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Sample records for zuwachs kleinstwasserkraftwerke kraftwerke

  1. Wie die Sonne ins Kraftwerk kommt: Solarthermische Kraftwerke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Solarthermische Kraftwerke sammeln wie riesige Brenngläser die Sonnenstrahlung und treiben damit eine Wärmekraftmaschine an. Drei Konstruktionsprinzipien haben sich heute durchgesetzt. Bereits im kommerziellen Einsatz sind Systeme mit schwenkbaren, verspiegelten Parabolrinnen, die das Sonnenlicht auf ein zentrales Absorberrohr konzentrieren. Durch dieses fließt ein Wärmetransportmedium. Beim Zentral-Receiver-System fokussiert ein Feld verstellbarer Spiegel das Sonnenlicht auf die Spitze eines Turms. Dort sitzt ein Receiver, den ein Wärmetransportmedium durchströmt. Für kleine, dezentrale Anlagen eignen sich Dish-Stirling-Systeme. Das sind schwenkbare, paraboloide Spiegelschüsseln mit einem Stirling-Motor im Brennpunkt. Zentral-Receiver- und Dish-Stirling-Systeme sind noch im Entwicklungsstadium.

  2. Kraft-Wärmekopplung und Blockheiz-Kraftwerke BHKW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahoransky, Richard; Allelein, Hans-Josef; Bollin, Elmar; Oehler, Helmut; Schelling, Udo

    Die thermischen Wirkungsgrade von Kraftwerken zur Stromerzeugung sind relativ gering. Beispielsweise erreichen moderne Kohlekraftwerke heute bis etwa 45 %, Gasturbinen maximal 40 % und Diesel-Motoren nicht über 50 %. Kombinations-Kraftwerke, Gas- und Dampfturbinen-Prozesse können an die 60 % thermischer Wirkungsgrad bei der Umwandlung der zugeführten Wärme in mechanische bzw. elektrische Energie erzielen. Ein ähnlich hoher Wert wird in Zukunft von den Brennstoffzellen erwartet. Der nicht in Arbeit umgewandelte Anteil der zugeführten Wärme fällt als Abwärme an und geht ungenutzt in die Umgebung. Ein Teil dieser Abwärme lässt sich durch entsprechende Installationen bei allen Kraftwerksprozessen zur Wassererwärmung oder zur Dampferzeugung für industrielle Zwecke nutzen. Für Heizzwecke genügt eine Temperatur der Abwärme von 60 %C bis 80 %C, während die Erzeugung von Industriedampf deutlich höhere Temperaturen voraussetzt.

  3. Virtuelle Kraftwerke für Smart Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, Thomas; Heyne, Jean-Christoph

    In den zurückliegenden Jahren haben insbesondere zwei Trends die Stromversorgung bestimmt: der starke Anstieg der dezentralen und der Ausbau der regenerativen Stromerzeugung, die vor allem in den Verteilnetzen stattfinden. Angesichts dieser Entwicklung gewinnen virtuelle Kraftwerke (VK) immer mehr an Bedeutung. In der frühen Phase waren VK insbesondere eine Möglichkeit, kleine dezentrale Erzeuger zu einer größeren Einheit zu bündeln und sie so marktfähig zu machen. Heute werden sie - überwacht und gesteuert über ein Dezentrales Energie-Management-System (DEMS) - gemeinsam mit Demand Response betrieben, also dem Reagieren eines Energieabnehmers auf Marktpreise. Das Demand Side Management soll zur Flexibilisierung der Industrie beitragen. Da der Ausbau der Übertragungsnetze nur schleppend vorankommt, kann die Nutzung von lastseitiger Flexibilität einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Versorgungssicherheit leisten. Im zweiten Teil des Beitrags geht es um die Entwicklung der Märkte. Großes Interesse besteht immer noch an der Regelenergie, zumal der Bedarf bis 2050 deutlich steigen wird. Die Spotmärkte Intraday und Day-Ahead wachsen kontinuierlich, deshalb werden sie für VK immer wichtiger. Am Ende gibt der Beitrag einen Ausblick auf die künftige Entwicklung, in der Regelenergie- und Spotmärkte noch eine Rolle spielen, aber andere Geschäftsmodelle wichtiger werden. Darüber hinaus geht es um langfristige Entwicklungen, die z. B. zusätzliche Serviceleistungen durch VK betreffen.

  4. Chemistry experience in the primary heat transport circuits of Kraftwerk Union pressurized water reactors

    SciT

    Riess, R.

    Chosen for this description of the selected Kraftwerk Union (KWU) pressurized water reactor units were Obrigheim (KWO, 345 MW(e)), Stade (KKS, 662 (MW(e)), Borselle (KCB, 477 MW(e)), and Biblis (KWB-A, 1204 MW(e)). The experience at these plants shows that with a special startup procedure and a proper chemical control of the primary heat transport system that influences general corrosion, selective types of corrosion, corrosion product activity transport and resulting contamination, and radiation-induced decomposition, KWU units have no basic problems.

  5. Vibration monitoring of Kraftwerk Union pressurized water reactors - Review, present status, and further development

    SciT

    Stolben, H.; Wehling, H.J.

    Incipient damage to mechanical structure may be detected early in time by deviations from normal dynamic behavior. For vibration monitoring of coupled systems, only a small number of transducers are necessary, in general. On the basis, Kraftwerk Union has been involved in the development and construction of vibration monitoring systems for pressurized water reactors over the last 20 yr. The current state of the art permits vibration monitoring during normal operation by reactor personnel without expert assistance. The new SUS-86 microprocessor-based system allows further expansion toward an expert system.

  6. Evaluation of a Texaco gasification/endash/combined-cycle plant with Kraftwerk Union gas turbines: Final report

    SciT

    Jacob, J.T.; Chu, L.A.

    The modular nature of gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) plants is known to facilitate capacity addition in increments (phased construction) that may match more closely with the anticipated growth in electrical load. Because the gas turbines are the primary building blocks of a phased GCC plant, utility planners are investigating in more detail prospective gas turbines of current and advanced designs developed by several manufacturers. This report summarizes the results of the evaluation of a GCC power plant based on the Kraftwerk Union Model V84.2 gas turbines of the current design now offered for the US market. The design of the Model V84.2more » machine, a scaled-down version of Kraftwerk Union's 50 Hz Model V94 machine, incorporates features suitable for burning gases, such as coal-derived synthesis gas. 14 figs., 42 tabs.« less

  7. Pool-site fuel inspection and examination techniques applied by the Kraftwerk Union Aktiengesellschaft Fuel Service. [PWR; BWR

    SciT

    Knaab, H.; Knecht, K.

    The need for pool-site inspection and examination of fuel assemblies was recognized by Kraftwerk Union Aktiengesellschaft with the commissioning of the first nuclear power stations. A wet sipping method has demonstrated high reliability in detection of leaking fuel assemblies. The visual inspection system is a versatile tool. It can be supplemented by attaching devices for oxide thickness measurement or surface replication. Repair of leaking pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies has improved fuel utilization. Applied methods and typical results are described.

  8. Assessment of safety-relevant aspects of Kraftwerk Union's 200-MW(thermal) nuclear district heating plant concept

    SciT

    Erlenwein, P.; Frisch, W.; Kafka, P.

    Nuclear reactors of 200- to 400-MW(thermal) power for district heating are the subject of increasing interest, and several specific designs are under discussion today. In the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the Kraftwerk Union AG has presented a 200-MW(thermal) heating reactor concept. The main safety issues of this design are assessed. In this design, the primary system is fully integrated into the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), which is tightly enclosed by the containment. The low process parameters like pressure, temperature, and power density and the high ratio of coolant volume to thermal power allow the design of simple safety features.more » This is supported by the preference of passive over active components. A special feature is a newly designed hydraulic control and rod drive mechanism, which is also integrated into the RPV. Within the safety assessment an overview of the relevant FRG safety rules and guidelines, developed mainly for large, electricity-generating power plants, is given. Included is a discussion of the extent to which these licensing rules can be applied to the concept of heating reactors.« less

  9. 25 Jahre - Institut fuer Geodaesie, Teil 3: Aus dem Leben des Instituts (25 Years - Institute of Geodesy, Part 3: The Life of the Institute)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Kraftwerk Qinshan, VR China 0 1984 bis 1987 Studiumn des Markscheidewesens am Shandong Institute of Mining and Technology, VR China * 1984 bis 1993...die zur Wasserversorgung eines Kraftwerkes der ALCAN dienen sollte. Verbunden mit dem Tunnelprojekt war auch der Bau einer 80 km langen Hoch...spannungsleitung durch unverdorbene Wildnis vom Kraftwerk zur Aluminium-Schmelze in Ki- timat. Zu dieser Zeit war es das gr66Bte hydro-elektrische Projekt, das

  10. Konventionelle Dampfkraftwerke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahoransky, Richard; Allelein, Hans-Josef; Bollin, Elmar; Oehler, Helmut; Schelling, Udo

    Das Dampfkraftwerk beruht als thermisches Kraftwerk auf einem thermodynamischen Kreisprozess, der Wärme in technische Arbeit umwandelt. Die Arbeit wird mittels Elektrogenerator als elektrische Energie abgegeben.

  11. Toward New Horizons. Volume 3. Technical Intelligence Supplement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-05-01

    Westtiroler Kraftwerke , a power company with plans for a 1,000,000-kw project for supplying the region of the German Rhine with power. The water requirements of... Kraftwerke and the Siemens Bau-Union, SBU, as well as Innerebner & Mayer. (b) Buildings and foundations, Arbeitsgemeinschaft Innerebner & Mayer, Ph

  12. A Review of Fatigue Crack Growth of Pressure Vessel and Piping Steels in High-Temperature, Pressurized Reactor-Grade Water.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-19

    ratio, irradiation, materials Germany Kraftwerk Union Materials, temperature, Erlangen, Germany load ratio, frequency, electro- chemical potential Italy...H. Munster, "Frequenzeinfluss auf das Risswachstumsverhalten des Stahles 22NiMoCr37", KWU/R 413/8/80, Kraftwerk Union, Erlangen (1980). 76. D. F

  13. Near East/South Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-27

    MAN), Siemens and Kraftwerk Union (KIW), all of West Germany; South Korea’s Samsung Corporation; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Marubeni...Gruppo Industrie Elettro~ meccaniche per Impianti all’Estero (GIE), and Switzerland’s BBC Brown. Boveri & Company, Kraftwerk Union and Siemens, both

  14. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America, Argentina: Specifications of ARGOS 380 MW Reactor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-18

    programme. It has a licensing agreement with Siemens AG’s Kraftwerk Union AG, which is its minor shareholder. Under this agreement, ENACE has the...Argentine nuclear programme. It has a licensing agreement with Siemens AG’s Kraftwerk Union AG, which is its minor shareholder. Under this agreement, ENACE

  15. Special Course on Unsteady Aerodynamics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Helicopters Ltd Yeovil, Somerset Tel: 935-5222 (434) BOHN Germany Engineer Dieter Kraftwerk Union AG Wiesenstrasse 25 433 Mfiheim Tel: 0208/456.1 BORLAND...Royce Ltd. P.O.B.31 Derby Tel: 42424- Ext.1594 JUDITH Germany Dipl.-Engineer Hans Kraftwerk Union Wiesenstr.35 4330 Mulheim-Ruhr HENSING Netherlands

  16. West Europe Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-23

    Kraftwerk Union Power Plant... DER SPIEGEL: ...a 100-percent Siemens daughter enterprise... Kaske: ...to companies which are participating in the...major competitor, Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) at Muelheim on the Ruhr, with its mass-produced light-water reactors. The High Temperature Reactor

  17. European Science Notes. Volume 39, Number 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    segrega- papers seemed to me unusually signifi- tion, may significantly improve plasma- cant. W. Esser ( Kraftwerk Union, AG, sprayed zirconia TBC coatings...forged and heat- -.- ,.- equipment and methods both by MPA and treated vessel of the same alloy. At industry ( Kraftwerk Union AG [KWU]). present, the

  18. Defense Implications of a Nuclear Iran for Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    firms including Atomic Energy of Canada, Kraftwerk Union of Germany, and General Electric of the United States. Negotiations with General Electric...ended prematurely since, according to the firm, a reactor in Sinop would not be feasible due to seismic threats in Black Sea. The German firm Kraftwerk

  19. Die Sonne.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    der Time-Life Bücher, Redaktion

    Contents: 1. Das Antlitz der Sonne. Ein kosmisches Kraftwerk. 2. Erforschung des Innern. Die Beobachtung des Zentralgestirns. 3. Der unstete Nachbar. Geschenke des Sonnenlichts. 4. Ein endloser Partikelstrom. Die Kraft eines solaren Sturms.

  20. Study of the Optimum Zone of the Independent Variables of an ORGEL Reactor Connected to a 250-MWeb Power Plant. Self Supporting Fuel Elements Made of UC, with Sap Cladding with Four Fuel Rods and Individual Pressure Tubes; STUDIE DER OPTIMALEN ZONE DER UNABHANGIGEN PARAMETER EINES ORGEL- REAKTORS IN EINEM 250-MWe-KRAFTWERK. SELBST-TRAGENDES BRENNELEMENT AUS UC, SAP-UMHUL-LUNG MIT 4 BRENNSTOFFSTABEN UND INDIVIDUELLEN DRUCKROHREN

    SciT

    LaFontaine, F.; Tauch, P.

    The optimum range of the independent variables of and ORGEL reactor connected to a 250-Mw power plant (4 fuel rods of UC with individual pressure tubes), as well as the geometry of the reactor core and the operation of the plant, is described. (auth)

  1. Tokamak und Stellarator - zwei Wege zur Fusionsenergie: Fusionsforschung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milch, Isabella

    2006-07-01

    Im Laufe der Fusionsforschung haben sich zwei Bautypen für ein zukünftiges Kraftwerk als besonders aussichtsreich erwiesen: Tokamak und Stellarator. Mit dem geplanten Tokamak-Experimentalreaktor ITER steht die internationale Fusionsforschung vor der Demonstration eines Energie liefernden Plasmas. Parallel soll die in Greifswald entstehende Forschungsanlage Wendelstein 7-X die Kraftwerkstauglichkeit des alternativen Bauprinzips der Stellaratoren zeigen.

  2. Pipe penetration inspection and repair equipment

    SciT

    Eckert, G.; Gebrath, D.; Schlusen, H.J.

    Kraftwerk Union (KWU) has developed an in-pipe inspection and repair equipment package for use on pipe welds inside drywell penetrations since these welds are susceptible to integranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) attack. The following paper does not give a detailed description of inspection and repair techniques (e.g., nondestructive examination (NDE), milling, or welding) but is aimed at providing information on recent developments at KWU with regard to in-pipe inspection and repair equipment.

  3. Advanced techniques for repair of irradiated PWR fuel assemblies

    SciT

    Knaab, H.; Westphal, M.

    Kraftwerk union has recently designed and built a portable repair unit for use in nuclear power plants for repair of defective fuel assemblies where space limitations do not allow permanent installation of repair equipment. This new equipment is designed to be easily disassembled and decontaminated. The main component of the equipment is the fuel assembly reconstitution unit (FARU) which is placed on the floor of the spent fuel pool. The use of the FARU is described in the paper.

  4. Disposition of feedwater nozzle UT indications in a BWR

    SciT

    Leshnoff, S.D.; Orski, M.A.

    A technical logic is developed, which justifies the disposition of feedwater nozzle ultrasonic testing (UT) indications in order to return to operation without visual inspection of the vessel inside surface. Present regulatory guidance is to inspect the inside surface from the inside if a reportable indication is found. A highly sensitive, tomographic UT technique, developed by Kraftwerk Union, is used to detect and size machined notches in the blend radius and bore regions of a full-sized feedwater nozzle mock-up.

  5. Waterside corrosion of Zircaloy-clad fuel rods in a PWR environment

    SciT

    Garzarolli, F.; Jorde, D.; Manzel, R.

    A data base of Zircaloy corrosion behavior under PWR operating conditions has been established from previously published reports as well as from new Kraftwerk Union (KWU) fuel examinations. The data show that the reactor environment increases the corrosion. ZrO/sub 2/ film thermal conductivity is another major factor that influences corrosion behavior. It was inferred from KWU film thickness data that the oxide film thermal conductivity may decrease once circumferential cracks develop in the layer. 57 refs.

  6. Determination of tube-to-tube support interaction characteristics. [PWR

    SciT

    Haslinger, K.H.

    Tube-to-tube support interaction characteristics were determined on a multi-span tube geometry representative of the hot-leg side of the C-E, System 80 steam generator design. Results will become input for an autoclave type wear test program on steam generator tubes, performed by Kraftwerk Union (KWU). Correlation of test data reported here with similar data obtained from the wear tests will be performed in an attempt to make predictions about the long-term fretting behavior of steam generator tubes.

  7. Short-term hydro generation and interchange contract scheduling for Swiss Rail

    SciT

    Christoforidis, M.; Awobamise, B.; Tong, S.

    This paper describes the Short-Term Resource Scheduling (STRS) function that has been developed by Siemens-Empros as part of the new SBB/Direktion Kraftwerk (Swiss Rail) Energy Management System. Optimal scheduling of the single-phase hydro plants, single-phase and three-phase energy accounts, and purchase and sale of three phase energy subject to a multitude of physical and contractual constraints (including spinning and regulating reserve requirements), is the main objective of the STRS function. The operations planning horizon of STRS is one day to one week using an hourly time increment.

  8. Experimental prediction of tube support interaction characteristics in steam generators: Volume 2, Westinghouse Model 51 flow entrance region: Topical report

    SciT

    Haslinger, K.H.

    Tube-to-tube support interaction characterisitics were determined experimentally on a single tube, multi-span geometry, representative of the Westinghouse Model 51 steam generator economizer design. Results, in part, became input for an autoclave type wear test program on steam generator tubes, performed by Kraftwerk Union (KWU). More importantly, the test data reported here have been used to validate two analytical wear prediction codes; the WECAN code, which was developed by Westinghouse, and the ABAQUS code which has been enhanced for EPRI by Foster Wheeler to enable simulation of gap conditions (including fluid film effects) for various support geometries.

  9. Convoy projects: a case study from Germany

    SciT

    Gruener, W.

    The Convoy concept was formulated at a time when Kraftwerk Union (KWU) anticipated the start of five to six turnkey nuclear power plant projects within a very short time frame, related to as many customers, sites, and licensing authorities. To counteract the rapidly escalating costs and schedules of projects then under construction, a series of measures were enacted with the purpose of streamlining and optimizing the work procedures both within the company and in relation with the external partners - customers, licensing authorities and their technical advisors, suppliers, and subsuppliers. The organizational framework and the various tools deployed by themore » turnkey contractor ensured smooth and effective design and construction procedures. The adherence to the original budget and schedule is truly remarkable, encouraging further investigation into the applicability of such methods and procedures for future projects.« less

  10. Safety and licensing of a small modular gas-cooled reactor system

    SciT

    Brown, N.W.; Kelley, A.P. Jr.

    A modular side-by-side high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (SBS-HTGR) is being developed by Interatom/Kraftwerk Union (KWU). The General Electric Company and Interatom/KWU entered into a proprietary working agreement to continue develop jointly of the SBS-HTGR. A study on adapting the SBS-HTGR for application in the US has been completed. The study investigated the safety characteristics and the use of this type of design in an innovative approach to licensing. The safety objective guiding the design of the modular SBS-HTGR is to control radionuclide release by the retention of fission products within the fuel particles with minimal reliance on active design features. Themore » philosophy on which this objective is predicated is that by providing a simple safety case, the safety criteria can be demonstrated as being met with high confidence through conduct of a full-scale module safety test.« less

  11. Energie aus der Tiefe: Geothermische Stromerzeugung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huenges, Ernst

    2004-11-01

    Die Erde birgt überall genug Wärme für die geothermische Erzeugung elektrischen Stroms, die allerdings Wassertemperaturen von über 150 °C braucht. So warme Gesteinsschichten liegen in Mitteleuropa in mindestens 4 km Tiefe. Ein Kraftwerk muss also beim Betrieb über tiefe Bohrungen Wasser durch das Tiefengestein zirkulieren und dort erhitzen. Von Natur aus ist das Gestein jedoch dafür meist zu wenig porös. Deshalb soll das Einpressen von Fluiden unter hohem Druck die natürlichen Risse im Reservoirgestein künstlich vergrößern. Diese Stimulationstechnik erprobte das GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam erfolgreich an einer 4309 m tiefen Bohrung im Geothermielabor Groß Schönebeck. Eine zweite Bohrung soll nun eine langfristige Wasserzirkulation im Untergrund erforschen. Funktioniert sie stabil, dann soll eine Demonstrationsanlage Strom erzeugen.

  12. Evaluation of Millstone-2 steam generator chemical decontamination

    SciT

    Snyder, D.T.; Blok, J.

    The steam generator channel heads at Millstone-2 were decontaminated prior to carrying out extensive maintenance work in 1983. Isotopic gamma ray measurements were made of the inner channel head surfaces before and after the decontamination to evaluate the effectiveness of the process. The Combustion Engineering/Kraftwerk Union chemical decontamination, by itself, provided a decontamination factor ranging from 2.7 to 6.6 for the various steam generator surfaces. The corresponding average dose rate reduction factor, based on gross-gamma radiation surveys, was approximately 1.5 to 2.5. Following the chemical treatment, high pressure water flushing reduced the radiation levels still further, to an average overallmore » dose reduction factor of 5.3 to 7.2.« less

  13. Experience gained from engineering, construction, and maintenance of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciT

    Eckert, G.; Huempfner, P.

    From the very beginning of nuclear power engineering in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the main objective was to achieve a high degree of reliability for all safety systems, the nuclear steam supply systems, and the balance of plant. Major measures of a general nature included the following: (1) provision of the same redundancy for all parts of systems related to safety or availability; (2) introduction of appropriate quality assurance programs for design, development, manufacture, erection, testing, operation, and maintenance; and (3) optimization of design, not with the aim of reducing plant costs but in order to improve operationmore » and safety. A few examples are provided of improvements that Kraftwerk Union AG, as a supplier of turnkey nuclear power plants, has incorporated in its plants over the past years.« less

  14. Analysis of steam generator tube rupture transients with single failure

    SciT

    Trambauer, K.

    The Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit is engaged in the collection and evaluation of light water reactor operating experience as well as analyses for the risk study of the pressurized water reactor (PWR). Within these activities, thermohydraulic calculations have been performed to show the influence of different boundary conditions and disturbances on the steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) transients. The analyses of these calculations have focused on the measures and systems needed to cope with an SGTR. The reference plant for this analysis is a 1300-MW(e) PWR of Kraftwerk Union design with four loops, each containing a U-tube steam generator (SG) andmore » a reactor cooling pump (RCP). The thermal-hydraulic code DRUFAN-02 was used for the transient calculations.« less

  15. Disparities in nuclear power plant performance in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciT

    Hansen, K.F.; Winje, D.K.

    This report presents data comparing the performance of light water reactors in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The comparisons are made for the years 1980-1983 and include 21 Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), 22 General Electric Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) in the US; and 6 Kraftwerk Union (KWU) PWRs and 4 KWJ BWRs in the FRG. Data on capacity losses are presented in a disaggregated form for scheduled outages, forced outages, and regulatory imposed outages. Further, within the scheduled and forced outages, the data is subdivided into losses associated with the nuclear island, the balancemore » of plant, or other causes.« less

  16. KWU's high conversion reactor concept - An economical evolution of modern pressurized water reactor technology toward improved uranium ore utilization

    SciT

    Markl, H.; Goetzmann, C.A.; Moldaschl, H.

    The Kraftwerk Union AG high conversion reactor represents a quasi-standard PWR with fuel assemblies of more or less uniformly enriched fuel rods, arranged in a tight hexagonal array with a pitch-to-diameter ratio p/d approx. = 1.12. High fuel enrichment as well as a high conversion ratio of --0.9 will provide the potential for high burnup values up to 70 000 MWd/tonne and a low fissile material consumption. The overall objective of the actual RandD program is to have the technical feasibility, including that for licensibility, established by the early 1990s as a prerequisite for deciding whether to enter a demonstrationmore » plant program.« less

  17. UTSG-2; A theoretical model describing the transient behavior of a pressurized water reactor natural circulation U-tube steam generator

    SciT

    Hold, A.

    An advanced nonlinear transient model for calculating steady-state and dynamic behaviors of characteristic parameters of a Kraftwerk Union-type vertical natural-circulation U-tube steam generator and its main steam system is presented. This model has been expanded due to the increasing need for safety-related accident research studies. It now takes into consideration the possibilities of dryout and superheating along the secondary side of the steam generator. The resulting theoretical model is the basis of the digital code UTSG-2, which can be used both by itself and in combination with other pressurized water reactor transient codes, such as ALMOD-3.4, AMOD-4, and ATHLET.

  18. Simulation of German PKL refill/reflood experiment K9A using RELAP4/MOD7. [PWR

    SciT

    Hsu, M.T.; Davis, C.B.; Behling, S.R.

    This paper describes a RELAP4/MOD7 simulation of West Germany's Kraftwerk Union (KWU) Primary Coolant Loop (PKL) refill/reflood experiment K9A. RELAP4/MOD7, a best-estimate computer program for the calculation of thermal and hydraulic phenomena in a nuclear reactor or related system, is the latest version in the RELAP4 code development series. This study was the first major simulation using RELAP4/MOD7 since its release by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The PKL facility is a reduced scale (1:134) representation of a typical West German four-loop 1300 MW pressurized water reactor (PWR). A prototypical scale of the total volume to power ratio wasmore » maintained. The test facility was designed specifically for an experiment simulating the refill/reflood phase of a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA).« less

  19. Grundlagen und Grundbegriffe der Messtechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    Es ist eine wesentliche Aufgabe der Messtechnik, technische Vorgänge quantitativ zu erfassen und anhand der gemessenen Größen Funktionsabläufe zu steuern. Als Beispiel sei ein Kraftwerk zur Energieerzeugung genannt, bei dem nur über die Messung von Temperaturen, Leistungen, Drücken und anderen Größen Aussagen über den momentanen Zustand möglich sind und bei Abweichungen vom Sollwert geeignete Eingriffe in das System erfolgen können. Damit eine eindeutige Kommunikation möglich wird, sind die in der Messtechnik verwendeten Begriffe, Messverfahren und Maßeinheiten in entsprechenden Normen oder Vorschriften festgelegt.

  20. Parameter study on the influence of prepressurization on PWR fuel rod behavior during normal operation and hypothetical LOCAs

    SciT

    Brzoska, B.; Depisch, F.; Fuchs, H.P.

    To analyze the influence of prepressurization on fuel rod behavior, a parametric study has been performed that considers the effects of as-fabricated fuel rod internal prepressure on the normal operation and postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) rod behavior of a 1300-MW(electric) Kraftwerk Union (KWU) standard pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant. A variation of the prepressure in the range from 15 to 35 bars has only a slight influence on normal operation behavior. Considering the LOCA behavior, only a small temperature increase results from prepressure reduction, while the core-wide straining behavior is improved significantly. The KWU prepressurization takes both conditions intomore » account.« less

  1. Third US T-G supplier: now or later

    SciT

    Lincicome, R.A.

    The Utility Power Corporation (UPC) anticipates that a rush of new orders for turbines and generators will enable it to become the third domestic manufacturer of the large units. A joint venture of Allis-Chalmers and the West German firm Kraftwerk Union (KWU), UPC has waited 18 months without receiving a single order. A manufacturing site was acquired and negotiations with electric utility executives are expected to bring in bids. KWU, while disappointed, confirms its long-term goal of serving American utilities. UPC has revised its original schedule in the face of lagging electrical demand and a variety of economic and sitingmore » constraints, but sees a growing acceptance of large turbine-generators and for foreign technology. UPC will pursue a single-line of responsibility in its marketing strategy. (DCK)« less

  2. Music and astronomy. II. Unitedsoundofcosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J. A.; Arias, A.; Machuca, J. J.; Morente, S.

    2017-03-01

    We have been congratulated on the stage by a Nobel laureate (he was our curtain raiser), shocked audiences in rock concerts, written monthly on Musica Universalis , made the second concert in 3D in Spain after Kraftwerk and broadcasted it live in Radio 3, mixed our music with poetry read aloud by scientists, composed the soundtracks of CARMENES, QUIJOTE, ESTRACK and the Gaia first data release, made a videoclip on how computer simulates the formation of stars, played our music in planetariums, museums, observatories throughout Spain and at the end of the meeting of the ESO telescopes time allocation committee... All those moments will not be lost in time like tears in rain, but put together in Bilbao during the 2016 meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society.

  3. Fuel inspection and reconstitution experience at Surry Power Station

    SciT

    Brookmire, T.A.

    Surry Power Station, located on the James River near Williamsburg, Virginia, has two Westinghouse pressurized water reactors. Unit 2 consistently sets a high standard of fuel performance (no indication of fuel failures in recent cycles), while unit 1, since cycle 6, has been plagued with numerous fuel failures. Both Surry units operate with Westinghouse standard 15 x 15 fuel. Virginia Power management set goals to reduce the coolant activity, thus reducing person-rem exposure and the associated costs of high coolant activity. To achieve this goal, extensive fuel examination campaigns were undertaken that included high-magnification video inspectionsa, debris cleaning, wet andmore » vacuum fuel sipping, fuel rod ultrasonic testing, and eddy current examination. In the summer of 1985, during cycle 8 operation, Kraftwerk Union reconstituted (repaired) the damage, once-burned assemblies from cycles 6 and 7 by replacing failed fuel rods with solid Zircaloy-4 rods. Currently, cycle 9 has operated for 5 months without any indication of fuel failure (the cycle 9 core has two reconstituted assemblies).« less

  4. Test prediction for the German PKL Test K5A using RELAP4/MOD6

    SciT

    Chen, Y.S.; Haigh, W.S.; Sullivan, L.H.

    RELAP4/MOD6 is the most recent modification in the series of RELAP4 computer programs developed to describe the thermal-hydraulic conditions attendant to postulated transients in light water reactor systems. The major new features in RELAP4/MOD6 include best-estimate pressurized water reactor (PWR) reflood transient analytical models for core heat transfer, local entrainment, and core vapor superheat, and a new set of heat transfer correlations for PWR blowdown and reflood. These new features were used for a test prediction of the Kraftwerk Union three-loop PRIMAR KREISLAUF (PKL) Reflood Test K5A. The results of the prediction were in good agreement with the experimental thermalmore » and hydraulic system data. Comparisons include heater rod surface temperature, system pressure, mass flow rates, and core mixture level. It is concluded that RELAP4/MOD6 is capable of accurately predicting transient reflood phenomena in the 200% cold-leg break test configuration of the PKL reflood facility.« less

  5. Measurements and calculations of water velocity, momentum flux, and related flow parameters obtaned from single-phase water integral acceptance tests of the PKL instrumented spool pieces

    SciT

    Stein, W.

    The operation of the emergency core cooling system and its related steam-binding problems in pressurized water reactors is the subject of a cooperative study by the United States, Germany, and Japan. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and EG and G, Inc., San Ramon Operations, are responsible for the design, hardware, and software of the 80.8-mm and 113-mm spool piece measurement systems for the German Primarkreislauf (PKL) Test Facility at Kraftwerk Union in Erlangen, West Germany. This work was done for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Division of Reactor Safety Research, under its 3-D Technical Support and Instrumentation Program. Four instrumented spools capablemore » of measuring individual phase parameters in two-phase flows were constructed. Each spool contains a flow turbine, drag screen, three-beam densitometer, and pressure and temperature probes. A computerized data acquisition system is also provided to store and analyze data from the four spools. The four spools were shipped to the PKL Test Facility in West Germany for acceptance testing in a water-flow loop. Spool measurements of velocity and momentum flux were compared to the values obtained from an orifice meter installed in the loop piping system. The turbine flowmeter velocity data for all tests were within allowable tolerances. Drag screen momentum flux measurements were also within tolerance with the exception of a few points.« less

  6. Design issues concerning Iran`s Bushehr nuclear power plant VVER-1000 conversion

    SciT

    Carson, C.F.

    On January 8, 1995, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) signed a contract for $800 million with the Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (Minatom) to complete Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) unit 1. The agreement called for a Russian VVER-1000/320 pressurized water reactor (PWR) to be successfully installed into the existing German-built BNPP facilities in 5 yr. System design differences, bomb damage, and environmental exposure are key issues with which Minatom must contend in order to fulfill the contract. The AEOI under the Shah of Iran envisioned Bushehr as the first of many nuclear power plants, with Iranmore » achieving 24 GW(electric) by 1993 and 34 GW(electric) by 2000. Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) began construction of the two-unit plant near the Persian Gulf town of Halileh in 1975. Unit 1 was {approx}80% complete and unit 2 was {approx}50% complete when construction was interrupted by the 1979 Iranian Islamic revolution. Despite repeated AEOI attempts to lure KWU and other companies back to Iran to complete the plant, Western concerns about nuclear proliferation in Iran and repeated bombings of the plant during the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war dissuaded Germany from resuming construction.« less

  7. Micalastic high-voltage insulation: Design features and experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichmann, A.

    1981-12-01

    High-quality mica, carefully selected epoxy resins and a well-matched vacuum/pressure impregnation process determine the characteristics of the MICALASTIC insulation for large turbine-generators. Logical development and process manufacturing quality control have led to an insulation system of high quality and operating reliability. The first winding of a turbine-generator being impregnated and cured under vacuum with solvent-free synthetic resin in 1958 was designed for 10.5 kV rated voltage. Ever since, Siemens AG and Kraftwerk Union AG have used this type of insulation for all direct-cooled windings and also for an increasing number of indirect-cooled windings. At present, 240 turbine-generators with a total of more than 115,000 MVA output have been built. Since 1960, this insulation system has been registered for Siemens AG under the trade name MICALASTIC. The stator windings of the largest, single-shaft generators to date, rated 1560 MVA, 27 kV, has been built with MICALASTIC insulation.

  8. Radioactive waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany: Industrial practices and results

    SciT

    Grabener, K.H.

    In the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the production and use of nuclear-generated electricity expanded steadily despite the fact that opposition from the environmentalists led to the impression of an upcoming moratorium for nuclear energy. With this increase in capacity--by the year 1990, nearly 25 000 MW will be on the line--there will be an increase in the volume of low-level (non-heat-generating) radwaste originating from nuclear power plants. Radwaste management has been influenced to a considerable extent by the requirements of the final repository. Following a period of trial storage in the Asse repository, preparations are now being made formore » storage in the Konrad ore mine. It is intended to begin storage in 1991. Requirements for the packages specify containers with a volume from 3.9 to 10.9 m/sup 3/ or cast iron safety drums. These drums are suitable for radioactive materials in powder form (resins, dried concentrates) without the need for embedding materials. Storage in standard 55-gal drums is no longer permitted. The costs for final storage will be very high so that volume reduction is of prime importance. Kraftwerk Union (KWU) as a supplier of nuclear power plants (NPPs) examined the radwaste market and decided to combine delivery of radwaste treatment systems to NPPs with service jobs including radwaste handling and conditioning in its own service and maintenance plant at Karlstein.« less

  9. Disparities in nuclear power plant performance in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciT

    Hansen, K.F.; Winje, D.K.

    This report presents data comparing the performance of light water reactors in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The comparisons are made for the years 1980 to 1983 and include 21 Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), 22 General Electric Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) in the US; and 6 Kraftwerk Union (KWU) PWRs and 4 KWU BWRs in the FRG. Data on capacity losses are presented in a disaggregated form for scheduled outages, forced outages, and regulatory imposed outages. Further, within the scheduled and forced outages, the data are subdivided into losses associated with the nuclear island,more » the balance of plant, or other causes. The report also surveys a number of observations relating to the causes of discrepancies between the US and West Germany. These observations were obtained from interviews with executives and engineers in both nations, including people from vendors, utilities, regulators, and architect/engineers. These discussions are distilled into observations relating to national differences in the broad areas of economics and economic regulation, safety regulations, and technical and managerial differences. 9 refs., 2 figs., 26 tabs.« less

  10. Annual report, FY 1979 Spent fuel and fuel pool component integrity.

    SciT

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Bailey, W.J.; Schreiber, R.E.

    International meetings under the BEFAST program and under INFCE Working Group No. 6 during 1978 and 1979 continue to indicate that no cases of fuel cladding degradation have developed on pool-stored fuel from water reactors. A section from a spent fuel rack stand, exposed for 1.5 y in the Yankee Rowe (PWR) pool had 0.001- to 0.003-in.-deep (25- to 75-..mu..m) intergranular corrosion in weld heat-affected zones but no evidence of stress corrosion cracking. A section of a 304 stainless steel spent fuel storage rack exposed 6.67 y in the Point Beach reactor (PWR) spent fuel pool showed no significant corrosion.more » A section of 304 stainless steel 8-in.-dia pipe from the Three Mile Island No. 1 (PWR) spent fuel pool heat exchanger plumbing developed a through-wall crack. The crack was intergranular, initiating from the inside surface in a weld heat-affected zone. The zone where the crack occurred was severely sensitized during field welding. The Kraftwerk Union (Erlangen, GFR) disassembled a stainless-steel fuel-handling machine that operated for 12 y in a PWR (boric acid) spent fuel pool. There was no evidence of deterioration, and the fuel-handling machine was reassembled for further use. A spent fuel pool at a Swedish PWR was decontaminated. The procedure is outlined in this report.« less

  11. Analytical methods in the high conversion reactor core design

    SciT

    Zeggel, W.; Oldekop, W.; Axmann, J.K.

    High conversion reactor (HCR) design methods have been used at the Technical University of Braunschweig (TUBS) with the technological support of Kraftwerk Union (KWU). The present state and objectives of this cooperation between KWU and TUBS in the field of HCRs have been described using existing design models and current activities aimed at further development and validation of the codes. The hard physical and thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions of pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores with a high degree of fuel utilization result from the tight packing of the HCR fuel rods and the high fissionable plutonium content of the fuel. Inmore » terms of design, the problem will be solved with rod bundles whose fuel rods are adjusted by helical spacers to the proposed small rod pitches. These HCR properties require novel computational models for neutron physics, thermal hydraulics, and fuel rod design. By means of a survey of the codes, the analytical procedure for present-day HCR core design is presented. The design programs are currently under intensive development, as design tools with a solid, scientific foundation and with essential parameters that are widely valid and are required for a promising optimization of the HCR core. Design results and a survey of future HCR development are given. In this connection, the reoptimization of the PWR core in the direction of an HCR is considered a fascinating scientific task, with respect to both economic and safety aspects.« less

  12. Development and demonstration of techniques for reducing occupational radiation doses during refueling outages. Task 1. Steam generator channel head decontamination

    SciT

    Abrams, W.T.; Cope, A.W.; Orsulak, R.M.

    The overall objective of Task 1 was to demonstrate an effective method for removing tenacious corrosion products in a pressurized water reactor steam generator and thus significantly reduce radiation exposure during subsequent maintenance activities. Various decontamination methods were evaluated and a multistep, low concentration chemical process originated by Kraftwerk Union A.G. (KWU) of the Federal Republic of Germany was selected. The process was further developed and tested by C-E and KWU in West Germany and at C-E's facilities in Windsor, Connecticut. C-E designed, fabricated and tested a portable system to apply the process at Millstone Point II. The decontamination ofmore » the primary channel heads of the two Millstone steam generators was performed by C-E and NUSCO during the 1983 refueling shutdown of Millstone Point II plant. Results of the decontamination were very satisfactory. NUSCO determined that a net savings of 3660 man-rem of personnel exposure was realized during the decontamination demonstration and the subsequent maintenance work on the steam generators.« less

  13. Design and testing of the reactor-internal hydraulic control rod drive for the nuclear heating plant

    SciT

    Batheja, P.; Meier, W.J.; Rau, P.J.

    A hydraulically driven control rod is being developed at Kraftwerk Union for integration in the primary system of a small nuclear district heating reactor. An elaborate test program, under way for --3 yr, was initiated with a plexiglass rig to understand the basic principles. A design specification list was prepared, taking reactor boundary conditions and relevant German rules and regulations into account. Subsequently, an atmospheric loop for testing of components at 20 to 90/sup 0/C was erected. The objectives involved optimization of individual components such as a piston/cylinder drive unit, electromagnetic valves, and an ultrasonic position indication system as wellmore » as verification of computer codes. Based on the results obtained, full-scale components were designed and fabricated for a prototype test rig, which is currently in operation. Thus far, all atmospheric tests in this rig have been completed. Investigations under reactor temperature and pressure, followed by endurance tests, are under way. All tests to date have shown a reliable functioning of the hydraulic drive, including a novel ultrasonic position indication system.« less

  14. PFB coal fired combined cycle development program. Advanced hot gas cleanup concept evaluation (Task 4. 3). Volume A. Aerodyne cyclone evaluation

    SciT

    Not Available

    This report summarizes the results of testing of a rotary flow cyclone, manufactured by Aerodyne Development Corporation under license by Siemens Kraftwerk Union. This cyclone was selected for evaluation due to the unusually high separative efficiencies claimed by the manufacturer (based on developer data), and relative lack of open literature data. The most significant finding of this work was the observation that electrostatic forces could enhance or, in fact, dominate the separation process. Separative efficiencies, with electrostatic forces present, were found to be substantially independent of flow rate and, by inference, could be independent of unit size. This finding suggestsmore » that large cyclones with natural or augmented electrostatic forces employed in the hot gas cleanup train of the CFCC system may not suffer the performance degradation compared to small cyclones, as projected from conventional inertial theory. This is of special importance since the use of many small cyclones in parallel, or multicyclones, commonly suffers from fouling and this approach is not recommended in the CFCC application. The original objective of this investigation was to assess the relative merits of the Aerodyne cyclone separator. It was found from both the cold flow and the hot flow tests that its separative efficiencies are disappointingly poorer than expectations (in agreement with Westinghouse results), and even poorer than conventional cyclones.« less

  15. Experience with chemical system decontamination by the CORD process and electrochemical decontamination of pipe ends

    SciT

    Wille, H.; Bertholdt, H.O.; Operschall, H.

    Efforts to reduce occupational radiation exposure during inspection and repair work in nuclear power plants turns steadily increasing attention to the decontamination of systems and components. Due to the advanced age of nuclear power plants resulting in increasing dose rates, the decontamination of components, or rather of complete systems, or loops to protect operating and inspection personnel becomes demanding. Besides, decontaminating complete primary loops is in many cases less difficult than cleaning large components. Based on experience gained in nuclear power plants, an outline of two different decontamination methods performed recently are given. For the decontamination of complete systems ormore » loops, Kraftwerk Union AG has developed CORD, a low-concentration process. For the decontamination performance of a subsystem, such as the steam generator (SG) channel heads of a pressurized water reactor or the recirculation loops of a boiling water reactor the automated mobile decontamination appliance is used. The electrochemical decontamination process is primarily applicable for the treatment of specially limited surface areas.« less

  16. PFB Coal Fired Combined Cycle Development Program. Advanced hot gas cleanup concept evaluation (Task 4. 3). Volume A. Aerodyne cyclone evaluation

    SciT

    Not Available

    This report summarizes the results of testing of a rotary flow cyclone, manufactured by Aerodyne Development Corporation under license by Siemens Kraftwerk Union. This cyclone was selected for evaluation due to the unusually high separative efficiencies claimed by the manufacturer (based on developer data), and relative lack of open literature data. The most significant finding of this work was the observation that electrostatic forces could enhance or, in fact, dominate the separation process. Separative efficiencies, with electrostatic forces present, were found to be substantially independent of flow rate and, by inference, could be independent of unit size. Hence this findingmore » offers a major hope that large cyclones employed in the hot gas cleanup train of the CFCC system may not suffer the performance degradation compared to small cyclones, as projected from conventional inertial theory. The separative efficiencies of the Aerodyne cyclone separator were found from both the cold flow and the hot flow tests to be disappointingly poorer than expectations (in agreement with Westinghouse results), and even poorer than conventional cyclones. (LTN)« less

  17. Probability of in-vessel steam explosion-induced containment failure for a KWU PWR

    SciT

    Esmaili, H.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Zuchuat, O.

    During postulated core meltdown accidents in light water reactors, there is a likelihood for an in-vessel steam explosion when the melt contacts the coolant in the lower plenum. The objective of the work described in this paper is to determine the conditional probability of in-vessel steam explosion-induced containment failure for a Kraftwerk Union (KWU) pressurized water reactor (PWR). The energetics of the explosion depends on the mass of the molten fuel that mixes with the coolant and participates in the explosion and on the conversion of fuel thermal energy into mechanical work. The work can result in the generation ofmore » dynamic pressures that affect the lower head (and possibly lead to its failure), and it can cause acceleration of a slug (fuel and coolant material) upward that can affect the upper internal structures and vessel head and ultimately cause the failure of the upper head. If the upper head missile has sufficient energy, it can reach the containment shell and penetrate it. The analysis, must therefore, take into account all possible dissipation mechanisms.« less

  18. Review of PWR fuel rod waterside corrosion behavior

    SciT

    Garzarolli, F.; Jorde, D.; Manzel, R.

    Waterside corrosion of Zircaloy has generally not been a problem under normal PWR operating conditions, although some instances of accelerated corrosion have been reported. However, an incentive exists to extend the average fuel rod discharge burnups to about 50,000 MWd/MTU. To minimize corrosion at these extended burnups, the factors which influence Zircaloy corrosion need to be better understood. A data base of Zircaloy corrosion behavior under PWR operating conditions has been established. The data are compiled previously published reports as well as from new Kraftwerk Union examinations. A non-destructive eddy-current technique is used to measure the oxide layer thickness onmore » fuel rods. Comparisons of measuremnts made using this eddy-current technique with those made by usual metallographic methods indicate good agreement. The data were evaluated by defining a fitting factor F which describes the increase in corrosion rate observed in-reactor over that observed from measurements of ex-reactor corrosion coupons.« less

  19. Aspects of remote maintenance in an FRG reprocessing plant from the manufacturer's viewpoint

    SciT

    Zeitzchel, G.; Tennie, M.; Saal, G.

    In April 1986 a consortium led by Kraftwerk Union AG was commissioned by the German society for nuclear fuel reprocessing (DWK) to build the first West German commercial reprocessing plant for spent fuel assemblies. The main result of the planning efforts regarding remote maintenance operations inside the main process building was the introduction of FEMO technology (FEMO is an acronym based on German for remote handling modular technique). According to this technology the two cells in which the actual reprocessing (which is based on the PUREX technique) takes place are provided with frames to accommodate the process components (tanks, pumps,more » agitators, etc.), each frame together with the components which it supports forming one module. The two cells are inaccessible and windowless. For handling operations each cell is equipped with an overhead crane and a crane-like manipulator carrier system (MTS) with power manipulator. Viewing of the operations from outside the cells is made possible by television (TV) cameras installed at the crane, the MTS, and the manipulator. This paper addresses some examples of problems that still need to be solved in connection with FEMO handling. In particular, the need for close cooperation between the equipment operator, the component designer, the process engineer, the planning engineer, and the licensing authorities will be demonstrated.« less

  20. Outage differences between Diablo Canyon and Unterweser power plants

    SciT

    Mehrens, H.

    Diablo Canyon (DCPP) of Pacific Gas and Electric Company and Unterweser (KKU) of PreussenElektra have had an ongoing exchange program since 1989, which includes mutual visits by their employees at the optimum time for observing outages. Both DCPP and Unterweser use four-loop pressurized water reactors (PWRs), DCPP with two 1,100-MW units and KKU with a single 1,300-MW unit. Unterweser finished its 11th outage in 1990; DCPP units 1 and 2 will have their fourth outages in 1991. The scope of the maintenance and refueling work is quite similar in both plants and offers, therefore, a good basis for comparison. Outagemore » durations at European Kraftwerk Union KWU-PWR plants average {approximately}30 days as compared to the 60 to 80 days for PWRs in the US. Diablo Canyon has reduced outage durations from > 100 days to < 60. The key areas that contribute to the differences in outage duration are plant design and layout and outage execution.« less

  1. Reliable steam generators: how KWU solved beginning problems for its customers

    SciT

    Eggers, B.; Engl, G.; Froehlich, K.

    This paper describes improvements in inspection and maintenance techniques, the adaptation of a secondary-side concept, and the optimization of water chemistry to achieve the highest possible operational reliability of steam generator performance. In the late 1970s and the early 1980s steam generators of several pressurized water reactors delivered by Kraftwerk Union (KWU) experienced corrosion-induced tube-wall degradation. As a result of these findings and the similar experience in US plants, KWU initiated a systematic program to retain the operational history of the plants at their historically outstanding level. By a combination of improvement in the balance of plant, reduction of themore » phosphate conditioning, and even a change to an all-volatile treatment as well as by the performance of tubesheet lancing, the tube degradation in KWU steam generators is nearly halted and no other known corrosion mechanisms exist that could impair the life expectancy of the steam generators. Nevertheless, repair and cleaning techniques have been developed and are available for application, if necessary, such as tube plugging, tube sleeving, or even partial tube replacement as well as chemical cleaning of the steam generator's secondary side.« less

  2. Design principles of a simple and safe 200-MW(thermal) nuclear district heating plant

    SciT

    Goetzmann, C.; Bittermann, D.; Gobel, A.

    Kraftwerk Union AG has almost completed the development of a dedicated 200-MW(thermal) nuclear district heating plant to provide environmentally clean energy at a predictably low cost. The concept can easily be adapted to meet power requirements within the 100- to 500-MW(thermal) range. This technology is the product of the experience gained with large pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor power plants, with respect to both plant and fuel performance. The major development task is that of achieving sufficiently low capital cost by tailoring components and systems designed for large plants to the specific requirements of district heating. These requirementsmore » are small absolute power, low temperatures and pressures, and modest load following, all of which result in the characteristics that are summarized. A fully integrated primary system with natural circulation permits a very compact reactor building containing all safety-related systems and components. Plant safety is essentially guaranteed by inherent features. The reactor containment is tightly fitted around the reactor pressure vessel in such a way that, in the event of any postulated coolant leak, the core cannot become uncovered, even temporarily. Shutdown is assured by gravity drop of the control rods mounted above the core. Decay heat is removed from the core by means of natural circulation via dedicated intermediate circuits of external aircoolers.« less

  3. Evaluation of mitigation measures to reduce hydropeaking impacts on river ecosystems - a case study from the Swiss Alps.

    PubMed

    Tonolla, Diego; Bruder, Andreas; Schweizer, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    New Swiss legislation obligates hydropower plant owners to reduce detrimental impacts on rivers ecosystems caused by hydropeaking. We used a case study in the Swiss Alps (hydropower company Kraftwerke Oberhasli AG) to develop an efficient and successful procedure for the ecological evaluation of such impacts, and to predict the effects of possible mitigation measures. We evaluated the following scenarios using 12 biotic and abiotic indicators: the pre-mitigation scenario (i.e. current state), the future scenario with increased turbine capacity but without mitigation measures, and future scenarios with increased turbine capacity and four alternative mitigation measures. The evaluation was based on representative hydrographs and quantitative or qualitative prediction of the indicators. Despite uncertainties in the ecological responses and the future operation mode of the hydropower plant, the procedure allowed the most appropriate mitigation measure to be identified. This measure combines a basin and a cavern at a total retention volume of 80,000m 3 , allowing for substantial dampening in the flow falling and ramping rates and in turn considerable reduction in stranding risk for juvenile trout and in macroinvertebrate drift. In general, this retention volume had the greatest predicted ecological benefit and can also, to some extent, compensate for possible modifications in the hydropower operation regime in the future, e.g. due to climate change, changes in the energy market, and changes in river morphology. Furthermore, it also allows for more specific seasonal regulations of retention volume during ecologically sensitive periods (e.g. fish spawning seasons). Overall experience gained from our case study is expected to support other hydropeaking mitigation projects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High-reliability gas-turbine combined-cycle development program: Phase II, Volume 3. Final report

    SciT

    Hecht, K.G.; Sanderson, R.A.; Smith, M.J.

    This three-volume report presents the results of Phase II of the multiphase EPRI-sponsored High-Reliability Gas Turbine Combined-Cycle Development Program whose goal is to achieve a highly reliable gas turbine combined-cycle power plant, available by the mid-1980s, which would be an economically attractive baseload generation alternative for the electric utility industry. The Phase II program objective was to prepare the preliminary design of this power plant. The power plant was addressed in three areas: (1) the gas turbine, (2) the gas turbine ancillaries, and (3) the balance of plant including the steam turbine generator. To achieve the program goals, a gasmore » turbine was incorporated which combined proven reliability characteristics with improved performance features. This gas turbine, designated the V84.3, is the result of a cooperative effort between Kraftwerk Union AG and United Technologies Corporation. Gas turbines of similar design operating in Europe under baseload conditions have demonstrated mean time between failures in excess of 40,000. The reliability characteristics of the gas turbine ancillaries and balance-of-plant equipment were improved through system simplification and component redundancy and by selection of component with inherent high reliability. A digital control system was included with logic, communications, sensor redundancy, and manual backup. An independent condition monitoring and diagnostic system was also included. Program results provide the preliminary design of a gas turbine combined-cycle baseload power plant. This power plant has a predicted mean time between failure of nearly twice the 3000-h EPRI goal. The cost of added reliability features is offset by improved performance, which results in a comparable specific cost and an 8% lower cost of electricty compared to present market offerings.« less

  5. Preliminary design of an alternate high-temperature turbine. A topical report for Phase II of the High-Temperature-Turbine Technology Program

    SciT

    Strough, R.I.

    The feasibility of designing a convectively air-cooled turbine to operate in the environment of a 3000/sup 0/F combustor exit temperature with maximum turbine airfoil metal temperatures held to 1500/sup 0/F was established. The United Technologies-Kraftwerk Union V84.3 gas turbine design was used as the basic configuration for the design of the 3000/sup 0/F turbine. Turbine cooling requirements were determined based on the use of the modified V84.3 type silo combustor with a pattern factor of 0.1. The convective air-cooling technology levels in terms of cooling effectiveness required to satisfy the airfoil cooling requirements were identified. Cooling schemes and fabrication technologiesmore » required are discussed. Turbine airfoil cooling technology levels required for the 3000/sup 0/F engine were selected. The performance of the 3000/sup 0/F convectively air-cooled gas turbine in simple and combined cycle was calculated. The 3000/sup 0/F gas turbine combined-cycle system provides an increase in power of 61% and a decrease in heat rate of 10% compared to a similar system with a combustor exit temperature of 2210/sup 0/F and the same airflow. The development of a successful 3000/sup 0/F convectively air-cooled turbine can be accomplished with a reasonable design and fabrication development effort on the cooled turbine airfoils. Use of the convectively air-cooled turbine provides the transfer of technology from extensive aircraft engines developed programs and operating experience to industrial gas turbines. It eliminates the requirement for large investments in alternate cooling techniques tailored specifically for industrial engines which offer no additional benefits.« less

  6. Test Series 2. 4: detailed test plan

    SciT

    Not Available

    Test Series 2.4 comprises the fourth sub-series of tests to be scheduled as a part of Test Series 2, the second stage of the combustion research program to be carried out at the Grimethorpe Experimental Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Facility. Test Series 2.1, the first sub-series of tests, was completed in February 1983, and the first part of the second sub-series, Test Series 2.3, in October 1983. Test Series 2.2 was completed in February 1984 after which the second part of Test Series 2.3 commenced. The Plan for Test Series 2.4 consists of 350 data gathering hours to be completedmore » within 520 coal burning hours. This document provides a brief description of the Facility and modifications which have been made following the completion of Test Series 2.1. No further modifications were made following the completion of the first part of Test Series 2.3 or Test Series 2.2. The operating requirements for Test Series 2.4 are specified. The tests will be performed using a UK coal (Lady Windsor), and a UK limestone (Middleton) both nominated by the FRG. Seven objectives are proposed which are to be fulfilled by thirteen test conditions. Six part load tests based on input supplied by Kraftwerk Union AG are included. The cascade is expected to be on line for each test condition and total cascade exposure is expected to be in excess of 450 hours. Details of sampling and special measurements are given. A test plan schedule envisages the full test series being completed within a two month calendar period. Finally, a number of contingency strategies are proposed. 3 figures, 14 tables.« less

  7. Test Series 2. 2: Detailed Test Plan

    SciT

    Not Available

    Test Series 2.2 comprises the third sub-series of tests to be scheduled as a part of Test Series 2, the second stage of the combustion research program to be carried out at the Grimethorpe Experimental Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Facility. Test Series 2.1, the first sub-series of tests, was completed in February 1983, and the first half of the second sub-series, Test Series 2.3, in October 1983. Test Series 2.2 is to consist of 350 data gathering hours, which it is hoped to complete within 560 coal burning hours. This document provides a brief description of the Facility and modificationsmore » which have been made following the completion of Test Series 2.1. No further modifications were made following the completion of the first half of Test Series 2.3. The operating requirements are specified. The tests will be performed using a UK coal (Kiveton Park), and a UK limestone (Middleton) both nominated by the FRG. Nine objectives are proposed which are to be fulfilled by thirteen test conditions. Six part load tests are included, as defined by Kraftwerk Union AG. The cascade is expected to be on line for each test condition and total cascade exposure is expected to be in excess of 450 hours. Details of sampling and special measurements are given. A test plan schedule envisages the test series being completed within a two month calendar period. Finally, a number of contingency strategies are proposed.« less

  8. High-reliability gas-turbine combined-cycle development program: Phase II. Final report

    SciT

    Hecht, K.G.; Sanderson, R.A.; Smith, M.J.

    This three-volume report presents the results of Phase II of the multiphase EPRI-sponsored High-Reliability Gas Turbine Combined-Cycle Development Program whose goal is to achieve a highly reliable gas turbine combined-cycle power plant, available by the mid-1980s, which would be an economically attractive baseload generation alternative for the electric utility industry. The Phase II program objective was to prepare the preliminary design of this power plant. This volume presents information of the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of a representative plant and the preliminary design of the gas turbine, the gas turbine ancillaries, and the balance of plant including themore » steam turbine generator. To achieve the program goals, a gas turbine was incorporated which combined proven reliability characteristics with improved performance features. This gas turbine, designated the V84.3, is the result of a cooperative effort between Kraftwerk Union AG and United Technologies Corporation. Gas turbines of similar design operating in Europe under baseload conditions have demonstrated mean time between failures in excess of 40,000 hours. The reliability characteristics of the gas turbine ancillaries and balance-of-plant equipment were improved through system simplification and component redundancy and by selection of component with inherent high reliability. A digital control system was included with logic, communications, sensor redundancy, and mandual backup. An independent condition monitoring and diagnostic system was also included. Program results provide the preliminary design of a gas turbine combined-cycle baseload power plant. This power plant has a predicted mean time between failure of nearly twice the 3000-hour EPRI goal. The cost of added reliability features is offset by improved performance, which results in a comparable specific cost and an 8% lower cost of electricity compared to present market offerings.« less