking down gauge: an ode to the constrained Hamiltonian formalism J. Earman; 9. Time-dependent symmetries: the link between gauge symmetries and indeterminism D. Wallace; 10. A fourth way to the Aharanov-Bohm effect A. Nounou; Part II. Discrete Symmetries: 11. Classic texts: extracts from Lebniz, Kant and Black; 12. Review paper: Understanding permutation symmetry S. French and D. Rickles; 13. Quarticles and the identity of discernibles N. Hugget; 14. Review paper: Handedness, parity violation, and the reality of space O. Pooley; 15. Mirror symmetry: what is it for a relational space to be orientable? N. Huggett; 16. Physics and Leibniz's principles S. Saunders; Part III. Symmetry Breaking: 17: Classic texts: extracts from Curie and Weyl; 18. Extract from G. Jona-Lasinio: Cross-fertilization in theoretical physics: the case of condensed matter and particle physics G. Jona-Lasinio; 19. Review paper: On the meaning of symmetry breaking E. Castellani; 20. Rough guide to spontaneous symmetry breaking J. Earman; 21. Spontaneous symmetry breaking: theoretical arguments and philosophical problems M. Morrison; Part IV. General Interpretative Issues: 22. Classic texts: extracts from Wigner; 23. Symmetry as a guide to superfluous theoretical structure J. Ismael and B. van Fraassen; 24. Notes on symmetries G. Belot; 25. Symmetry, objectivity, and design P. Kosso; 26. Symmetry and equivalence E. Castellani.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brading, Katherine; Castellani, Elena
2003-12-01
Preface; Copyright acknowledgements; List of contributors; 1. Introduction; Part I. Continuous Symmetries: 2. Classic texts: extracts from Weyl and Wigner; 3. Review paper: On the significance of continuous symmetry to the foundations of physics C. Martin; 4. The philosophical roots of the gauge principle: Weyl and transcendental phenomenological idealism T. Ryckman; 5. Symmetries and Noether's theorems K. A. Brading and H. R. Brown; 6. General covariance, gauge theories, and the Kretschmann objection J. Norton; 7. The interpretation of gauge symmetry M. Redhead; 8. Tracking down gauge: an ode to the constrained Hamiltonian formalism J. Earman; 9. Time-dependent symmetries: the link between gauge symmetries and indeterminism D. Wallace; 10. A fourth way to the Aharanov-Bohm effect A. Nounou; Part II. Discrete Symmetries: 11. Classic texts: extracts from Lebniz, Kant and Black; 12. Review paper: Understanding permutation symmetry S. French and D. Rickles; 13. Quarticles and the identity of discernibles N. Hugget; 14. Review paper: Handedness, parity violation, and the reality of space O. Pooley; 15. Mirror symmetry: what is it for a relational space to be orientable? N. Huggett; 16. Physics and Leibniz's principles S. Saunders; Part III. Symmetry Breaking: 17: Classic texts: extracts from Curie and Weyl; 18. Extract from G. Jona-Lasinio: Cross-fertilization in theoretical physics: the case of condensed matter and particle physics G. Jona-Lasinio; 19. Review paper: On the meaning of symmetry breaking E. Castellani; 20. Rough guide to spontaneous symmetry breaking J. Earman; 21. Spontaneous symmetry breaking: theoretical arguments and philosophical problems M. Morrison; Part IV. General Interpretative Issues: 22. Classic texts: extracts from Wigner; 23. Symmetry as a guide to superfluous theoretical structure J. Ismael and B. van Fraassen; 24. Notes on symmetries G. Belot; 25. Symmetry, objectivity, and design P. Kosso; 26. Symmetry and equivalence E. Castellani.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lioi, David B.
In this thesis I investigate the relationship between the charge density wave (CDW) phase and superconductivity in the T-x phase diagram of Cu xTiSe2. I find that the incommensurate (IC)-CDW is related to the superconducting phase due to the fact that the former effectively isolates the CDW subsystem degrees of freedom. This increases the symmetry of the electronic populations within the IC-CDW band structure and leave them susceptible to internal instabilities, which in turn give rise to the superconducting phase. Because the correlated properties of these solid-state phases of matter are highly dependent on the crystalline quality of our samples, I also detail the growth of pristine single crystals and utilize several characterization techniques to aid in this purpose. In this portion of the thesis the single crystals are deliberately injected with heat and monitored to deduce the formation of defects through selenium migration. I also confirm the existence of chiral symmetry breaking in the bulk commensurate (C)-CDW phase in TiSe2 brought about by the cooperation of phonon and exciton degrees of freedom, and also observe chiral character in fluctuations above TCDW. These thermal fluctuations were observed up to 80 K above TCDW via optical signatures of the folded Se-4p band and Raman signatures of the soft L1- phonon mode. The suppression of the excitonic degree of freedom with Cu intercalation brings about a quantum phase transition into the IC-CDW at x=0.04. Large quantum fluctuations of the folded Se-4p electronic band were observed at the quantum phase transition where measurements of the phonon system show the onset of incommensuration in the CDW super-lattice. Optical measurements demonstrate a large decoupling of the electron-phonon degrees of freedom within the electronic band structure of the IC-CDW subsystem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battistel, O. A.; Pimenta, T. H.; Dallabona, G.
2016-10-01
In the present work we consider the phenomenological consequences of a predictive formulation of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model at the one loop level of perturbative calculations. The investigation reported here can be considered as an extension of previously made ones on the same issue. In the study made in this work we have included vector and tensor couplings, simultaneously, as well as S U (2 ) isospin symmetry breaking terms. As a consequence of the last ingredient mentioned, there are different masses in the model amplitudes. In spite of this, within the context of the adopted procedure, we verify that it is possible to eliminate unphysical dependencies on the arbitrary choices for the routing of internal lines momenta as well as Ward identities violating contributions and scale ambiguous terms, from the corresponding one loop amplitudes, through the simple and universal Consistency Relations. The total content of divergence of the amplitudes is reduced to only two basic divergent objects. They are related to two inputs of the model in a way that, due to their scale properties, an unique arbitrariness remains. However, due to the critical condition found in the mechanism which generates the constituent quark mass, within our approach, this arbitrariness is also removed turning the model predictive in the sense that its phenomenological consequences is not dependent in possible choices made in intermediary steps of the calculations, as occurs in usual treatments. In this scenario, we investigate the most typical static properties of the scalar, pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector mesons at low-energy. Special attention is given to the consequences of the S U (2 ) isospin symmetry breaking for the phenomenological predictions. The implications of the tensor couplings for the model observables, which can be considered an original contribution of the present work, at the level of the content and not only in the form, is analyzed in a detailed way. The found
Sun, Fang; Bai, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Ella-Menye, Jean-Rene; Liu, Sijun; Nowinski, Ann K; Jiang, Shaoyi; Yu, Qiuming
2014-03-04
A new strategy is proposed to sensitively and rapidly detect analytes with weak Raman signals in complex media using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) via detecting the SERS signal changes of the immobilized probe molecules on SERS-active substrates upon binding of the analytes. In this work, 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MPBA) was selected as the probe molecule which was immobilized on the gold surface of a quasi-three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructure array (Q3D-PNA) SERS substrate to detect fructose. The molecule of 4-MPBA possesses three key functions: molecule recognition and reversible binding of the analyte via the boronic acid group, amplification of SERS signals by the phenyl group and thus shielding of the background noise of complex media, and immobilization on the surface of SERS-active substrates via the thiol group. Most importantly, the symmetry breaking of the 4-MPBA molecule upon fructose binding leads to the change of area ratio between totally symmetric 8a ring mode and nontotally symmetric 8b ring mode, which enables the detection. The detection curves were obtained in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and in undiluted artificial urine at clinically relevant concentrations, and the limit of detection of 0.05 mM was achieved.
Snezhkova, Olesia; Bischoff, Felix; He, Yuanqin; Wiengarten, Alissa; Chaudhary, Shilpi; Johansson, Niclas; Schulte, Karina; Knudsen, Jan; Barth, Johannes V; Seufert, Knud; Auwärter, Willi; Schnadt, Joachim
2016-03-07
We have examined the geometric and electronic structures of iron phthalocyanine assemblies on a Cu(111) surface at different sub- to mono-layer coverages and the changes induced by thermal annealing at temperatures between 250 and 320 °C by scanning tunneling microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The symmetry breaking observed in scanning tunneling microscopy images is found to be coverage dependent and to persist upon annealing. Further, we find that annealing to temperatures between 300 and 320 °C leads to both desorption of iron phthalocyanine molecules from the surface and their agglomeration. We see clear evidence of temperature-induced homocoupling reactions of the iron phthalocyanine molecules following dehydrogenation of their isoindole rings, similar to what has been observed for related tetrapyrroles on transition metal surfaces. Finally, spectroscopy indicates a modified substrate-adsorbate interaction upon annealing with a shortened bond distance. This finding could potentially explain a changed reactivity of Cu-supported iron phthalocyanine in comparison to that of the pristine compound.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castillo, Andrés; Delgado, Rafael L.; Dobado, Antonio; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.
2017-07-01
By considering a non-linear electroweak chiral Lagrangian, including the Higgs, coupled to heavy quarks, and the equivalence theorem, we compute the one-loop scattering amplitudes W^+W^-→ t\\bar{t}, ZZ→ t\\bar{t} and hh→ t\\bar{t} (in the regime M_t^2/v^2≪ √{s}M_t/v^2≪ s/v^2 and to NLO in the effective theory). We calculate the scalar partial-wave helicity amplitudes which allow us to check unitarity at the perturbative level in both M_t/v and s/ v. As with growing energy perturbative unitarity deteriorates, we also introduce a new unitarization method with the right analytical behavior on the complex s-plane and that can support poles on the second Riemann sheet to describe resonances in terms of the Lagrangian couplings. Thus we have achieved a consistent phenomenological description of any resonant t\\bar{t} production that may be enhanced by a possible strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sector.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Y. Y.; Abtew, Tesfaye A.; Zhang, Peihong; Zhang, S. B.
2014-10-01
The behavior of cation substitutional hole doping in GaN and ZnO is investigated using hybrid density functional calculations. Our results reveal that Mg substitution for Ga (MgGa) in GaN can assume three different configurations. Two of the configurations are characterized by the formation of defect-bound small polaron (i.e., a large structural distortion accompanied by hole localization on one of the neighboring N atoms). The third one has a relatively small but significant distortion that is characterized by highly anisotropic polaron localization. In this third configuration, MgGa exhibits both effective-mass-like and noneffective-mass-like characters. In contrast, a similar defect in ZnO, LiZn, cannot sustain the anisotropic polaron in the hybrid functional calculation, but undergoes spontaneous breaking of a mirror symmetry through a mechanism driven by the hole localization. Finally, using NaZn in ZnO as an example, we show that the deep acceptor levels of the small-polaron defects could be made shallower by applying compressive strain to the material.
Mei, Guang-Quan; Zhang, Han-Yue; Liao, Wei-Qiang
2016-09-25
An organic-inorganic hybrid compound, [NH3(CH2)5NH3]SbCl5, exhibits a switchable second harmonic generation (SHG) effect between SHG-OFF and SHG-ON states and tunable dielectric behaviors between high and low dielectric states, connected with the changes in the dynamics of 1,5-pentanediammonium cations during its centrosymmetric-to-noncentrosymmetric symmetry breaking phase transition at 365.4 K.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steyn-Ross, Moira L.; Steyn-Ross, D. A.; Sleigh, J. W.
2013-04-01
Electrical recordings of brain activity during the transition from wake to anesthetic coma show temporal and spectral alterations that are correlated with gross changes in the underlying brain state. Entry into anesthetic unconsciousness is signposted by the emergence of large, slow oscillations of electrical activity (≲1Hz) similar to the slow waves observed in natural sleep. Here we present a two-dimensional mean-field model of the cortex in which slow spatiotemporal oscillations arise spontaneously through a Turing (spatial) symmetry-breaking bifurcation that is modulated by a Hopf (temporal) instability. In our model, populations of neurons are densely interlinked by chemical synapses, and by interneuronal gap junctions represented as an inhibitory diffusive coupling. To demonstrate cortical behavior over a wide range of distinct brain states, we explore model dynamics in the vicinity of a general-anesthetic-induced transition from “wake” to “coma.” In this region, the system is poised at a codimension-2 point where competing Turing and Hopf instabilities coexist. We model anesthesia as a moderate reduction in inhibitory diffusion, paired with an increase in inhibitory postsynaptic response, producing a coma state that is characterized by emergent low-frequency oscillations whose dynamics is chaotic in time and space. The effect of long-range axonal white-matter connectivity is probed with the inclusion of a single idealized point-to-point connection. We find that the additional excitation from the long-range connection can provoke seizurelike bursts of cortical activity when inhibitory diffusion is weak, but has little impact on an active cortex. Our proposed dynamic mechanism for the origin of anesthetic slow waves complements—and contrasts with—conventional explanations that require cyclic modulation of ion-channel conductances. We postulate that a similar bifurcation mechanism might underpin the slow waves of natural sleep and comment on the
Symmetry breaking for drag minimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roper, Marcus; Squires, Todd M.; Brenner, Michael P.
2005-11-01
For locomotion at high Reynolds numbers drag minimization favors fore-aft asymmetric slender shapes with blunt noses and sharp trailing edges. On the other hand, in an inertialess fluid the drag experienced by a body is independent of whether it travels forward or backward through the fluid, so there is no advantage to having a single preferred swimming direction. In fact numerically determined minimum drag shapes are known to exhibit almost no fore-aft asymmetry even at moderate Re. We show that asymmetry persists, albeit extremely weakly, down to vanishingly small Re, scaling asymptotically as Re^3. The need to minimize drag to maximize speed for a given propulsive capacity gives one possible mechanism for the increasing asymmetry in the body plans seen in nature, as organisms increase in size and swimming speed from bacteria like E-Coli up to pursuit predator fish such as tuna. If it is the dominant mechanism, then this signature scaling will be observed in the shapes of motile micro-organisms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hadjiagapiou, Ioannis A.; Velonakis, Ioannis N.
2018-07-01
The Sherrington-Kirkpatrick Ising spin glass model, in the presence of a random magnetic field, is investigated within the framework of the one-step replica symmetry breaking. The two random variables (exchange integral interaction Jij and random magnetic field hi) are drawn from a joint Gaussian probability density function characterized by a correlation coefficient ρ, assuming positive and negative values. The thermodynamic properties, the three different phase diagrams and system's parameters are computed with respect to the natural parameters of the joint Gaussian probability density function at non-zero and zero temperatures. The low temperature negative entropy controversy, a result of the replica symmetry approach, has been partly remedied in the current study, leading to a less negative result. In addition, the present system possesses two successive spin glass phase transitions with characteristic temperatures.
Kalemos, Apostolos
2013-06-14
The X̃(2)Σu (+) BNB state considered to be of symmetry broken (SB) character has been studied by high level multireference variational and full configuration interaction methods. We discuss in great detail the roots of the so-called SB problem and we offer an in depth analysis of the unsuspected reasons behind the double minimum topology found in practically all previous theoretical investigations. We argue that the true reason of failure to recover a D∞h equilibrium geometry lies in the lack of the correct permutational symmetry of the wavefunctions employed and is by no means a real effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovalev, A.; Filippov, A.; Gorb, S. N.
2016-03-01
In contrast to the majority of inorganic or artificial materials, there is no ideal long-range ordering of structures on the surface in biological systems. Local symmetry of the ordering on biological surfaces is also often broken. In the present paper, the particular symmetry violation was analyzed for dimple-like nano-pattern on the belly scales of the skin of the pythonid snake Morelia viridis using correlation analysis and statistics of the distances between individual nanostructures. The results of the analysis performed on M. viridis were compared with a well-studied nano-nipple pattern on the eye of the sphingid moth Manduca sexta, used as a reference. The analysis revealed non-random, but very specific symmetry violation. In the case of the moth eye, the nano-nipple arrangement forms a set of domains, while in the case of the snake skin, the nano-dimples arrangement resembles an ordering of particles (molecules) in amorphous (glass) state. The function of the nano-dimples arrangement may be to provide both friction and strength isotropy of the skin. A simple model is suggested, which provides the results almost perfectly coinciding with the experimental ones. Possible mechanisms of the appearance of the above nano-formations are discussed.
Parent, Kristin N.; Schrad, Jason R.; Cingolani, Gino
2018-01-01
The majority of viruses on Earth form capsids built by multiple copies of one or more types of a coat protein arranged with 532 symmetry, generating an icosahedral shell. This highly repetitive structure is ideal to closely pack identical protein subunits and to enclose the nucleic acid genomes. However, the icosahedral capsid is not merely a passive cage but undergoes dynamic events to promote packaging, maturation and the transfer of the viral genome into the host. These essential processes are often mediated by proteinaceous complexes that interrupt the shell’s icosahedral symmetry, providing a gateway through the capsid. In this review, we take an inventory of molecular structures observed either internally, or at the 5-fold vertices of icosahedral DNA viruses that infect bacteria, archea and eukaryotes. Taking advantage of the recent revolution in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and building upon a wealth of crystallographic structures of individual components, we review the design principles of non-icosahedral structural components that interrupt icosahedral symmetry and discuss how these macromolecules play vital roles in genome packaging, ejection and host receptor-binding. PMID:29414851
Fujiki, Michiya; Kawagoe, Yoshifumi; Nakano, Yoko; Nakao, Ayako
2013-06-17
Solvent chirality transfer of (S)-/(R)-limonenes allows the instant generation of optically active PF8P2 aggregates with distinct circular dichroism (CD)/circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) amplitudes with a high quantum yield of 16-20%. The present paper also reports subtle mirror-symmetry-breaking effects in CD-/CPL-amplitude and sign, CD/UV-vis spectral wavelengths, and photodynamics of the aggregates, though the reasons for the anomaly are unsolved. However, these photophysical properties depend on (i) the chemical natures of chiral and achiral molecules when used in solvent quantity, (ii) clockwise and counterclockwise stirring operations, and (iii) the order of addition of limonene and methanol to the chloroform solution.
Englert, Francois
2018-05-24
- Physics, as we know it, attempts to interpret the diverse natural phenomena as particular manifestations of general laws. This vision of a world ruled by general testable laws is relatively recent in the history of mankind. Basically it was initiated by the Galilean inertial principle. The subsequent rapid development of large-scale physics is certainly tributary to the fact that gravitational and electromagnetic forces are long-range and hence can be perceived directly without the mediation of highly sophisticated technical devices. - The discovery of subatomic structures and of the concomitant weak and strong short-range forces raised the question of how to cope with short-range forces in relativistic quantum field theory. The Fermi theory of weak interactions, formulated in terms of point-like current-current interaction, was well-defined in lowest order perturbation theory and accounted for existing experimental data.However, it was inconsistent in higher orders because of uncontrollable divergent quantum fluctuations. In technical terms, in contradistinction to quantum electrodynamics, the Fermi theorywas not ârenormalizableâ. This difficulty could not be solved by smoothing the point-like interaction by a massive, and therefore short-range, charged âvectorâ particle exchange: theories with massive charged vector bosons were not renormalizable either. In the early nineteen sixties, there seemed to be insuperable obstacles to formulating a consistent theory with short-range forces mediated by massive vectors. - The breakthrough came from the notion of spontaneous symmetry breaking which arose in the study of phase transitions and was introduced in field theory by Nambu in 1960. - Ferromagnets illustrate the notion in phase transitions. Although no direction is dynamically preferred, the magnetization selects a global orientation. This is a spontaneous broken symmetry(SBS)of rotational invariance. Such continuous SBS imply the existence of
Chivukula, Sekhar
2017-12-22
The symmetries of a quantum field theory can be realized in a variety of ways. Symmetries can be realized explicitly, approximately, through spontaneous symmetry breaking or, via an anomaly, quantum effects can dynamically eliminate a symmetry of the theory that was presentÂ at the classical level. Â Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD),Â the modern theoryÂ of the strong interactions, exemplify each ofÂ these possibilities.Â The interplayÂ of these effects determine theÂ spectrum of particles that we observeÂ and, ultimately, account forÂ 99% of the mass of ordinary matter.Â
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qiang; Ye, Feng; Tian, Wei; Cao, Huibo; Chi, Songxue; Hu, Biao; Diao, Zhenyu; Tennant, David A.; Jin, Rongying; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, Ward
2017-06-01
Bilayered S r3R u2O7 is an unusual metamagnetic metal with inherently antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic (FM) fluctuations. Partial substitution of Ru by Mn results in the establishment of a metal-insulator transition (MIT) at TMIT and AFM ordering at TM in S r3(Ru1-xM nx) 2O7 . Using elastic neutron scattering, we investigated the effect of Mn doping on the magnetic structure, in-plane magnetic correlation lengths and their correlation to the MIT in S r3(Ru1-xM nx) 2O7 (x =0.06 and 0.12). With the increase of Mn doping (x ) from 0.06 to 0.12 or the decrease of temperatures for x =0.12 , an evolution from an in-plane short-range to long-range antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state occurs. For both compounds, the magnetic ordering has a double-stripe configuration, and the onset of magnetic correlation with an anisotropic behavior coincides with the sharp rise in electrical resistivity and specific heat. Since it does not induce a measurable lattice distortion, the double-stripe antiferromagnetic order with anisotropic spin texture breaks symmetry from a C4 v crystal lattice to a C2 v magnetic sublattice. These observations shed light on an age-old question regarding the Slater versus Mott-type MIT.
Zhang, Qiang; Ye, Feng; Tian, Wei
Bilayered Sr 3Ru 2O 7 is an unusual metamagnetic metal with inherently antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic (FM) fluctuations. Partial substitution of Ru by Mn results in the establishment of a metal-insulator transition (MIT) at TMIT and AFM ordering at TM in Sr 3(Ru 1-xMn x) 2O 7. Using elastic neutron scattering, we investigated the effect of Mn doping on the magnetic structure, in-plane magnetic correlation lengths and their correlation to the MIT in Sr 3(Ru 1-xMn x) 2O 7 (x=0.06 and 0.12). With the increase of Mn doping (x) from 0.06 to 0.12 or the decrease of temperatures for x=0.12,more » an evolution from an in-plane short-range to long-range antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state occurs. For both compounds, the magnetic ordering has a double-stripe configuration, and the onset of magnetic correlation with an anisotropic behavior coincides with the sharp rise in electrical resistivity and specific heat. Since it does not induce a measurable lattice distortion, the double-stripe antiferromagnetic order with anisotropic spin texture breaks symmetry from a C 4v crystal lattice to a C 2v magnetic sublattice. These observations shed light on an age-old question regarding the Slater versus Mott-type MIT.« less
Zhang, Qiang; Ye, Feng; Tian, Wei; ...
2017-06-12
Bilayered Sr 3Ru 2O 7 is an unusual metamagnetic metal with inherently antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic (FM) fluctuations. Partial substitution of Ru by Mn results in the establishment of a metal-insulator transition (MIT) at TMIT and AFM ordering at TM in Sr 3(Ru 1-xMn x) 2O 7. Using elastic neutron scattering, we investigated the effect of Mn doping on the magnetic structure, in-plane magnetic correlation lengths and their correlation to the MIT in Sr 3(Ru 1-xMn x) 2O 7 (x=0.06 and 0.12). With the increase of Mn doping (x) from 0.06 to 0.12 or the decrease of temperatures for x=0.12,more » an evolution from an in-plane short-range to long-range antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state occurs. For both compounds, the magnetic ordering has a double-stripe configuration, and the onset of magnetic correlation with an anisotropic behavior coincides with the sharp rise in electrical resistivity and specific heat. Since it does not induce a measurable lattice distortion, the double-stripe antiferromagnetic order with anisotropic spin texture breaks symmetry from a C 4v crystal lattice to a C 2v magnetic sublattice. These observations shed light on an age-old question regarding the Slater versus Mott-type MIT.« less
Chiral symmetry and pentaquarks
Dmitri Diakonov
2004-07-01
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, mesons and baryons are illustrated in the language of the Dirac theory. Various forces acting between quarks inside baryons are discussed. I explain why the naive quark models typically overestimate pentaquark masses by some 500 MeV and why in the fully relativistic approach to baryons pentaquarks turn out to be light. I discuss briefly why it can be easier to produce pentaquarks at low than at high energies.
Boundary states in the chiral symmetric systems with a spatial symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Jinpeng; An, Jin
2018-02-01
We study topological systems with both a chiral and a spatial symmetry which result in an additional spatial chiral symmetry. We distinguish the topologically nontrivial states according to the chiral symmetries protecting them and study several models in 1D and 3D systems. The perturbations breaking the spatial symmetry can break only one of the two chiral symmetries while the perturbations preserving the spatial symmetry always break or preserve both of them. In 3D systems, besides the 3D symmetries, the topologically nontrivial boundary modes may also be protected by the hidden lower dimensional symmetries. We then figure out the corresponding topological invariants and connect them with the 3D invariants.
Liu, Deyu; Wang, Junyi; Gu, Chunyang; Li, Yonghai; Bao, Xichang; Yang, Renqiang
2018-02-01
Two series of new polymers with medium and wide bandgaps to match fullerene (PC 71 BM) and fullerene-free 3,9-bis(2-methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-indanone))-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2',3'-d']-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene (ITIC) acceptors are designed and synthesized, respectively. For constructing the key donor building blocks, the effective symmetry-breaking strategy is employed. Two common aromatic rings (thiophene and benzene) are chosen as one side substituted groups in the asymmetric benzodithiophene (BDT) monomers. In addition, another rigid benzene ring is inserted between aryl and thioether in the side chains, which results in larger twisting and destroying the aggregation and forming longer lever arms. As a result, highly ordered polymers (PBDTsTh-FBT and PBDTsPh-FBT) with strong aggregation properties can blend well with roughly spherical PC 71 BM, while amorphous polymers (PBDTsThPh-BDD and PBDTsPhPh-BDD) with long and rigid aryl rings show good miscibility with elongated ITIC, and finally, both devices exhibit excellent power conversion efficiencies over 10%. Thus, it clearly shows that the asymmetric BDT unit is an excellent donor building block to construct highly efficient photovoltaic polymers. Meanwhile, this work demonstrates that it is not necessary that high-performance fullerene-free polymer solar cells (PSCs) require highly ordered microstructures in the blending films, different from the fullerene-based PSCs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Symmetry breaking and chaos in droplet electrohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salipante, Paul; Vlahovska, Petia
2010-11-01
A classic result due to G.I.Taylor is that a drop placed in a uniform electric field adopts a prolate or oblate spheroidal shape, the flow and shape being axisymmetrically aligned with the applied field. However, recent studies have revealed an instability and transition to a nonaxisymmetric rotational flow in strong fields, similar to the rotation of solid dielectric particles observed by Quincke in the 19th century. We present an experimental and theoretical study of this phenomenon in DC uniform fields, focusing on nonlinear behavior arising from electromechanial coupling at the fluid-fluid interface. Charge convection by the both rotational and straining flows is included in the our model to explain the dependence of critical electric field on viscosity ratio. Hysteresis in the transition is observed for large low-viscosity drops. At stronger fields, chaotic drop tumbling and sustained shape oscillations are observed.
Symmetry Breaking in Few Layer Graphene Films
Bostwick, A.; Ohta, T.; McChesney, J.L.
2007-05-25
Recently, it was demonstrated that the quasiparticledynamics, the layer-dependent charge and potential, and the c-axisscreening coefficient could be extracted from measurements of thespectral function of few layer graphene films grown epitaxially on SiCusing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). In this articlewe review these findings, and present detailed methodology for extractingsuch parameters from ARPES. We also present detailed arguments againstthe possibility of an energy gap at the Dirac crossing ED.
Symmetry breaking in human neuroblastoma cells
Izumi, Hideki; Kaneko, Yasuhiko
2014-01-01
Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is a characteristic of cancer stem cells, which exhibit high malignant potential. However, the cellular mechanisms that regulate symmetric (self-renewal) and asymmetric cell divisions are mostly unknown. Using human neuroblastoma cells, we found that the oncosuppressor protein tripartite motif containing 32 (TRIM32) positively regulates ACD. PMID:27308367
Dilational symmetry-breaking in thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Chris L.; Ordóñez, Carlos R.
2017-04-01
Using thermodynamic relations and dimensional analysis we derive a general formula for the thermodynamical trace 2{ E}-DP for nonrelativistic systems and { E}-DP for relativistic systems, where D is the number of spatial dimensions, in terms of the microscopic scales of the system within the grand canonical ensemble. We demonstrate the formula for several cases, including anomalous systems which develop scales through dimensional transmutation. Using this relation, we make explicit the connection between dimensional analysis and the virial theorem. This paper is focused mainly on the non-relativistic aspects of this relation.
Broken chiral symmetry on a null plane
Beane, Silas R., E-mail: silas@physics.unh.edu
2013-10-15
On a null-plane (light-front), all effects of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking are contained in the three Hamiltonians (dynamical Poincaré generators), while the vacuum state is a chiral invariant. This property is used to give a general proof of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane. Focusing on null-plane QCD with N degenerate flavors of light quarks, the chiral-symmetry breaking Hamiltonians are obtained, and the role of vacuum condensates is clarified. In particular, the null-plane Gell-Mann–Oakes–Renner formula is derived, and a general prescription is given for mapping all chiral-symmetry breaking QCD condensates to chiral-symmetry conserving null-plane QCD condensates. The utility of the null-planemore » description lies in the operator algebra that mixes the null-plane Hamiltonians and the chiral symmetry charges. It is demonstrated that in a certain non-trivial limit, the null-plane operator algebra reduces to the symmetry group SU(2N) of the constituent quark model. -- Highlights: •A proof (the first) of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane is given. •The puzzle of chiral-symmetry breaking condensates on a null-plane is solved. •The emergence of spin-flavor symmetries in null-plane QCD is demonstrated.« less
Dark matter reflection of particle symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khlopov, Maxim Yu.
2017-05-01
In the context of the relationship between physics of cosmological dark matter and symmetry of elementary particles, a wide list of dark matter candidates is possible. New symmetries provide stability of different new particles and their combination can lead to a multicomponent dark matter. The pattern of symmetry breaking involves phase transitions in the very early Universe, extending the list of candidates by topological defects and even primordial nonlinear structures.
Generalization of Friedberg-Lee symmetry
Huang Chaoshang; Li Tianjun; George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843
2008-07-01
We study the possible origin of Friedberg-Lee symmetry. First, we propose the generalized Friedberg-Lee symmetry in the potential by including the scalar fields in the field transformations, which can be broken down to the Friedberg-Lee symmetry spontaneously. We show that the generalized Friedberg-Lee symmetry allows a typical form of Yukawa couplings, and the realistic neutrino masses and mixings can be generated via the seesaw mechanism. If the right-handed neutrinos transform nontrivially under the generalized Friedberg-Lee symmetry, we can have the testable TeV scale seesaw mechanism. Second, we present two models with the SO(3)xU(1) global flavor symmetry in the lepton sector.more » After the flavor symmetry breaking, we can obtain the charged lepton masses, and explain the neutrino masses and mixings via the seesaw mechanism. Interestingly, the complete neutrino mass matrices are similar to those of the above models with generalized Friedberg-Lee symmetry. So the Friedberg-Lee symmetry is the residual symmetry in the neutrino mass matrix after the SO(3)xU(1) flavor symmetry breaking.« less
Centre vortex removal restores chiral symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trewartha, Daniel; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.
2017-12-01
The influence of centre vortices on dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is investigated through the light hadron spectrum on the lattice. Recent studies of the quark propagator and other quantities have provided evidence that centre vortices are the fundamental objects underpinning dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in {SU}(3) gauge theory. For the first time, we use the chiral overlap fermion action to study the low-lying hadron spectrum on lattice ensembles consisting of Monte Carlo, vortex-removed, and vortex-projected gauge fields. We find that gauge field configurations consisting solely of smoothed centre vortices are capable of reproducing all the salient features of the hadron spectrum, including dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. The hadron spectrum on vortex-removed fields shows clear signals of chiral symmetry restoration at light values of the bare quark mass, while at heavy masses the spectrum is consistent with a theory of weakly interacting constituent quarks.
Centre vortex removal restores chiral symmetry
Trewartha, Daniel; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.
2017-11-15
The influence of centre vortices on dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is investigated through the light hadron spectrum on the lattice. Recent studies of the quark propagator and other quantities have provided evidence that centre vortices are the fundamental objects underpinning dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in SU(3) gauge theory. For the first time, we use the chiral overlap fermion action to study the low-lying hadron spectrum on lattice ensembles consisting of Monte Carlo, vortex-removed, and vortex-projected gauge fields. We find that gauge field configurations consisting solely of smoothed centre vortices are capable of reproducing all the salient features of the hadronmore » spectrum, including dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. In conclusion, the hadron spectrum on vortex-removed fields shows clear signals of chiral symmetry restoration at light values of the bare quark mass, while at heavy masses the spectrum is consistent with a theory of weakly-interacting constituent quarks.« less
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David
2013-01-01
The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…
Elliptic-symmetry vector optical fields.
Pan, Yue; Li, Yongnan; Li, Si-Min; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Kong, Ling-Jun; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian
2014-08-11
We present in principle and demonstrate experimentally a new kind of vector fields: elliptic-symmetry vector optical fields. This is a significant development in vector fields, as this breaks the cylindrical symmetry and enriches the family of vector fields. Due to the presence of an additional degrees of freedom, which is the interval between the foci in the elliptic coordinate system, the elliptic-symmetry vector fields are more flexible than the cylindrical vector fields for controlling the spatial structure of polarization and for engineering the focusing fields. The elliptic-symmetry vector fields can find many specific applications from optical trapping to optical machining and so on.
Symmetry-protected topological insulator and its symmetry-enriched topologically ordered boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Juven; Wen, Xiao-Gang; Witten, Edward
We propose a mechanism for achieving symmetry-enriched topologically ordered boundaries for symmetry-protected topological states, including those of topological insulators. Several different boundary phases and their phase transitions are considered, including confined phases, deconfined phases, symmetry-breaking, gapped and gapless phases. National Science Foundation PHY-1606531, Corning Glass Works Foundation Fellowship, NSF Grant DMR- 1506475 and NSFC 11274192, the BMO Financial Group and the John Templeton Foundation No. 39901.
Supersymmetric Higgs and radiative electroweak breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibáñez, Luis E.; Ross, Graham G.
2007-11-01
We review the mechanism of radiative electroweak symmetry breaking taking place in SUSY versions of the Standard Model. We further discuss different proposals for the origin of SUSY-breaking and the corresponding induced SUSY-breaking soft terms. Several proposals for the understanding of the little hierarchy problem are critically discussed. To cite this article: L.E. Ibáñez, G.G. Ross, C. R. Physique 8 (2007).
Unified models of the QCD axion and supersymmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harigaya, Keisuke; Leedom, Jacob M.
2017-08-01
Similarities between the gauge meditation of supersymmetry breaking and the QCD axion model suggest that they originate from the same dynamics. We present a class of models where supersymmetry and the Peccei-Quinn symmetry are simultaneously broken. The messengers that mediate the effects of these symmetry breakings to the Standard Model are identical. Since the axion resides in the supersymmetry breaking sector, the saxion and the axino are heavy. We show constraints on the axion decay constant and the gravitino mass.
Symmetry Guide to Ferroaxial Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hlinka, J.; Privratska, J.; Ondrejkovic, P.; Janovec, V.
2016-04-01
The 212 species of the structural phase transitions with a macroscopic symmetry breaking are inspected with respect to the occurrence of the ferroaxial order parameter, the electric toroidal moment. In total, 124 ferroaxial species are found, some of them being also fully ferroelectric (62) or fully ferroelastic ones (61). This ensures a possibility of electrical or mechanical switching of ferroaxial domains. Moreover, there are 12 ferroaxial species that are neither ferroelectric nor ferroelastic. For each species, we have also explicitly worked out a canonical form for a set of representative equilibrium property tensors of polar and axial nature in both high-symmetry and low-symmetry phases. This information was gathered into the set of 212 mutually different symbolic matrices, expressing graphically the presence of nonzero independent tensorial components and the symmetry-imposed links between them, for both phases simultaneously. Symmetry analysis reveals the ferroaxiality in several currently debated materials, such as VO2 , LuFe2 O4 , and URu2 Si2 .
Test of SU(3) Symmetry in Hyperon Semileptonic Decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pham, T. N.
2015-01-01
Existing analyzes of baryon semileptonic decays indicate the presence of a small SU(3) symmetry breaking in hyperon semileptonic decays, but to provide evidence for SU(3) symmetry breaking, one would need a relation similar to the Gell-Mann-Okubo (GMO) baryon mass formula which is satisfied to a few percents, showing evidence for a small SU(3) symmetry breaking effect in the GMO mass formula. In this talk, I would like to present a similar GMO relation obtained in a recent work for hyperon semileptonic decay axial vector current matrix elements. Using these generalized GMO relations for the measured axial vector current to vector current form factor ratios, it is shown that SU(3) symmetry breaking in hyperon semileptonic decays is of 5-11% and confirms the validity of the Cabibbo model for hyperon semi-leptonic decays.
Hopf bifurcation with dihedral group symmetry - Coupled nonlinear oscillators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian
1986-01-01
The theory of Hopf bifurcation with symmetry developed by Golubitsky and Stewart (1985) is applied to systems of ODEs having the symmetries of a regular polygon, that is, whose symmetry group is dihedral. The existence and stability of symmetry-breaking branches of periodic solutions are considered. In particular, these results are applied to a general system of n nonlinear oscillators coupled symmetrically in a ring, and the generic oscillation patterns are described. It is found that the symmetry can force some oscillators to have twice the frequency of others. The case of four oscillators has exceptional features.
Symmetry in social exchange and health
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siegrist, Johannes
2005-10-01
Symmetry is a relevant concept in sociological theories of exchange. It is rooted in the evolutionary old norm of social reciprocity and is particularly important in social contracts. Symmetry breaking through violation of the norm of reciprocity generates strain in micro-social systems and, above all, in victims of non-symmetric exchange. In this contribution, adverse healthconsequences of symmetry breaking in contractual social exchange are analysed, with a main focus on the employment contract. Scientific evidence is derived from prospective epidemiological studies testing the model of effort-reward imbalance at work. Overall, a twofold elevated risk of incident disease is observed in employed men and women who are exposed to non-symmetric exchange. Health risks include coronary heart disease, depression and alcohol dependence, among others. Preliminary results suggest similar effects on health produced by symmetry breaking in other types of social relationships (e.g. partnership, parental roles). These findings underline the importance of symmetry in contractual social exchange for health and well-being.
Lorentz- and CPT-symmetry studies in subatomic physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehnert, Ralf
2016-12-01
Subatomic systems provide an exquisite test bench for spacetime symmetries. This work motivates such measurements, reviews the effective field theory test framework for the description of Lorentz and CPT violation, and employs this framework to study the phenomenology of spacetime-symmetry breaking in various subatomic systems.
Symmetry remnants in the face of competing interactions in nuclei
Leviatan, A., E-mail: ami@phys.huji.ac.il; Macek, M., E-mail: michal.macek@yale.edu
2015-10-15
Detailed description of nuclei necessitates model Hamiltonians which break most dynamical symmetries. Nevertheless, generalized notions of partial and quasi dynamical symmetries may still be applicable to selected subsets of states, amidst a complicated environment of other states. We examine such scenarios in the context of nuclear shape-phase transitions.
Symmetric development: transcriptional regulation of symmetry transition in plants.
Dolan, Liam
2014-12-15
Symmetry breaking and re-establishment is an important developmental process that occurs during the development of multicellular organisms. A new report determines that transcription factors regulate a symmetry transition event in plants by modifying the direction of auxin transport. This provides one of the first mechanistic descriptions of a transition from bilateral to radial symmetry in plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Approximate flavor symmetries in the lepton sector
Rasin, A.; Silva, J.P.
1994-01-01
Approximate flavor symmetries in the quark sector have been used as a handle on physics beyond the standard model. Because of the great interest in neutrino masses and mixings and the wealth of existing and proposed neutrino experiments it is important to extend this analysis to the leptonic sector. We show that in the seesaw mechanism the neutrino masses and mixing angles do not depend on the details of the right-handed neutrino flavor symmetry breaking, and are related by a simple formula. We propose several [ital Ansa]$[ital uml]---[ital tze] which relate different flavor symmetry-breaking parameters and find that the MSWmore » solution to the solar neutrino problem is always easily fit. Further, the [nu][sub [mu]-][nu][sub [tau
Symmetry Violation in Hadron Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gell-Mann, Murray
1982-01-01
The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * SU(3) × SU(3) SYMMETRY * VIOLATION OF SU(3) × SU(3) IN STRONG INTERACTIONS * POSSIBLE CONNECTIONS OF STRONG VIOLATION WITH WEAK AND ELECTROMAGNETIC EFFECTS * SCALE INVARIANCE AND THE DILATION OPERATOR * THE BREAKING OF SCALE INVARIANCE * RELATION BETWEEN VIOLATIONS OF SCALE INVARIANCE AND OF SU(3) × SU(3) * REFERENCES *Note: Much of the work presented in the next two sections was done this summer in collaboration with Lowell Brown. It is based partly on the pioneering research of Kastrup, Mack, Wess, Kenneth Wilson, and others. *In this section and the next, our particle states are normalized to one particle per unit volume.
The Emergence of Dirac points in Photonic Crystals with Mirror Symmetry
He, Wen-Yu; Chan, C. T.
2015-01-01
We show that Dirac points can emerge in photonic crystals possessing mirror symmetry when band gap closes. The mechanism of generating Dirac points is discussed in a two-dimensional photonic square lattice, in which four Dirac points split out naturally after the touching of two bands with different parity. The emergence of such nodal points, characterized by vortex structure in momentum space, is attributed to the unavoidable band crossing protected by mirror symmetry. The Dirac nodes can be unbuckled through breaking the mirror symmetry and a photonic analog of Chern insulator can be achieved through time reversal symmetry breaking. Breaking time reversal symmetry can lead to unidirectional helical edge states and breaking mirror symmetry can reduce the band gap to amplify the finite size effect, providing ways to engineer helical edge states. PMID:25640993
Ermolenko, Alexander E; Perepada, Elena A
2007-01-01
The paper contains a description of basic regularities in the manifestation of symmetry of human structural organization and its ontogenetic and phylogenetic development. A concept of macrobiocrystalloid with inherent complex symmetry is proposed for the description of the human organism in its integrity. The symmetry can be characterized as two-plane radial (quadrilateral), where the planar symmetry is predominant while the layout of organs of radial symmetry is subordinated to it. Out of the two planes of symmetry (sagittal and horizontal), the sagittal plane is predominant. The symmetry of the chromosome, of the embrio at the early stages of cell cleavage as well as of some organs and systems in their phylogenetic development is described. An hypothesis is postulated that the two-plane symmetry is formed by two mechanisms: a) the impact of morphogenetic fields of the whole crystalloid organism during embriogenesis and, b) genetic mechanisms of the development of chromosomes having two-plane symmetry.
Innes, G M; Sosnow, P L
1995-05-01
While life as hospital employees was comfortable, the lure of independence won out for these two emergency department physicians. Breaking away to develop a new company was not easy, but it's paid off for the entrepreneurs of the Capital Region Emergency Medicine, P.C. Developing an emergency medicine business meant learning all aspects of business: billing services, evaluating legal services, raising capital, and becoming employers. The advantage has been an ability to use profits to improve the moral of staff, an increase in salary, and an overall sense of satisfaction.
Graph fibrations and symmetries of network dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nijholt, Eddie; Rink, Bob; Sanders, Jan
2016-11-01
Dynamical systems with a network structure can display remarkable phenomena such as synchronisation and anomalous synchrony breaking. A methodology for classifying patterns of synchrony in networks was developed by Golubitsky and Stewart. They showed that the robustly synchronous dynamics of a network is determined by its quotient networks. This result was recently reformulated by DeVille and Lerman, who pointed out that the reduction from a network to a quotient is an example of a graph fibration. The current paper exploits this observation and demonstrates the importance of self-fibrations of network graphs. Self-fibrations give rise to symmetries in the dynamics of a network. We show that every network admits a lift with a semigroup or semigroupoid of self-fibrations. The resulting symmetries impact the global dynamics of the network and can therefore be used to explain and predict generic scenarios for synchrony breaking. Also, when the network has a trivial symmetry groupoid, then every robust synchrony in the lift is determined by symmetry. We finish this paper with a discussion of networks with interior symmetries and nonhomogeneous networks.
Neutrinos and flavor symmetries
Tanimoto, Morimitsu
2015-07-15
We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ{sub 13} and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ{sub 13} is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.
Polynomial Graphs and Symmetry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goehle, Geoff; Kobayashi, Mitsuo
2013-01-01
Most quadratic functions are not even, but every parabola has symmetry with respect to some vertical line. Similarly, every cubic has rotational symmetry with respect to some point, though most cubics are not odd. We show that every polynomial has at most one point of symmetry and give conditions under which the polynomial has rotational or…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kemeth, Felix P.; Haugland, Sindre W.; Krischer, Katharina
2018-05-01
Symmetry broken states arise naturally in oscillatory networks. In this Letter, we investigate chaotic attractors in an ensemble of four mean-coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with two oscillators being synchronized. We report that these states with partially broken symmetry, so-called chimera states, have different setwise symmetries in the incoherent oscillators, and in particular, some are and some are not invariant under a permutation symmetry on average. This allows for a classification of different chimera states in small networks. We conclude our report with a discussion of related states in spatially extended systems, which seem to inherit the symmetry properties of their counterparts in small networks.
Raibert, M H
1986-03-14
Symmetry plays a key role in simplifying the control of legged robots and in giving them the ability to run and balance. The symmetries studied describe motion of the body and legs in terms of even and odd functions of time. A legged system running with these symmetries travels with a fixed forward speed and a stable upright posture. The symmetries used for controlling legged robots may help in elucidating the legged behavior of animals. Measurements of running in the cat and human show that the feet and body sometimes move as predicted by the even and odd symmetry functions.
Symmetries and Boundary Conditions with a Twist
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zawadzki, Krissia; D'Amico, Irene; Oliveira, Luiz N.
2017-10-01
Interest in finite-size systems has risen in the last decades, due to the focus on nanotechnological applications and because they are convenient for numerical treatment that can subsequently be extrapolated to infinite lattices. Independently of the envisioned application, special attention must be given to boundary condition, which may or may not preserve the symmetry of the infinite lattice. Here, we present a detailed study of the compatibility between boundary conditions and conservation laws. The conflict between open boundary conditions and momentum conservation is well understood, but we examine other symmetries, as well: we discuss gauge invariance, inversion, spin, and particle-hole symmetry and their compatibility with open, periodic, and twisted boundary conditions. In the interest of clarity, we develop the reasoning in the framework of the one-dimensional half-filled Hubbard model, whose Hamiltonian displays a variety of symmetries. Our discussion includes analytical and numerical results. Our analytical survey shows that, as a rule, boundary conditions break one or more symmetries of the infinite-lattice Hamiltonian. The exception is twisted boundary condition with the special torsion Θ = πL/2, where L is the lattice size. Our numerical results for the ground-state energy at half-filling and the energy gap for L = 2-7 show how the breaking of symmetry affects the convergence to the L → ∞ limit. We compare the computed energies and gaps with the exact results for the infinite lattice drawn from the Bethe-Ansatz solution. The deviations are boundary-condition dependent. The special torsion yields more rapid convergence than open or periodic boundary conditions. For sizes as small as L = 7, the numerical results for twisted condition are very close to the L → ∞ limit. We also discuss the ground-state electronic density and magnetization at half filling under the three boundary conditions.
Prethermal Phases of Matter Protected by Time-Translation Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Else, Dominic V.; Bauer, Bela; Nayak, Chetan
2017-01-01
In a periodically driven (Floquet) system, there is the possibility for new phases of matter, not present in stationary systems, protected by discrete time-translation symmetry. This includes topological phases protected in part by time-translation symmetry, as well as phases distinguished by the spontaneous breaking of this symmetry, dubbed "Floquet time crystals." We show that such phases of matter can exist in the prethermal regime of periodically driven systems, which exists generically for sufficiently large drive frequency, thereby eliminating the need for integrability or strong quenched disorder, which limited previous constructions. We prove a theorem that states that such a prethermal regime persists until times that are nearly exponentially long in the ratio of certain couplings to the drive frequency. By similar techniques, we can also construct stationary systems that spontaneously break continuous time-translation symmetry. Furthermore, we argue that for driven systems coupled to a cold bath, the prethermal regime could potentially persist to infinite time.
Soft CP violation and the global matter-antimatter symmetry of the universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Senjanovic, G.; Stecker, F. W.
1980-01-01
Scenarios for baryon production are considered within the context of SU(5) and SO(10) grand unified theories where CP violation arises spontaneously. The spontaneous CP symmetry breaking then results in a matter-antimatter domain structure in the universe. Two possible, distinct types of theories of soft CP violation are defined. In the first type the CP nonconservation originates only from the breaking of SU(2) sub L X U(1) symmetry, and in the second type, even at the unification temperature scale, CP violation can emerge as a result of symmetry breaking by the vacuum expectation values of the superheavy Higgs sector scalars.
Realistic anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chacko, Zacharia; Luty, Markus A.; Maksymyk, Ivan; Pontón, Eduardo
2000-03-01
We consider supersymmetry breaking communicated entirely by the superconformal anomaly in supergravity. This scenario is naturally realized if supersymmetry is broken in a hidden sector whose couplings to the observable sector are suppressed by more than powers of the Planck scale, as occurs if supersymmetry is broken in a parallel universe living in extra dimensions. This scenario is extremely predictive: soft supersymmetry breaking couplings are completely determined by anomalous dimensions in the effective theory at the weak scale. Gaugino and scalar masses are naturally of the same order, and flavor-changing neutral currents are automatically suppressed. The most glaring problem with this scenario is that slepton masses are negative in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We point out that this problem can be simply solved by coupling extra Higgs doublets to the leptons. Lepton flavor-changing neutral currents can be naturally avoided by approximate symmetries. We also describe more speculative solutions involving compositeness near the weak scale. We then turn to electroweak symmetry breaking. Adding an explicit μ term gives a value for Bμ that is too large by a factor of ~ 100. We construct a realistic model in which the μ term arises from the vacuum expectation value of a singlet field, so all weak-scale masses are directly related to m3/2. We show that fully realistic electroweak symmetry breaking can occur in this model with moderate fine-tuning.
Partial dynamical symmetry and the vibrational structure of Cd isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leviatan, A.; Gavrielov, N.; García-Ramos, J. E.; Van Isacker, P.
2018-05-01
The recently reported deviations of selected non-yrast states in 110Cd from the expected sphericalvibrator behaviour, is addressed by means of an Hamiltonian with U(5) partial dynamical symmetry. The latter preserves the U(5) symmetry in a segment of the spectrum and breaks it in other states. The effect of intruder states is treated in the framework of the interacting boson model with configuration mixing.
Gauge U (1) dark symmetry and radiative light fermion masses
Kownacki, Corey; Ma, Ernest
2016-06-22
A gauge U (1) family symmetry is proposed, spanning the quarks and leptons as well as particles of the dark sector. The breaking of U (1) to Z(2) divides the two sectors and generates one-loop radiative masses for the first two families of quarks and leptons, as well as all three neutrinos. We study the phenomenological implications of this new connection between family symmetry and dark matter. In particular, a scalar or pseudoscalar particle associated with this U (1) breaking may be identified with the 750 GeV diphoton resonance recently observed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
Discrete symmetries with neutral mesons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernabéu, José
2018-01-01
Symmetries, and Symmetry Breakings, in the Laws of Physics play a crucial role in Fundamental Science. Parity and Charge Conjugation Violations prompted the consideration of Chiral Fields in the construction of the Standard Model, whereas CP-Violation needed at least three families of Quarks leading to Flavour Physics. In this Lecture I discuss the Conceptual Basis and the present experimental results for a Direct Evidence of Separate Reversal-in-Time T, CP and CPT Genuine Asymmetries in Decaying Particles like Neutral Meson Transitions, using Quantum Entanglement and the Decay as a Filtering Measurement. The eight transitions associated to the Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products of entangled neutral mesons have demonstrated with impressive significance a separate evidence of TRV and CPV in Bd-physics, whereas a CPTV asymmetry shows a 2σ effect interpreted as an upper limit. Novel CPTV observables are discussed for K physics at KLOE-2, including the difference between the semileptonic asymmetries from KL and KS, the ratios of double decay rate Intensities to Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products and the ω-effect. Their observation would lead to a change of paradigm beyond Quantum Field Theory, however there is nothing in Quantum Mechanics forbidding CPTV.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking by double lithium adsorption in polyacenes
Ortiz, Yenni. P.; Seligman, Thomas H.; Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Cuernavaca, Morelos
2010-12-23
We show that adsorption of one lithium atom to polyacenes, i.e. chains of linearly fused benzene rings, will cause such chains to be slightly deformed. If we adsorb a second identical atom on the opposite side of the same ring, this deformation is dramatically enhanced despite the fact that a symmetric configuration seems possible. We argue, that this may be due to an instability of the Jahn-Teller type possibly indeed to a Peierls instability.
Chiral symmetry breaking and the spin content of hadrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glozman, L. Ya.; Lang, C. B.; Limmer, M.
2012-04-01
From the parton distributions in the infinite momentum frame, one finds that only about 30% of the nucleon spin is carried by spins of the valence quarks, which gave rise to the term “spin crisis”. Similar results hold for the lowest mesons, as it follows from the lattice simulations. We define the spin content of a meson in the rest frame and use a complete and orthogonal q¯q chiral basis and a unitary transformation from the chiral basis to the 2LJ basis. Then, given a mixture of different allowed chiral representations in the meson wave function at a given resolution scale, one can obtain its spin content at this scale. To obtain the mixture of the chiral representations in the meson, we measure in dynamical lattice simulations a ratio of couplings of interpolators with different chiral structure. For the ρ meson, we obtain practically the 3S1 state with no trace of the spin crisis. Then a natural question arises: which definition does reflect the spin content of a hadron?
Downhill cycling symmetry breaking: how the rider foils experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben Abu, Yuval; Wolfson, Ira; Bran, Gil; Yizhaq, Hezi
2017-11-01
In high-school teaching of mechanics, we deal, among other things, with the nature of static and kinetic friction, forces that are proportional to the normal force. Under the influence of frictional forces, a body moves down a rough sloped decline at a fixed rate of acceleration that is independent of its mass. This situation does not apply to cases where the frictional force is dependent upon velocity, such as bodies which are moving through a streaming fluid (such as raindrops falling to the ground). In this case the body moves with a continuously decreasing acceleration, eventually reaching a terminal velocity when the frictional and gravitational forces balance out. This velocity constraint is determined by the dependence of the frictional force on velocity and geometric parameters that determine the strength of the frictional force. We show here that a similar situation takes place when bicycles descend an incline with a fixed slope. We also investigated the dependence of the velocity constraint with mass, using bicycles equipped with sophisticated sensors that metamorphose them into data-processing laboratories.
Downhill Cycling Symmetry Breaking: How the Rider Foils Experiment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abu, Yuval Ben; Wolfson, Ira; Bran, Gil; Yizhaq, Hezi
2017-01-01
In high-school teaching of mechanics, we deal, among other things, with the nature of static and kinetic friction, forces that are proportional to the normal force. Under the influence of frictional forces, a body moves down a rough sloped decline at a fixed rate of acceleration that is independent of its mass. This situation does not apply to…
FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Symmetry breaking, conformal geometry and gauge invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilderton, Anton; Lavelle, Martin; McMullan, David
2010-08-01
When the electroweak action is rewritten in terms of SU(2) gauge-invariant variables, the Higgs can be interpreted as a conformal metric factor. We show that asymptotic flatness of the metric is required to avoid a Gribov problem: without it, the new variables fail to be nonperturbatively gauge invariant. We also clarify the relations between this approach and unitary gauge fixing, and the existence of similar transformations in other gauge theories.
Distinct myocardial lineages break atrial symmetry during cardiogenesis in zebrafish
Stone, Oliver; Arnaout, Rima; Guenther, Stefan; Ahuja, Suchit; Uribe, Verónica; Vanhollebeke, Benoit; Stainier, Didier YR
2018-01-01
The ultimate formation of a four-chambered heart allowing the separation of the pulmonary and systemic circuits was key for the evolutionary success of tetrapods. Complex processes of cell diversification and tissue morphogenesis allow the left and right cardiac compartments to become distinct but remain poorly understood. Here, we describe an unexpected laterality in the single zebrafish atrium analogous to that of the two atria in amniotes, including mammals. This laterality appears to derive from an embryonic antero-posterior asymmetry revealed by the expression of the transcription factor gene meis2b. In adult zebrafish hearts, meis2b expression is restricted to the left side of the atrium where it controls the expression of pitx2c, a regulator of left atrial identity in mammals. Altogether, our studies suggest that the multi-chambered atrium in amniotes arose from a molecular blueprint present before the evolutionary emergence of cardiac septation and provide insights into the establishment of atrial asymmetry. PMID:29762122
A Microfluidic Route to Breaking Chiral Symmetry: Theory and Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ocko, Samuel; Adams, Laura
A robust route for the biased production of single handed chiral structures has been found in generating non-spherical, multi-component double emulsions using glass microfluidic devices. The specific type of handedness is determined by the final packing geometry of four different inner drops inside an ultra-thin sheath of oil. Before the three dimensional chiral structures are formed, the quasi-one dimensional chain of four inner drops re-arranges in two dimensions into either checkerboard or stripe patterns. We derive an analytical model predicting which pattern is more likely and assembles in the least amount of time. Moreover, our model accurately predicts our experimental results and is based on local bending dynamics, rather than global surface energy minimization. We gratefully acknowledge Professors D. Weitz and L. Mahadevan's support.
Symmetry-breaking phase transitions in highly concentrated semen
Creppy, Adama; Plouraboué, Franck; Praud, Olivier; Druart, Xavier; Cazin, Sébastien; Yu, Hui
2016-01-01
New experimental evidence of self-motion of a confined active suspension is presented. Depositing fresh semen sample in an annular shaped microfluidic chip leads to a spontaneous vortex state of the fluid at sufficiently large sperm concentration. The rotation occurs unpredictably clockwise or counterclockwise and is robust and stable. Furthermore, for highly active and concentrated semen, richer dynamics can occur such as self-sustained or damped rotation oscillations. Experimental results obtained with systematic dilution provide a clear evidence of a phase transition towards collective motion associated with local alignment of spermatozoa akin to the Vicsek model. A macroscopic theory based on previously derived self-organized hydrodynamics models is adapted to this context and provides predictions consistent with the observed stationary motion. PMID:27733694
Spontaneous symmetry breaking by double lithium adsorption in polyacenes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortiz, Yenni. P.; Seligman, Thomas H.
2010-12-01
We show that adsorption of one lithium atom to polyacenes, i.e. chains of linearly fused benzene rings, will cause such chains to be slightly deformed. If we adsorb a second identical atom on the opposite side of the same ring, this deformation is dramatically enhanced despite the fact that a symmetric configuration seems possible. We argue, that this may be due to an instability of the Jahn-Teller type possibly indeed to a Peierls instability.
Symmetry Breaking Analysis of Prism Adaptation's Latent Aftereffect
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frank, Till D.; Blau, Julia J. C.; Turvey, Michael T.
2012-01-01
The effect of prism adaptation on movement is typically reduced when the movement at test (prisms off) differs on some dimension from the movement at training (prisms on). Some adaptation is latent, however, and only revealed through further testing in which the movement at training is fully reinstated. Applying a nonlinear attractor dynamic model…
Evolutionary graph theory: breaking the symmetry between interaction and replacement
Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Pacheco, Jorge M.; Nowak, Martin A.
2008-01-01
We study evolutionary dynamics in a population whose structure is given by two graphs: the interaction graph determines who plays with whom in an evolutionary game; the replacement graph specifies the geometry of evolutionary competition and updating. First, we calculate the fixation probabilities of frequency dependent selection between two strategies or phenotypes. We consider three different update mechanisms: birth-death, death-birth and imitation. Then, as a particular example, we explore the evolution of cooperation. Suppose the interaction graph is a regular graph of degree h, the replacement graph is a regular graph of degree g and the overlap between the two graphs is a regular graph of degree l. We show that cooperation is favored by natural selection if b/c > hg/l. Here, b and c denote the benefit and cost of the altruistic act. This result holds for death-birth updating, weak selection and large population size. Note that the optimum population structure for cooperators is given by maximum overlap between the interaction and the replacement graph (g = h = l), which means that the two graphs are identical. We also prove that a modified replicator equation can describe how the expected values of the frequencies of an arbitrary number of strategies change on replacement and interaction graphs: the two graphs induce a transformation of the payoff matrix. PMID:17350049
Casimir effect in presence of spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escobar, C. A.
2018-01-01
The Casimir effect is one of the most remarkable consequences of the nonzero vacuum energy predicted by quantum field theory. In this contribution we study the Lorentz-violation effects of the minimal standard-model extension on the Casimir force between two parallel conducting plates in the vacuum. Using a perturbative method, we compute the relevant Green’s function which satisfies given boundary conditions. The standard point-splitting technique allow us to express the vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor in terms of this Green’s function. Finally, we study the Casimir energy and the Casimir force paying particular attention to the quantum effects as approaching the plates.
Inertial Frames Without the Relativity Principle: Breaking Lorentz Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baccetti, Valentina; Tate, Kyle; Visser, Matt
2015-01-01
We investigate inertial frames in the absence of Lorentz invariance, reconsidering the usual group structure implied by the relativity principle. We abandon the relativity principle, discarding the group structure for the transformations between inertial frames, while requiring these transformations to be at least linear (to preserve homogeneity). In theories with a preferred frame (aether), the set of transformations between inertial frames forms a groupoid/pseudogroup instead of a group, a characteristic essential to evading the von Ignatowsky theorems. In order to understand the dynamics, we also demonstrate that the transformation rules for energy and momentum are in general affine. We finally focus on one specific and compelling model implementing a minimalist violation of Lorentz invariance.
Uniaxial stress induced symmetry breaking for muon sites in Fe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kossler, W. J.; Namkung, M.; Hitti, B.; Li, Y.; Kempton, J.; Stronach, C. E.; Goode, L. R., Jr.; Lankford, W. F.; Patterson, B. D.; Kuendig, W.
1984-01-01
Uniaxial stress was used on Fe single crystals to induce muon precession frequency shifts. The frequency shift for a nominally pure Fe sample at 302K was -0.34 + or - .023 MHz per 100 microstrain along the 100 magnetization axis. This corresponds to a change of magnetic field at the muon of 25.1 + to 1.6G/100 magnetic moment. For an Fe (3wt%Si) single crystal the shifts were -0.348 + or - .008 MHz/100 magnetic moment. The agreement between the shifts for Fe and Fe(3wt%Si) shows the effect to be intrinsic to iron and not strongly impurity sensitive. These shifts and their temperature dependence (1/T) are dominated by the effect of strain inducted population shifts between crystallographically equivalent, but mgnetically inequivalent sites. Their magnitudes are in good agreement ith previous theoretical predictions and by previous extrapolation from calculations on Nb and V especially if both 4T(0) and 1T sites contribute comparably.
Global Symmetries of Naive and Staggered Fermions in Arbitrary Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kieburg, Mario; Würfel, Tim R.
2018-03-01
It is well-known that staggered fermions do not necessarily satisfy the same global symmetries as the continuum theory. We analyze the mechanism behind this phenomenon for arbitrary dimension and gauge group representation. For this purpose we vary the number of lattice sites between even and odd parity in each single direction. Since the global symmetries are manifest in the lowest eigenvalues of the Dirac operator, the spectral statistics and also the symmetry breaking pattern will be affected. We analyze these effects and compare our predictions with Monte-Carlo simulations of naive Dirac operators in the strong coupling limit. This proceeding is a summary of our work [1].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marchis, Iuliana
2009-01-01
Symmetry is one of the fundamental concepts in Geometry. It is a Mathematical concept, which can be very well connected with Art and Ethnography. The aim of the article is to show how to link the geometrical concept symmetry with interculturality. For this mosaics from different countries are used.
Symmetries in Lagrangian Dynamics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrario, Carlo; Passerini, Arianna
2007-01-01
In the framework of Noether's theorem, a distinction between Lagrangian and dynamical symmetries is made, in order to clarify some aspects neglected by textbooks. An intuitive setting of the concept of invariance of differential equations is presented. The analysis is completed by deriving the symmetry properties in the motion of a charged…
Predictions from a flavour GUT model combined with a SUSY breaking sector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antusch, Stefan; Hohl, Christian
2017-10-01
We discuss how flavour GUT models in the context of supergravity can be completed with a simple SUSY breaking sector, such that the flavour-dependent (non-universal) soft breaking terms can be calculated. As an example, we discuss a model based on an SU(5) GUT symmetry and A 4 family symmetry, plus additional discrete "shaping symmetries" and a ℤ 4 R symmetry. We calculate the soft terms and identify the relevant high scale input parameters, and investigate the resulting predictions for the low scale observables, such as flavour violating processes, the sparticle spectrum and the dark matter relic density.
Creating 3, 4, 6 and 10-dimensional spacetime from W3 symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambjørn, J.; Watabiki, Y.
2017-07-01
We describe a model where breaking of W3 symmetry will lead to the emergence of time and subsequently of space. Surprisingly the simplest such models which lead to higher dimensional spacetimes are based on the four ;magical; Jordan algebras of 3 × 3 Hermitian matrices with real, complex, quaternion and octonion entries, respectively. The simplest symmetry breaking leads to universes with spacetime dimensions 3, 4, 6, and 10.
Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Seiberg, Nathan; ...
2015-02-26
A q-form global symmetry is a global symmetry for which the charged operators are of space-time dimension q; e.g. Wilson lines, surface defects, etc., and the charged excitations have q spatial dimensions; e.g. strings, membranes, etc. Many of the properties of ordinary global symmetries (q = 0) apply here. They lead to Ward identities and hence to selection rules on amplitudes. Such global symmetries can be coupled to classical background fields and they can be gauged by summing over these classical fields. These generalized global symmetries can be spontaneously broken (either completely or to a sub-group). They can also havemore » ’t Hooft anomalies, which prevent us from gauging them, but lead to ’t Hooft anomaly matching conditions. Such anomalies can also lead to anomaly inflow on various defects and exotic Symmetry Protected Topological phases. In conclusion, our analysis of these symmetries gives a new unified perspective of many known phenomena and uncovers new results.« less
Broken rotational symmetry on the Fermi surface of a high-Tc superconductor
Ramshaw, B. J.; Harrison, N.; Sebastian, S. E.; ...
2017-02-13
Broken fourfold rotational (C 4) symmetry is observed in the experimental properties of several classes of unconventional superconductors. It has been proposed that this symmetry breaking is important for superconducting pairing in these materials, but in the high-T c cuprates this broken symmetry has never been observed on the Fermi surface. Here we report a pronounced anisotropy in the angle dependence of the interlayer magnetoresistance of the underdoped high transition temperature (high-T c) superconductor YBa 2Cu 3O 6.58, directly revealing broken C 4 symmetry on the Fermi surface. Moreover, we demonstrate that this Fermi surface has C 2 symmetry ofmore » the type produced by a uniaxial or anisotropic density-wave phase. This establishes the central role of C 4 symmetry breaking in the Fermi surface reconstruction of YBa 2Cu 3O 6+δ , and suggests a striking degree of universality among unconventional superconductors.« less
Molecular symmetry with quaternions.
Fritzer, H P
2001-09-01
A new and relatively simple version of the quaternion calculus is offered which is especially suitable for applications in molecular symmetry and structure. After introducing the real quaternion algebra and its classical matrix representation in the group SO(4) the relations with vectors in 3-space and the connection with the rotation group SO(3) through automorphism properties of the algebra are discussed. The correlation of the unit quaternions with both the Cayley-Klein and the Euler parameters through the group SU(2) is presented. Besides rotations the extension of quaternions to other important symmetry operations, reflections and the spatial inversion, is given. Finally, the power of the quaternion calculus for molecular symmetry problems is revealed by treating some examples applied to icosahedral symmetry.
a Heavy Higgs Boson from Flavor and Electroweak Symmetry Unification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabbrichesi, Marco
2005-08-01
We present a unified picture of flavor and electroweak symmetry breaking based on a nonlinear sigma model spontaneously broken at the TeV scale. Flavor and Higgs bosons arise as pseudo-Goldstone modes. Explicit collective symmetry breaking yields stable vacuum expectation values and masses protected at one loop by the little-Higgs mechanism. The coupling to the fermions generates well-definite mass textures--according to a U(1) global flavor symmetry--that correctly reproduce the mass hierarchies and mixings of quarks and leptons. The model is more constrained than usual little-Higgs models because of bounds on weak and flavor physics. The main experimental signatures testable at the LHC are a rather large mass m
U(1) mediation of flux supersymmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimm, Thomas W.; Klemm, Albrecht
2008-10-01
We study the mediation of supersymmetry breaking triggered by background fluxes in Type II string compactifications with Script N = 1 supersymmetry. The mediation arises due to an U(1) vector multiplet coupling to both a hidden supersymmetry breaking flux sector and a visible D-brane sector. The required internal manifolds can be constructed by non-Kähler resolutions of singular Calabi-Yau manifolds. The effective action encoding the U(1) coupling is then determined in terms of the global topological properties of the internal space. We investigate suitable local geometries for the hidden and visible sector in detail. This includes a systematic study of orientifold symmetries of del Pezzo surfaces realized in compact geometries after geometric transition. We construct compact examples admitting the key properties to realize flux supersymmetry breaking and U(1) mediation. Their toric realization allows us to analyze the geometry of curve classes and confirm the topological connection between the hidden and visible sector.
Gauge B-L model with residual Z 3 symmetry
Ma, Ernest; Pollard, Nicholas; Srivastava, Rahul; ...
2016-09-07
We study a gauge B–L extension of the standard model of quarks and leptons with unconventional charges for the singlet right-handed neutrinos, and extra singlet scalars, such that a residual Z 3 symmetry remains after the spontaneous breaking of B–L. The phenomenological consequences of this scenario, including the possibility of long-lived self-interacting dark matter and Z' collider signatures is discussed. Lepton number L is a familiar concept. It is usually defined as a global U (1) symmetry, under which the leptons of the standard model (SM), i.e. e,μ,τ together with their neutrinos ν e,ν μ,ν τ have L=1, and allmore » other SM particles have L=0. In the case of nonzero Majorana neutrino masses, this continuous symmetry is broken to a discrete Z 2 symmetry, i.e. (-1) L or lepton parity. In this paper, we consider a gauge B–L extension of the SM, such that a residual Z 3 symmetry remains after the spontaneous breaking of B–L. This is then a realization of the unusual notion of Z 3 lepton symmetry. It has specific phenomenological consequences, including the possibility of a long-lived particle as a dark-matter candidate.« less
Gauge B-L model with residual Z 3 symmetry
Ma, Ernest; Pollard, Nicholas; Srivastava, Rahul
We study a gauge B–L extension of the standard model of quarks and leptons with unconventional charges for the singlet right-handed neutrinos, and extra singlet scalars, such that a residual Z 3 symmetry remains after the spontaneous breaking of B–L. The phenomenological consequences of this scenario, including the possibility of long-lived self-interacting dark matter and Z' collider signatures is discussed. Lepton number L is a familiar concept. It is usually defined as a global U (1) symmetry, under which the leptons of the standard model (SM), i.e. e,μ,τ together with their neutrinos ν e,ν μ,ν τ have L=1, and allmore » other SM particles have L=0. In the case of nonzero Majorana neutrino masses, this continuous symmetry is broken to a discrete Z 2 symmetry, i.e. (-1) L or lepton parity. In this paper, we consider a gauge B–L extension of the SM, such that a residual Z 3 symmetry remains after the spontaneous breaking of B–L. This is then a realization of the unusual notion of Z 3 lepton symmetry. It has specific phenomenological consequences, including the possibility of a long-lived particle as a dark-matter candidate.« less
The game of order and symmetry in matter and in culture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caglioti, G.
1995-01-01
Symmetry, symmetry breaking and broken symmetries play a central role in science and art, as well as in our daily life. Symmetry - a no-change as the outcome of a change - is synonym of invariance or indiscernibility. As a permanent reference of a structure it is associated with the meaning of the structures and it is fundamental in order to describe them. But symmetry implies the impossibility to discern, that is to measure and to perceive. In order to measure and to perceive, that is to create information and knowledge, symmetry has to be broken. The game of life - a life made of selfreproducing information - develops on the watershed of broken symmetries: an ambiguous and indented ridge of symmetries that break and recover themselves in a continuous series of choices. But even the masterpieces of art of all time run on the same ridge. The musical language, for instance, is a universal language - it can be enjoyed without being translated - just because the two contradictory attitudes of the human soul - the symmetric or dreaming attitude and the "informed" or conscious one - compose themselves in it. Similarly, the most successful trademarks exhibit a measured combination of symmetric and therefore reassuring elements, and elements that break symmetry and, in this way, evoke dynamically the rising of new perspectives. During the conference many examples will be proposed, as well as some suggestive similarities between visual arts, music and science.
Goldstone mode and pair-breaking excitations in atomic Fermi superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoinka, Sascha; Dyke, Paul; Lingham, Marcus G.; Kinnunen, Jami J.; Bruun, Georg M.; Vale, Chris J.
2017-10-01
Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a central paradigm of elementary particle physics, magnetism, superfluidity and superconductivity. According to Goldstone's theorem, phase transitions that break continuous symmetries lead to the existence of gapless excitations in the long-wavelength limit. These Goldstone modes can become the dominant low-energy excitation, showing that symmetry breaking has a profound impact on the physical properties of matter. Here, we present a comprehensive study of the elementary excitations in a homogeneous strongly interacting Fermi gas through the crossover from a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of molecules using two-photon Bragg spectroscopy. The spectra exhibit a discrete Goldstone mode, associated with the broken-symmetry superfluid phase, as well as pair-breaking single-particle excitations. Our techniques yield a direct determination of the superfluid pairing gap and speed of sound in close agreement with strong-coupling theories.
Sterile neutrinos and B-L symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fileviez Pérez, Pavel; Murgui, Clara
2018-02-01
We revisit the relation between the neutrino masses and the spontaneous breaking of the B-L gauge symmetry. We discuss the main scenarios for Dirac and Majorana neutrinos and point out two simple mechanisms for neutrino masses. In this context the neutrino masses can be generated either at tree level or at quantum level and one predicts the existence of very light sterile neutrinos with masses below the eV scale. The predictions for lepton number violating processes such as μ → e and μ → eγ are discussed in detail. The impact from the cosmological constraints on the effective number of relativistic degree of freedom is investigated.
Symmetry of priapulids (Priapulida). 2. Symmetry of larvae.
Adrianov, A V; Malakhov, V V
2001-02-01
Larvae of priapulids are characterized by radial symmetry evident from both external and internal characters of the introvert and lorica. The bilaterality appears as a result of a combination of several radial symmetries: pentaradial symmetry of the teeth, octaradial symmetry of the primary scalids, 25-radial symmetry of scalids, biradial symmetry of the neck, and biradial and decaradial symmetry of the trunk. Internal radiality is exhibited by musculature and the circumpharyngeal nerve ring. Internal bilaterality is evident from the position of the ventral nerve cord and excretory elements. Externally, the bilaterality is determined by the position of the anal tubulus and two shortened midventral rows of scalids bordering the ventral nerve cord. The lorical elements define the biradial symmetry that is missing in adult priapulids. The radial symmetry of larvae is a secondary appearance considered an evolutionary adaptation to a lifestyle within the three-dimensional environment of the benthic sediment. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Seeing Science through Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gould, L. I.
Seeing Through Symmetry is a course that introduces non-science majors to the pervasive influence of symmetry in science. The concept of symmetry is usedboth as a link between subjects (such as physics, biology, mathematics, music, poetry, and art) and as a method within a subject. This is done through the development and use of interactive multimedia learning environments to stimulate learning. Computer-based labs enable the student to further explore the concept by being gently led from the arts to science. This talk is an update that includes some of the latest changes to the course. Explanations are given on methodology and how a variety of interactive multimedia tools contribute to both the lecture and lab portion of the course (created in 1991 and taught almost every semester since then, including one in Sweden).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ismael, Jenann Tareq
1997-04-01
Structures of many different sorts arise in physics, e.g., the concrete structures of material bodies, the structure exemplified by the spatiotemporal configuration of a set of bodies, the structures of more abstract objects like states, state-spaces, laws, and so on. To each structure of any of these types there corresponds a set of transformations which map it onto itself. These are its symmetries. Increasingly ubiquitous in theoretical discussions in physics, the notion of symmetry is also at the root of some time-worn philosophical debates. This dissertation consists of a set of essays on topics drawn from places where the two fields overlap. The first essay is an informal introduction to the mathematical study of symmetry. The second essay defends a famous principle of Pierre Curie which states that the symmetries of a cause are always symmetries of its effect. The third essay takes up the case of reflection in space in the context of a controversy stemming from one of Kant's early arguments for the substantivality of space. The fourth essay is a discussion of the general conditions under which an asymmetry in a phenomenon suggests an asymmetry in the laws which govern it. The case of reflection in time-specifically, the theoretical strategy used in statistical mechanics to subsume the time-asymmetric phenomena of Thermodynamics under the time-symmetric classical dynamical laws-is used to illustrate the general points. The philosophical heart of the thesis lies in its fifth essay. Here a somewhat novel way of conceiving scientific theorizing is articulated, one suggested by the abstract mathematical perspective of symmetry.