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Sample records for zygomaticus major muscles

  1. MRI-based finite element modeling of facial mimics: a case study on the paired zygomaticus major muscles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ang-Xiao; Dakpé, Stéphanie; Dao, Tien Tuan; Pouletaut, Philippe; Rachik, Mohamed; Ho Ba Tho, Marie Christine

    2017-07-01

    Finite element simulation of facial mimics provides objective indicators about soft tissue functions for improving diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of facial disorders. There is a lack of in vivo experimental data for model development and validation. In this study, the contribution of the paired Zygomaticus Major (ZM) muscle contraction on the facial mimics was investigated using in vivo experimental data derived from MRI. Maximal relative differences of 7.7% and 37% were noted between MRI-based measurements and numerical outcomes for ZM and skin deformation behaviors respectively. This study opens a new direction to simulate facial mimics with in vivo data.

  2. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volumetry of Facial Muscles in Healthy Patients with Facial Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Gerd F.; Karamyan, Inna; Klingner, Carsten M.; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not yet been established systematically to detect structural muscular changes after facial nerve lesion. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate quantitative assessment of MRI muscle volume data for facial muscles. Methods: Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with facial palsy were recruited. Using manual or semiautomatic segmentation of 3T MRI, volume measurements were performed for the frontal, procerus, risorius, corrugator supercilii, orbicularis oculi, nasalis, zygomaticus major, zygomaticus minor, levator labii superioris, orbicularis oris, depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris, and mentalis, as well as for the masseter and temporalis as masticatory muscles for control. Results: All muscles except the frontal (identification in 4/10 volunteers), procerus (4/10), risorius (6/10), and zygomaticus minor (8/10) were identified in all volunteers. Sex or age effects were not seen (all P > 0.05). There was no facial asymmetry with exception of the zygomaticus major (larger on the left side; P = 0.012). The exploratory examination of 5 patients revealed considerably smaller muscle volumes on the palsy side 2 months after facial injury. One patient with chronic palsy showed substantial muscle volume decrease, which also occurred in another patient with incomplete chronic palsy restricted to the involved facial area. Facial nerve reconstruction led to mixed results of decreased but also increased muscle volumes on the palsy side compared with the healthy side. Conclusions: First systematic quantitative MRI volume measures of 5 different clinical presentations of facial paralysis are provided. PMID:25289366

  3. Reconstruction of upper lip muscle system by anatomy, magnetic resonance imaging, and serial histological sections.

    PubMed

    Bo, Chen; Ningbei, Yin

    2014-01-01

    Surgeons need references to undertake cleft lip repairs. We aimed to establish a three-dimensional model of upper lip muscles. We examined specimens from 2 adult cadaver heads and 8 adult cadaver lips, obtaining serial sections in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes. Sections were stained to observe the philtrum, Cupid bow, vermilion, and nostril sill. Reconstruction was done with three-dimensional software (eg, 3D-DOCTOR, MicroMR). Parallel circular muscle fibers existed between modioli. The orbicularis oris deep layer contained fan muscle fibers inclining inward. Some ended at the anterior nasal crest. Others migrated to the depressor septum, crossed the midline, and migrated to the nasalis muscle. At the nostril floor, the depressor septum muscle bundle and ipsilateral orbicularis oris overlapped the nasalis muscle and the contralateral orbicularis oris. This construction shaped the nostril sill. The levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, levator labii superioris, and zygomaticus minor crossed the nasolabial groove and migrated to the superficial orbicularis oris, entering the outer edge of the nasal alar to the upper lip near the vermilion border and philtrum ridge, shaping Cupid bow. Contralateral deep orbicularis oris muscle fibers crossed the philtrum dimple to the lateral philtrum ridge (axial plane). Superficial reticular muscle fibers of the levator labii superioris, zygomaticus minor, zygomaticus major, and orbicularis oris inserted into the medial philtrum ridge (coronal plane). They intersected to form the philtrum ridge. A three-dimensional upper lip muscular system model was established that can be referenced for cleft lip repair and lip operations.

  4. The pedicled masseter muscle transfer for smile reconstruction in facial paralysis: repositioning the origin and insertion.

    PubMed

    Matic, Damir B; Yoo, John

    2012-08-01

    The pedicled masseter muscle transfer (PMMT) is introduced as a new reconstructive option for dynamic smile restoration in patients with facial paralysis. The masseter muscle is detached from both its origin and insertion and transferred to a new position to imitate the function of the native zygomaticus major muscle. Part one of this study consisted of cadaveric dissections of 4 heads (eight sides) in order to determine whether the masseter muscle could be (a) pedicled solely by its dominant neurovascular bundle and (b) repositioned directly over the native zygomaticus major. The second part of the study consisted of clinical assessments in three patients in order to confirm the applicability of this muscle transfer. Commissure excursion and vector of contraction following PMMT were compared to the non-paralyzed side. In all eight sides, the masseter muscles were successfully isolated on their pedicle and transposed on top of and in-line with the ipsilateral zygomaticus major. The mean length of the masseter and its angle from Frankfurt's horizontal line after transposition compared favorably to the native zygomaticus major muscle. In the clinical cases, the mean commissure movements of the paralyzed and normal sides were 7 mm and 12 mm respectively. The mean angles of commissural movement for the paralyzed and normal sides were 62° and 59° respectively. The PMMT can be used as a dynamic reconstruction for patients with permanent facial paralysis. As we gain experience with the PMMT, it may be possible to use it as a first-line option for patients not eligible for free micro-neurovascular reconstruction. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Organization of the central control of muscles of facial expression in man

    PubMed Central

    Root, A A; Stephens, J A

    2003-01-01

    Surface EMGs were recorded simultaneously from ipsilateral pairs of facial muscles while subjects made three different common facial expressions: the smile, a sad expression and an expression of horror, and three contrived facial expressions. Central peaks were found in the cross-correlograms of EMG activity recorded from the orbicularis oculi and zygomaticus major during smiling, the corrugator and depressor anguli oris during the sad look and the frontalis and mentalis during the horror look. The size of the central peak was significantly greater between the orbicularis oculi and zygomaticus major during smiling. It is concluded that co-contraction of facial muscles during some facial expressions are accompanied by the presence of common synaptic drive to the motoneurones supplying the muscles involved. Central peaks were found in the cross-correlograms of EMG activity recorded from the frontalis and depressor anguli oris during a contrived expression. However, no central peaks were found in the cross-correlograms of EMG activity recorded from the frontalis and orbicularis oculi or from the frontalis and zygomaticus major during the other two contrived expressions. It is concluded that a common synaptic drive is not present between all possible facial muscle pairs and suggests a functional role for the synergy. The origin of the common drive is discussed. It is concluded that activity in branches of common stem last-order presynaptic input fibres to motoneurones innervating the different facial muscles and presynaptic synchronization of input activity to the different motoneurone pools is involved. The former probably contributes more to the drive to the orbicularis oculi and zygomaticus major during smiling, while the latter is probably more prevalent in the corrugator and depressor anguli oris during the sad look, the frontalis and mentalis during the horror look and the frontalis and depressor anguli oris during one of the contrived expressions. The strength

  6. Pectoralis major muscle defect and Poland complex.

    PubMed

    Castilla, E E; Paz, J E; Orioli, I M

    1979-01-01

    Pectoralis major muscle defect (PMD) was diagnosed in 27 infants from a series of 599,109 live births in South America (1/22,189). In all 27 cases the PMD was unilateral, mainly affecting the right side (20/27), and there were more male (19/27) than female cases. No familial cases and no parental consanguinity were recorded. A positive correlation was observed between PMD and sex hormone intake and vaginal bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy. In 12 (1/49,925) of the 27 PMD cases hypoplasia and/or syndactyly of the ipsilateral hand was also diagnosed. The index-middle interdigital space was affected in all 11 cases with symbrachydactyly. Additional congenital anomalies were observed in 4/27 cases, and they were: hemangiomas, hypospadias, and clubfeet. Poland complex (12 cases), isolated PMD (15 cases), and isolated symbrachydactyly (18 cases), showed a similar pattern for symmetry, sidedness, syndactyly type, and sex ratio.

  7. Surgical repair of a rupture of the pectoralis major muscle

    PubMed Central

    Pochini, Alberto De Castro; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Muscle rupture is rarely treated surgically. Few reports of good outcomes after muscular suture have been published. Usually, muscular lesions or partial ruptures heal with few side effects or result in total recovery. We report a case of an athlete who was treated surgically to repair a total muscular rupture in the pectoralis major muscle. After 6 months, the athlete returned to competitive practice. After a 2-year follow-up, the athlete still competes in skateboard championships. PMID:25716033

  8. Partial rupture of the pectoralis major muscle in athletes.

    PubMed

    Roi, G S; Respizzi, S; Dworzak, F

    1990-02-01

    Partial rupture of the pectoralis major muscle is quite a rare event in sports traumatology and information about its treatment is lacking in literature. In this paper the long term effect of conservative non-surgical treatment in two body-builders and one shot-putter is discussed, who reported the partial rupture while performing bench lifts with barbells. Functional recovery was evaluated a few years after the injury (from 4 to 7) with an isokinetic dynamometer (Cybex II, Lumex INC N.Y.), measuring maximal shoulder adduction-abduction torques at different angular speeds (60, 180, and 300 degrees/s). The results were compared with those of five healthy athletes practicing either body-building or weight-lifting. From the present study we conclude the following: the non-invasive treatment of a partial rupture of the pectoralis major muscle may produce almost complete functional recovery; in normal subjects adduction muscles are advantageous in comparison to the abduction ones.

  9. Therapeutic Outcomes of Pectoralis Major Muscle Turnover Flap in Mediastinitis.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Reza; Tashnizi, Mohammad Abbasi; Haghi, Seyed Ziaollah; Salehi, Maryam; Rajabnejad, Ata'ollah; Safa, Mohsen Hatami Ghale; Vejdani, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic results and safety of pectoralis major muscle turnover flaps in the treatment of mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedures. Data regarding 33 patients with post-CABG deep sternal wound infections (DSWIs) who underwent pectoralis major muscle turnover flap procedures in the Emam Reza and Ghaem Hospitals of Mashhad, Iran were reviewed in this study. For each patient, age, sex, hospital stay duration, remission, recurrence, and associated morbidity and mortality were evaluated. Of the 2,447 CABG procedures that were carried out during the time period encompassed by our study, DSWIs occurred in 61 patients (2.5%). Of these 61 patients, 33 patients (nine females [27.3%] and 24 males [72.7%]) with an average age of 63±4.54 years underwent pectoralis major muscle turnover flap placement. Symptoms of infection mainly occurred within the first 10 days after surgery (mean, 10.24±13.62 days). The most common risk factor for DSWIs was obesity (n=16, 48.4%) followed by diabetes mellitus (n=13, 39.4%). Bilateral and unilateral pectoralis major muscle turnover flaps were performed in 20 patients (60.6%) and 13 patients (39.4%), respectively. Complete remission was achieved in 25 patients (75.7%), with no recurrence in the follow-up period. Four patients (12.1%) needed reoperation. The mean hospitalization time was 11.69±6.516 days. Four patients (12.1%) died during the course of the study: three due to the postoperative complication of respiratory failure and one due to pulmonary thromboembolism. Pectoralis major muscle turnover flaps are an optimal technique in the treatment of post-CABG mediastinitis. In addition to leading to favorable therapeutic results, this flap is associated with minimal morbidity and mortality, as well as a short hospitalization time.

  10. Rupture of the pectoralis major muscle in a paratrooper.

    PubMed

    Komurcu, Mahmut; Yildiz, Yavuz; Ozdemir, M Taner; Erler, Kaan

    2004-01-01

    Rupture of the pectoralis major muscle is a very rare injury. Excessive contraction of muscle fibers during certain forms of sports, such as weightlifting and bench pressing, is the most common cause. Among the 150 reported cases in the literature, in only 1 case did the injury happen during the landing phase of parachuting. Here we report a case of pectoralis major muscle rupture caused by a different mechanism than published previously. A paratrooper was injured during a tactical jump out of an aircraft after becoming entangled with the risers. The mechanism of injury was excessive traction and malpositioning of his shoulder when the parachute deployed. A three-phase conservative treatment regimen was performed and results were assessed by dynamometry. The patient was satisfied with the treatment and the dynamometric results were good at 9 mo after injury and at the end of a 20-mo follow-up period. We suggest that three-phase rehabilitation can be an effective treatment option for pectoralis major muscle rupture in selected patients. Prevention of this type of altitude injury would be possible by applying the fundamentals of parachuting.

  11. Difficulties in estimating muscle forces from muscle cross-sectional area. An example using the psoas major muscle.

    PubMed

    Gatton, M L; Pearcy, M J; Pettet, G J

    1999-07-15

    Most biomechanical models use muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) as an indicator of maximum isometric muscle force. In general, there are multiple estimates of CSA for the same muscle. For example, numerous studies have estimated the CSA of the psoas major muscle using different subject populations and positions. However, few studies have combined the available information to obtain an overall estimate of CSA or investigated the effect different subject characteristics may have on CSA. In the present update, nine studies that reported psoas major CSA or physiologic CSA were compared with respect to subject characteristics, methodology, and results. Corrections to cadaveric data were made to adjust physiologic CSA to CSA. Comparison of reported values for living subjects indicated that females have smaller mean CSA than males for the psoas major muscle and that body size does not significantly influence muscle CSA in males. Areas derived from cadaveric data were smaller than similar studies on living subjects, possibly because of subject age, removal of tendinous and fatty components of fascicles, and lack of detailed data for fascicle angles in the supine position. Results indicate that researchers who use muscle CSA in biomechanical models should carefully assess the appropriateness of the data used, particularly in relation to potential sex differences and the influence of postural changes on CSA.

  12. Muscle Fiber Characteristics and Fatty Acid Compositions of the Four Major Muscles in Korean Native Black Goat.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Young-Hwa; Joo, Sung-Hyun; Bakhsh, Allah; Ismail, Ishamri; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle fiber characteristics and fatty acid composition of four major muscles in Korean native black goat (KNBG). Longissimus lumborum (LL), psoas major (PM), semimembranosus (SM), and gluteus medius (GM) were obtained from five male KNBGs of 36 mon of age and subjected to histochemical analysis and to determine fatty acid composition and meat quality traits. There were significant ( p <0.05) differences in fiber number percentage (FNP) and fiber area percentage (FAP) of fiber types among these four muscles. PM had the highest FNP of type I and the lowest FNP of type IIB, while SM had the highest FNP of type IIB. The highest fat content was observed in LL while SM had the lowest fat content. The proportions of SFA and MUFA were significantly ( p <0.05) different among four muscles due to differences in the majority of fatty acids such as oleic (C18:1) and palmitic (C16:0) acids. The PUFA/SFA ratio was significantly ( p <0.05) different among four muscles, and the highest PUFA/SFA ratio was observed in PM. Results suggested that LL and PM might be healthful because of higher desirable fatty acid value and PUFA/SFA ratio, respectively. Also, data showed that correlations between muscle fiber types and fatty acids proportion of goat muscles were reversed with those of cattle muscles.

  13. Phosphofructokinase and mitochondria partially explain the high ultimate pH of broiler pectoralis major muscle.

    PubMed

    Matarneh, Sulaiman K; Yen, Con-Ning; Elgin, Jennifer M; Beline, Mariane; da Luz E Silva, Saulo; Wicks, Jordan C; England, Eric M; Dalloul, Rami A; Persia, Michael E; Omara, Islam I; Shi, Hao; Gerrard, David E

    2018-05-01

    During postmortem metabolism, muscle pH gradually declines to reach an ultimate pH near 5.6 across most meat species. Yet, broiler pectoralis major (P. major) muscle generates meat with high ultimate pH (pH ∼ 5.9). For better understanding of the underlying mechanism responsible for this phenomenon, we evaluated the involvement of breast muscle chilling on the extent of postmortem metabolism. Broiler breast muscles were either subjected to chilling treatment (control) or left at room temperature (RT) for 120 min. P. major muscle from the RT treatment had lower ultimate pH, greater glycogen degradation and lactate accumulation. While these findings suggest that carcass chilling can contribute to the premature termination of postmortem metabolism, chilling did not fully explain the high ultimate pH of P. major muscle. Our results also revealed that glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) was very low at 24 h, and therefore we hypothesized that G6P was limiting. To test this hypothesis, muscle samples from P. major and porcine longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle were homogenized into a reaction buffer that mimics postmortem glycolysis with or without 0.5 mg/mL isolated mitochondria. While samples containing porcine LL muscle reached the normal level of ultimate pH, P. major muscle samples reached a value similar to that observed in vivo even in the presence of excess G6P, indicating that G6P was not limiting. Mitochondria enhanced the glycolytic flux and pH decline in systems containing muscle from both species. More importantly, however, was that in vitro system containing chicken with mitochondria reached pH value similar to that of samples containing LL muscle without mitochondria. To investigate further, phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity was compared in broiler P. major and porcine LL muscle at different pH values. PFK activity was lower in P. major muscle at pH 7, 6.5, and 6.2 than LL muscle. In conclusion, carcass chilling can partially contribute to the high ultimate p

  14. A model based method for recognizing psoas major muscles in torso CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Naoki; Zhou, Xiangrong; Chen, Huayue; Hara, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    In aging societies, it is important to analyze age-related hypokinesia. A psoas major muscle has many important functional capabilities such as capacity of balance and posture control. These functions can be measured by its cross sectional area (CSA), volume, and thickness. However, these values are calculated manually in the clinical situation. The purpose of our study is to propose an automated recognition method of psoas major muscles in X-ray torso CT images. The proposed recognition process involves three steps: 1) determination of anatomical points such as the origin and insertion of the psoas major muscle, 2) generation of a shape model for the psoas major muscle, and 3) recognition of the psoas major muscles by use of the shape model. The model was built using quadratic function, and was fit to the anatomical center line of psoas major muscle. The shape model was generated using 20 CT cases and tested by 20 other CT cases. The applied database consisted of 12 male and 8 female cases from the ages of 40's to 80's. The average value of Jaccard similarity coefficient (JSC) values employed in the evaluation was 0.7. Our experimental results indicated that the proposed method was effective for a volumetric analysis and could be possible to be used for a quantitative measurement of psoas major muscles in CT images.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of cattle muscle identifies potential markers for skeletal muscle growth rate and major cell types.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bing; Greenwood, Paul L; Cafe, Linda M; Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Wangang; Dalrymple, Brian P

    2015-03-13

    This study aimed to identify markers for muscle growth rate and the different cellular contributors to cattle muscle and to link the muscle growth rate markers to specific cell types. The expression of two groups of genes in the longissimus muscle (LM) of 48 Brahman steers of similar age, significantly enriched for "cell cycle" and "ECM (extracellular matrix) organization" Gene Ontology (GO) terms was correlated with average daily gain/kg liveweight (ADG/kg) of the animals. However, expression of the same genes was only partly related to growth rate across a time course of postnatal LM development in two cattle genotypes, Piedmontese x Hereford (high muscling) and Wagyu x Hereford (high marbling). The deposition of intramuscular fat (IMF) altered the relationship between the expression of these genes and growth rate. K-means clustering across the development time course with a large set of genes (5,596) with similar expression profiles to the ECM genes was undertaken. The locations in the clusters of published markers of different cell types in muscle were identified and used to link clusters of genes to the cell type most likely to be expressing them. Overall correspondence between published cell type expression of markers and predicted major cell types of expression in cattle LM was high. However, some exceptions were identified: expression of SOX8 previously attributed to muscle satellite cells was correlated with angiogenesis. Analysis of the clusters and cell types suggested that the "cell cycle" and "ECM" signals were from the fibro/adipogenic lineage. Significant contributions to these signals from the muscle satellite cells, angiogenic cells and adipocytes themselves were not as strongly supported. Based on the clusters and cell type markers, sets of five genes predicted to be representative of fibro/adipogenic precursors (FAPs) and endothelial cells, and/or ECM remodelling and angiogenesis were identified. Gene sets and gene markers for the analysis of

  16. Relationship of pectoralis major muscle size with bench press and bench throw performances.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Ryota; Tohdoh, Yukihiro; Hirayama, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of muscle size indices of the pectoralis major muscle with bench press and bench throw performances in 18 male collegiate athletes. The maximal cross-sectional area (MCSAMAx) and volume (MV) of the pectoralis major muscle were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. First, subjects were tested for their one repetition maximum bench press strength (1RMBP) using a Smith machine. At a later date, subjects performed bench throws using the Smith machine with several different loads ranging from 30.0 kg to 90% of 1RMBP. Barbell positions were measured by a linear position transducer, and bench throw power was calculated using a dynamic equation. Three trials were performed for each load. In all the trials, the maximal peak power was adopted as bench throw peak power (PPBT). The 1RMBP was significantly correlated with MCSAMAx. Similarly, the correlation coefficient between MV and PPBT was significant. In contrast to the y-intercept of the MV-PPBT regression line, that of the MCSAMAx-1RMBP regression line was not significantly different from 0. These results suggested that, although the dependence on pectoralis major muscle size is slightly different between bench press strength and bench throw power, the pectoralis major muscle size has a significant impact on bench press and throw performances. Greater muscle size leads to heavier body weight, which can be a negative factor in some sports. We therefore recommend that athletes and their coaches develop training programs for improving sports performance by balancing the advantage of increased muscle size and the potential disadvantage of increased body weight.

  17. Effect of rapid rigor mortis processes on protein functionality in pectoralis major muscle of domestic turkeys.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, M; Greaser, M L; Sosnicki, A A

    1997-08-01

    The pale, soft, exudative (PSE) phenomenon in turkey pectoralis major (breast) muscle was studied using a combination of biochemical, meat quality, microscopic, and gel electrophoresis techniques. Breast muscle samples were collected from turkeys characterized by slow vs fast postmortem glycolysis assessed by muscle pH at 20 min after death. The PSE group was characterized by lower muscle ATP (P < .05) and higher lactate levels (P < .05) compared with the normal group. Excess water-holding capacity and cooking yield were significantly lower (P < .05) in the PSE group than in normal turkeys. Breast muscle of the PSE group was also lighter (P < .05) than that in the normal group as determined by Minolta L* values. The SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that phosphorylase, a soluble enzyme, became tightly associated with the myofibrils in muscle from the PSE group. Also, less myosin could be solubilized from PSE vs normal myofibril samples. The results indicate that irreversible myosin insolubility due to low pH and high-temperature conditions is decisive in the development of PSE turkey breast muscle.

  18. Skeletal muscle mitochondria: a major player in exercise, health and disease.

    PubMed

    Russell, Aaron P; Foletta, Victoria C; Snow, Rod J; Wadley, Glenn D

    2014-04-01

    Maintaining skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function is important for sustained health throughout the lifespan. Exercise stimulates important key stress signals that control skeletal mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Perturbations in mitochondrial content and function can directly or indirectly impact skeletal muscle function and consequently whole-body health and wellbeing. This review will describe the exercise-stimulated stress signals and molecular mechanisms positively regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and function. It will then discuss the major myopathies, neuromuscular diseases and conditions such as diabetes and ageing that have dysregulated mitochondrial function. Finally, the impact of exercise and potential pharmacological approaches to improve mitochondrial function in diseased populations will be discussed. Exercise activates key stress signals that positively impact major transcriptional pathways that transcribe genes involved in skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion and metabolism. The positive impact of exercise is not limited to younger healthy adults but also benefits skeletal muscle from diseased populations and the elderly. Impaired mitochondrial function can directly influence skeletal muscle atrophy and contribute to the risk or severity of disease conditions. Pharmacological manipulation of exercise-induced pathways that increase skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and function in critically ill patients, where exercise may not be possible, may assist in the treatment of chronic disease. This review highlights our understanding of how exercise positively impacts skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Exercise not only improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial health but also enables us to identify molecular mechanisms that may be attractive targets for therapeutic manipulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Frontiers of mitochondrial research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B

  19. [Transfer of the clavicular portion of the pectoralis major muscle in the treatment of irreparable tears of the subscapularis muscle].

    PubMed

    Vidil, A; Augereau, B

    2000-12-01

    Old tears of the subscapular muscle situated in the glenoid area are not accessible to direct repair and require locoregional muscle plasty. The clavicular portion of the pectoralis major can be used for reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to describe the operative technique and examine short-term outcome. Five patients, mean age 54 years (45-71 years) with an irreparable tear of the subscapularis in the glenoid area with fatty degeneration greater than grade two in the Goutallier classification were treated. Four had had previous surgery for acromioplasty associated with rotator cuff repair in two or implantation of a humeral prosthesis in one. The preoperative Constant score was 27.5 (mean, range=8.5-54) due to invalidating pain, limited active mobility and reduced muscle force. Gerber's lift-off test was positive for those patients for whom it could be performed. Plain x-rays evidenced anterior subdislocation of the humeral head in one case. Subscapular reconstruction was achieved using the entire clavicular portion of the pectoralis major which was dissected and sectioned at its distal insertion on the humerus then reinserted by transosseous suture onto the lesser tuberosity. The rehabilitation program started with active and passive mobility against gravity within a few days of surgery using biofeedback contraction of the muscle flap then active contractions two months postoperatively. Patients were reviewed at a mean 19 months (6-42 months) for clinical and radiological assessment. Four patients had a painless shoulder with a negative lift-off test. The gain in active mobility was predominantly achieved with anterior elevation and abduction. Muscle force was weak leading to a low overall Constant score at revision (mean=50, range=30-63). Radiographically, the humeral head was centered exactly as on the preoperative films. There were no cases with a new anterior subdislocation nor an aggravation of a former subdislocation. Functional outcome was

  20. Myodegeneration with fibrosis and regeneration in the pectoralis major muscle of broilers.

    PubMed

    Sihvo, H-K; Immonen, K; Puolanne, E

    2014-05-01

    A myopathy affecting the pectoralis major muscle of the commercial broiler has emerged creating remarkable economic losses as well as a potential welfare problem of the birds. We here describe the macroscopic and histologic lesions of this myopathy within 10 pectoralis major muscles of 5- to 6-week-old broilers in Finland. Following macroscopic evaluation and palpation of the muscles, a tissue sample of each was fixed in formalin, processed for histology, and histologically evaluated. The muscles that were macroscopically hard, outbulging, pale, and often accompanied with white striping histologically exhibited moderate to severe polyphasic myodegeneration with regeneration as well as a variable amount of interstitial connective tissue accumulation or fibrosis. All affected cases also exhibited perivenular lymphocyte accumulation. The etiology of this myodegenerative lesion remains yet open. Polyphasic myodegeneration is associated with several previously known etiologies, but palpatory hardness focusing on the pectoralis major, together with perivenular lymphocytes, has not been described in relation to them. The results of this study provide the pathological basis for further studies concerning the etiology of the currently described myopathy.

  1. Surgical treatment of pectoralis major muscle rupture with adjustable cortical button.

    PubMed

    Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Rodrigues, Marcus de Souza Barbosa; Yamashita, Larissa; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno

    2018-01-01

    To assess the tendon reconstruction technique for total rupture of the pectoralis major muscle using an adjustable cortical button. Prospective study of 27 male patients with a mean age of 29.9 (SD = 5.3 years) and follow-up of 2.3 years. The procedure consisted of autologous grafts taken from the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons and an adjustable cortical button. Patients were evaluated functionally by the Bak criteria. The surgical treatment of pectoralis major muscle tendon reconstruction was performed in the early stages (three weeks) in six patients (22.2%) and in 21 patients (77.8%), in the late stages. Patients operated with the adjustable cortical button technique obtained 96.3% excellent or good results, with only 3.7% having poor results (Bak criteria). Of the total, 85.2% were injured while performing bench press exercises and 14.8%, during the practice of Brazilian jiu-jitsu or wrestling. All weight-lifting athletes had history of anabolic steroid use. The early or delayed reconstruction of ruptured pectoralis major muscle tendons with considerable muscle retraction, using an adjustable cortical button and autologous knee flexor grafts, showed a high rate of good results.

  2. Effect of the callipyge phenotype and cooking method on tenderness of several major lamb muscles.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    1997-08-01

    We conducted three experiments to determine the effects of the callipyge phenotype on the tenderness of several major lamb muscles and to determine the effect of method of cookery on the tenderness of callipyge lamb at 7 d postmortem. In Exp. 1, chops from normal (n = 23) and callipyge (n = 16) carcasses were open-hearth-broiled. Warner-Bratzler shear force values of longissimus, gluteus medius, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, adductor, and quadriceps femoris were 123, 44, 28, 26, 19, 16, and 13% greater, respectively, for callipyge (P < .05). In Exp. 2, muscles from normal (n = 18) and callipyge (n = 18) carcasses were oven-roasted. Shear force of triceps brachii was 11% greater for callipyge (P < .001); however, phenotype did not affect shear force of supraspinatus (P = .87) or psoas major (P = .64). In Exp. 3, a trained sensory panel evaluated leg roasts and open-hearth-broiled leg chops from normal (n = 60) and callipyge lamb carcasses (n = 60). Callipyge chops were less tender than normal chops (P < .05). Regardless of callipyge phenotype, muscles were more (P < .05) tender when roasted; however, the effect of method of cookery on tenderness scores was greater for callipyge muscles than for normal muscles. Callipyge roasts and normal roasts had similar tenderness (P = .58), and callipyge roasts were more tender than normal chops (P < .05). Regardless of cooking method, callipyge samples were less juicy than normal samples (P < .05). These data demonstrate that the callipyge phenotype will likely reduce consumer satisfaction due to reduced tenderness and juiciness; however, reduced tenderness in callipyge leg muscles could be prevented by ovenroasting.

  3. Facial reanimation by muscle-nerve neurotization after facial nerve sacrifice. Case report.

    PubMed

    Taupin, A; Labbé, D; Babin, E; Fromager, G

    2016-12-01

    Recovering a certain degree of mimicry after sacrifice of the facial nerve is a clinically recognized finding. The authors report a case of hemifacial reanimation suggesting a phenomenon of neurotization from muscle-to-nerve. A woman benefited from a parotidectomy with sacrifice of the left facial nerve indicated for recurrent tumor in the gland. The distal branches of the facial nerve, isolated at the time of resection, were buried in the masseter muscle underneath. The patient recovered a voluntary hémifacial motricity. The electromyographic analysis of the motor activity of the zygomaticus major before and after block of the masseter nerve showed a dependence between mimic muscles and the masseter muscle. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the spontaneous reanimation of facial paralysis. The clinical case makes it possible to argue in favor of muscle-to-nerve neurotization from masseter muscle to distal branches of the facial nerve. It illustrates the quality of motricity that can be obtained thanks to this procedure. The authors describe a simple implantation technique of distal branches of the facial nerve in the masseter muscle during a radical parotidectomy with facial nerve sacrifice and recovery of resting tone but also a quality voluntary mimicry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Pre-operative inspiratory muscle training preserves postoperative inspiratory muscle strength following major abdominal surgery - a randomised pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S R; Fletcher, E; McConnell, A K; Poskitt, K R; Whyman, M R

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the effect of pre-operative inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory variables in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Respiratory muscle strength (maximum inspiratory [MIP] and expiratory [MEP] mouth pressure) and pulmonary functions were measured at least 2 weeks before surgery in 80 patients awaiting major abdominal surgery. Patients were then allocated randomly to one of four groups (Group A, control; Group B, deep breathing exercises; Group C, incentive spirometry; Group D, specific IMT). Patients in groups B, C and D were asked to train twice daily, each session lasting 15 min, for at least 2 weeks up to the day before surgery. Outcome measurements were made immediately pre-operatively and postoperatively. In groups A, B and C, MIP did not increase from baseline to pre-operative assessments. In group D, MIP increased from 51.5 cmH(2)O (median) pre-training to 68.5 cmH(2)O (median) post-training pre-operatively (P < 0.01). Postoperatively, groups A, B and C showed a fall in MIP from baseline (P < 0.01, P < 0.01) and P = 0.06, respectively). No such significant reduction in postoperative MIP was seen in group D (P = 0.36). Pre-operative specific IMT improves MIP pre-operatively and preserves it postoperatively. Further studies are required to establish if this is associated with reduced pulmonary complications.

  5. Marination effects on water states and water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle with different color lightness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A total of four experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of marination on water states and water-holding capacity (WHC) of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle selected based on raw muscle color lightness. Boneless, skinless p. major were collected at 6-8 h postmortem from deboning li...

  6. Reliability of rehabilitative ultrasonographic imaging for muscle thickness measurement of the rhomboid major.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ju Ri; Ko, Young Jun; Ha, Hyun Geun; Lee, Wan Hee

    2016-03-01

    This study was to establish inter-rater and intrarater reliability of the rehabilitative ultrasonographic imaging (RUSI) technique for muscle thickness measurement of the rhomboid major at rest and with the shoulder abducted to 90°. Twenty-four young adults (eight men, 16 women; right-handed; mean age [±SD], 24·4 years [±2·6]) with no history of neck, shoulder, or arm pain were recruited. Rhomboid major muscle images were obtained in the resting position and with shoulder in 90° abduction using an ultrasonography system with a 7·5-MHz linear transducer. In these two positions, the examiners found the site at which the transducer could be placed. Two examiners obtained the images of all participants in three test sessions at random. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to estimate reliability. All ICCs (95% CI) were >0·75, ranging from 0·93 to 0·98, which indicates good reliability. The ICCs for inter-rater reliability ranged from 0·75 to 0·94. For the absolute value of the difference in the intra-examiner reliability between the right and left ratios, the ICCs ranged from 0·58 to 0·91. In this study, the intra- and interexaminer reliability of muscle thickness measurements of the rhomboid major were good. Therefore, we suggest that muscle thickness measurements of the rhomboid major obtained with the RUSI technique would be useful for clinical rehabilitative assessment. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Color attributes and oxidative stability of longissimus lumborum and psoas major muscles from Nellore bulls.

    PubMed

    Canto, Anna C V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Suman, Surendranath P; Monteiro, Maria Lucia G; Viana, Fernanda M; Salim, Ana Paula A A; Nair, Mahesh N; Silva, Teofilo J P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-11-01

    The influence of muscle source on color stability of fresh beef from purebred Bos indicus cattle was investigated. Longissimus lumborum (LL) and psoas major (PM) muscles obtained from twelve (n=12) Nellore bull carcasses (24h post-mortem) were fabricated into 2.54-cm steaks, aerobically packaged, and stored at 4°C for nine days. Steaks were analyzed on day 0 for proximate composition and myoglobin concentration, whereas pH, instrumental color, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 0, 3, 6, and 9. LL steaks exhibited greater (P<0.05) redness, color stability, and MRA than PM counterparts. On the other hand, PM steaks demonstrated greater (P<0.05) myoglobin content, lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation than LL steaks. These results indicated the critical influence of muscle source on discoloration of fresh beef from Bos indicus animals and suggested the necessity to engineer muscle-specific strategies to improve color stability and marketability of beef from Bos indicus cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumor of pectoralis major muscle mimicking a breast mass

    PubMed Central

    Dragoumis, Dimitrios; Desiris, Klearchos; Kyropoulou, Aikaterini; Malandri, Maria; Assimaki, Anthoula; Tsiftsoglou, Aris

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Hemangiopericytoma (HPC)/solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a very uncommon tumor of uncertain malignant behavior. In 1942, Stout and Murray first characterized these neoplasms as “vascular tumors arising from Zimmerman's pericytes” and till now hemangiopericytomas and solitary fibrous tumors of the soft tissues are regarded as features of the same entity in the soft tissue fascicle. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a case of hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumor of the pectoralis major muscle in a 33-year-old female. She first noticed a painless mass in her right breast. Ultrasound of the breast revealed a large heterogeneously hypoechoic lesion within the pectoralis major muscle. Fine needle aspiration of the tumor did not produce any meaningful result. The lesion was completely removed by surgical resection. Histologically, the tumor had staghorn-like vasculature and immunohistochemistry for CD34 was positive, whereas desmin, smooth-muscle actin, S-100 protein, cytokeratins (AE1/AE3) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) were all negative. A diagnosis of hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumor was rendered. DISCUSSION Tumors comprising the HPC/SFT spectrum represent a small subset of soft tissue sarcomas and are found virtually at any site in the body. Wide surgical resection can achieve favorable long-term survival. CONCLUSION Due to the rarity and unpredictable biological potential of these tumors, long-term follow-up is mandatory even after radical resection, because recurrence or development of metastasis may be delayed many years. PMID:23416503

  9. Volumetric Evaluation of the Mammary Gland and Pectoralis Major Muscle following Subglandular and Submuscular Breast Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Roxo, Ana Claudia Weck; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Salin, Renan; de Castro, Claudio Cardoso; Aboudib, Jose Horacio; Marques, Ruy Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Besides being a procedure with high level of patient satisfaction, one of the main causes for reoperation after breast augmentation is related to contour deformities and changes in breast volume. Few objective data are available on postoperative volumetric analysis following breast augmentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate volume changes in the breast parenchyma and pectoralis major muscle after breast augmentation with the placement of silicone implants in the subglandular and submuscular planes. Fifty-eight women were randomly allocated either to the subglandular group (n = 24) or submuscular group (n = 24) and underwent breast augmentation in the subglandular or submuscular plane, respectively, or to a control group (n = 10) and received no intervention. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging was performed at inclusion in all participants and either after 6 and 12 months in the control group or at 6 and 12 months after surgery in the intervention groups. Twelve months after breast augmentation, only the subglandular group had a significant reduction in glandular volume (mean, 22.8 percent), while patients in the submuscular group were the only ones showing significant reduction in muscle volume (mean, 49.80 percent). Atrophy of the breast parenchyma occurred after subglandular breast augmentation, but not following submuscular breast augmentation. In contrast, submuscular breast augmentation caused atrophy of the pectoralis major muscle. Therapeutic, II.

  10. Inflammation-mediated muscle metabolic dysregulation local and remote to the site of major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Varadhan, Krishna K; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Constantin, Despina; Greenhaff, Paul L; Lobo, Dileep N

    2017-11-02

    Postoperative hyperglycaemia is common in patients having major surgery and is associated with adverse outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether bacteraemia contributed to postoperative systemic inflammation, and whether increases in the expression of muscle mRNAs and proteins reflecting increased muscle inflammation, atrophy and impaired carbohydrate oxidation were evident at the time of surgery, and both local and distant to the site of trauma, and could be associated with impaired glucoregulation. Fifteen adult patients without diabetes undergoing major abdominal surgery participated in this observational study set in a university teaching hospital. Arterialised-venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after major elective abdominal surgery, from sites local (rectus abdominis - RA) and remote to the site of surgery (vastus lateralis - VL). The main outcome measures included blood glucose concentrations, gut permeability and changes in expression of muscle mRNAs and proteins linked to inflammation and glucose regulation. Immediately postoperatively, RA demonstrated markedly increased mRNA expression levels of cathepsin-L (7.5-fold, P < 0.05), FOXO1 (10.5-fold, P < 0.05), MAFbx (11.5-fold, P < 0.01), PDK4 (7.8-fold, P < 0.05), TNF-α (16.5-fold, P < 0.05) and IL-6 (1058-fold, P < 0.001). A similar, albeit blunted, response was observed in VL. Surgery also increased expression of proteins linked to inflammation (IL-6; 6-fold, P < 0.01), protein degradation (MAFbx; 4.5-fold, P < 0.5), and blunted carbohydrate oxidation (PDK4; 4-fold, P < 0.05) in RA but not VL. Increased systemic inflammation (TNF-α, P < 0.05; IL-6, P < 0.001), and impaired postoperative glucose tolerance (P < 0.001), but not bacteraemia (although gut permeability was increased significantly, P < 0.05) or increased plasma cortisol, were noted 48 h postoperatively. A systemic postoperative proinflammatory response was accompanied by muscle

  11. Wooden Breast Myodegeneration of Pectoralis Major Muscle Over the Growth Period in Broilers.

    PubMed

    Sihvo, H-K; Lindén, J; Airas, N; Immonen, K; Valaja, J; Puolanne, E

    2017-01-01

    Wooden breast (WB) myopathy of broiler chickens is a myodegenerative disease of an unknown etiology and is macroscopically characterized by a hardened consistency of the pectoralis major muscle. Our aim was to describe the development and morphology of WB over the growth period in broilers. Additionally, the effect of restricted dietary selenium on the occurrence of WB was examined by allocating the birds in 2 dietary groups: restricted and conventional level of selenium. The experiment included 240 male broilers that were euthanized at ages of 10, 18, 24, 35, 38, or 42 days and evaluated for WB based on abnormal hardness of the pectoralis major muscle. The severity and the distribution of the lesion and presence of white striping were recorded. The first WB cases were seen at 18 days; 13/47 birds (28%) were affected and the majority exhibited a mild focal lesion. In subsequent age groups the WB prevalence varied between 48% and 73% and the lesion was usually diffuse and markedly firm. White striping often coexisted with WB. Histological evaluation performed on 111 cases revealed a significant association of myodegeneration and lymphocytic vasculitis with WB. Vasculitis and perivascular cell infiltration were restricted to the veins. Restricted dietary selenium did not affect the occurrence of WB ( P = .44). Our results indicate that WB starts focally and spreads to form a diffuse and more severe lesion.

  12. Protein expression of pectoralis major muscle in chickens in response to dietary methionine status.

    PubMed

    Corzo, A; Kidd, M T; Dozier, W A; Shack, L A; Burgess, S C

    2006-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of dietary methionine on breast-meat accretion and protein expression in skeletal muscle of broiler chickens in vivo. All broilers received a common pre-test diet up to 21 d of age, and were subsequently fed either a methionine-deficient (MD) or -adequate (MA) diet (3.1 v. 4.5 g/kg diet) from age 21 to 42 d. Dietary cystine levels were 3.7 v. 3.6 g/kg diet for the MD and MA diet, respectively. Detrimental effects on carcass yield (P=0.004), abdominal fat percentage (P=0.001), and breast-meat weight (P=0.001), yield (P=0.001), and uniformity (P=0.002) were observed and validated in birds fed MD diets. Via tandem MS, a total of 190 individual proteins were identified from pectoralis major (PM) muscle tissue. From the former composite, peptides from three proteins were observed to be present exclusively in breast muscle from those chickens fed the MD diet (pyruvate kinase, myosin alkali light chain-1, ribosomal-protein-L-29). No proteins were observed to be uniquely expressed in chickens fed MA diets. Research is warranted to further explore the possibility of the proteins pyruate kinase, myosin alkali light chain-1, or ribosomal protein L-29, as potential biological indicators of differences in protein expression of PM of chickens in response to a dietary methionine deficiency.

  13. Klotho, a new marker for osteoporosis and muscle strength in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Baldan, Alessandro; Giusti, Andrea; Bosi, Cristina; Malaventura, Cristina; Musso, Marco; Forni, Gian Luca; Volpato, Stefano; Zuliani, Giovanni; Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina

    2015-12-01

    Aim of this study was to compare plasma levels of the secreted protein Klotho in β-thalassemia major patients and in healthy controls. Also, we examined the existence of correlations between the protein level and osteoporosis, poor muscle strength and fractures. A total of 106 patients with β-thalassemia major and 95 healthy blood donors were enrolled. Klotho level in plasma was measured by mean of an ELISA test and the hand-grip strength using a dynamometer. Intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxy vitamin D (Vitamin D), serum calcium (Ca), phosphate (P), total alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ferritin, creatinine were measured by standard clinical techniques. DXA was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (L2-L4), femoral neck and total hip. We found that the Klotho protein concentration was lower in the blood of patients with β-thalassemia major than in healthy controls, and it was directly correlated to the hand-grip strength. In β-thalassemia major patients, the secreted Klotho was lower than in healthy controls. The preliminary investigation into the correlation between markers of osteo- and sarcopenia and Klotho demonstrated a decreased Klotho concentration in β-TM patients and a higher probability of having had fragility fractures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Three-dimensional study of pectoralis major muscle and tendon architecture.

    PubMed

    Fung, Lillia; Wong, Brian; Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; Agur, Anne; Rindlisbacher, Tim; Elmaraghy, Amr

    2009-05-01

    A thorough understanding of the normal structural anatomy of the pectoralis major (PM) is of paramount importance in the planning of PM tendon transfers or repairs following traumatic PM tears. However, there is little consensus regarding the complex musculotendinous architecture of the PM in the anatomic or surgical literature. The purpose of this study is to model and quantify the three-dimensional architecture of the pectoralis muscle and tendon. Eleven formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens were examined: five (2M/3F) were serially dissected, digitized, and modeled in 3D using Autodesk Maya; six (4M/2F) were dissected and photographed. The PM tendon consisted of longer anterior and shorter posterior layers that were continuous inferiorly. The muscle belly consisted of an architecturally uniform clavicular head (CH) and a segmented sternal head (SH) with 6-7 segments. The most inferior SH segment in all specimens was found to fold anteriorly forming a trough that cradled the inferior aspect of the adjacent superior segment. No twisting of either the PM muscle or tendon was noted. Within the CH, the fiber bundle lengths (FBL) were found to increase from superior to inferior, whereas the mean FBLs of SH were greatest in segments 3-5 found centrally. The mean lateral pennation angle was greater in the CH (29.4 +/- 6.9 degrees ) than in the SH (20.6 +/- 2.7 degrees ). The application of these findings could form the basis of future studies to optimize surgical planning and functional recovery of repair/reconstruction procedures.

  15. Method to Reduce Muscle Fatigue During Transcutaneous Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation in Major Knee and Ankle Muscle Groups.

    PubMed

    Sayenko, Dimitry G; Nguyen, Robert; Hirabayashi, Tomoyo; Popovic, Milos R; Masani, Kei

    2015-09-01

    A critical limitation with transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation as a rehabilitative approach is the rapid onset of muscle fatigue during repeated contractions. We have developed a method called spatially distributed sequential stimulation (SDSS) to reduce muscle fatigue by distributing the center of electrical field over a wide area within a single stimulation site, using an array of surface electrodes. To extend the previous findings and to prove feasibility of the method by exploring the fatigue-reducing ability of SDSS for lower limb muscle groups in the able-bodied population, as well as in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). SDSS was delivered through 4 active electrodes applied to the knee extensors and flexors, plantarflexors, and dorsiflexors, sending a stimulation pulse to each electrode one after another with 90° phase shift between successive electrodes. Isometric ankle torque was measured during fatiguing stimulations using SDSS and conventional single active electrode stimulation lasting 2 minutes. We demonstrated greater fatigue-reducing ability of SDSS compared with the conventional protocol, as revealed by larger values of fatigue index and/or torque peak mean in all muscles except knee flexors of able-bodied individuals, and in all muscles tested in individuals with SCI. Our study has revealed improvements in fatigue tolerance during transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation using SDSS, a stimulation strategy that alternates activation of subcompartments of muscles. The SDSS protocol can provide greater stimulation times with less decrement in mechanical output compared with the conventional protocol. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Relationship between pectoralis major muscle histology and quality traits of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, M; Petracci, M; Meluzzi, A; Cavani, C; Clavenzani, P; Sirri, F

    2015-01-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate the influence of myodegeneration of pectoralis major muscle on quality traits and chemical composition of breast meat of heavy-size male broilers. For this purpose, a total of 72 pectoralis major muscles were randomly collected from broilers farmed under homogeneous conditions and graded into three categories (mild, n=22; moderate, n=33; and severe, n=17) based on the presence of abnormal fibers (giant fibers, fibers with hyaline degeneration, and damaged and/or necrotic fibers) evaluated by histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Color, pH, drip loss, Allo-Kramer shear values, and chemical composition (moisture, proteins, total lipids, ashes, and collagen) were determined on nonmarinated breast meat. Purge loss and cook loss, total yield, and Allo-Kramer shear values were measured on vacuum-tumbled samples. Samples showing moderate myodegeneration had the highest mean cross-sectional area of the fibers, while samples with severe myodegeneration had myofibers of different diameter and without the characteristic polygonal shape, multifocal degeneration and necrosis, as well as infiltration of CD3-immunoreactive cells. Cooking losses of nonmarinated meat were lower in the mild group with respect to moderate and severe groups (21.4 vs. 24.7 and 24.7%; P<0.001). Breast muscles with severe damage, in comparison with mild degenerated samples, showed higher moisture (75.4 vs. 74.4%; P<0.05) and lower protein percentages (21.1 vs. 22.6%; P<0.001). The lipid percentage of severely degenerated samples was higher than that from moderate group (2.94 vs. 2.36; P<0.05), while collagen content was not modified by histological lesion levels. Marinated meat from the mild group had higher uptake and total marinade yield after cooking. In conclusion, almost all breast fillets of heavy broiler chickens produced under intensive farming systems had histological lesions, which reflected on the chemical composition of the meat and the impaired

  17. Marination effects on water states and water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle with different color lightness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of marination on water states and water-holding capacity (WHC) of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle. Boneless, skinless p. major were collected 6-8 h postmortem from deboning lines at a commercial processing plant, and separated into light, ...

  18. Substantial effects of epimuscular myofascial force transmission on muscular mechanics have major implications on spastic muscle and remedial surgery.

    PubMed

    Yucesoy, Can A; Huijing, Peter A

    2007-12-01

    The specific aim of this paper is to review the effects of epimuscular myofascial force transmission on muscular mechanics and present some new results on finite element modeling of non-isolated aponeurotomized muscle in order to discuss the dependency of mechanics of spastic muscle, as well as surgery for restoration of function on such force transmission. The etiology of the effects of spasticity on muscular mechanics is not fully understood. Clinically, such effects feature typically a limited joint range of motion, which at the muscle level must originate from altered muscle length-force characteristics, in particular a limited muscle length range of force exertion. In studies performed to understand what is different in spastic muscle and what the effects of remedial surgery are, muscle is considered as being independent of its surroundings. Conceivably, this is because the classical approach in muscle mechanics is built on experimenting with dissected muscles. Certainly, such approach allowed improving our understanding of fundamental muscle physiology yet it yielded implicitly a narrow point of view of considering muscle length-force characteristics as a fixed property of the muscle itself. However, within its context of its intact connective tissue surroundings (the in vivo condition) muscle is not an isolated and independent entity. Instead, collagenous linkages between epimysia of adjacent muscles provide direct intermuscular connections, and structures such as the neurovascular tracts provide indirect intermuscular connections. Moreover, compartmental boundaries (e.g., intermuscular septa, interosseal membranes, periost and compartmental fascia) are continuous with neurovascular tracts and connect muscular and non-muscular tissues at several locations additional to the tendon origins and insertions. Epimuscular myofascial force transmission occurring via this integral system of connections has major effects on muscular mechanics including substantial

  19. Development of the platysma muscle and the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (human specimens at 8-17 weeks of development).

    PubMed

    De la Cuadra-Blanco, C; Peces-Peña, M D; Carvallo-de Moraes, L O; Herrera-Lara, M E; Mérida-Velasco, J R

    2013-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the description of the different regions of the face of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and its relationship with the superficial mimetic muscles. The purpose of this study is to analyze the development of the platysma muscle and the SMAS in human specimens at 8-17 weeks of development using an optical microscope. Furthermore, we propose to study the relationship of the anlage of the SMAS and the neighbouring superficial mimetic muscles. The facial musculature derives from the mesenchyme of the second arch and migrates towards the different regions of the face while forming premuscular laminae. During the 8th week of development, the cervical, infraorbital, mandibular, and temporal laminae are observed to be on the same plane. The platysma muscle derives from the cervical lamina and its mandibular extension enclosing the lower part of the parotid region and the cheek, while the SMAS derives from the upper region. During the period of development analyzed in this study, we have observed no continuity between the anlage of the SMAS and that of the superficial layer of the temporal fascia and the zygomaticus major muscle. Nor have we observed any structure similar to the SMAS in the labial region.

  20. Development of the Platysma Muscle and the Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System (Human Specimens at 8–17 Weeks of Development)

    PubMed Central

    De la Cuadra-Blanco, C.; Peces-Peña, M. D.; Carvallo-de Moraes, L. O.; Herrera-Lara, M. E.; Mérida-Velasco, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the description of the different regions of the face of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and its relationship with the superficial mimetic muscles. The purpose of this study is to analyze the development of the platysma muscle and the SMAS in human specimens at 8–17 weeks of development using an optical microscope. Furthermore, we propose to study the relationship of the anlage of the SMAS and the neighbouring superficial mimetic muscles. The facial musculature derives from the mesenchyme of the second arch and migrates towards the different regions of the face while forming premuscular laminae. During the 8th week of development, the cervical, infraorbital, mandibular, and temporal laminae are observed to be on the same plane. The platysma muscle derives from the cervical lamina and its mandibular extension enclosing the lower part of the parotid region and the cheek, while the SMAS derives from the upper region. During the period of development analyzed in this study, we have observed no continuity between the anlage of the SMAS and that of the superficial layer of the temporal fascia and the zygomaticus major muscle. Nor have we observed any structure similar to the SMAS in the labial region. PMID:24396304

  1. Effect of a Facial Muscle Exercise Device on Facial Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ui-jae; Kwon, Oh-yun; Jung, Sung-hoon; Ahn, Sun-hee; Gwak, Gyeong-tae

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background The efficacy of facial muscle exercises (FMEs) for facial rejuvenation is controversial. In the majority of previous studies, nonquantitative assessment tools were used to assess the benefits of FMEs. Objectives This study examined the effectiveness of FMEs using a Pao (MTG, Nagoya, Japan) device to quantify facial rejuvenation. Methods Fifty females were asked to perform FMEs using a Pao device for 30 seconds twice a day for 8 weeks. Facial muscle thickness and cross-sectional area were measured sonographically. Facial surface distance, surface area, and volumes were determined using a laser scanning system before and after FME. Facial muscle thickness, cross-sectional area, midfacial surface distances, jawline surface distance, and lower facial surface area and volume were compared bilaterally before and after FME using a paired Student t test. Results The cross-sectional areas of the zygomaticus major and digastric muscles increased significantly (right: P < 0.001, left: P = 0.015), while the midfacial surface distances in the middle (right: P = 0.005, left: P = 0.047) and lower (right: P = 0.028, left: P = 0.019) planes as well as the jawline surface distances (right: P = 0.004, left: P = 0.003) decreased significantly after FME using the Pao device. The lower facial surface areas (right: P = 0.005, left: P = 0.006) and volumes (right: P = 0.001, left: P = 0.002) were also significantly reduced after FME using the Pao device. Conclusions FME using the Pao device can increase facial muscle thickness and cross-sectional area, thus contributing to facial rejuvenation. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:29365050

  2. Major histocompatibility complex class II molecule expression on muscle cells is regulated by differentiation: implications for the immunopathogenesis of muscle autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Mantegazza, R; Gebbia, M; Mora, M; Barresi, R; Bernasconi, P; Baggi, F; Cornelio, F

    1996-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are expressed on myoblasts after interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) treatment, suggesting a muscle cell involvement in antigen presentation in inflammatory myopathies. However, they were not observed on normal or pathological myofibers. This discrepancy might be related to different responsiveness of developmentally differentiated muscle cells to IFN-gamma. Myoblasts expressed class II transcripts and proteins after IFN-gamma, while myotubes and innervated contracting muscle cells did not show staining for class II molecules. At all cell stages no loss of IFN-gamma receptor was detected indicating that myofiber maturation blocks their capacity to express MHC class II molecules. This suggests that completely differentiated myofibers cannot participate in class II restricted immunological reactions.

  3. Surgical and nonsurgical treatment of total rupture of the pectoralis major muscle in athletes: update and critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Kircher, Jörn; Ziskoven, Christoph; Patzer, Thilo; Zaps, Daniela; Bittersohl, Bernd; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2010-10-11

    The complete rupture of the pectoralis major tendon is an uncommon injury but has become increasingly common among athletes in recent years. This may be due to a higher number of individuals taking part in high-impact sports and weightlifting as well as the use of anabolic substances, which can make muscles and tendons vulnerable to injury. In recent literature, there are only few recommendations to rely on conservative treatment alone, but there are a number of reports and case series recommending early surgical intervention. Comparing the results of the two treatment regimens, there is clear evidence for a superior outcome after surgical repair with better cosmesis, better functional results, regaining of muscle power, and return to sports compared with the conservative treatment. In summary, anatomic surgical repair is the treatment of choice for complete acute ruptures of the pectoralis major tendon or muscle in athletes.

  4. Colour stability of bovine Longissimus and Psoas major muscle as affected by electrical stimulation and hot boning.

    PubMed

    van Laack, R L; Smulders, F J

    1990-01-01

    From eight electrically stimulated and eight non-stimulated cows the righthand-side longissimus and psoas major muscles were hot boned within 1 1 2 h post mortem, vacuum packaged and chilled and storred at 1±1°C. Immediately after slaughter, the lefthand carcass-sides were blast-chilled for 1 1 2 h and subsequently chilled at 1±1°C until the following day. After cold boning, the longissimus and psoas major muscle were packaged, chilled and stored as the hot boned muscles. After 12 days of storage, steaks, cut from the primals, were displayed at 1±1°C under continuous illumination (300-400 lx). Colour measurements after 0, 2 and 4 days of display revealed a significant (p<0·10) effect of time of boning on non-stimulated psoas major muscle (lower values for a (∗), b (∗) values, chroma and %R630-%R580). Significant effects of electrical stimulation were not observed. Changes in hue tended to be more pronounced when the meat had been stimulated. Changes in chroma were largest (p<0·10) is non-stimulated, hot boned psoas muscle. Analysis of variances showed that in the longissimus muscle significant effects (p<0·10) of time boning and electrical stimulation were present. The effect of time of boning was often influenced by the use of electrical stimulation. Changes in hue and chroma indicated that hot boned samples had a higher colour stability than cold boned controls, especially when the carcasses had not been stimulated electrically. The observed differences in colour stability were rather small in all treatment groups and are not expected to present any practical merchandising problem. Copyright © 1990. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Expression of heat shock protein 70 in transport-stressed broiler pectoralis major muscle and its relationship with meat quality.

    PubMed

    Xing, T; Wang, M F; Han, M Y; Zhu, X S; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2017-09-01

    Omics research has indicated that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is a potential biomarker of meat quality. However, the specific changes and the potential role of HSP70 in postmortem meat quality development need to be further defined. In this study, Arbor Acres broiler chickens (n=126) were randomly categorized into three treatment groups of unstressed control (C), 0.5-h transport (T) and subsequent water shower spray following transport (T/W). Each treatment consisted of six replicates with seven birds each. The birds were transported according to a designed protocol. The pectoralis major (PM) muscles of the transport-stressed broilers were categorized as normal and pale, soft and exudative (PSE)-like muscle samples according to L* and pH24 h values to test the expression and location of HSP70. Results revealed that the activities of plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase increased significantly (P<0.05) in normal and PSE-like muscle samples after transportation. The mRNA expression of HSP70 in normal muscle samples increased significantly (P<0.05) compared with that in the controls after stress. The protein expression of HSP70 increased significantly in normal muscle samples and decreased significantly (P<0.05) in PSE-like muscles. Immuno-fluorescence showed that HSP70 was present in the cytoplasm and on surface membranes of PM muscle cells in the normal samples following stress. Meanwhile, HSP70 was present on the surface membranes and extracellular matrix but was barely visible in the cytoplasm of the PSE-like samples. Principal component analysis showed high correlations between HSP70 and meat quality and stress indicators. In conclusion, this research suggests that the variation in HSP70 expression may provide a novel insight into the pathways underlying meat quality development.

  6. Major League Baseball pace-of-play rules and their influence on predicted muscle fatigue during simulated baseball games.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Michael W L; Keir, Peter J

    2016-11-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) has proposed rule changes to speed up baseball games. Reducing the time between pitches may impair recovery from fatigue. Fatigue is a known precursor to injury and may jeopardise joint stability. This study examined how fatigue accumulated during baseball games and how different pace of play initiatives may influence fatigue. Pitcher data were retrieved from a public database. A predictive model of muscle fatigue estimated muscle fatigue in 8 arm muscles. A self-selected pace (22.7 s), 12 s pace (Rule 8.04 from the MLB) and a 20 s rest (a pitch clock examined in the 2014 Arizona Fall League (AFL)) were examined. Significantly more muscle fatigue existed in both the AFL and Rule 8.04 conditions, when compared to the self-selected pace condition (5.01 ± 1.73%, 3.95 ± 1.20% and 3.70 ± 1.10% MVC force lost, respectively). Elevated levels of muscle fatigue are predicted in the flexor-pronator mass, which is responsible for providing elbow stability. Reduced effectiveness of the flexor-pronator mass may reduce the active contributions to joint rotational stiffness, increasing strain on the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) and possibly increasing injury risk.

  7. Effect of microclimate temperature during transportation of broiler chickens on quality of the pectoralis major muscle.

    PubMed

    Dadgar, S; Lee, E S; Leer, T L V; Burlinguette, N; Classen, H L; Crowe, T G; Shand, P J

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of microclimate temperature during preslaughter transportation on chicken meat quality. Ninety broilers per load of 2,900 were monitored individually during 3 to 4 h of preslaughter transport in an actively ventilated trailer. Six transport test runs were conducted at average ambient temperatures of -27, -22, -17, -5, +4, and +11 degrees C. Birds were classified into 4 groups based upon the temperatures recorded in their immediate surroundings as follows: -16 to 0, 0 to 10, 10 to 20, and 20 to 30 degrees C. Internal body temperatures of the birds were recorded using Thermocron DS1922L iButtons. Birds were slaughtered in a commercial facility and meat quality of the chilled carcasses was evaluated by determination of pH, color, drip loss, thaw loss, cook loss, shear force, water-binding capacity, and pellet cook yield of the pectoralis major muscle. The breast meat from birds exposed to temperatures below 0 degrees C showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) ultimate pH. Breast meat from birds exposed to temperatures below 0 degrees C showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) ultimate pH, a* value, water-binding capacity, and pellet cook yield and a significantly lower L* compared with breast meat of birds exposed to temperatures above 0 degrees C. The average core body temperatures were significantly lower (P < 0.05) during transport for birds exposed to temperatures below 0 degrees C compared with those exposed to temperatures between 0 and 10 degrees C. The latter birds had significantly lower (P < 0.05) core body temperatures compared with those exposed to temperatures above 10 degrees C. Thaw loss was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for breast meat of birds exposed to temperatures above 20 degrees C during transportation. There was no significant trend for b* value, drip loss, cook loss, or shear values based on environment temperature immediately surrounding the birds. Exposure to temperatures below 0 degrees C increased the

  8. Histology, composition, and quality traits of chicken Pectoralis major muscle affected by wooden breast abnormality.

    PubMed

    Soglia, F; Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Di Nunzio, M; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2016-03-01

    Only a few years ago, the poultry industry began to face a recent abnormality in breast meat, known as wooden breast, which frequently overlaps with white striping. This study aimed to assess the impact of wooden breast abnormality on quality traits of meat. For this purpose, 32 normal (NRM), 32 wooden (WB), and 32 wooden and white-striped (WB/WS) Pectoralis major muscles were selected from the same flock of heavy broilers (males, Ross 708, weighing around 3.7 kg) in the deboning area of a commercial processing plant at 3 h postmortem and used to assess histology, proximate (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and collagen) and mineral composition (Mg, K, P, Na and Ca), sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein patterns, and technological traits of breast meat. Compared to the normal group, WB/WS fillets showed more severe histological lesions characterized by fiber degeneration, fibrosis, and lipidosis, coupled with a significantly harder texture. With regard to proximate and mineral composition, abnormal samples exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher moisture, fat, and collagen contents coupled with lower (P < 0.001) amounts of protein and ash. Furthermore, increased calcium (131 vs. 84 mg kg(-1); P < 0.05) and sodium (741 vs. 393 mg kg(-1); P < 0.001) levels were found in WB/WS meat samples. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a significantly lower amount of calcium-ATPase (SERCA, 114 kDa), responsible for the translocation of Ca ions across the membrane, in normal breasts compared to abnormal ones. As for meat quality traits, fillets affected by wooden abnormality exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher ultimate pH and lower water-holding/water-binding capacity. In particular, compared to normal, abnormal samples showed reduced marinade uptake coupled with increased drip loss and cooking losses as well. In conclusion, this study revealed that meat affected by wooden breast or both wooden breast and white striping abnormalities exhibit poorer nutritional value, harder

  9. The work of titin protein folding as a major driver in muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Eckels, Edward C.; Tapia-Rojo, Rafael; Rivas-Pardo, Jamie Andrés; Fernández, Julio M.

    2018-01-01

    Single molecule atomic force microscopy and magnetic tweezers experiments have demonstrated that titin Ig domains are capable of folding against a pulling force, generating mechanical work which exceeds that produced by a myosin motor. We hypothesize that upon muscle activation, formation of actomyosin crossbridges reduces the force on titin causing entropic recoil of the titin polymer and triggering the folding of the titin Ig domains. In the physiological force range of 4–15 pN under which titin operates in muscle, the folding contraction of a single Ig domain can generate 200% of the work of entropic recoil, and occurs at forces which exceed the maximum stalling force of single myosin motors. Thus titin operates like a mechanical battery storing elastic energy efficiently by unfolding Ig domains, and delivering the charge back by folding when the motors are activated during a contraction. We advance the hypothesis that titin folding and myosin activation act as inextricable partners during muscle contraction. PMID:29433413

  10. Detection of differentially expressed genes in broiler pectoralis major muscle affected by White Striping - Wooden Breast myopathies.

    PubMed

    Zambonelli, Paolo; Zappaterra, Martina; Soglia, Francesca; Petracci, Massimiliano; Sirri, Federico; Cavani, Claudio; Davoli, Roberta

    2016-12-01

    White Striping and Wooden Breast (WS/WB) are abnormalities increasingly occurring in the fillets of high breast yield and growth rate chicken hybrids. These defects lead to consistent economic losses for poultry meat industry, as affected broiler fillets present an impaired visual appearance that negatively affects consumers' acceptability. Previous studies have highlighted in affected fillets a severely damaged muscle, showing profound inflammation, fibrosis, and lipidosis. The present study investigated the differentially expressed genes and pathways linked to the compositional changes observed in WS/WB breast muscles, in order to outline a more complete framework of the gene networks related to the occurrence of this complex pathological picture. The biochemical composition was performed on 20 pectoralis major samples obtained from high breast yield and growth rate broilers (10 affected vs. 10 normal) and 12 out of the 20 samples were used for the microarray gene expression profiling (6 affected vs. 6 normal). The obtained results indicate strong changes in muscle mineral composition, coupled to an increased deposition of fat. In addition, 204 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were found: 102 up-regulated and 102 down-regulated in affected breasts. The gene expression pathways found more altered in WS/WB muscles are those related to muscle development, polysaccharide metabolic processes, proteoglycans synthesis, inflammation, and calcium signaling pathway. On the whole, the findings suggest that a multifactorial and complex etiology is associated with the occurrence of WS/WB muscle abnormalities, contributing to further defining the transcription patterns associated with these myopathies. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Mapping intramuscular tenderness variation in four major muscles of the beef round.

    PubMed

    Reuter, B J; Wulf, D M; Maddock, R J

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify intramuscular tenderness variation within four muscles from the beef round: biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM), and adductor (AD). At 48 h postmortem, the BF, ST, SM, and AD were dissected from either the left or right side of ten carcasses, vacuum packaged, and aged for an additional 8 d. Each muscle was then frozen and cut into 2.54-cm-thick steaks perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle. Steaks were broiled on electric broilers to an internal temperature of 71 degrees C. Location-specific cores were obtained from each cooked steak, and Warner-Bratzler shear force was evaluated. Definable intramuscular shear force variation (SD = 0.56 kg) was almost twice as large as between-animal shear force variation (SD = 0.29 kg) and 2.8 times as large as between-muscle variation (SD = 0.20 kg). The ranking of muscles from greatest to least definable intramuscular shear force variation was BF, SM, ST, and AD (SD = 1.09, 0.72, 0.29, and 0.15 kg, respectively). The BF had its lowest shear force values at the origin (sirloin end), intermediate shear force values at the insertion, and its highest shear force values in a middle region 7 to 10 cm posterior to the sirloin-round break point (P < 0.05). The BF had lower shear force values toward the ST side than toward the vastus lateralis side (P < 0.05). The ST had its lowest shear force values in a 10-cm region in the middle, and its highest shear force values toward each end (P < 0.05). The SM had its lowest shear force values in the first 10-cm from the ischial end (origin), and its highest shear force values in a 13-cm region at the insertion end (P < 0.05). Generally, shear force was lower toward the superficial (medial) side than toward the deep side of the SM (P < 0.05). There were no intramuscular differences in shear force values within the AD (P > 0.05). These data indicate that definable intramuscular tenderness variation is substantial and

  12. Release of major ions during rigor mortis development in kid Longissimus dorsi muscle.

    PubMed

    Feidt, C; Brun-Bellut, J

    1999-01-01

    Ionic strength plays an important role in post mortem muscle changes. Its increase is due to ion release during the development of rigor mortis. Twelve alpine kids were used to study the effects of chilling and meat pH on ion release. Free ions were measured in Longissimus dorsi muscle by capillary electrophoresis after water extraction. All free ion concentrations increased after death, but there were differences between ions. Temperature was not a factor affecting ion release in contrast to ultimate pH value. Three release mechanisms are believed to coexist: a passive binding to proteins, which stops as pH decreases, an active segregation which stops as ATP disappears and the production of metabolites due to anaerobic glycolysis.

  13. Inspiratory muscle fatigue affects latissimus dorsi but not pectoralis major activity during arms only front crawl sprinting.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Mitch; Tasker, Louise; Bostanci, Ozgur

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) affects the muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major during maximal arms only front crawl swimming. Eight collegiate swimmers were recruited to perform 2 maximal 20-second arms only front crawl sprints in a swimming flume. Both sprints were performed on the same day, and IMF was induced 30 minutes after the first (control) sprint. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures (PImax and PEmax, respectively) were measured before and after each sprint. The median frequency (MDF) of the electromyographic signal burst was recorded from the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major during each 20-second sprint along with stroke rate and breathing frequency. Median frequency was assessed in absolute units (Hz) and then referenced to the start of the control sprint for normalization. After IMF inducement, stroke rate increased from 56 ± 4 to 59 ± 5 cycles per minute, and latissimus dorsi MDF fell from 67 ± 11 Hz at the start of the sprint to 61 ± 9 Hz at the end. No change was observed in the MDF of the latissimus dorsi during the control sprint. Conversely, the MDF of the pectoralis major shifted to lower frequencies during both sprints but was unaffected by IMF. As the latter induced fatigue in the latissimus dorsi, which was not otherwise apparent during maximal arms only control sprinting, the presence of IMF affects the activity of the latissimus dorsi during front crawl sprinting.

  14. Postmortem aging and freezing and thawing storage enhance ability of early deboned chicken pectoralis major muscle to hold added salt water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of postdeboning aging and frozen storage on water-holding capacity (WHC) of chicken breast pectoralis major muscle were investigated. Broiler breast muscle was removed from carcasses either early postmortem (2 h) or later postmortem (24 h). Treatments included: no postdeboning aging; 1-...

  15. Postmortem aging can significantly enhance water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle measured by the salt-induced swelling/centrifuge method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water-holding capacity (WHC) is one of the most important functional properties of fresh meat and can be significantly affected by postmortem muscle changes. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of postmortem aging on WHC of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle indicated with % s...

  16. Major Histocompatibility Complex I and II Expression and Lymphocytic Subtypes in Muscle of Horses with Immune-Mediated Myositis.

    PubMed

    Durward-Akhurst, S A; Finno, C J; Barnes, N; Shivers, J; Guo, L T; Shelton, G D; Valberg, S J

    2016-07-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I and II expression is not normally detected on sarcolemma, but is detected with lymphocytic infiltrates in immune-mediated myositis (IMM) of humans and dogs and in dysferlin-deficient muscular dystrophy. To determine if sarcolemmal MHC is expressed in active IMM in horses, if MHC expression is associated with lymphocytic subtype, and if dysferlin is expressed in IMM. Twenty-one IMM horses of Quarter Horse-related breeds, 3 healthy and 6 disease controls (3 pasture myopathy, 3 amylase-resistant polysaccharide storage myopathy [PSSM]). Immunohistochemical staining for MHC I, II, and CD4+, CD8+, CD20+ lymphocytes was performed on archived muscle of IMM and control horses. Scores were given for MHC I, II, and lymphocytic subtypes. Immunofluorescent staining for dysferlin, dystrophin, and a-sarcoglycan was performed. Sarcolemmal MHC I and II expression was detected in 17/21 and 15/21 of IMM horses, respectively, and in specific fibers of PSSM horses, but not healthy or pasture myopathy controls. The CD4+, CD8+, and CD20+ cells were present in 20/21 IMM muscles with CD4+ predominance in 10/21 and CD8+ predominance in 6/21 of IMM horses. Dysferlin, dystrophin, and a-sarcoglycan staining were similar in IMM and control muscles. Deficiencies of dysferlin, dystrophin, and a-sarcoglycan are not associated with IMM. Sarcolemmal MHC I and II expression in a proportion of myofibers of IMM horses in conjunction with lymphocytic infiltration supports an immune-mediated etiology for IMM. The MHC expression also occured in specific myofibers in PSSM horses in the absence of lymphocytic infiltrates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Optimal Normalization Tests for Muscle Activation of the Levator Scapulae, Pectoralis Minor, and Rhomboid Major: An Electromyography Study Using Maximum Voluntary Isometric Contractions.

    PubMed

    Castelein, Birgit; Cagnie, Barbara; Parlevliet, Thierry; Danneels, Lieven; Cools, Ann

    2015-10-01

    To identify maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) test positions for the deeper-lying scapulothoracic muscles (ie, levator scapulae, pectoralis minor, rhomboid major), and to provide a standard set of a limited number of test positions that generate an MVIC in all scapulothoracic muscles. Cross-sectional study. Physical and rehabilitation medicine department. Healthy subjects (N=21). Not applicable. Mean peak electromyographic activity from levator scapulae, pectoralis minor, and rhomboid major (investigated with fine-wire electromyography) and from upper trapezius, middle trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior (investigated with surface electromyography) during the performance of 12 different MVICs. The results indicated that various test positions generated similar high mean electromyographic activity and that no single test generated maximum activity for a specific muscle in all subjects. The results of this study support using a series of test positions for normalization procedures rather than a single exercise to increase the likelihood of recruiting the highest activity in the scapulothoracic muscles. A standard set of 5 test positions was identified as being sufficient for generating an MVIC of all scapulothoracic muscles: seated T, seated U 135°, prone T-thumbs up, prone V-thumbs up, and supine V-thumbs up. A standard set of test positions for normalization of scapulothoracic electromyographic data that also incorporates the levator scapulae, pectoralis minor, and rhomboid major muscles is 1 step toward a more comprehensive understanding of normal and abnormal muscle function of these muscles and will help to standardize the presentation of scapulothoracic electromyographic muscle activity. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. CD4 T Cells and Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Expression Influence Worm Expulsion and Increased Intestinal Muscle Contraction during Trichinella spiralis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vallance, Bruce A.; Galeazzi, Francesca; Collins, Stephen M.; Snider, Denis P.

    1999-01-01

    Expulsion of intestinal nematode parasites and the associated increased contraction by intestinal muscle are T cell dependent, since both are attenuated in athymic rodents. The CD4 T-cell subset has been strongly associated with worm expulsion; however, the relationship between these cells, antigen presentation, and worm expulsion is not definitive and the role of these factors in intestinal muscle hypercontractility has not been defined. We infected C57BL/6, athymic, CD4-deficient, CD8α-deficient, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II)-deficient (C2d) mice with Trichinella spiralis larvae. We examined intestinal worm numbers, longitudinal muscle contraction, and MHC II expression. Numerous MHC II-positive cells were identified within the muscularis externa of infected but not uninfected C57BL/6 mice. C57BL/6 and CD8α-deficient mice developed large increases in muscle contraction, expelling the parasite by day 21. Athymic and C2d mice exhibited much smaller increases in muscle contraction and delayed parasite expulsion. CD4-deficient mice exhibited intermediate levels of muscle contraction and delayed parasite expulsion. To further examine the role of MHC II and CD4 T cells, we irradiated C2d mice and reconstituted them with C57BL/6 bone marrow alone or with C57BL/6 CD4 T cells. C57BL/6 bone marrow alone did not affect muscle function or worm expulsion in recipient C2d mice. Partial CD4 T-cell reconstitution was sufficient to restore increased muscle contraction but not worm expulsion. Thus, hematopoietic MHC II expression alone is insufficient for the development of muscle hypercontractility and worm expulsion, but the addition of even small numbers of CD4 T cells was sufficient to induce intestinal muscle pathophysiology. PMID:10531271

  19. Creatine Monohydrate Enhances Energy Status and Reduces Glycolysis via Inhibition of AMPK Pathway in Pectoralis Major Muscle of Transport-Stressed Broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Jiaolong; Zhu, Xudong; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-08-16

    Creatine monohydrate (CMH) contributes to reduce transport-induced muscle rapid glycolysis and improve meat quality of broilers, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the ameliorative effects of CMH on muscle glycolysis metabolism of transported broilers during summer. The results showed that 3 h transport during summer elevated chicken live weight loss and plasma corticosterone concentration; decreased muscle concentrations of ATP, creatine, and energy charge value; increased muscle AMP concentration and AMP/ATP ratio; and upregulated muscle mRNA expression of LKB1 and AMPKα2, as well as protein expression of p-LKB1 Thr189 and p-AMPKα Thr172 , which subsequently resulted in rapid glycolysis in the pectoralis major muscle and consequent reduction of meat quality. Dietary addition of CMH at 1200 mg/kg ameliorated transport-induced rapid muscle glycolysis and reduction of meat quality via enhancement of the energy-buffering capacity of intramuscular phosphocreatine/creatine system and inhibition of AMPK pathway.

  20. Impact of divergent selection for ultimate pH of pectoralis major muscle on biochemical, histological, and sensorial attributes of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Alnahhas, N; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Baéza, E; Chabault, M; Chartrin, P; Bordeau, T; Cailleau-Audouin, E; Meteau, K; Berri, C

    2015-09-01

    The impact of divergent selection based on the ultimate pH (pHu) of pectoralis major (P. major) muscle on the chemical, biochemical, and histological profiles of the muscle and sensorial quality of meat was investigated in broiler chickens. The protein, lipid, DM, glycogen and lactate content, glycolytic potential, proteolysis, lipid and protein oxidation index, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, capillary density, and collagen surface were determined on the breast P. major muscle of 6-wk-old broilers issued from the high-pHu (pHu+) and low-pHu (pHu-) lines. Sensory attributes were also evaluated on the breast (roasted or grilled) and thigh (roasted) meat of the 2 lines. Protein, lipid, and DM content of P. major muscle were not affected by selection ( > 0.05). However, the P. major muscle of the pHu+ line was characterized by lower residual glycogen (-16%; ≤ 0.001) and lactate (-14%; ≤ 0.001) content and lower glycolytic potential (-14%; ≤ 0.001) compared with the pHu- line. Although the average cross-sectional area of muscle fibers and surface occupied by collagen were similar ( > 0.05) in both lines, fewer capillaries per fiber (-15%; ≤ 0.05) were observed in the pHu+ line. The pHu+ line was also characterized by lower lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance index: -23%; ≤ 0.05) but protein oxidation and proteolysis index were not different ( > 0.05) between the 2 lines. At the sensory level, selection on breast muscle pHu mainly affected the texture of grilled and roast breast meat, which was judged significantly more tender ( ≤ 0.001) in the pHu+ line, and the acid taste, which was less pronounced in the roasted breast meat of the pHu+ line ( ≤ 0.002). This study highlighted that selection based on pHu does not affect the chemical composition and structure of breast meat. However, by modifying muscle blood supply and glycogen turnover, it affects meat acidity and oxidant status, both of which are likely to contribute to the large

  1. Pearson’s correlations between moisture content, drip loss, expressible fluid and salt-induced water gain of broiler pectoralis major muscle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Moisture content, drip loss, expressible fluid, and % salt-induced water gain are widely used to estimate water states and water-holding capacity of raw meat. However, the relationships between these four measurements of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle describe are not well described. The objec...

  2. Muscle antioxidant (vitamin E) and major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour of meat from lambs fed a roughage based diet with flaxseed or algae.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Burnett, Viv F; Norng, Sorn; Hopkins, David L; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of feeding flaxseed or algae supplements to lambs on muscle antioxidant potential (vitamin E), major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour was investigated. Lambs (n=120) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments according to liveweight and fed the following diets for eight weeks: Annual ryegrass hay [60%]+subterranean clover hay [40%] pellets=Basal diet; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%)=Flax; Basal diet with algae (1.8%)=Algae; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) and algae (1.8%)=FlaxAlgae. Flaxseed or algae supplementation significantly affected major fatty acid groups in muscle. The addition of algae (average of Algae and FlaxAlgae) resulted in lower vitamin E concentration in muscle (P<0.003; 1.0 vs 1.3mg/kg of muscle) compared with lambs fed a diet without algae (average of Basal and Flax). Increasing muscle EPA+DHA by algae supplementation significantly increased lipid oxidation, but retail display colour of fresh meat was not affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tightness of hamstring- and psoas major muscles. A prospective study of back pain in young men during their military service.

    PubMed

    Hellsing, A L

    1988-01-01

    Muscular tightness and the therapeutic effect of stretching has been widely discussed during the last few years in sports training and physiotherapy. Within a prospective study of back function and pain before and after compulsory military service, tightness of hamstring- and psoas muscles was assessed. Around 600 young men were examined three times over a period of four years. Tight hamstring muscles were found to be very common in this group. Only 43% of the right and 35% of the left legs reached an angle of at least 80 degrees from the couch during the straight-leg-raising test (Lasegue's test). The test of muscular tightness showed a significant test-retest reliability over all examinations. Tight hamstring- or psoas muscles could not be shown to correlate to current back pain or to the incidence of back pain during the follow-up period.

  4. The N-end rule pathway catalyzes a major fraction of the protein degradation in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, V.; Lecker, S. H.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, overall protein degradation involves the ubiquitin-proteasome system. One property of a protein that leads to rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation is the presence of a basic, acidic, or bulky hydrophobic residue at its N terminus. However, in normal cells, substrates for this N-end rule pathway, which involves ubiquitin carrier protein (E2) E214k and ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) E3alpha, have remained unclear. Surprisingly, in soluble extracts of rabbit muscle, we found that competitive inhibitors of E3alpha markedly inhibited the 125I-ubiquitin conjugation and ATP-dependent degradation of endogenous proteins. These inhibitors appear to selectively inhibit E3alpha, since they blocked degradation of 125I-lysozyme, a model N-end rule substrate, but did not affect the degradation of proteins whose ubiquitination involved other E3s. The addition of several E2s or E3alpha to the muscle extracts stimulated overall proteolysis and ubiquitination, but only the stimulation by E3alpha or E214k was sensitive to these inhibitors. A similar general inhibition of ubiquitin conjugation to endogenous proteins was observed with a dominant negative inhibitor of E214k. Certain substrates of the N-end rule pathway are degraded after their tRNA-dependent arginylation. We found that adding RNase A to muscle extracts reduced the ATP-dependent proteolysis of endogenous proteins, and supplying tRNA partially restored this process. Finally, although in muscle extracts the N-end rule pathway catalyzes most ubiquitin conjugation, it makes only a minor contribution to overall protein ubiquitination in HeLa cell extracts.

  5. Disturbance of mitochondrial functions provoked by the major long-chain 3-hydroxylated fatty acids accumulating in MTP and LCHAD deficiencies in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cecatto, Cristiane; Godoy, Kálita Dos Santos; da Silva, Janaína Camacho; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Wajner, Moacir

    2016-10-01

    The pathogenesis of the muscular symptoms and recurrent rhabdomyolysis that are commonly manifested in patients with mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) and long-chain 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiencies is still unknown. In this study we investigated the effects of the major long-chain monocarboxylic 3-hydroxylated fatty acids (LCHFA) accumulating in these disorders, namely 3-hydroxytetradecanoic (3HTA) and 3-hydroxypalmitic (3HPA) acids, on important mitochondrial functions in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria. 3HTA and 3HPA markedly increased resting (state 4) and decreased ADP-stimulated (state 3) and CCCP-stimulated (uncoupled) respiration. 3HPA provoked similar effects in permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers, validating the results obtained in purified mitochondria. Furthermore, 3HTA and 3HPA markedly diminished mitochondrial membrane potential, NAD(P)H content and Ca(2+) retention capacity in Ca(2+)-loaded mitochondria. Mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) induction probably underlie these effects since they were totally prevented by cyclosporin A and ADP. In contrast, the dicarboxylic analogue of 3HTA did not alter the tested parameters. Our data strongly indicate that 3HTA and 3HPA behave as metabolic inhibitors, uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and mPT inducers in skeletal muscle. It is proposed that these pathomechanisms disrupting mitochondrial homeostasis may be involved in the muscle alterations characteristic of MTP and LCHAD deficiencies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of early diagnostic antigens from major excretory-secretory proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae using immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Cui, Jing; Hu, Dan Dan; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan

    2014-01-22

    The excretory-secretory (ES) proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) come mainly from the excretory granules of the stichosome and the cuticles (membrane proteins), are directly exposed to the host's immune system, and are the main target antigens, which induce the immune responses. Although the ES proteins are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis, their main disadvantage are the false negative results during the early stage of infection. The aim of this study was to identify early specific diagnostic antigens from the main components of T. spiralis muscle larval ES proteins. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with Western blot were used to screen the early diagnostic antigens from the main components of T. spiralis muscle larval ES proteins. The protein spots recognized by the sera from BALB/c mice infected with T. spiralis at 18 days post-infection (dpi) were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and putatively annotated using GO terms obtained from the InterPro databases. The ES proteins were analyzed by 2-DE, and more than 33 protein spots were detected with molecular weight varying from 40 to 60 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) from 4 to 7. When probed with the sera from infected mice at 18 dpi, 21 protein spots were recognized and then identified, and they were characterized to correlate with five different proteins of T. spiralis, including two serine proteases, one deoxyribonuclease (DNase) II, and two kinds of trypsin. The five proteins were functionally categorized into molecular function and biological process according to GO hierarchy. 2-DE and Western blot combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS were used to screen the diagnostic antigens from the main components of T. spiralis muscle larval ES proteins. The five proteins of T. spiralis identified (two serine proteases, DNase II and two kinds of trypsin) might be the early specific diagnostic antigens of trichinellosis.

  7. Clinical impact of postoperative loss in psoas major muscle and nutrition index after radical cystectomy for patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Makito; Morizawa, Yosuke; Hori, Shunta; Marugami, Nagaaki; Shimada, Keiji; Gotoh, Daisuke; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Nakai, Yasushi; Inoue, Takeshi; Anai, Satoshi; Torimoto, Kazumasa; Aoki, Katsuya; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2017-03-31

    Although the significance of preoperative nutritional status has been investigated, there is no report regarding the relationship of their postoperative changes on outcomes in patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. Here, we report the clinical impact of the change, from baseline, in nutritional status and volume of abdominal skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue after radical cystetomy. A retrospective analysis of 89 patients with bladder cancer, who underwent curative radical cystectomy, was conducted to assess the time course of change, from baseline, in body composition and nutritional status at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, after surgery. Skeletal muscle mass and abdominal adipose tissue mass were quantified by unenhanced computed tomography images. Two different nutritional indices, the Prognostic Nutritional Index and the Controlling Nutritional Status score were calculated from laboratory blood tests. We evaluated the prognostic value of the rate of change in the body composition and nutritional status after radical cystectomy. The cross-sectional area at the level of the third lumbar vertebra of the psoas major muscle and nutritional indices showed a transient deterioration at 1 and 3 months after radical cystectomy, with a return to baseline values from 6 to 24 months. A ≤ -10% loss in the area of the psoas muscle was associated with a shorter overall survival, compared to those with a > -10 change [hazard ratio (HR) 2.2, P = 0.02]. Multivariate analyzes identified sarcopenia status at baseline (HR 2.2, P = 0.03) and a ≤ -10% loss in the psoas muscle (HR 2.4, P = 0.02) were identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival. A subanalysis of patients without sarcopenia identified a worse survival outcome for patients with a ≤ -10% loss in the psoas muscle (HR 2.6, P = 0.03) and ≤ - 5 change in the Prognostic Nutritional Index (HR 3.6, P = 0.01). Further research is required to establish

  8. Dynamic muscle O2 saturation response is impaired during major non-cardiac surgery despite goal-directed haemodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Feldheiser, A; Hunsicker, O; Kaufner, L; Köhler, J; Sieglitz, H; Casans Francés, R; Wernecke, K-D; Sehouli, J; Spies, C

    2016-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy combined with a vascular occlusion test (VOT) could indicate an impairment of microvascular reactivity (MVR) in septic patients by detecting changes in dynamic variables of muscle O2 saturation (StO2). However, in the perioperative context the consequences of surgical trauma on dynamic variables of muscle StO2 as indicators of MVR are still unknown. This study is a sub-analysis of a randomised controlled trial in patients with metastatic primary ovarian cancer undergoing debulking surgery, during which a goal-directed haemodynamic algorithm was applied using oesophageal Doppler. During a 3 min VOT, near-infrared spectroscopy was used to assess dynamic variables arising from changes in muscle StO2. At the beginning of surgery, values of desaturation and recovery slope were comparable to values obtained in healthy volunteers. During the course of surgery, both desaturation and recovery slope showed a gradual decrease. Concomitantly, the study population underwent a transition to a surgically induced systemic inflammatory response state shown by a gradual increase in norepinephrine administration, heart rate, and Interleukin-6, with a peak immediately after the end of surgery. Higher rates of norepinephrine and a higher heart rate were related to a faster decline in StO2 during vascular occlusion. Using near-infrared spectroscopy combined with a VOT during surgery showed a gradual deterioration of MVR in patients treated with optimal haemodynamic care. The deterioration of MVR was accompanied by the transition to a surgically induced systemic inflammatory response state. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Muscle Contraction.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  10. [Analysis of surgical treatment with pectoralis major muscle flap for deep sternal infection after cardiac surgery: a case series of 189 patients].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Wang, Wenzhang; Cai, Aibing; Han, Zhiyi; Li, Xiyuan; Ma, Jiagui

    2015-03-01

    To analyze and summarize the clinical features and experience in surgical treatment of deep sternal infection (DSWI). This was a retrospective study. From January 2008 to December 2013, 189 patients with secondary DSWI after cardiac surgery underwent the pectoralis major muscle flap transposition in our department. There were 116 male and 73 female patients. The mean age was (54 ± 21) years, the body mass index was (26. 1 ± 1. 3) kg/m2. The incidence of postoperation DSWI were after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 93 patients, after other heart surgery plus CABG in 13 patients, after valve surgery in 47 patients, after thoracic aortic surgery in 16 patients, after congenital heart disease in 18 patients, and after cardiac injury in 2 patients. Clean patients' wound and extract secretions, clear the infection thoroughly by surgery and select antibiotics based on susceptibility results, and then repair the wound with appropriate muscle flap, place drain tube with negative pressure. Of all the 189 patients, 184 used isolate pectoralis, 1 used isolate rectus, and 4 used pectoralis plus rectus. The operative wounds of 179 patients were primary healing (94. 7%). Hospital discharge was postponed by 1 week for 7 patients, due to subcutaneous wound infection. Subcutaneous wound infection occurred again in 8 patients 1 week after hospital discharge, and their wounds healed after wound dressing. Nine patients (4. 7%) did not recover, due to residue of the sequestrum and costal chondritis, whom were later cured by undergoing a second treatment of debridement and pectoralis major muscle flap transposition. Eight patients died, in which 2 died of respiratory failure, 2 died of bacterial endocarditis with septicemia, 2 died of renal failure, 1 died of intraoperative bleeding leading to brain death and the 1 died of heart failure. The mortality rate was 4. 2% . The average length of postoperative hospital stay was (14 ± 5) days. The longest postoperative

  11. Murine Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Acquire, Though Fail to Present Exogenous Protein Antigens on Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Maddaluno, Marcella; MacRitchie, Neil; Grassia, Gianluca; Ialenti, Armando; Butcher, John P.; Garside, Paul; Brewer, James M.; Maffia, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    In the present study aortic murine smooth muscle cell (SMC) antigen presentation capacity was evaluated using the Eα-GFP/Y-Ae system to visualize antigen uptake through a GFP tag and tracking of Eα peptide/MHCII presentation using the Y-Ae Ab. Stimulation with IFN-γ (100 ng/mL) for 72 h caused a significant (P < 0.01) increase in the percentage of MHC class II positive SMCs, compared with unstimulated cells. Treatment with Eα-GFP (100 μg/mL) for 48 h induced a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the percentage of GFP positive SMCs while it did not affect the percentage of Y-Ae positive cells, being indicative of antigen uptake without its presentation in the context of MHC class II. After IFN-γ-stimulation, ovalbumin- (OVA, 1 mg/mL) or OVA323–339 peptide-(0.5 μg/mL) treated SMCs failed to induce OT-II CD4+ T cell activation/proliferation; this was also accompanied by a lack of expression of key costimulatory molecules (OX40L, CD40, CD70, and CD86) on SMCs. Finally, OVA-treated SMCs failed to induce DO11.10-GFP hybridoma activation, a process independent of costimulation. Our results demonstrate that while murine primary aortic SMCs express MHC class II and can acquire exogenous antigens, they fail to activate T cells through a failure in antigen presentation and a lack of costimulatory molecule expression. PMID:25136640

  12. Muscle Oxygen Saturation Improves Diagnostic Association Between Initial Vital Signs and Major Hemorrhage: A Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Andrew T; Edla, Shwetha; Liu, Jianbo; Rubin, John T; Thorsen, Jill E; Kittell, Erin; Smith, Jason B; Yeh, Daniel D; Reifman, Jaques

    2016-03-01

    During initial assessment of trauma patients, vital signs do not identify all patients with life-threatening hemorrhage. We hypothesized that a novel vital sign, muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2 ), could provide independent diagnostic information beyond routine vital signs for identification of hemorrhaging patients who require packed red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. This was an observational study of adult trauma patients treated at a Level I trauma center. Study staff placed the CareGuide 1100 tissue oximeter (Reflectance Medical Inc., Westborough, MA), and we analyzed average values of SmO2 , systolic blood pressure (sBP), pulse pressure (PP), and heart rate (HR) during 10 minutes of early emergency department evaluation. We excluded subjects without a full set of vital signs during the observation interval. The study outcome was hemorrhagic injury and RBC transfusion ≥ 3 units in 24 hours (24-hr RBC ≥ 3). To test the hypothesis that SmO2 added independent information beyond routine vital signs, we developed one logistic regression model with HR, sBP, and PP and one with SmO2 in addition to HR, sBP, and PP and compared their areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC AUCs) using DeLong's test. We enrolled 487 subjects; 23 received 24-hr RBC ≥ 3. Compared to the model without SmO2 , the regression model with SmO2 had a significantly increased ROC AUC for the prediction of ≥ 3 units of 24-hr RBC volume, 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-0.91) versus 0.77 (95% CI, 0.66-0.86; p < 0.05 per DeLong's test). Results were similar for ROC AUCs predicting patients (n = 11) receiving 24-hr RBC ≥ 9. SmO2 significantly improved the diagnostic association between initial vital signs and hemorrhagic injury with blood transfusion. This parameter may enhance the early identification of patients who require blood products for life-threatening hemorrhage. © 2016 The Authors. Academic Emergency Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf

  13. Clinical results of a surgical technique using endobuttons for complete tendon tear of pectoralis major muscle: report of five cases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We herein describe a surgical technique for the repair of complete tear of the pectoralis major (PM) tendon using endobuttons to strengthen initial fixation. Methods Five male patients (3 judo players, 1 martial arts player, and 1 body builder) were treated within 2 weeks of sustaining complete tear of the PM tendon. Average age at surgery and follow-up period were 28.4 years (range, 23-33) and 28.8 months (range, 24-36). A rectangular bone trough (about 1 × 4 cm) was created on the humerus at the insertion of the distal PM tendon. The tendon stump was introduced into this trough, and fixed to the reverse side of the humeral cortex using endobuttons and non-absorbable suture. Clinical assessment of re-tear was examined by MRI. Shoulder range of motion (ROM), outcome of treatment, and isometric power were measured at final follow-up. Results There were no clinical re-tears, and MRI findings also showed continuity of the PM tendon in all cases at final follow-up. Average ROM did not differ significantly between the affected and unaffected shoulders. The clinical outcomes at final follow-up were excellent (4/5 cases) or good (1/5). In addition, postoperative isometric power in horizontal flexion of the affected shoulder showed complete recovery when compared with the unaffected side. Conclusions Satisfactory outcomes could be obtained when surgery using the endobutton technique was performed within 2 weeks after complete tear of the PM tendon. Therefore, our new technique appears promising as a useful method to treat complete tear of the PM tendon. PMID:21955511

  14. Recruitment of discrete regions of the psoas major and quadratus lumborum muscles is changed in specific sitting postures in individuals with recurrent low back pain.

    PubMed

    Park, Rachel J; Tsao, Henry; Claus, Andrew; Cresswell, Andrew G; Hodges, Paul W

    2013-11-01

    Cross-sectional controlled laboratory study. To investigate potential changes in the function of discrete regions of the psoas major (PM) and quadratus lumborum (QL) with changes in spinal curvatures and hip positions in sitting, in people with recurrent low back pain (LBP). Although the PM and QL contribute to control of spinal curvature in sitting, whether activity of these muscles is changed in individuals with LBP is unknown. Ten volunteers with recurrent LBP (pain free at the time of testing) and 9 pain-free individuals in a comparison group participated. Participants with LBP were grouped into those with high and low erector spinae (ES) electromyographic (EMG) signal amplitude, recorded when sitting with a lumbar lordosis. Data were recorded as participants assumed 3 sitting postures. Fine-wire electrodes were inserted with ultrasound guidance into fascicles of the PM arising from the transverse process and vertebral body, and the anterior and posterior layers of the QL. When data from those with recurrent LBP were analyzed as 1 group, PM and QL EMG signal amplitudes did not differ between groups in any of the sitting postures. However, when subgrouped, those with low ES EMG had greater EMG signal amplitude of the PM vertebral body and QL posterior layer in flat posture and greater EMG signal amplitude of the QL posterior layer in short lordotic posture, compared to those in the pain-free group. For the group with high ES EMG, the PM transverse process and PM vertebral body EMG was less than that of the other LBP group in short lordotic posture. The findings suggest a redistribution of activity between muscles that have a potential extensor moment in individuals with LBP. The modification of EMG of discrete fascicles of the PM and QL was related to changes in ES EMG signal amplitude recorded in sitting.

  15. Postmortem aging and freezing and thawing storage enhance ability of early deboned chicken pectoralis major muscle to hold added salt water.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, H; Savage, E M

    2012-05-01

    The effects of postdeboning aging and frozen storage on water-holding capacity (WHC) of chicken breast pectoralis major muscle were investigated. Broiler breast muscle was removed from carcasses either early postmortem (2 h) or later postmortem (24 h). Treatments included: no postdeboning aging; 1-d postdeboning aging at 2°C, 7-d postdeboning aging (2-h deboned meat only), and 6-d storage at -20°C plus 1-d thawing at 2°C (freezing and thawing treatment, 2-h deboned meat only). The WHC was determined by cooking loss, drip loss, a filter paper press method (results were presented as expressible fluid), and a salt-induced swelling and centrifugation method (results were presented as percentage of salt-induced water gain). There were no differences for WHC estimated by cooking loss and expressible fluid between the treatments. Only the freezing and thawing treatment resulted in a significant increase in drip loss. The average percentage of salt-induced water gains by the 24-h deboned samples, postdeboning aged 2 h samples, and frozen 2 h sample, which did not differ from each other, were significantly higher than that by the 2-h deboned sample. These results indicate that regardless of method (carcass aging vs. postdeboning aging) and time (aging for 1 d vs. for 7 d), postmortem aging more than 1 d does not affect WHC of the early deboned samples measured by dripping, cooking, and pressing. However, postmortem carcass aging, postdeboning aging, and freezing and thawing storage can significantly enhance the ability of chicken breast meat to hold added salt water or WHC measured by the salt-induced swelling and centrifuge method.

  16. A major mutation of KIF21A associated with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) enhances translocation of Kank1 to the membrane.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Naoto; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2009-09-04

    Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) is associated with heterozygous mutations in the KIF21A gene, including a major (R954W) and a minor (M947T) mutation. Kank1, which regulates actin polymerization, cell migration and neurite outgrowth, interacted with the third and fourth coiled-coil domains of KIF21A protein at its ankyrin-repeat domain. While both KIF21A(R954W) and KIF21A(M947T) enhanced the formation of a heterodimer with the wild type, KIF21A(WT), these mutants also enhanced the interaction with Kank1. Knockdown of KIF21A resulted in Kank1 predominantly occurring in the cytosolic fraction, while KIF21A(WT) slightly enhanced the translocation of Kank1 to the membrane fraction. Moreover, KIF21A(R954W) significantly enhanced the translocation of Kank1 to the membrane fraction. These results suggest that KIF21A regulates the distribution of Kank1 and that KIF21A mutations associated with CFEOM1 enhanced the accumulation of Kank1 in the membrane fraction. This might cause an abrogation of neuronal development in cases of CFEOM1 through over-regulation of actin polymerization by Kank1.

  17. Headache: an important factor associated with muscle soreness/pain at the two-year follow-up point among patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ching-I; Liu, Chia-Yih; Yang, Ching-Hui; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2016-01-01

    No study has compared the associations of headache, anxiety, and depression at baseline with muscle soreness or pain (MS/P) at baseline and at the two-year follow-up point among outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to investigate the above issue. This study enrolled 155 outpatients with MDD at baseline, and 131 attended a two-year follow-up appointment. At baseline, migraine was diagnosed based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2(nd) edition. MDD and anxiety disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. The visual analog scale was used to evaluate the intensities of headache and MS/P in the neck, shoulder, back, upper limbs, and lower limbs. Depression and anxiety were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Multiple linear regressions were used to compare the associations of these factors with MS/P. Compared with anxiety disorders, migraine was more strongly associated with MS/P in all areas at baseline and in the upper and lower limbs at follow-up. Headache intensity at baseline was the factor most strongly associated with MS/P in all areas at baseline and follow-up after controlling for depression and anxiety. Headache intensity at baseline predicted MS/P at baseline and follow-up. Migraine and headache intensity are important factors related to MS/P at baseline and follow-up among patients with MDD. Integrating depression and headache treatment might be indicated to improve MS/P.

  18. Muscle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle ( myopathic changes ) Tissue death of the muscle (necrosis) Disorders that involve inflammation of the blood vessels and affect muscles ( necrotizing vasculitis ) Traumatic muscle damage ...

  19. A Novel Intronic Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Myosin heavy polypeptide 4 Gene Is Responsible for the Mini-Muscle Phenotype Characterized by Major Reduction in Hind-Limb Muscle Mass in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Scott A.; Bell, Timothy A.; Selitsky, Sara R.; Buus, Ryan J.; Hua, Kunjie; Weinstock, George M.; Garland, Theodore; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Pomp, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Replicated artificial selection for high levels of voluntary wheel running in an outbred strain of mice favored an autosomal recessive allele whose primary phenotypic effect is a 50% reduction in hind-limb muscle mass. Within the High Runner (HR) lines of mice, the numerous pleiotropic effects (e.g., larger hearts, reduced total body mass and fat mass, longer hind-limb bones) of this hypothesized adaptive allele include functional characteristics that facilitate high levels of voluntary wheel running (e.g., doubling of mass-specific muscle aerobic capacity, increased fatigue resistance of isolated muscles, longer hind-limb bones). Previously, we created a backcross population suitable for mapping the responsible locus. We phenotypically characterized the population and mapped the Minimsc locus to a 2.6-Mb interval on MMU11, a region containing ∼100 known or predicted genes. Here, we present a novel strategy to identify the genetic variant causing the mini-muscle phenotype. Using high-density genotyping and whole-genome sequencing of key backcross individuals and HR mice with and without the mini-muscle mutation, from both recent and historical generations of the HR lines, we show that a SNP representing a C-to-T transition located in a 709-bp intron between exons 11 and 12 of the Myosin heavy polypeptide 4 (Myh4) skeletal muscle gene (position 67,244,850 on MMU11; assembly, December 2011, GRCm38/mm10; ENSMUSG00000057003) is responsible for the mini-muscle phenotype, Myh4Minimsc. Using next-generation sequencing, our approach can be extended to identify causative mutations arising in mouse inbred lines and thus offers a great avenue to overcome one of the most challenging steps in quantitative genetics. PMID:24056412

  20. A novel intronic single nucleotide polymorphism in the myosin heavy polypeptide 4 gene is responsible for the mini-muscle phenotype characterized by major reduction in hind-limb muscle mass in mice.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Scott A; Bell, Timothy A; Selitsky, Sara R; Buus, Ryan J; Hua, Kunjie; Weinstock, George M; Garland, Theodore; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Pomp, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Replicated artificial selection for high levels of voluntary wheel running in an outbred strain of mice favored an autosomal recessive allele whose primary phenotypic effect is a 50% reduction in hind-limb muscle mass. Within the High Runner (HR) lines of mice, the numerous pleiotropic effects (e.g., larger hearts, reduced total body mass and fat mass, longer hind-limb bones) of this hypothesized adaptive allele include functional characteristics that facilitate high levels of voluntary wheel running (e.g., doubling of mass-specific muscle aerobic capacity, increased fatigue resistance of isolated muscles, longer hind-limb bones). Previously, we created a backcross population suitable for mapping the responsible locus. We phenotypically characterized the population and mapped the Minimsc locus to a 2.6-Mb interval on MMU11, a region containing ∼100 known or predicted genes. Here, we present a novel strategy to identify the genetic variant causing the mini-muscle phenotype. Using high-density genotyping and whole-genome sequencing of key backcross individuals and HR mice with and without the mini-muscle mutation, from both recent and historical generations of the HR lines, we show that a SNP representing a C-to-T transition located in a 709-bp intron between exons 11 and 12 of the Myosin heavy polypeptide 4 (Myh4) skeletal muscle gene (position 67,244,850 on MMU11; assembly, December 2011, GRCm38/mm10; ENSMUSG00000057003) is responsible for the mini-muscle phenotype, Myh4(Minimsc). Using next-generation sequencing, our approach can be extended to identify causative mutations arising in mouse inbred lines and thus offers a great avenue to overcome one of the most challenging steps in quantitative genetics.

  1. Effects of quantitative nutrient allocation on myopathies of the Pectoralis major muscles in broiler chickens at 32, 43, and 50 days of age.

    PubMed

    Meloche, K J; Fancher, B I; Emmerson, D A; Bilgili, S F; Dozier, W A

    2018-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine if myopathies of the Pectoralis major muscles are influenced by differences in growth trajectory achieved through a controlled feeding program. Male Yield Plus × Ross 708 broiler chicks were placed into 28 pens (25 birds/pen) equipped with plastic slats to prevent coprophagy. All birds received identical starter (1 to 10 d), grower (11 to 32 d), finisher (33 to 42 d), and withdrawal (43 to 50 d) diets that were formulated to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations of the primary breeder. Each pen of birds was randomly assigned to one of 4 pair-feeding programs (TRT 1: ad libitum; TRT 2: 95% of TRT 1 intake; TRT 3: 90% of TRT 1 intake; and TRT 4: 85% of TRT 1 intake) with 7 replicate pens per treatment. Feed intake and mortality were recorded daily. Individual BW was recorded at 31, 42, and 49 d of age. Blood samples were collected from 4 birds per pen at 31, 41, and 48 d of age and subsequently analyzed for plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). At 32, 43, and 50 d of age, 4 birds per pen were euthanized for necropsy. The right breast fillet of each bird was visually scored for white striping (WS) and wooden breast (WB). Linear decreases (P ≤ 0.01) in feed intake, BW gain, feed conversion ratio, and mortality were observed with decreasing feed allocation. Linear decreases (P ≤ 0.01) in severity were observed for WS and WB at 33, 43, and 50 d with decreasing feed allocation. Severity of WB at 33 and 43 d, as well as that of WS at 43 and 50 d, decreased (P ≤ 0.05) quadratically with decreasing feed allocation. Reduced feed allocation produced quadratic decreases (P ≤ 0.05) in CK and LDH concentrations at 31, 41, and 48 days. These results indicate that the incidence of breast fillet myopathies in broilers may be reduced through controlled feeding programs.

  2. Cytochrome c oxidase rather than cytochrome c is a major determinant of mitochondrial respiratory capacity in skeletal muscle of aged rats: role of carnitine and lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Tamilselvan, Jayavelu; Sivarajan, Kumarasamy; Anusuyadevi, Muthuswamy; Panneerselvam, Chinnakkannu

    2007-09-01

    The release of mitochondrial cytochrome c followed by activation of caspase cascade has been reported with aging in various tissues, whereas little is known about the caspase-independent pathway involved in mitochondrial dysfunction. To determine the functional impact of cytochrome c loss on mitochondrial respiratory capacity, we monitored NADH redox transitions and oxygen consumption in isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria of 4- and 24-month-old rats in the presence and absence of exogenous cytochrome c; and assessed the efficacy of cosupplementation of carnitine and lipoic acid on age-related alteration in mitochondrial respiration. The loss of mitochondrial cytochrome c with age was accompanied with alteration in respiratory transition, which in turn was not rescued by exogenous addition of cytochrome c to isolated mitochondria. The analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunits suggests that the decreased levels of cytochrome c oxidase may be attributed for the irresponsiveness to exogenously added cytochrome c on mitochondrial respiratory transitions, possibly through reduction of upstream electron carriers. Oral supplementation of carnitine and lipoic acid to aged rats help to maintaining the mitochondrial oxidative capacity by regulating the release of cytochrome c and improves cytochrome c oxidase transcript levels. Thus, carnitine and lipoic acid supplementation prevents the loss of cytochrome c and their associated decline in cytochrome c oxidase activity; thereby, effectively attenuating any putative decrease in cellular energy and redox status with age.

  3. Skeletal muscle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  4. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  5. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle atrophy may include: Burns Long-term corticosteroid therapy Malnutrition Muscular dystrophy and other diseases of the muscle Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Home Care An exercise program ...

  6. Composition of Muscle Fiber Types in Rat Rotator Cuff Muscles.

    PubMed

    Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Feng; Mi, Jingyi

    2016-10-01

    The rat is a suitable model to study human rotator cuff pathology owing to the similarities in morphological anatomy structure. However, few studies have reported the composition muscle fiber types of rotator cuff muscles in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and distribution in rotator cuff muscles of the rat. It was found that rotator cuff muscles in the rat were of mixed fiber type composition. The majority of rotator cuff fibers labeled positively for MyHCII. Moreover, the rat rotator cuff muscles contained hybrid fibers. So, compared with human rotator cuff muscles composed partly of slow-twitch fibers, the majority of fast-twitch fibers in rat rotator cuff muscles should be considered when the rat model study focus on the pathological process of rotator cuff muscles after injury. Gaining greater insight into muscle fiber types in rotator cuff muscles of the rat may contribute to elucidate the mechanism of pathological change in rotator cuff muscles-related diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1397-1401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Muscle MRI findings in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Gerevini, Simonetta; Scarlato, Marina; Maggi, Lorenzo; Cava, Mariangela; Caliendo, Giandomenico; Pasanisi, Barbara; Falini, Andrea; Previtali, Stefano Carlo; Morandi, Lucia

    2016-03-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is characterized by extremely variable degrees of facial, scapular and lower limb muscle involvement. Clinical and genetic determination can be difficult, as molecular analysis is not always definitive, and other similar muscle disorders may have overlapping clinical manifestations. Whole-body muscle MRI examination for fat infiltration, atrophy and oedema was performed to identify specific patterns of muscle involvement in FSHD patients (30 subjects), and compared to a group of control patients (23) affected by other myopathies (NFSHD). In FSHD patients, we detected a specific pattern of muscle fatty replacement and atrophy, particularly in upper girdle muscles. The most frequently affected muscles, including paucisymptomatic and severely affected FSHD patients, were trapezius, teres major and serratus anterior. Moreover, asymmetric muscle involvement was significantly higher in FSHD as compared to NFSHD patients. In conclusion, muscle MRI is very sensitive for identifying a specific pattern of involvement in FSHD patients and in detecting selective muscle involvement of non-clinically testable muscles. Muscle MRI constitutes a reliable tool for differentiating FSHD from other muscular dystrophies to direct diagnostic molecular analysis, as well as to investigate FSHD natural history and follow-up of the disease. Muscle MRI identifies a specific pattern of muscle involvement in FSHD patients. Muscle MRI may predict FSHD in asymptomatic and severely affected patients. Muscle MRI of upper girdle better predicts FSHD. Muscle MRI may differentiate FSHD from other forms of muscular dystrophy. Muscle MRI may show the involvement of non-clinical testable muscles.

  8. Muscle twitching

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some are common and normal. Others are signs of a nervous system disorder. Causes Causes may include: Autoimmune disorders , such ... muscle Spinal muscular atrophy Weak muscles (myopathy) Symptoms of a nervous system disorder include: Loss of, or change in, sensation ...

  9. Emotional facial expressions during REM sleep dreams.

    PubMed

    Rivera-García, Ana P; López Ruiz, Irma E; Ramírez-Salado, Ignacio; González-Olvera, Jorge J; Ayala-Guerrero, Fructuoso; Jiménez-Anguiano, Anabel

    2018-06-04

    Although motor activity is actively inhibited during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, specific activations of the facial mimetic musculature have been observed during this stage, which may be associated with greater emotional dream mentation. Nevertheless, no specific biomarker of emotional valence or arousal related to dream content has been identified to date. In order to explore the electromyographic (EMG) activity (voltage, number, density and duration) of the corrugator and zygomaticus major muscles during REM sleep and its association with emotional dream mentation, this study performed a series of experimental awakenings after observing EMG facial activations during REM sleep. The study was performed with 12 healthy female participants using an 8-hr nighttime sleep recording. Emotional tone was evaluated by five blinded judges and final valence and intensity scores were obtained. Emotions were mentioned in 80.4% of dream reports. The voltage, number, density and duration of facial muscle contractions were greater for the corrugator muscle than for the zygomaticus muscle, whereas high positive emotions predicted the number (R 2 0.601, p = 0.0001) and voltage (R 2 0.332, p = 0.005) of the zygomaticus. Our findings suggest that zygomaticus events were predictive of the experience of positive affect during REM sleep in healthy women. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. Modeling Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  11. The muscle spindle as a feedback element in muscle control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, L. T.; Iannone, A. M.; Ewing, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    The muscle spindle, the feedback element in the myotatic (stretch) reflex, is a major contributor to muscular control. Therefore, an accurate description of behavior of the muscle spindle during active contraction of the muscle, as well as during passive stretch, is essential to the understanding of muscle control. Animal experiments were performed in order to obtain the data necessary to model the muscle spindle. Spectral density functions were used to identify a linear approximation of the two types of nerve endings from the spindle. A model reference adaptive control system was used on a hybrid computer to optimize the anatomically defined lumped parameter estimate of the spindle. The derived nonlinear model accurately predicts the behavior of the muscle spindle both during active discharge and during its silent period. This model is used to determine the mechanism employed to control muscle movement.

  12. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... American Psychiatric Association. Major depressive disorder. Diagnostic ... Psychiatric Publishing; 2013:160-168. Fava M, Ostergaard ...

  13. Your Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up ... body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable ...

  14. Mathematical Model Of Nerve/Muscle Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannaford, Blake

    1990-01-01

    Phasic Excitation/Activation (PEA) mathematical model simulates short-term nonlinear dynamics of activation and control of muscle by nerve. Includes electronic and mechanical elements. Is homeomorphic at level of its three major building blocks, which represent motoneuron, dynamics of activation of muscle, and mechanics of muscle.

  15. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle biopsy examines a tissue sample under a microscope to confirm disease. Sometimes, a blood test to check for a genetic disorder is all that is needed based on someone's symptoms and family history.

  16. Muscle Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe Happen frequently Don't get better with stretching and drinking enough fluids Last a long time ... able to find some relief from cramps by Stretching or gently massaging the muscle Applying heat when ...

  17. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or tendinitis A genetic disorder, such as muscular dystrophy Some cancers Inflammation, such as myositis Diseases of nerves that affect muscles Infections Certain medicines Sometimes the cause is not ...

  18. Sex Differences in Muscle Wasting.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lindsey J; Liu, Haiming; Garcia, Jose M

    2017-01-01

    With aging and other muscle wasting diseases, men and women undergo similar pathological changes in skeletal muscle: increased inflammation, enhanced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, satellite cell senescence, elevated apoptosis and proteasome activity, and suppressed protein synthesis and myocyte regeneration. Decreased food intake and physical activity also indirectly contribute to muscle wasting. Sex hormones also play important roles in maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis. Testosterone is a potent anabolic factor promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscular regeneration. Estrogens have a protective effect on skeletal muscle by attenuating inflammation; however, the mechanisms of estrogen action in skeletal muscle are less well characterized than those of testosterone. Age- and/or disease-induced alterations in sex hormones are major contributors to muscle wasting. Hence, men and women may respond differently to catabolic conditions because of their hormonal profiles. Here we review the similarities and differences between men and women with common wasting conditions including sarcopenia and cachexia due to cancer, end-stage renal disease/chronic kidney disease, liver disease, chronic heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease based on the literature in clinical studies. In addition, the responses in men and women to the commonly used therapeutic agents and their efficacy to improve muscle mass and function are also reviewed.

  19. Mimetic Muscles in a Despotic Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Differ from Those in a Closely Related Tolerant Macaque (M. nigra).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    Facial displays (or expressions) are a primary means of visual communication among conspecifics in many mammalian orders. Macaques are an ideal model among primates for investigating the co-evolution of facial musculature, facial displays, and social group size/behavior under the umbrella of "ecomorphology". While all macaque species share some social behaviors, dietary, and ecological parameters, they display a range of social dominance styles from despotic to tolerant. A previous study found a larger repertoire of facial displays in tolerant macaque species relative to despotic species. The present study was designed to further explore this finding by comparing the gross morphological features of mimetic muscles between the Sulawesi macaque (Macaca nigra), a tolerant species, and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), a despotic species. Five adult M. nigra heads were dissected and mimetic musculature was compared to those from M. mulatta. Results showed that there was general similarity in muscle presence/absence between the species as well as muscle form except for musculature around the external ear. M. mulatta had more musculature around the external ear than M. nigra. In addition, M. nigra lacked a zygomaticus minor while M. mulatta is reported to have one. These morphological differences match behavioral observations documenting a limited range of ear movements used by M. nigra during facial displays. Future studies focusing on a wider phylogenetic range of macaques with varying dominance styles may further elucidate the roles of phylogeny, ecology, and social variables in the evolution of mimetic muscles within Macaca Anat Rec, 299:1317-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Muscle "Building."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of constructivism in teaching human anatomy. Provides directions for constructing arm-hand and leg-foot models that include extensor and flexor muscles and that are easily and cheaply constructed. Lists resources that provide ideas for using such models depending upon the curriculum implemented in a school or the course that is…

  1. Molecular Signaling in Muscle Plasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, Henry F.

    1999-01-01

    Extended spaceflight under microgravity conditions leads to significant atrophy of weight-bearing muscles. Atrophy and hypertrophy are the extreme outcomes of the high degree of plasticity exhibited by skeletal muscle. Stimuli which control muscle plasticity include neuronal, hormonal, nutritional, and mechanical inputs. The mechanical stimulus for muscle is directly related to the work or exercise against a load performed. Little or no work is performed by weight-bearing muscles under microgravity conditions. A major hypothesis is that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) which is associated with integrin at the adherens junctions and costa meres of all skeletal muscles is an integral part of the major mechanism for molecular signaling upon mechanical stimulation in all muscle fibers. Additionally, we propose that myotonic protein kinase (DMPK) and dystrophin (DYSTR) also participate in distinct mechanically stimulated molecular signaling pathways that are most critical in type I and type II muscle fibers, respectively. To test these hypotheses, we will use the paradigms of hindlimb unloading and overloading in mice as models for microgravity conditions and a potential exercise countermeasure, respectively, in mice. We expect that FAK loss-of-function will impair hypertrophy and enhance atrophy in all skeletal muscle fibers whereas DYSTR and DMPK loss-of-function will have similar but more selective effects on Type IT and Type I fibers, respectively. Gene expression will be monitored by muscle-specific creatine kinase M promoter-reporter construct activity and specific MRNA and protein accumulation in the soleus (type I primarily) and plantaris (type 11 primarily) muscles. With these paradigms and assays, the following Specific Project Aims will be tested in genetically altered mice: 1) identify the roles of DYSTR and its pathway; 2) evaluate the roles of the DMPK and its pathway; 3) characterize the roles of FAK and its pathway and 4) genetically analyze the mechanisms

  2. Syrtis Major

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-23

    This image from NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano and believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction.

  3. Capillary muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Caroline; Mouterde, Timothée; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The contraction of a muscle generates a force that decreases when increasing the contraction velocity. This “hyperbolic” force–velocity relationship has been known since the seminal work of A. V. Hill in 1938 [Hill AV (1938) Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 126(843):136–195]. Hill’s heuristic equation is still used, and the sliding-filament theory for the sarcomere [Huxley H, Hanson J (1954) Nature 173(4412):973–976; Huxley AF, Niedergerke R (1954) Nature 173(4412):971–973] suggested how its different parameters can be related to the molecular origin of the force generator [Huxley AF (1957) Prog Biophys Biophys Chem 7:255–318; Deshcherevskiĭ VI (1968) Biofizika 13(5):928–935]. Here, we develop a capillary analog of the sarcomere obeying Hill’s equation and discuss its analogy with muscles. PMID:25944938

  4. Mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical signals are critical to the development and maintenance of skeletal muscle, but the mechanisms that convert these shape changes to biochemical signals is not known. When a deformation is imposed on a muscle, changes in cellular and molecular conformations link the mechanical forces with biochemical signals, and the close integration of mechanical signals with electrical, metabolic, and hormonal signaling may disguise the aspect of the response that is specific to the mechanical forces. The mechanically induced conformational change may directly activate downstream signaling and may trigger messenger systems to activate signaling indirectly. Major effectors of mechanotransduction include the ubiquitous mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP) and phosphatidylinositol-3’ kinase (PI-3K), which have well described receptor dependent cascades, but the chain of events leading from mechanical stimulation to biochemical cascade is not clear. This review will discuss the mechanics of biological deformation, loading of cellular and molecular structures, and some of the principal signaling mechanisms associated with mechanotransduction. PMID:17127292

  5. Mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Burkholder, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical signals are critical to the development and maintenance of skeletal muscle, but the mechanisms that convert these shape changes to biochemical signals is not known. When a deformation is imposed on a muscle, changes in cellular and molecular conformations link the mechanical forces with biochemical signals, and the close integration of mechanical signals with electrical, metabolic, and hormonal signaling may disguise the aspect of the response that is specific to the mechanical forces. The mechanically induced conformational change may directly activate downstream signaling and may trigger messenger systems to activate signaling indirectly. Major effectors of mechanotransduction include the ubiquitous mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP) and phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase (PI-3K), which have well described receptor dependent cascades, but the chain of events leading from mechanical stimulation to biochemical cascade is not clear. This review will discuss the mechanics of biological deformation, loading of cellular and molecular structures, and some of the principal signaling mechanisms associated with mechanotransduction.

  6. Do Dynamic Compared to Static Facial Expressions of Happiness and Anger Reveal Enhanced Facial Mimicry?

    PubMed Central

    Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Szatkowska, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Facial mimicry is the spontaneous response to others’ facial expressions by mirroring or matching the interaction partner. Recent evidence suggested that mimicry may not be only an automatic reaction but could be dependent on many factors, including social context, type of task in which the participant is engaged, or stimulus properties (dynamic vs static presentation). In the present study, we investigated the impact of dynamic facial expression and sex differences on facial mimicry and judgment of emotional intensity. Electromyography recordings were recorded from the corrugator supercilii, zygomaticus major, and orbicularis oculi muscles during passive observation of static and dynamic images of happiness and anger. The ratings of the emotional intensity of facial expressions were also analysed. As predicted, dynamic expressions were rated as more intense than static ones. Compared to static images, dynamic displays of happiness also evoked stronger activity in the zygomaticus major and orbicularis oculi, suggesting that subjects experienced positive emotion. No muscles showed mimicry activity in response to angry faces. Moreover, we found that women exhibited greater zygomaticus major muscle activity in response to dynamic happiness stimuli than static stimuli. Our data support the hypothesis that people mimic positive emotions and confirm the importance of dynamic stimuli in some emotional processing. PMID:27390867

  7. Morphological and molecular comparisons between tibialis anterior muscle and levator veli palatini muscle: A preliminary study on their augmentation potential.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xu; Song, Lei; Lan, Min; Shi, Bing; Li, Jingtao

    2018-01-01

    Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle and other somite-derived limb muscles remain the prototype in skeletal muscle study. The majority of head muscles, however, develop from branchial arches and maintain a number of heterogeneities in comparison with their limb counterparts. Levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle is a deep-located head muscle responsible for breathing, swallowing and speech, and is central to cleft palate surgery, yet lacks morphological and molecular investigation. In the present study, multiscale in vivo analyses were performed to compare TA and LVP muscle in terms of their myofiber composition, in-situ stem cell population and augmentation potential. TA muscle was identified to be primarily composed of type 2B myofibers while LVP muscle primarily consisted of type 2A and 2X myofibers. In addition, LVP muscle maintained a higher percentage of centrally-nucleated myofibers and a greater population of satellite cells. Notably, TA and LVP muscle responded to exogenous Wnt7a stimulus in different ways. Three weeks after Wnt7a administration, TA muscle exhibited an increase in myofiber number and a decrease in myofiber size, while LVP muscle demonstrated no significant changes in myofiber number or myofiber size. These results suggested that LVP muscle exhibits obvious differences in comparison with TA muscle. Therefore, knowledge acquired from TA muscle studies requires further testing before being applied to LVP muscle.

  8. Skeletal muscle performance and ageing.

    PubMed

    Tieland, Michael; Trouwborst, Inez; Clark, Brian C

    2018-02-01

    The world population is ageing rapidly. As society ages, the incidence of physical limitations is dramatically increasing, which reduces the quality of life and increases healthcare expenditures. In western society, ~30% of the population over 55 years is confronted with moderate or severe physical limitations. These physical limitations increase the risk of falls, institutionalization, co-morbidity, and premature death. An important cause of physical limitations is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, also referred to as sarcopenia. Emerging evidence, however, clearly shows that the decline in skeletal muscle mass is not the sole contributor to the decline in physical performance. For instance, the loss of muscle strength is also a strong contributor to reduced physical performance in the elderly. In addition, there is ample data to suggest that motor coordination, excitation-contraction coupling, skeletal integrity, and other factors related to the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems are critically important for physical performance in the elderly. To better understand the loss of skeletal muscle performance with ageing, we aim to provide a broad overview on the underlying mechanisms associated with elderly skeletal muscle performance. We start with a system level discussion and continue with a discussion on the influence of lifestyle, biological, and psychosocial factors on elderly skeletal muscle performance. Developing a broad understanding of the many factors affecting elderly skeletal muscle performance has major implications for scientists, clinicians, and health professionals who are developing therapeutic interventions aiming to enhance muscle function and/or prevent mobility and physical limitations and, as such, support healthy ageing. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  9. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history

  10. FGFR1 inhibits skeletal muscle atrophy associated with hindlimb suspension

    PubMed Central

    Eash, John; Olsen, Aaron; Breur, Gert; Gerrard, Dave; Hannon, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle atrophy can occur under many different conditions, including prolonged disuse or immobilization, cachexia, cushingoid conditions, secondary to surgery, or with advanced age. The mechanisms by which unloading of muscle is sensed and translated into signals controlling tissue reduction remains a major question in the field of musculoskeletal research. While the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors are synthesized by, and intimately involved in, embryonic skeletal muscle growth and repair, their role maintaining adult muscle status has not been examined. Methods We examined the effects of ectopic expression of FGFR1 during disuse-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy, utilizing hindlimb suspension and DNA electroporation in mice. Results We found skeletal muscle FGF4 and FGFR1 mRNA expression to be modified by hind limb suspension,. In addition, we found FGFR1 protein localized in muscle fibers within atrophying mouse muscle which appeared to be resistant to atrophy. Electroporation and ectopic expression of FGFR1 significantly inhibited the decrease in muscle fiber area within skeletal muscles of mice undergoing suspension induced muscle atrophy. Ectopic FGFR1 expression in muscle also significantly stimulated protein synthesis in muscle fibers, and increased protein degradation in weight bearing muscle fibers. Conclusion These results support the theory that FGF signaling can play a role in regulation of postnatal skeletal muscle maintenance, and could offer potentially novel and efficient therapeutic options for attenuating muscle atrophy during aging, illness and spaceflight. PMID:17425786

  11. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt

  12. Idiopathic masseter muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Biruktawit; Megersa, Shimalis

    2011-11-01

    Benign Masseteric Hypertrophy is a relatively uncommon condition that can occur unilaterally or bilaterally. Pain may be a symptom, but most frequently a clinician is consulted for cosmetic reasons. In some cases prominent Exostoses at the angle of the mandible are noted. Although it is tempting to point to Malocclusion, Bruxism, clenching, or Temporomandibular joint disorders, the etiology in the majority of cases is unclear. Diagnosis is based on awareness of the condition, clinical and radiographic findings, and exclusion of more serious Pathology such as Benign and Malignant Parotid Disease, Rhabdomyoma, and Lymphangioma. Treatment usually involves resection of a portion of the Masseter muscle with or without the underlying bone.

  13. Healthy Muscles Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... How can I keep my muscles more healthy? Physical activity Muscles that are not used will get smaller ... heart muscle as well! Get 60 minutes of physical activity every day. Get 60 minutes of physical activity ...

  14. Sumoylated α-skeletal muscle actin in the skeletal muscle of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Uda, Munehiro; Kawasaki, Hiroaki; Iizumi, Kyoichi; Shigenaga, Ayako; Baba, Takeshi; Naito, Hisashi; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Yamakura, Fumiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Skeletal muscles are composed of two major muscle fiber types: slow-twitch oxidative fibers and fast-twitch glycolytic fibers. The proteins in these muscle fibers are known to differ in their expression, relative abundance, and post-translational modifications. In this study, we report a previously unreported post-translational modification of α-skeletal muscle actin in the skeletal muscles of adult male F344 rats in vivo. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), we first examined the differences in the protein expression profiles between the soleus and plantaris muscles. We found higher intensity protein spots at approximately 60 kDa and pH 9 on 2D-PAGE for the soleus muscle compared with the plantaris muscle. These spots were identified as α-skeletal muscle actin by liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and western blot analyses. In addition, we found that the 60 kDa α-skeletal muscle actin is modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) 1, using 2D-PAGE and western blot analyses. Furthermore, we found that α-skeletal muscle actin with larger molecular weight was localized in the nuclear and cytosol of the skeletal muscle, but not in the myofibrillar fraction by the combination of subcellular fractionation and western blot analyses. These results suggest that α-skeletal muscle actin is modified by SUMO-1 in the skeletal muscles, localized in nuclear and cytosolic fractions, and the extent of this modification is much higher in the slow muscles than in the fast muscles. This is the first study to show the presence of SUMOylated actin in animal tissues.

  15. Skeletal muscle performance and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Trouwborst, Inez; Clark, Brian C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The world population is ageing rapidly. As society ages, the incidence of physical limitations is dramatically increasing, which reduces the quality of life and increases healthcare expenditures. In western society, ~30% of the population over 55 years is confronted with moderate or severe physical limitations. These physical limitations increase the risk of falls, institutionalization, co‐morbidity, and premature death. An important cause of physical limitations is the age‐related loss of skeletal muscle mass, also referred to as sarcopenia. Emerging evidence, however, clearly shows that the decline in skeletal muscle mass is not the sole contributor to the decline in physical performance. For instance, the loss of muscle strength is also a strong contributor to reduced physical performance in the elderly. In addition, there is ample data to suggest that motor coordination, excitation–contraction coupling, skeletal integrity, and other factors related to the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems are critically important for physical performance in the elderly. To better understand the loss of skeletal muscle performance with ageing, we aim to provide a broad overview on the underlying mechanisms associated with elderly skeletal muscle performance. We start with a system level discussion and continue with a discussion on the influence of lifestyle, biological, and psychosocial factors on elderly skeletal muscle performance. Developing a broad understanding of the many factors affecting elderly skeletal muscle performance has major implications for scientists, clinicians, and health professionals who are developing therapeutic interventions aiming to enhance muscle function and/or prevent mobility and physical limitations and, as such, support healthy ageing. PMID:29151281

  16. Diseases and disorders of muscle.

    PubMed

    Pearson, A M; Young, R B

    1993-01-01

    Muscle may suffer from a number of diseases or disorders, some being fatal to humans and animals. Their management or treatment depends on correct diagnosis. Although no single method may be used to identify all diseases, recognition depends on the following diagnostic procedures: (1) history and clinical examination, (2) blood biochemistry, (3) electromyography, (4) muscle biopsy, (5) nuclear magnetic resonance, (6) measurement of muscle cross-sectional area, (7) tests of muscle function, (8) provocation tests, and (9) studies on protein turnover. One or all of these procedures may prove helpful in diagnosis, but even then identification of the disorder may not be possible. Nevertheless, each of these procedures can provide useful information. Among the most common diseases in muscle are the muscular dystrophies, in which the newly identified muscle protein dystrophin is either absent or present at less than normal amounts in both Duchenne and Becker's muscular dystrophy. Although the identification of dystrophin represents a major breakthrough, treatment has not progressed to the experimental stage. Other major diseases of muscle include the inflammatory myopathies and neuropathies. Atrophy and hypertrophy of muscle and the relationship of aging, exercise, and fatigue all add to our understanding of the behavior of normal and abnormal muscle. Some other interesting related diseases and disorders of muscle include myasthenia gravis, muscular dysgenesis, and myclonus. Disorders of energy metabolism include those caused by abnormal glycolysis (Von Gierke's, Pompe's, Cori-Forbes, Andersen's, McArdle's, Hers', and Tauri's diseases) and by the acquired diseases of glycolysis (disorders of mitochondrial oxidation). Still other diseases associated with abnormal energy metabolism include lipid-related disorders (carnitine and carnitine palmitoyl-transferase deficiencies) and myotonic syndromes (myotonia congenita, paramyotonia congenita, hypokalemic and hyperkalemic

  17. Characterization of muscle ankyrin repeat proteins in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Wette, Stefan G; Smith, Heather K; Lamb, Graham D; Murphy, Robyn M

    2017-09-01

    Muscle ankyrin repeat proteins (MARPs) are a family of titin-associated, stress-response molecules and putative transducers of stretch-induced signaling in skeletal muscle. In cardiac muscle, cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) and diabetes-related ankyrin repeat protein (DARP) reportedly redistribute from binding sites on titin to the nucleus following a prolonged stretch. However, it is unclear whether ankyrin repeat domain protein 2 (Ankrd 2) shows comparable stretch-induced redistribution to the nucleus. We measured the following in rested human skeletal muscle: 1 ) the absolute amount of MARPs and 2 ) the distribution of Ankrd 2 and DARP in both single fibers and whole muscle preparations. In absolute amounts, Ankrd 2 is the most abundant MARP in human skeletal muscle, there being ~3.1 µmol/kg, much greater than DARP and CARP (~0.11 and ~0.02 µmol/kg, respectively). All DARP was found to be tightly bound at cytoskeletal (or possibly nuclear) sites. In contrast, ~70% of the total Ankrd 2 is freely diffusible in the cytosol [including virtually all of the phosphorylated (p)Ankrd 2-Ser99 form], ~15% is bound to non-nuclear membranes, and ~15% is bound at cytoskeletal sites, likely at the N2A region of titin. These data are not consistent with the proposal that Ankrd 2, per se, or pAnkrd 2-Ser99 mediates stretch-induced signaling in skeletal muscle, dissociating from titin and translocating to the nucleus, because the majority of these forms of Ankrd 2 are already free in the cytosol. It will be necessary to show that the titin-associated Ankrd 2 is modified by stretch in some as-yet-unidentified way, distinct from the diffusible pool, if it is to act as a stretch-sensitive signaling molecule. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Task constraints and minimization of muscle effort result in a small number of muscle synergies during gait.

    PubMed

    De Groote, Friedl; Jonkers, Ilse; Duysens, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Finding muscle activity generating a given motion is a redundant problem, since there are many more muscles than degrees of freedom. The control strategies determining muscle recruitment from a redundant set are still poorly understood. One theory of motor control suggests that motion is produced through activating a small number of muscle synergies, i.e., muscle groups that are activated in a fixed ratio by a single input signal. Because of the reduced number of input signals, synergy-based control is low dimensional. But a major criticism on the theory of synergy-based control of muscles is that muscle synergies might reflect task constraints rather than a neural control strategy. Another theory of motor control suggests that muscles are recruited by optimizing performance. Optimization of performance has been widely used to calculate muscle recruitment underlying a given motion while assuming independent recruitment of muscles. If synergies indeed determine muscle recruitment underlying a given motion, optimization approaches that do not model synergy-based control could result in muscle activations that do not show the synergistic muscle action observed through electromyography (EMG). If, however, synergistic muscle action results from performance optimization and task constraints (joint kinematics and external forces), such optimization approaches are expected to result in low-dimensional synergistic muscle activations that are similar to EMG-based synergies. We calculated muscle recruitment underlying experimentally measured gait patterns by optimizing performance assuming independent recruitment of muscles. We found that the muscle activations calculated without any reference to synergies can be accurately explained by on average four synergies. These synergies are similar to EMG-based synergies. We therefore conclude that task constraints and performance optimization explain synergistic muscle recruitment from a redundant set of muscles.

  19. [Asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles].

    PubMed

    Arzul, L; Corre, P; Khonsari, R H; Mercier, J-M; Piot, B

    2012-06-01

    Hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles most commonly affects the masseter. Less common cases of isolated or associated temporalis hypertrophy are also reported. Parafunctional habits, and more precisely bruxism, can favor the onset of the hypertrophy. This condition is generally idiopathic and can require both medical and/or surgical management. A 29-year-old patient was referred to our department for an asymmetric swelling of the masticatory muscles. Physical examination revealed a bilateral hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles, predominantly affecting the right temporalis and the left masseter. Major bruxism was assessed by premature dental wearing. The additional examinations confirmed the isolated muscle hypertrophy. Benign asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles promoted by bruxism was diagnosed. Treatment with injections of type A botulinum toxin was conducted in association with a splint and relaxation. Its effectiveness has been observed at six months. Few cases of unilateral or bilateral temporalis hypertrophy have been reported, added to the more common isolated masseter muscles hypertrophy. The diagnosis requires to rule out secondary hypertrophies and tumors using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The condition is thought to be favoured by parafunctional habits such as bruxism. The conservative treatment consists in reducing the volume of the masticatory muscles using intramuscular injections of type A botulinum toxin. Other potential conservative treatments are wearing splints and muscle relaxant drugs. Surgical procedures aiming to reduce the muscle volume and/or the bone volume (mandibular gonioplasty) can be proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. A non-capacitative pathway activated by arachidonic acid is the major Ca2+ entry mechanism in rat A7r5 smooth muscle cells stimulated with low concentrations of vasopressin

    PubMed Central

    Broad, Lisa M; Cannon, Toby R; Taylor, Colin W

    1999-01-01

    Depletion of the Ca2+ stores of A7r5 cells stimulated Ca2+, though not Sr2+, entry. Vasopressin (AVP) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulated Sr2+ entry. The cells therefore express a capacitative pathway activated by empty stores and a non-capacitative pathway stimulated by receptors; only the former is permeable to Mn2+ and only the latter to Sr2+. Neither empty stores nor inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) binding to its receptors are required for activation of the non-capacitative pathway, because microinjection of cells with heparin prevented PDGF-evoked Ca2+ mobilization but not Sr2+ entry. Low concentrations of Gd3+ irreversibly blocked capacitative Ca2+ entry without affecting AVP-evoked Sr2+ entry. After inhibition of the capacitative pathway with Gd3+, AVP evoked a substantial increase in cytosolic [Ca2+], confirming that the non-capacitative pathway can evoke a significant increase in cytosolic [Ca2+]. Arachidonic acid mimicked the effect of AVP on Sr2+ entry without stimulating Mn2+ entry; the Sr2+ entry was inhibited by 100 μM Gd3+, but not by 1 μM Gd3+ which completely inhibited capacitative Ca2+ entry. The effects of arachidonic acid did not require its metabolism. AVP-evoked Sr2+ entry was unaffected by isotetrandrine, an inhibitor of G protein-coupled phospholipase A2. U73122, an inhibitor of phosphoinositidase C, inhibited AVP-evoked formation of inositol phosphates and Sr2+ entry. The effects of phorbol esters and Ro31-8220 (a protein kinase C inhibitor) established that protein kinase C did not mediate the effects of AVP on the non-capacitative pathway. An inhibitor of diacylglycerol lipase, RHC-80267, inhibited AVP-evoked Sr2+ entry without affecting capacitative Ca2+ entry or release of Ca2+ stores. Selective inhibition of capacitative Ca2+ entry with Gd3+ revealed that the non-capacitative pathway is the major route for the Ca2+ entry evoked by low AVP concentrations. We conclude that in A7r5 cells, the Ca2+ entry evoked by

  1. Human Muscle Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The stimulus of gravity affects RNA production, which helps maintain the strength of human muscles on Earth (top), as seen in this section of muscle fiber taken from an astronaut before spaceflight. Astronauts in orbit and patients on Earth fighting muscle-wasting diseases need countermeasures to prevent muscle atrophy, indicated here with white lipid droplets (bottom) in the muscle sample taken from the same astronaut after spaceflight. Kerneth Baldwin of the University of California, Irvine, is conducting research on how reducing the stimulus of gravity affects production of the RNA that the body uses as a blueprint for making muscle proteins. Muscle proteins are what give muscles their strength, so when the RNA blueprints aren't available for producing new proteins to replace old ones -- a situation that occurs in microgravity -- the muscles atrophy. When the skeletal muscle system is exposed to microgravity during spaceflight, the muscles undergo a reduced mass that translates to a reduction in strength. When this happens, muscle endurance decreases and the muscles are more prone to injury, so individuals could have problems in performing extravehicular activity [space walks] or emergency egress because their bodies are functionally compromised.

  2. Muscle MRI in female carriers of dystrophinopathy.

    PubMed

    Tasca, G; Monforte, M; Iannaccone, E; Laschena, F; Ottaviani, P; Silvestri, G; Masciullo, M; Mirabella, M; Servidei, S; Ricci, E

    2012-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers represent a rare condition that needs to be recognized because of the possible implications for prenatal diagnosis. Muscle biopsy is currently the diagnostic instrument of choice in sporadic patients. We wanted to verify whether muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could identify a pattern of involvement suggestive of this condition and whether it was similar to that reported in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy. Evaluation of pelvic and lower limb MRI scans of 12 dystrophinopathy carriers was performed. We found a frequent involvement of the quadratus femoris, gluteus maximus and medius, biceps femoris long head, adductor magnus, vasti and paraspinal muscles, whilst the popliteus, iliopsoas, recti abdominis, sartorius, and gracilis were relatively spared. Asymmetry was a major feature on MRI; it could be detected significantly more often than with sole clinical examination and even in patients without weakness. The pattern we describe here is similar to that reported in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy, although asymmetry represents a major distinctive feature. Muscle MRI was more sensitive than clinical examination for detecting single muscle involvement and asymmetry. Further studies are needed to verify the consistency of this pattern in larger cohorts and to assess whether muscle MRI can improve diagnostic accuracy in carriers with normal dystrophin staining on muscle biopsy. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  3. An Accessory Muscle of Pectoral Region: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bannur, B.M.; Mallashetty, Nagaraj; Endigeri, Preetish

    2013-01-01

    Among the variations of pectoral muscles, this case appears to be unique in the literature. This was a case of an accessory pectoral muscle which was located between pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles, which was discovered during a routine anatomy dissection. The accessory muscle originated from 6th and 7th ribs at costo-chondral junction, which travelled supero-laterally and inserted by fusing with fibres of pectoralis minor. This unusual muscle holds importance for surgeons while they perform dissectomies, in avoiding complications. PMID:24179919

  4. Searching for proprioceptors in human facial muscles.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Juan L; Abbate, Francesco; de Vicente, Juan C; Cobo, Juan; Vega, José A

    2017-02-15

    The human craniofacial muscles innervated by the facial nerve typically lack muscle spindles. However these muscles have proprioception that participates in the coordination of facial movements. A functional substitution of facial proprioceptors by cutaneous mechanoreceptors has been proposed but at present this alternative has not been demonstrated. Here we have investigated whether other kinds of sensory structures are present in two human facial muscles (zygomatic major and buccal). Human checks were removed from Spanish cadavers, and processed for immunohistochemical detection of nerve fibers (neurofilament proteins and S100 protein) and two putative mechanoproteins (acid-sensing ion channel 2 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 4) associated with mechanosensing. Nerves of different calibers were found in the connective septa and within the muscle itself. In all the muscles analysed, capsular corpuscle-like structures resembling elongated or round Ruffini-like corpuscles were observed. Moreover the axon profiles within these structures displayed immunoreactivity for both putative mechanoproteins. The present results demonstrate the presence of sensory structures in facial muscles that can substitute for typical muscle spindles as the source of facial proprioception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Muscle glycogen synthesis before and after exercise.

    PubMed

    Ivy, J L

    1991-01-01

    The importance of carbohydrates as a fuel source during endurance exercise has been known for 60 years. With the advent of the muscle biopsy needle in the 1960s, it was determined that the major source of carbohydrate during exercise was the muscle glycogen stores. It was demonstrated that the capacity to exercise at intensities between 65 to 75% VO2max was related to the pre-exercise level of muscle glycogen, i.e. the greater the muscle glycogen stores, the longer the exercise time to exhaustion. Because of the paramount importance of muscle glycogen during prolonged, intense exercise, a considerable amount of research has been conducted in an attempt to design the best regimen to elevate the muscle's glycogen stores prior to competition and to determine the most effective means of rapidly replenishing the muscle glycogen stores after exercise. The rate-limiting step in glycogen synthesis is the transfer of glucose from uridine diphosphate-glucose to an amylose chain. This reaction is catalysed by the enzyme glycogen synthase which can exist in a glucose-6-phosphate-dependent, inactive form (D-form) and a glucose-6-phosphate-independent, active form (I-form). The conversion of glycogen synthase from one form to the other is controlled by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reactions. The muscle glycogen concentration can vary greatly depending on training status, exercise routines and diet. The pattern of muscle glycogen resynthesis following exercise-induced depletion is biphasic. Following the cessation of exercise and with adequate carbohydrate consumption, muscle glycogen is rapidly resynthesised to near pre-exercise levels within 24 hours. Muscle glycogen then increases very gradually to above-normal levels over the next few days. Contributing to the rapid phase of glycogen resynthesis is an increase in the percentage of glycogen synthase I, an increase in the muscle cell membrane permeability to glucose, and an increase in the muscle's sensitivity to insulin

  6. Muscle Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Kenneth; Feeback, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Presentations from the assembled group of investigators involved in specific research projeects related to skeletal muscle in space flight can categorized in thematic subtopics: regulation of contractile protein phenotypes, muscle growth and atrophy, muscle structure: injury, recovery,and regeneration, metabolism and fatigue, and motor control and loading factors.

  7. Monitoring respiratory muscles.

    PubMed

    Nava, S

    1998-12-01

    The respiratory system consists of two main parts, the lung and the ventilatory pump. The latter consists of the bony structure of the thorax, the central respiratory controllers, the inspiratory and expiratory muscles, and the nerves innervating these muscles. Respiratory muscle fatigue occurs when respiratory muscle endurance is exceeded. Muscle fatigue is defined as a condition in which there is a reduction in the capacity for developing force and/or velocity of a muscle, resulting from muscle activity, and which is reversible by rest. The respiratory muscles are somewhat difficult to assess and the techniques employed are still relatively primitive. The most important methods of respiratory muscles function assessment are: 1) the vital capacity manoeuvre, which depends on maximum inspiratory and expiratory effort by the muscles and may be a useful indicator of respiratory muscle function; 2) radiological screening has been proposed for the detection of diaphragm paralysis. This may be helpful if the paralysis is unilateral, but bilateral paralysis is difficult to detect; and 3) respiratory muscles strength may be assessed with either voluntary or nonvoluntary manoeuvres. The function of the inspiratory muscles is assessed with 3 voluntary dependent manoeuvres. They are the so called Müller manoeuvre (or maximal inspiratory pressure), the sniff test and the combined test. All these three manoeuvres generate a pressure that is a reflection of complex interactions between several muscle groups since the efforts produce different mechanisms of activity of inspiratory and expiratory muscles. Two techniques are presently employed to assess diaphragm function, not being dependent on the patient's motivation: electrical phrenic nerve stimulation and cervical magnetic stimulation. Since it is less painful, magnetic cervical stimulation overcomes some of the difficulties encountered during electrical stimulation. With these two techniques recordings of diaphragmatic

  8. Muscle fiber types composition and type identified endplate morphology of forepaw intrinsic muscles in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Mi, Jing-Yi; Zhang, Yan; Pan, Xiao-Yun; Rui, Yong-Jun

    2016-06-01

    The failure to accept reinnervation is considered to be one of the reasons for the poor motor functional recovery of intrinsic hand muscles (IHMs) after nerve injury. Rat could be a suitable model to be used in simulating motor function recovery of the IHMs after nerve injury as to the similarities in function and anatomy of the muscles between human and rat. However, few studies have reported the muscle fiber types composition and endplate morphologic characteristics of intrinsic forepaw muscles (IFMs) in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain isoforms and acetylcholine receptors were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and endplates on type-identified fibers of the lumbrical muscles (LMs), interosseus muscles (IMs), abductor digiti minimi (AM) and flexor pollicis brevis (FM) in rat forepaw. The majority of IFMs fibers were labeled positively for fast-switch fiber. However, the IMs were composed of only slow-switch fiber. With the exception of the IMs, the other IFMs had a part of hybrid fibers. Two-dimensional morphological characteristics of endplates on I and IIa muscle fiber had no significant differences among the IFMs. The LMs is the most suitable IFMs of rat to stimulate reinnervation of the IHMs after nerve injury. Gaining greater insight into the muscle fiber types composition and endplate morphology in the IFMs of rat may help understand the pathological and functional changes of IFMs in rat model stimulating reinnervation of IHMs after peripheral nerve injury.

  9. The scaling of postcranial muscles in cats (Felidae) I: forelimb, cervical, and thoracic muscles.

    PubMed

    Cuff, Andrew R; Sparkes, Emily L; Randau, Marcela; Pierce, Stephanie E; Kitchener, Andrew C; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R

    2016-07-01

    The body masses of cats (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) span a ~300-fold range from the smallest to largest species. Despite this range, felid musculoskeletal anatomy remains remarkably conservative, including the maintenance of a crouched limb posture at unusually large sizes. The forelimbs in felids are important for body support and other aspects of locomotion, as well as climbing and prey capture, with the assistance of the vertebral (and hindlimb) muscles. Here, we examine the scaling of the anterior postcranial musculature across felids to assess scaling patterns between different species spanning the range of felid body sizes. The muscle architecture (lengths and masses of the muscle-tendon unit components) for the forelimb, cervical and thoracic muscles was quantified to analyse how the muscles scale with body mass. Our results demonstrate that physiological cross-sectional areas of the forelimb muscles scale positively with increasing body mass (i.e. becoming relatively larger). Many significantly allometric variables pertain to shoulder support, whereas the rest of the limb muscles become relatively weaker in larger felid species. However, when phylogenetic relationships were corrected for, most of these significant relationships disappeared, leaving no significantly allometric muscle metrics. The majority of cervical and thoracic muscle metrics are not significantly allometric, despite there being many allometric skeletal elements in these regions. When forelimb muscle data were considered in isolation or in combination with those of the vertebral muscles in principal components analyses and MANOVAs, there was no significant discrimination among species by either size or locomotory mode. Our results support the inference that larger felid species have relatively weaker anterior postcranial musculature compared with smaller species, due to an absence of significant positive allometry of forelimb or vertebral muscle architecture. This difference in strength

  10. Obesity Impairs Skeletal Muscle Regeneration Through Inhibition of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xing; Zhu, Meijun; Zhang, Shuming; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Du, Min

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is increasing rapidly worldwide and is accompanied by many complications, including impaired muscle regeneration. The obese condition is known to inhibit AMPK activity in multiple tissues. We hypothesized that the loss of AMPK activity is a major reason for hampered muscle regeneration in obese subjects. We found that obesity inhibits AMPK activity in regenerating muscle, which was associated with impeded satellite cell activation and impaired muscle regeneration. To test the mediatory role of AMPKα1, we knocked out AMPKα1 and found that both proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells are reduced after injury and that muscle regeneration is severely impeded, reminiscent of hampered muscle regeneration seen in obese subjects. Transplanted satellite cells with AMPKα1 deficiency had severely impaired myogenic capacity in regenerating muscle fibers. We also found that attenuated muscle regeneration in obese mice is rescued by AICAR, a drug that specifically activates AMPK, but AICAR treatment failed to improve muscle regeneration in obese mice with satellite cell-specific AMPKα1 knockout, demonstrating the importance of AMPKα1 in satellite cell activation and muscle regeneration. In summary, AMPKα1 is a key mediator linking obesity and impaired muscle regeneration, providing a convenient drug target to facilitate muscle regeneration in obese populations. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  11. Effects of microgravity on rat muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that humans exposed to long term spaceflight experience undesirable progressive muscle weakness and increased fatigability. This problem has prompted the implementation of inflight exercise programs because most investigators believe that the major cause of diminished muscle performance is a combination of disuse and decreased workload. Inflight exercise has improved muscle health, but deficits have persisted, indicating that either the regimens utilized were suboptimal or there existed additional debilitating factors which were not remedied by exercise. Clarification of this question requires an improved understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of spaceflight-induced muscle deterioration. To this end, multiple investigations have been performed on the muscles from rats orbited 5 to 22 days in Cosmos biosatellites and Spacelab-3 (2,4,5,8,10 to 14,16,18,19,21 to 23,25,27,28). The eight Cosmos 1887 investigations examined the structural and biochemical changes in skeletal and cardiac muscles of rats exposed to microgravity for 12.5 days and returned to terrestrial gravity 2.3 days before tissues were collected. Even though interpretation of these results was complicated by the combination of inflight and postflight induced alterations, the consensus is that there is marked heterogeneity in both degree and type of responses from the whole muscle level down to the molecular level. Collectively, the muscle investigations of Cosmos 1887 clearly illustrate the wide diversity of muscle tissue responses to spaceflight. Judging from the summary report of this mission, heterogeneity of responses is not unique to muscle tissue. Elucidating the mechanism underlying this heterogeneity holds the key to explaining adaptation of the organism to prolonged spaceflight.

  12. The role of skeletal muscle in the pathophysiology and management of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Krishnasamy, Priathashini; Hall, Michelle; Robbins, Sarah R

    2018-05-01

    The role of skeletal muscle in the pathophysiology of knee OA is poorly understood. To date, the majority of literature has focused on the association of muscle strength with OA symptoms, disease onset and progression. However, deficits or improvements in skeletal muscle strength do not fully explain the mechanisms behind outcome measures in knee OA, such as pain, function and structural disease. This review aims to summarize components of skeletal muscle, providing a holistic view of skeletal muscle mechanisms that includes muscle function, quality and composition and their interactions. Similarly, the role of skeletal muscle in the management of knee OA will be discussed.

  13. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  14. GLUT-3 expression in human skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, C. A.; Wen, G.; Peng, B. H.; Popov, V. L.; Hudnall, S. D.; Campbell, G. A.

    2000-01-01

    Muscle biopsy homogenates contain GLUT-3 mRNA and protein. Before these studies, it was unclear where GLUT-3 was located in muscle tissue. In situ hybridization using a midmolecule probe demonstrated GLUT-3 within all muscle fibers. Fluorescent-tagged antibody reacting with affinity-purified antibody directed at the carboxy-terminus demonstrated GLUT-3 protein in all fibers. Slow-twitch muscle fibers, identified by NADH-tetrazolium reductase staining, possessed more GLUT-3 protein than fast-twitch fibers. Electron microscopy using affinity-purified primary antibody and gold particle-tagged second antibody showed that the majority of GLUT-3 was in association with triads and transverse tubules inside the fiber. Strong GLUT-3 signals were seen in association with the few nerves that traversed muscle sections. Electron microscopic evaluation of human peripheral nerve demonstrated GLUT-3 within the axon, with many of the particles related to mitochondria. GLUT-3 protein was found in myelin but not in Schwann cells. GLUT-1 protein was not present in nerve cells, axons, myelin, or Schwann cells but was seen at the surface of the peripheral nerve in the perineurium. These studies demonstrated that GLUT-3 mRNA and protein are expressed throughout normal human skeletal muscle, but the protein is predominantly found in the triads of slow-twitch muscle fibers.

  15. HIF-1-driven skeletal muscle adaptations to chronic hypoxia: molecular insights into muscle physiology.

    PubMed

    Favier, F B; Britto, F A; Freyssenet, D G; Bigard, X A; Benoit, H

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle is a metabolically active tissue and the major body protein reservoir. Drop in ambient oxygen pressure likely results in a decrease in muscle cells oxygenation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and stabilization of the oxygen-sensitive hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. However, skeletal muscle seems to be quite resistant to hypoxia compared to other organs, probably because it is accustomed to hypoxic episodes during physical exercise. Few studies have observed HIF-1α accumulation in skeletal muscle during ambient hypoxia probably because of its transient stabilization. Nevertheless, skeletal muscle presents adaptations to hypoxia that fit with HIF-1 activation, although the exact contribution of HIF-2, I kappa B kinase and activating transcription factors, all potentially activated by hypoxia, needs to be determined. Metabolic alterations result in the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation, while activation of anaerobic glycolysis is less evident. Hypoxia causes mitochondrial remodeling and enhanced mitophagy that ultimately lead to a decrease in ROS production, and this acclimatization in turn contributes to HIF-1α destabilization. Likewise, hypoxia has structural consequences with muscle fiber atrophy due to mTOR-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis and transient activation of proteolysis. The decrease in muscle fiber area improves oxygen diffusion into muscle cells, while inhibition of protein synthesis, an ATP-consuming process, and reduction in muscle mass decreases energy demand. Amino acids released from muscle cells may also have protective and metabolic effects. Collectively, these results demonstrate that skeletal muscle copes with the energetic challenge imposed by O2 rarefaction via metabolic optimization.

  16. Plakins in striated muscle.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Justin G; Bernstein, Marija A; Boudreau-Larivière, Céline

    2010-03-01

    Striated muscle cells contain numerous architectural proteins that contribute to the function of muscle as generators of mechanical force. Among these proteins are crosslinkers belonging to the plakin family, namely plectin, microtubule-actin crosslinking factor (ACF7/MACF1), bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 (Bpag1/dystonin), and desmoplakin. These plakin family members, in particular plectin and Bpag1/dystonin, exist as several isoforms. The domain organization of these plakin variants dictates their subcellular location and the proteins with which they interact. Several studies suggest that plakins exert unique functions within various compartments of the muscle cell including the sarcolemma, the sarcomere, both neuromuscular and myotendinous junctions in skeletal muscle, and the intercalated discs in cardiac muscle. Plakins may also regulate the cellular placement and function of specific organelles, notably the nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Here we review and summarize our current knowledge of the function of plakins in striated muscle cells.

  17. Muscle development and obesity

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The formation of skeletal muscle from the epithelial somites involves a series of events triggered by temporally and spatially discrete signals resulting in the generation of muscle fibers which vary in their contractile and metabolic nature. The fiber type composition of muscles varies between individuals and it has now been found that there are differences in fiber type proportions between lean and obese animals and humans. Amongst the possible causes of obesity, it has been suggested that inappropriate prenatal environments may ‘program’ the fetus and may lead to increased risks for disease in adult life. The characteristics of muscle are both heritable and plastic, giving the tissue some ability to adapt to signals and stimuli both pre and postnatally. Given that muscle is a site of fatty acid oxidation and carbohydrate metabolism and that its development can be changed by prenatal events, it is interesting to examine the possible relationship between muscle development and the risk of obesity. PMID:19279728

  18. Mangiferin protects against adverse skeletal muscle changes and enhances muscle oxidative capacity in obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Luz M.; Raya, Ana I.; Martínez-Moreno, Julio M.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity-related skeletal muscle changes include muscle atrophy, slow-to-fast fiber-type transformation, and impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity. These changes relate with increased risk of insulin resistance. Mangiferin, the major component of the plant Mangifera indica, is a well-known anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and antihyperlipidemic agent. This study tested the hypothesis that mangiferin treatment counteracts obesity-induced fiber atrophy and slow-to-fast fiber transition, and favors an oxidative phenotype in skeletal muscle of obese rats. Obese Zucker rats were fed gelatin pellets with (15 mg/kg BW/day) or without (placebo group) mangiferin for 8 weeks. Lean Zucker rats received the same gelatin pellets without mangiferin and served as non-obese and non-diabetic controls. Lesser diameter, fiber composition, and histochemical succinic dehydrogenase activity (an oxidative marker) of myosin-based fiber-types were assessed in soleus and tibialis cranialis muscles. A multivariate discriminant analysis encompassing all fiber-type features indicated that obese rats treated with mangiferin displayed skeletal muscle phenotypes significantly different compared with both lean and obese control rats. Mangiferin significantly decreased inflammatory cytokines, preserved skeletal muscle mass, fiber cross-sectional size, and fiber-type composition, and enhanced muscle fiber oxidative capacity. These data demonstrate that mangiferin attenuated adverse skeletal muscle changes in obese rats. PMID:28253314

  19. Mangiferin protects against adverse skeletal muscle changes and enhances muscle oxidative capacity in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Luz M; Raya, Ana I; Martínez-Moreno, Julio M; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2017-01-01

    Obesity-related skeletal muscle changes include muscle atrophy, slow-to-fast fiber-type transformation, and impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity. These changes relate with increased risk of insulin resistance. Mangiferin, the major component of the plant Mangifera indica, is a well-known anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and antihyperlipidemic agent. This study tested the hypothesis that mangiferin treatment counteracts obesity-induced fiber atrophy and slow-to-fast fiber transition, and favors an oxidative phenotype in skeletal muscle of obese rats. Obese Zucker rats were fed gelatin pellets with (15 mg/kg BW/day) or without (placebo group) mangiferin for 8 weeks. Lean Zucker rats received the same gelatin pellets without mangiferin and served as non-obese and non-diabetic controls. Lesser diameter, fiber composition, and histochemical succinic dehydrogenase activity (an oxidative marker) of myosin-based fiber-types were assessed in soleus and tibialis cranialis muscles. A multivariate discriminant analysis encompassing all fiber-type features indicated that obese rats treated with mangiferin displayed skeletal muscle phenotypes significantly different compared with both lean and obese control rats. Mangiferin significantly decreased inflammatory cytokines, preserved skeletal muscle mass, fiber cross-sectional size, and fiber-type composition, and enhanced muscle fiber oxidative capacity. These data demonstrate that mangiferin attenuated adverse skeletal muscle changes in obese rats.

  20. An Intermediate in the evolution of superfast sonic muscles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intermediate forms in the evolution of new adaptations such as transitions from water to land and the evolution of flight are often poorly understood. Similarly, the evolution of superfast sonic muscles in fishes, often considered the fastest muscles in vertebrates, has been a mystery because slow bladder movement does not generate sound. Slow muscles that stretch the swimbladder and then produce sound during recoil have recently been discovered in ophidiiform fishes. Here we describe the disturbance call (produced when fish are held) and sonic mechanism in an unrelated perciform pearl perch (Glaucosomatidae) that represents an intermediate condition in the evolution of super-fast sonic muscles. Results The pearl perch disturbance call is a two-part sound produced by a fast sonic muscle that rapidly stretches the bladder and an antagonistic tendon-smooth muscle combination (part 1) causing the tendon and bladder to snap back (part 2) generating a higher-frequency and greater-amplitude pulse. The smooth muscle is confirmed by electron microscopy and protein analysis. To our knowledge smooth muscle attachment to a tendon is unknown in animals. Conclusion The pearl perch, an advanced perciform teleost unrelated to ophidiiform fishes, uses a slow type mechanism to produce the major portion of the sound pulse during recoil, but the swimbladder is stretched by a fast muscle. Similarities between the two unrelated lineages, suggest independent and convergent evolution of sonic muscles and indicate intermediate forms in the evolution of superfast muscles. PMID:22126599

  1. Animal electricity, Ca2+ and muscle contraction. A brief history of muscle research.

    PubMed

    Martonosi, A N

    2000-01-01

    This brief review attempts to summarize some of the major phases of muscle research from Leeuwenhoek's description of sarcomeres in 1674, through Galvani's observation of "animal electricity" in 1791, to the discovery of Ca2+ as the key messenger in the coupling of nerve excitation to muscle contraction. The emerging molecular mechanism of the contraction process is one of the great achievements of biology, reflecting the intimate links between physics, chemistry and the life Sciences in the solution of biological problems.

  2. Effect of experimental hyperthyroidism on protein turnover in skeletal and cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Carter, W J; Van Der Weijden Benjamin, W S; Faas, F H

    1980-10-01

    Since experimental hyperthyroidism reduces skeletal muscle mass while simultaneously increasing cardiac muscle mass, the effect of hyperthyroidism on muscle protein degradation was compared in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Pulse-labeling studies using (3H) leucine and (14C) carboxyl labeled aspartate and glutamate were carried out. Hyperthyroidism caused a 25%-29% increase in protein breakdown in both sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions of skeletal muscle. Increased muscle protein degradation may be a major factor in the development of skeletal muscle wasting and weakness in hyperthyroidism. In contrast, protein breakdown appeared to be reduced 22% in the sarcoplasmic fraction of hyperthyroid heart muscle and was unchanged in the myofibrillar fraction. Possible reasons for the contrasting effects of hyperthyroidism on skeletal and cardiac muscle include increased sensitivity of the hyperthyroid heart to catecholamines, increased cardiac work caused by the hemodynamic effects of hyperthyroidism, and a different direct effect of thyroid hormone at the nuclear level in cardiac as opposed to skeletal muscle.

  3. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2015-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best “treatment”. PMID:27027021

  4. Predictors of muscle protein synthesis after severe pediatric burns

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives: Following a major burn, muscle protein synthesis rate increases but in most patients, this response is not sufficient to compensate the also elevated protein breakdown. Given the long-term nature of the pathophysiologic response to burn injury, we hypothesized that skeletal muscle prot...

  5. Volumetric muscle loss injury repair using in situ fibrin gel cast seeded with muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Matthias, Nadine; Hunt, Samuel D.; Wu, Jianbo; Lo, Jonathan; Smith Callahan, Laura A.; Li, Yong; Huard, Johnny; Darabi, Radbod

    2018-01-01

    Volumetric muscle defect, caused by trauma or combat injuries, is a major health concern leading to severe morbidity. It is characterized by partial or full thickness loss of muscle and its bio-scaffold, resulting in extensive fibrosis and scar formation. Therefore, the ideal therapeutic option is to use stem cells combined with bio-scaffolds to restore muscle. For this purpose, muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) are a great candidate due to their unique multi-lineage differentiation potential. In this study, we evaluated the regeneration potential of MDSCs for muscle loss repair using a novel in situ fibrin gel casting. Muscle defect was created by a partial thickness wedge resection in the tibialis anterior (TA)muscles of NSG mice which created an average of 25% mass loss. If untreated, this defect leads to severe muscle fibrosis. Next, MDSCs were delivered using a novel in situ fibrin gel casting method. Our results demonstrated MDSCs are able to engraft and form new myofibers in the defect when casted along with fibrin gel. LacZ labeled MDSCs were able to differentiate efficiently into new myofibers and significantly increase muscle mass. This was also accompanied by significant reduction of fibrotic tissue in the engrafted muscles. Furthermore, transplanted cells also contributed to new vessel formation and satellite cell seeding. These results confirmed the therapeutic potential of MDSCs and feasibility of direct in situ casting of fibrin/MDSC mixture to repair muscle mass defects. PMID:29331939

  6. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  7. Nutrition and Muscle in Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Anand, Anil C

    2017-12-01

    As the cirrhosis progresses, development of complication like ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, kidney dysfunction, and hepatocellular carcinoma signify increasing risk of short term mortality. Malnutrition and muscle wasting (sarcopenia) is yet other complications that negatively impact survival, quality of life, and response to stressors, such as infection and surgery in patients with cirrhosis. Conventionally, these are not routinely looked for, because nutritional assessment can be a difficult especially if there is associated fluid retention and/or obesity. Patients with cirrhosis may have a combination of loss of skeletal muscle and gain of adipose tissue, culminating in the condition of "sarcopenic obesity." Sarcopenia in cirrhotic patients has been associated with increased mortality, sepsis complications, hyperammonemia, overt hepatic encephalopathy, and increased length of stay after liver transplantation. Assessment of muscles with cross-sectional imaging studies has become an attractive index of nutritional status evaluation in cirrhosis, as sarcopenia, the major component of malnutrition, is primarily responsible for the adverse clinical consequences seen in patients with liver disease. Cirrhosis is a state of accelerated starvation, with increased gluconeogenesis that requires amino acid diversion from other metabolic functions. Protein homeostasis is disturbed in cirrhosis due to several factors such as hyperammonemia, hormonal, and cytokine abnormalities, physical inactivity and direct effects of ethanol and its metabolites. New approaches to manage sarcopenia are being evolved. Branched chain amino acid supplementation, Myostatin inhibitors, and mitochondrial protective agents are currently in various stages of evaluation in preclinical studies to prevent and reverse sarcopenia, in cirrhosis.

  8. Morphological classification and comparison of suboccipital muscle fiber characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Masahito; Kitamura, Kei; Morita, Sumiharu; Nagakura, Ryotaro; Matsunaga, Satoru; Abe, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the function of the suboccipital muscles, we performed morphological observation of the suboccipital muscles for variations in the muscle belly and compared the morphology of their muscle fibers in terms of cross-sectional area by immunostaining with anti-myosin heavy chain antibodies. The cadavers of 25 Japanese individuals were used: 22 for morphological examinations and three for histological examinations. Among samples of the rectus capitis posterior major muscle (RCPma) and rectus capitis posterior minor muscle (RCPmi), 86.4% had a typical muscle appearance with a single belly, and 13.6% had an anomalous morphology. None of the samples of the obliquus capitis superior (OCS) or obliquus capitis inferior (OCI) muscles had an anomalous appearance. Measurement of cross-sectional area revealed that fast-twitch muscle fibers in the RCPma and OCI had a significantly greater cross-sectional area than those of the RCPmi and OCS. The cross-sectional area of intermediate muscle fibers was also significantly greater in the OCS than in the RCPma, RCPmi, and OCI. The cross-sectional area of slow-twitch muscle fibers was significantly greater in the OCS than in the RCPma, RCPmi, and OCI, and the RCPmi showed a significantly greater cross-sectional area for slow-twitch muscle fibers than did the RCPma, and OCI. Our findings indicate that the RCPmi and OCS exert a greater force than the RCPma and OCI, and act as anti-gravity agonist muscles of the head. Prolonged head extension in individuals with anomalous suboccipital muscle groups could result in dysfunction due to undue stress. PMID:29354295

  9. Morphological classification and comparison of suboccipital muscle fiber characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Masato; Yamamoto, Masahito; Kitamura, Kei; Morita, Sumiharu; Nagakura, Ryotaro; Matsunaga, Satoru; Abe, Shinichi

    2017-12-01

    In an attempt to clarify the function of the suboccipital muscles, we performed morphological observation of the suboccipital muscles for variations in the muscle belly and compared the morphology of their muscle fibers in terms of cross-sectional area by immunostaining with anti-myosin heavy chain antibodies. The cadavers of 25 Japanese individuals were used: 22 for morphological examinations and three for histological examinations. Among samples of the rectus capitis posterior major muscle (RCPma) and rectus capitis posterior minor muscle (RCPmi), 86.4% had a typical muscle appearance with a single belly, and 13.6% had an anomalous morphology. None of the samples of the obliquus capitis superior (OCS) or obliquus capitis inferior (OCI) muscles had an anomalous appearance. Measurement of cross-sectional area revealed that fast-twitch muscle fibers in the RCPma and OCI had a significantly greater cross-sectional area than those of the RCPmi and OCS. The cross-sectional area of intermediate muscle fibers was also significantly greater in the OCS than in the RCPma, RCPmi, and OCI. The cross-sectional area of slow-twitch muscle fibers was significantly greater in the OCS than in the RCPma, RCPmi, and OCI, and the RCPmi showed a significantly greater cross-sectional area for slow-twitch muscle fibers than did the RCPma, and OCI. Our findings indicate that the RCPmi and OCS exert a greater force than the RCPma and OCI, and act as anti-gravity agonist muscles of the head. Prolonged head extension in individuals with anomalous suboccipital muscle groups could result in dysfunction due to undue stress.

  10. Changes in skeletal muscle with aging: effects of exercise training.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M A; Evans, W J

    1993-01-01

    There is an approximate 30% decline in muscle strength and a 40% reduction in muscle area between the second and seventh decades of life. Thus, the loss of muscle mass with aging appears to be the major factor in the age-related loss of muscle strength. The loss of muscle mass is partially due to a significant decline in the numbers of both Type I and Type II muscle fibers plus a decrease in the size of the muscle cells, with the Type II fibers showing a preferential atrophy. There appears to be no loss of glycolytic capacity in senescent skeletal muscle whereas muscle oxidative enzyme activity and muscle capillarization decrease by about 25%. Vigorous endurance exercise training in older people, where the stimulus is progressively increased, elicits a proliferation of muscle capillaries, an increase in oxidative enzyme activity, and a significant improvement in VO2max. Likewise, progressive resistive training in older individuals results in muscle hypertrophy and increased strength, if the training stimulus is of a sufficient intensity and duration. Since older individuals adapt to resistive and endurance exercise training in a similar fashion to young people, the decline in the muscle's metabolic and force-producing capacity can no longer be considered as an inevitable consequence of the aging process. Rather, the adaptations in aging skeletal muscle to exercise training may prevent sarcopenia, enhance the ease of carrying out the activities of daily living, and exert a beneficial effect on such age-associated diseases as Type II diabetes, coronary artery disease, hypertension, osteoporosis, and obesity.

  11. Development of Sensory Receptors in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The two major goals for this project is to (1) examine the hindlimb walking pattern of offspring from the Flight dams as compared with offspring of the ground control groups from initiation of walking up to two months thereafter; and (2) examine skeletal muscle.

  12. Research opportunities in muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbison, G. J.; Talbot, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A trophy of skeletal muscle; muscle a trophy associated with manned space flight; the nature, causes, and mechanisms of muscle atrophy associated with space flight, selected physiological factors, biochemical aspects, and countermeasures are addressed.

  13. Types of muscle tissue (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... appear striated, and are under involuntary control. Smooth muscle fibers are located in walls of hollow visceral organs, ... shaped, and are also under involuntary control. Skeletal muscle fibers occur in muscles which are attached to the ...

  14. Feasibility of EMG-Based Control of Shoulder Muscle FNS Via Artificial Neural Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    assuming that just two paralyzed muscles (pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi ) were stimulated. Further, the needed activations of these “stimulated...injuries at C5-C6 typically result in paralysis of several important shoulder muscles (e.g., pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi , and serratus anterior...of several important muscles (e.g., pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi ),but retain at least partial voluntary control over a number of other

  15. 38 CFR 4.73 - Schedule of ratings-muscle injuries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 5302Group II. Function: Depression of arm from vertical overhead to hanging at side (1, 2); downward... muscles of shoulder girdle: (1) Pectoralis major II (costosternal); (2) latissimus dorsi and teres major (teres major, although technically an intrinsic muscle, is included with latissimus dorsi); (3...

  16. 38 CFR 4.73 - Schedule of ratings-muscle injuries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 5302Group II. Function: Depression of arm from vertical overhead to hanging at side (1, 2); downward... muscles of shoulder girdle: (1) Pectoralis major II (costosternal); (2) latissimus dorsi and teres major (teres major, although technically an intrinsic muscle, is included with latissimus dorsi); (3...

  17. 38 CFR 4.73 - Schedule of ratings-muscle injuries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 5302Group II. Function: Depression of arm from vertical overhead to hanging at side (1, 2); downward... muscles of shoulder girdle: (1) Pectoralis major II (costosternal); (2) latissimus dorsi and teres major (teres major, although technically an intrinsic muscle, is included with latissimus dorsi); (3...

  18. 38 CFR 4.73 - Schedule of ratings-muscle injuries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 5302Group II. Function: Depression of arm from vertical overhead to hanging at side (1, 2); downward... muscles of shoulder girdle: (1) Pectoralis major II (costosternal); (2) latissimus dorsi and teres major (teres major, although technically an intrinsic muscle, is included with latissimus dorsi); (3...

  19. 38 CFR 4.73 - Schedule of ratings-muscle injuries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 5302Group II. Function: Depression of arm from vertical overhead to hanging at side (1, 2); downward... muscles of shoulder girdle: (1) Pectoralis major II (costosternal); (2) latissimus dorsi and teres major (teres major, although technically an intrinsic muscle, is included with latissimus dorsi); (3...

  20. On high heels and short muscles: A multiscale model for sarcomere loss in the gastrocnemius muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zöllner, Alexander M.; Pok, Jacquelynn M.; McWalter, Emily J.; Gold, Garry E.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    High heels are a major source of chronic lower limb pain. Yet, more than one third of all women compromise health for looks and wear high heels on a daily basis. Changing from flat footwear to high heels induces chronic muscle shortening associated with discomfort, fatigue, reduced shock absorption, and increased injury risk. However, the long-term effects of high-heeled footwear on the musculoskeletal kinematics of the lower extremities remain poorly understood. Here we create a multiscale computational model for chronic muscle adaptation to characterize the acute and chronic effects of global muscle shortening on local sarcomere lengths. We perform a case study of a healthy female subject and show that raising the heel by 13 cm shortens the gastrocnemius muscle by 5% while the Achilles tendon remains virtually unaffected. Our computational simulation indicates that muscle shortening displays significant regional variations with extreme values of 22% in the central gastrocnemius. Our model suggests that the muscle gradually adjusts to its new functional length by a chronic loss of sarcomeres in series. Sarcomere loss varies significantly across the muscle with an average loss of 9%, virtually no loss at the proximal and distal ends, and a maximum loss of 39% in the central region. These changes reposition the remaining sarcomeres back into their optimal operating regime. Computational modeling of chronic muscle shortening provides a valuable tool to shape our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of muscle adaptation. Our study could open new avenues in orthopedic surgery and enhance treatment for patients with muscle contracture caused by other conditions than high heel wear such as paralysis, muscular atrophy, and muscular dystrophy. PMID:25451524

  1. Muscle hypertrophy and pseudohypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Walters, Jon

    2017-10-01

    The physical examination always begins with a thorough inspection and patients with potential neuromuscular weakness are no exception. One question neurologists routinely address during this early part of the assessment is whether or not there is muscle enlargement. This finding may reflect true muscle hypertrophy-myofibres enlarged from repetitive activity, for example, in myotonia congenita or neuromyotonia-or muscles enlarged by the infiltration of fat or other tissue termed pseudohypertrophy or false enlargement. Pseudohypertrophic muscles are frequently paradoxically weak. Recognising such a clinical clue at the bed side can facilitate a diagnosis or at least can narrow down the list of potential suspects. This paper outlines the conditions, both myopathic and neurogenic, that cause muscle enlargement. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Functional heterogeneity of side population cells in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Ojima, Koichi; Fukada, So-ichiro

    2006-03-17

    Skeletal muscle regeneration has been exclusively attributed to myogenic precursors, satellite cells. A stem cell-rich fraction referred to as side population (SP) cells also resides in skeletal muscle, but its roles in muscle regeneration remain unclear. We found that muscle SP cells could be subdivided into three sub-fractions using CD31 and CD45 markers. The majority of SP cells in normal non-regenerating muscle expressed CD31 and had endothelial characteristics. However, CD31{sup -}CD45{sup -} SP cells, which are a minor subpopulation in normal muscle, actively proliferated upon muscle injury and expressed not only several regulatory genes for muscle regeneration but also somemore » mesenchymal lineage markers. CD31{sup -}CD45{sup -} SP cells showed the greatest myogenic potential among three SP sub-fractions, but indeed revealed mesenchymal potentials in vitro. These SP cells preferentially differentiated into myofibers after intramuscular transplantation in vivo. Our results revealed the heterogeneity of muscle SP cells and suggest that CD31{sup -}CD45{sup -} SP cells participate in muscle regeneration.« less

  3. Role of muscle spindle in weightlessness-induced amyotrophia and muscle pain.

    PubMed

    Ali, Umar; Fan, Xiao-Li; You, Hao-Jun

    2009-10-01

    To date, the medium and long-term space flight is urgent in need and has become a major task of our manned space flight program. There is no doubt that medium and long-term space flight has serious damaging impact upon human physiological systems. For instance, atrophy of the lower limb anti-gravity muscle can be induced during the space flight. Muscle atrophy significantly affects the flight of astronauts in space. Most importantly, it influences the precise manipulation of the astronauts and their response capacity to emergencies on returning to the atmosphere from space. Muscle atrophy caused by weightlessness may also seriously disrupt the normal life and work of the astronauts during the re-adaptation period. Here we summarize the corresponding research concentrating on weightlessness-induced changes of muscular structure and function. By combining research on muscle pain, which is a common clinical pain disease, we further provide a hypothesis concerning a dynamic feedback model of "weightlessness condition right triple arrow muscular atrophy <--> muscle pain". This may be useful to explore the neural mechanisms underlying the occurrence and development of muscular atrophy and muscle pain, through the key study of muscle spindle, and furthermore provide more effective therapy for clinical treatment.

  4. Respiratory Muscle Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gransee, Heather M.; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Sieck, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle plasticity is defined as the ability of a given muscle to alter its structural and functional properties in accordance with the environmental conditions imposed on it. As such, respiratory muscle is in a constant state of remodeling, and the basis of muscle’s plasticity is its ability to change protein expression and resultant protein balance in response to varying environmental conditions. Here, we will describe the changes of respiratory muscle imposed by extrinsic changes in mechanical load, activity, and innervation. Although there is a large body of literature on the structural and functional plasticity of respiratory muscles, we are only beginning to understand the molecular-scale protein changes that contribute to protein balance. We will give an overview of key mechanisms regulating protein synthesis and protein degradation, as well as the complex interactions between them. We suggest future application of a systems biology approach that would develop a mathematical model of protein balance and greatly improve treatments in a variety of clinical settings related to maintaining both muscle mass and optimal contractile function of respiratory muscles. PMID:23798306

  5. Muscles and their myokines.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-01-15

    In the past, the role of physical activity as a life-style modulating factor has been considered as that of a tool to balance energy intake. Although it is important to avoid obesity, physical inactivity should be discussed in a much broader context. There is accumulating epidemiological evidence that a physically active life plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, dementia and even depression. For most of the last century, researchers sought a link between muscle contraction and humoral changes in the form of an 'exercise factor', which could be released from skeletal muscle during contraction and mediate some of the exercise-induced metabolic changes in other organs such as the liver and the adipose tissue. We have suggested that cytokines or other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as 'myokines'. Given that skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, our discovery that contracting skeletal muscle secretes proteins sets a novel paradigm: skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ producing and releasing myokines, which work in a hormone-like fashion, exerting specific endocrine effects on other organs. Other myokines work via paracrine mechanisms, exerting local effects on signalling pathways involved in muscle metabolism. It has been suggested that myokines may contribute to exercise-induced protection against several chronic diseases.

  6. Differential sympathetic neural control of oxygenation in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, J; Thomas, G D; Harris, S A; Parsons, W J; Victor, R G

    1996-01-01

    Metabolic products of skeletal muscle contraction activate metaboreceptor muscle afferents that reflexively increase sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) targeted to both resting and exercising skeletal muscle. To determine effects of the increased sympathetic vasoconstrictor drive on muscle oxygenation, we measured changes in tissue oxygen stores and mitochondrial cytochrome a,a3 redox state in rhythmically contracting human forearm muscles with near infrared spectroscopy while simultaneously measuring muscle SNA with microelectrodes. The major new finding is that the ability of reflex-sympathetic activation to decrease muscle oxygenation is abolished when the muscle is exercised at an intensity > 10% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). During high intensity handgrip, (45% MVC), contraction-induced decreases in muscle oxygenation remained stable despite progressive metaboreceptor-mediated reflex increases in SNA. During mild to moderate handgrips (20-33% MVC) that do not evoke reflex-sympathetic activation, experimentally induced increases in muscle SNA had no effect on oxygenation in exercising muscles but produced robust decreases in oxygenation in resting muscles. The latter decreases were evident even during maximal metabolic vasodilation accompanying reactive hyperemia. We conclude that in humans sympathetic neural control of skeletal muscle oxygenation is sensitive to modulation by metabolic events in the contracting muscles. These events are different from those involved in either metaboreceptor muscle afferent activation or reactive hyperemia. PMID:8755671

  7. Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering: Methods to Form Skeletal Myotubes and Their Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Ahadian, Samad; Fujie, Toshinori; Parthiban, Selvakumar Prakash; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Kaji, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) aims to repair or regenerate defective skeletal muscle tissue lost by traumatic injury, tumor ablation, or muscular disease. However, two decades after the introduction of SMTE, the engineering of functional skeletal muscle in the laboratory still remains a great challenge, and numerous techniques for growing functional muscle tissues are constantly being developed. This article reviews the recent findings regarding the methodology and various technical aspects of SMTE, including cell alignment and differentiation. We describe the structure and organization of muscle and discuss the methods for myoblast alignment cultured in vitro. To better understand muscle formation and to enhance the engineering of skeletal muscle, we also address the molecular basics of myogenesis and discuss different methods to induce myoblast differentiation into myotubes. We then provide an overview of different coculture systems involving skeletal muscle cells, and highlight major applications of engineered skeletal muscle tissues. Finally, potential challenges and future research directions for SMTE are outlined. PMID:24320971

  8. Growth factors, muscle function, and doping.

    PubMed

    Goldspink, Geoffrey; Wessner, Barbara; Tschan, Harald; Bachl, Norbert

    2010-03-01

    This article discusses the inevitable use of growth factors for enhancing muscle strength and athletic performance. Much effort has been expended on developing a treatment of muscle wasting associated with a range of diseases and aging. Frailty in the aging population is a major socioeconomic and medical problem. Emerging molecular techniques have made it possible to gain a better understanding of the growth factor genes and how they are activated by physical activity. The ways that misuse of growth factors may be detected and verified in athletes and future challenges for detecting manipulation of signaling pathways are discussed. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Muscle Bioenergetic Considerations for Intrinsic Laryngeal Skeletal Muscle Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandage, Mary J.; Smith, Audrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Intrinsic laryngeal skeletal muscle bioenergetics, the means by which muscles produce fuel for muscle metabolism, is an understudied aspect of laryngeal physiology with direct implications for voice habilitation and rehabilitation. The purpose of this review is to describe bioenergetic pathways identified in limb skeletal muscle and…

  10. Painful unilateral temporalis muscle enlargement: reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Katsetos, Christos D; Bianchi, Michael A; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2014-06-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptomatic improvement only after undergoing botulinum toxin injections. Muscle biopsy is key in the diagnosis of reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy and its distinction from masticatory muscle myopathy (hypertrophic branchial myopathy) and other non-reactive causes of painful asymmetric temporalis muscle enlargement.

  11. Pectoralis Major Injury During Basic Airborne Training.

    PubMed

    McIntire, Sean; Boujie, Lee; Leasiolagi, John

    2016-01-01

    Injuries involving rupture of the pectoralis major are relatively rare. When they do occur, it is mostly frequently in a young, athletic man. The most common cause is weight lifting that results in eccentric muscle contraction (muscle contraction against an overbearing force, leading to muscle lengthening)-specifically, the bench press. Other mechanisms for this injury include forceful abduction and external rotation of the arm. Injury can occur anywhere along the pectoralis major from its medial origin on the sternum and clavicle to its lateral tendinous insertion on the humerus. At the time of injury, patients may report feeling a tearing sensation or hearing a pop, with immediate onset of pain. Physical examination findings can include a deformed appearance of the chest, ecchymosis of the chest and upper arm, pain and weakness with arm adduction and internal rotation, or noticeable asymmetry of the anterior axilla with arm abduction. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging study of choice to aid diagnosis. In a young and active population, such as the Special Operations community, appropriate and timely diagnosis is important because surgical intervention often is recommended. This report presents the case of an active-duty Servicemember who sustained a pectoralis major injury while exiting an aircraft during the Basic Airborne Course. 2016.

  12. Muscle strain treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... decreases, you can use heat on the muscle. Stretching and light exercises to bring blood to the injured area can also be useful. In general, stretching and warm compresses are helpful before exercises. Cooling ...

  13. Research opportunities in muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbison, G. J. (Editor); Talbot, J. M. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Muscle atrophy in a weightless environment is studied. Topics of investigation include physiological factors of muscle atrophy in space flight, biochemistry, countermeasures, modelling of atrophied muscle tissue, and various methods of measurement of muscle strength and endurance. A review of the current literature and suggestions for future research are included.

  14. Fiber typing in aging muscle.

    PubMed

    Purves-Smith, Fennigje M; Sgarioto, Nicolas; Hepple, Russell T

    2014-04-01

    It is accepted widely that fast-twitch muscle fibers are preferentially impacted in aging muscle, yet we hypothesize that this is not valid when aging muscle atrophy becomes severe. In this review, we summarize the evidence of fiber type-specific effect in aging muscle and the potential confounding roles of fibers coexpressing multiple myosin heavy-chain isoforms and their histochemical identification.

  15. Muscle Fiber Types and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Jason R.

    2001-01-01

    The specific types of fibers that make up individual muscles greatly influence how people will adapt to their training programs. This paper explains the complexities of skeletal muscles, focusing on types of muscle fibers (slow-twitch and fast-twitch), recruitment of muscle fibers to perform a motor task, and determining fiber type. Implications…

  16. The role of the extrinsic thoracic limb muscles in equine locomotion.

    PubMed

    Payne, R C; Veenman, P; Wilson, A M

    2005-02-01

    Muscles have two major roles in locomotion: to generate force and to absorb/generate power (do work). Economical force generation is achieved by short-fibred pennate muscle while the maximum power output of a muscle is architecture independent. In this study we tested the hypothesis that there is an anatomical and structural separation between the force-generating anti-gravity muscles and the propulsive (limb/trunk moving) muscles of the equine forelimb. Muscle mass and fascicle length measurements were made on the thoracic limb extrinsic muscles of six fresh horse cadavers. Physiological cross-sectional area and maximum isometric force were then estimated. Maximum power was estimated from muscle volume and published contraction velocity data. The majority of extrinsic forelimb muscles were large with long fascicles arranged in parallel to the long axis of the muscle. Muscles arranged in this way are optimised for doing work. The architecture of serratus ventralis thoracis (SVT) was unique. It had short (48 +/- 17 mm) fascicles, arranged at about 45 degrees to the long axis of the muscle, which would suggest a force-generating, anti-gravity role. The muscle belly of SVT was sandwiched between two broad, thick sheets of aponeurosis. Hence, SVT could make a significant contribution to the overall elastic properties of the thoracic limb.

  17. The role of the extrinsic thoracic limb muscles in equine locomotion.

    PubMed

    Payne, R C; Veenman, P; Wilson, A M

    2004-12-01

    Muscles have two major roles in locomotion: to generate force and to absorb/generate power (do work). Economical force generation is achieved by short-fibred pennate muscle while the maximum power output of a muscle is architecture independent. In this study we tested the hypothesis that there is an anatomical and structural separation between the force-generating anti-gravity muscles and the propulsive (limb/trunk moving) muscles of the equine forelimb. Muscle mass and fascicle length measurements were made on the thoracic limb extrinsic muscles of six fresh horse cadavers. Physiological cross-sectional area and maximum isometric force were then estimated. Maximum power was estimated from muscle volume and published contraction velocity data. The majority of extrinsic forelimb muscles were large with long fascicles arranged in parallel to the long axis of the muscle. Muscles arranged in this way are optimised for doing work. The architecture of serratus ventralis thoracis (SVT) was unique. It had short (48 +/- 17 mm) fascicles, arranged at about 45 degrees to the long axis of the muscle, which would suggest a force-generating, anti-gravity role. The muscle belly of SVT was sandwiched between two broad, thick sheets of aponeurosis. Hence, SVT could make a significant contribution to the overall elastic properties of the thoracic limb.

  18. The role of the extrinsic thoracic limb muscles in equine locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Payne, RC; Veenman, P; Wilson, AM

    2005-01-01

    Muscles have two major roles in locomotion: to generate force and to absorb/generate power (do work). Economical force generation is achieved by short-fibred pennate muscle while the maximum power output of a muscle is architecture independent. In this study we tested the hypothesis that there is an anatomical and structural separation between the force-generating anti-gravity muscles and the propulsive (limb/trunk moving) muscles of the equine forelimb. Muscle mass and fascicle length measurements were made on the thoracic limb extrinsic muscles of six fresh horse cadavers. Physiological cross-sectional area and maximum isometric force were then estimated. Maximum power was estimated from muscle volume and published contraction velocity data. The majority of extrinsic forelimb muscles were large with long fascicles arranged in parallel to the long axis of the muscle. Muscles arranged in this way are optimised for doing work. The architecture of serratus ventralis thoracis (SVT) was unique. It had short (48 ± 17 mm) fascicles, arranged at about 45° to the long axis of the muscle, which would suggest a force-generating, anti-gravity role. The muscle belly of SVT was sandwiched between two broad, thick sheets of aponeurosis. Hence, SVT could make a significant contribution to the overall elastic properties of the thoracic limb. PMID:15730484

  19. The role of the extrinsic thoracic limb muscles in equine locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Payne, R C; Veenman, P; Wilson, A M

    2004-01-01

    Muscles have two major roles in locomotion: to generate force and to absorb/generate power (do work). Economical force generation is achieved by short-fibred pennate muscle while the maximum power output of a muscle is architecture independent. In this study we tested the hypothesis that there is an anatomical and structural separation between the force-generating anti-gravity muscles and the propulsive (limb/trunk moving) muscles of the equine forelimb. Muscle mass and fascicle length measurements were made on the thoracic limb extrinsic muscles of six fresh horse cadavers. Physiological cross-sectional area and maximum isometric force were then estimated. Maximum power was estimated from muscle volume and published contraction velocity data. The majority of extrinsic forelimb muscles were large with long fascicles arranged in parallel to the long axis of the muscle. Muscles arranged in this way are optimised for doing work. The architecture of serratus ventralis thoracis (SVT) was unique. It had short (48 ± 17 mm) fascicles, arranged at about 45° to the long axis of the muscle, which would suggest a force-generating, anti-gravity role. The muscle belly of SVT was sandwiched between two broad, thick sheets of aponeurosis. Hence, SVT could make a significant contribution to the overall elastic properties of the thoracic limb. PMID:15610395

  20. Agonist muscle adaptation accompanied by antagonist muscle atrophy in the hindlimb of mice following stretch-shortening contraction training.

    PubMed

    Rader, Erik P; Naimo, Marshall A; Ensey, James; Baker, Brent A

    2017-02-02

    The vast majority of dynamometer-based animal models for investigation of the response to chronic muscle contraction exposure has been limited to analysis of isometric, lengthening, or shortening contractions in isolation. An exception to this has been the utilization of a rat model to study stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs), a sequence of consecutive isometric, lengthening, and shortening contractions common during daily activity and resistance-type exercise. However, the availability of diverse genetic strains of rats is limited. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to develop a dynamometer-based SSC training protocol to induce increased muscle mass and performance in plantarflexor muscles of mice. Young (3 months old) C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 1 month of plantarflexion SSC training. Hindlimb muscles were analyzed for muscle mass, quantitative morphology, myogenesis/myopathy relevant gene expression, and fiber type distribution. The main aim of the research was achieved when training induced a 2-fold increase in plantarflexion peak torque output and a 19% increase in muscle mass for the agonist plantaris (PLT) muscle. In establishing this model, several outcomes emerged which raised the value of the model past that of being a mere recapitulation of the rat model. An increase in the number of muscle fibers per transverse muscle section accounted for the PLT muscle mass gain while the antagonist tibialis anterior (TA) muscle atrophied by 30% with preferential atrophy of type IIb and IIx fibers. These alterations were accompanied by distinct gene expression profiles. The findings confirm the development of a stretch-shortening contraction training model for the PLT muscle of mice and demonstrate that increased cross-sectional fiber number can occur following high-intensity SSC training. Furthermore, the TA muscle atrophy provides direct evidence for the concept of muscle imbalance in phasic non-weight bearing muscles, a concept largely

  1. Bone and muscle: Interactions beyond mechanical.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Marco; Bonewald, Lynda

    2015-11-01

    The musculoskeletal system is significantly more complex than portrayed by traditional reductionist approaches that have focused on and studied the components of this system separately. While bone and skeletal muscle are the two largest tissues within this system, this system also includes tendons, ligaments, cartilage, joints and other connective tissues along with vascular and nervous tissues. Because the main function of this system is locomotion, the mechanical interaction among the major players of this system is essential for the many shapes and forms observed in vertebrates and even in invertebrates. Thus, it is logical that the mechanical coupling theories of musculoskeletal development exert a dominant influence on our understanding of the biology of the musculoskeletal system, because these relationships are relatively easy to observe, measure, and perturb. Certainly much less recognized is the molecular and biochemical interaction among the individual players of the musculoskeletal system. In this brief review article, we first introduce some of the key reasons why the mechanical coupling theory has dominated our view of bone-muscle interactions followed by summarizing evidence for the secretory nature of bones and muscles. Finally, a number of highly physiological questions that cannot be answered by the mechanical theories alone will be raised along with different lines of evidence that support both a genetic and a biochemical communication between bones and muscles. It is hoped that these discussions will stimulate new insights into this fertile and promising new way of defining the relationships between these closely related tissues. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for biochemical communication between bone and muscle is important not only from a basic research perspective but also as a means to identify potential new therapies for bone and muscle diseases, especially for when they co-exist. This article is part of a

  2. New insights into dinosaur jaw muscle anatomy.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Casey M

    2009-09-01

    Jaw muscles are key components of the head and critical to testing hypotheses of soft-tissue homology, skull function, and evolution. Dinosaurs evolved an extraordinary diversity of cranial forms adapted to a variety of feeding behaviors. However, disparate evolutionary transformations in head shape and function among dinosaurs and their living relatives, birds and crocodylians, impair straightforward reconstructions of muscles, and other important cephalic soft tissues. This study presents the osteological correlates and inferred soft tissue anatomy of the jaw muscles and relevant neurovasculature in the temporal region of the dinosaur head. Hypotheses of jaw muscle homology were tested across a broad range archosaur and sauropsid taxa to more accurately infer muscle attachments in the adductor chambers of non-avian dinosaurs. Many dinosaurs likely possessed m. levator pterygoideus, a trait shared with lepidosaurs but not extant archosaurs. Several major clades of dinosaurs (e.g., Ornithopoda, Ceratopsidae, Sauropoda) eliminated the epipterygoid, thus impacting interpretations of m. pseudotemporalis profundus. M. pseudotemporalis superficialis most likely attached to the caudoventral surface of the laterosphenoid, a trait shared with extant archosaurs. Although mm. adductor mandibulae externus profundus and medialis likely attached to the caudal half of the dorsotemporal fossa and coronoid process, clear osteological correlates separating the individual bellies are rare. Most dinosaur clades possess osteological correlates indicative of a pterygoideus ventralis muscle that attaches to the lateral surface of the mandible, although the muscle may have extended as far as the jugal in some taxa (e.g., hadrosaurs, tyrannosaurs). The cranial and mandibular attachments of mm adductor mandibulae externus superficialis and adductor mandibulae posterior were consistent across all taxa studied. These new data greatly increase the interpretive resolution of head anatomy in

  3. Mitochondrial motility and vascular smooth muscle proliferation.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Susan; Saunter, Christopher; Wilson, Calum; Coats, Paul; Girkin, John M; McCarron, John G

    2012-12-01

    Mitochondria are widely described as being highly dynamic and adaptable organelles, and their movement is thought to be vital for cell function. Yet, in various native cells, including those of heart and smooth muscle, mitochondria are stationary and rigidly structured. The significance of the differences in mitochondrial behavior to the physiological function of cells is unclear and was studied in single myocytes and intact resistance-sized cerebral arteries. We hypothesized that mitochondrial dynamics is controlled by the proliferative status of the cells. High-speed fluorescence imaging of mitochondria in live vascular smooth muscle cells shows that the organelle undergoes significant reorganization as cells become proliferative. In nonproliferative cells, mitochondria are individual (≈ 2 μm by 0.5 μm), stationary, randomly dispersed, fixed structures. However, on entering the proliferative state, mitochondria take on a more diverse architecture and become small spheres, short rod-shaped structures, long filamentous entities, and networks. When cells proliferate, mitochondria also continuously move and change shape. In the intact pressurized resistance artery, mitochondria are largely immobile structures, except in a small number of cells in which motility occurred. When proliferation of smooth muscle was encouraged in the intact resistance artery, in organ culture, the majority of mitochondria became motile and the majority of smooth muscle cells contained moving mitochondria. Significantly, restriction of mitochondrial motility using the fission blocker mitochondrial division inhibitor prevented vascular smooth muscle proliferation in both single cells and the intact resistance artery. These results show that mitochondria are adaptable and exist in intact tissue as both stationary and highly dynamic entities. This mitochondrial plasticity is an essential mechanism for the development of smooth muscle proliferation and therefore presents a novel therapeutic

  4. Adjustable sutures: experimental assessment of final muscle position.

    PubMed

    Climenhaga, H W; Pearce, W G

    1984-08-01

    The likelihood of forward "creep" of muscles recessed with the use of adjustable loops of suture in the correction of strabismus was investigated. Twelve orthotropic dogs underwent both regular and loop recessions of the lateral and medial rectus muscles; the data for two of the dogs were excluded because of loss of muscles. Three months later it was found that in the majority of cases the recessed muscles had minimally advanced from the position of surgical placement. Although the type of recession made little difference to the results, the mean forward creep was much greater for the medial rectus muscles (1.55 +/- 0.68 mm [p less than 0.01] and 2.00 +/- 2.44 mm [p = 0.09] for those undergoing regular and loop recessions respectively) than for the lateral rectus muscles (0.35 +/- 0.58 mm and 0.60 +/- 0.62 mm respectively). During the operations the amount of contraction of the medial rectus muscle had been noted to vary. It is likely that in some instances the tension on the suture loops was insufficient to hold them taut, and the muscles therefore adhered to the sclera at variable sites. Hence, adequate intrinsic muscle tone may be important for predictable clinical results of loop recession.

  5. Myostatin and the skeletal muscle atrophy and hypertrophy signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J; Vernus, B; Chelh, I; Cassar-Malek, I; Gabillard, J C; Hadj Sassi, A; Seiliez, I; Picard, B; Bonnieu, A

    2014-11-01

    Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and is conserved in many species, from rodents to humans. Myostatin inactivation can induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy, while its overexpression or systemic administration causes muscle atrophy. As it represents a potential target for stimulating muscle growth and/or preventing muscle wasting, myostatin regulation and functions in the control of muscle mass have been extensively studied. A wealth of data strongly suggests that alterations in skeletal muscle mass are associated with dysregulation in myostatin expression. Moreover, myostatin plays a central role in integrating/mediating anabolic and catabolic responses. Myostatin negatively regulates the activity of the Akt pathway, which promotes protein synthesis, and increases the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to induce atrophy. Several new studies have brought new information on how myostatin may affect both ribosomal biogenesis and translation efficiency of specific mRNA subclasses. In addition, although myostatin has been identified as a modulator of the major catabolic pathways, including the ubiquitin-proteasome and the autophagy-lysosome systems, the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. The goal of this review is to highlight outstanding questions about myostatin-mediated regulation of the anabolic and catabolic signaling pathways in skeletal muscle. Particular emphasis has been placed on (1) the cross-regulation between myostatin, the growth-promoting pathways and the proteolytic systems; (2) how myostatin inhibition leads to muscle hypertrophy; and (3) the regulation of translation by myostatin.

  6. Refinements in pectus carinatum correction: the pectoralis muscle split technique.

    PubMed

    Schwabegger, Anton H; Jeschke, Johannes; Schuetz, Tanja; Del Frari, Barbara

    2008-04-01

    The standard approach for correction of pectus carinatum deformity includes elevation of the pectoralis major and rectus abdominis muscle from the sternum and adjacent ribs. A postoperative restriction of shoulder activity for several weeks is necessary to allow stable healing of the elevated muscles. To reduce postoperative immobilization, we present a modified approach to the parasternal ribs using a pectoralis muscle split technique. At each level of rib cartilage resection, the pectoralis muscle is split along the direction of its fibers instead of elevating the entire muscle as performed with the standard technique. From July 2000 to May 2007, we successfully used this technique in 33 patients with pectus carinatum deformity. After the muscle split approach, patients returned to full unrestricted shoulder activity as early as 3 weeks postoperatively, compared to 6 weeks in patients treated with muscle flap elevation. Postoperative pain was reduced and the patients were discharged earlier from the hospital than following the conventional approach. The muscle split technique is a modified surgical approach to the parasternal ribs in patients with pectus carinatum deformity. It helps to maintain pectoralis muscle vascularization and function and can reduce postoperative pain, hospitalization, and rehabilitation period.

  7. [Women boxing athletes' EMG of upper limbs and lumbar muscles in the training of air striking of straight punch].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ri-Hui; Kang, Zhi-Xin

    2011-05-01

    To study training effect of upper limbs and lumbar muscles in the proceed of air striking of straight punch by analyzing boxing athletes' changes of electromyogram (EMG). We measured EMG of ten women boxing athletes' upper arm biceps (contractor muscle), upper arm triceps (antagonistic muscle), forearm flexor muscle (contractor muscle), forearm extensor muscle (antagonistic muscle), and lumbar muscles by ME6000 (Mega Electronics Ltd.). The stipulated exercise was to do air striking of straight punch with loads of 2.5 kg of dumbbell in the hand until exhausted. In the proceed of exercise-induce exhausted, the descend magnitude and speed of median frequency (MF) in upper limb antagonistic muscle exceeded to contracting muscle, moreover, the work percentage showed that contractor have done a larger percentage of work than antagonistic muscle. Compared with world champion's EMG, the majority of ordinary athletes' lumbar muscles MF revealed non-drop tendency, and the work percentage showed that lumbar muscles had a very little percentage of work. After comparing the EMG test index in upper limb and lumbar muscle of average boxing athletes with that of the world champion, we find the testees lack of the training of upper limb antagonistic muscle and lumbar muscle, and more trainings aimed at these muscles need to be taken.

  8. Running Economy from a Muscle Energetics Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jared R.; MacIntosh, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    The economy of running has traditionally been quantified from the mass-specific oxygen uptake; however, because fuel substrate usage varies with exercise intensity, it is more accurate to express running economy in units of metabolic energy. Fundamentally, the understanding of the major factors that influence the energy cost of running (Erun) can be obtained with this approach. Erun is determined by the energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction. Here, we approach the study of Erun from that perspective. The amount of energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction is dependent on the force, duration, shortening, shortening velocity, and length of the muscle. These factors therefore dictate the energy cost of running. It is understood that some determinants of the energy cost of running are not trainable: environmental factors, surface characteristics, and certain anthropometric features. Other factors affecting Erun are altered by training: other anthropometric features, muscle and tendon properties, and running mechanics. Here, the key features that dictate the energy cost during distance running are reviewed in the context of skeletal muscle energetics. PMID:28690549

  9. Development of Sensory Receptors in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Mark

    2000-01-01

    There were two major goals for my project. One was to examine the hindlimb walking pattern of offspring from the Flight dams as compared with offspring of the ground control groups from initiation of walking up to two months thereafter. This initial goal was subsequently modified so that additional developmental measures were taken (e.g. body weight, eye opening) as the progeny developed, and the study period was lengthened to eighty days. Also videotapes taken shortly after the pregnant Flight dams returned to Earth were scored for locomotor activity and compared to those for the Synchronous control dams at the same stage of pregnancy. The second goal was to examine skeletal muscle. Selected hindlimb skeletal muscles were to be identified, weighed, and examined for the presence and integrity of muscle receptors, (both muscle spindles and tendon organs), at the level of the light and electron microscope. Muscles were examined from rats that were at fetal (G20), newborn (postnatal day 1 or P1, where P1 = day of birth), and young adult (approx. P100) stages. At the present time data from only the last group of rats (i.e. P100) has been completely examined.

  10. Anatomy of vastus lateralis muscle flap.

    PubMed

    Tayfur, Volkan; Magden, Orhan; Edizer, Mete; Atabey, Atay

    2010-11-01

    A vastus lateralis muscle flap is used as a pedicled and free flap. In this study, the vastus lateralis muscles of 15 adult formalin-fixed cadavers (30 cases) were dissected. The dominant pedicle was found to be descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. The mean diameter of the artery was found to be 2.1 mm. This pedicle was located 119.4 mm distal to the pubic symphysis. The mean length of the major pedicle was found to be 56.8 mm when the dominant pedicle was chosen to nourish the flap. The dominant pedicle entered the muscle 155.8 and 213.7 mm from the greater trochanter and the anterior superior iliac spine, respectively. The muscle had proximal minor pedicles from the ascending and transverse branches of lateral circumflex femoral artery. These arteries had mean diameters of 1.8 and 2.0 mm, respectively. The distal minor branches were present in all of the dissections. The distal branch had a mean diameter of 1.8 mm. The origin of this distal branch was located 83.7 mm proximal to the intercondylar line. The motor nerve of the vastus lateralis was found to be originating from femoral nerve. The nerve entered the muscle 194.6 mm from the anterior superior iliac spine.

  11. Running Economy from a Muscle Energetics Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jared R; MacIntosh, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    The economy of running has traditionally been quantified from the mass-specific oxygen uptake; however, because fuel substrate usage varies with exercise intensity, it is more accurate to express running economy in units of metabolic energy. Fundamentally, the understanding of the major factors that influence the energy cost of running (E run ) can be obtained with this approach. E run is determined by the energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction. Here, we approach the study of E run from that perspective. The amount of energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction is dependent on the force, duration, shortening, shortening velocity, and length of the muscle. These factors therefore dictate the energy cost of running. It is understood that some determinants of the energy cost of running are not trainable: environmental factors, surface characteristics, and certain anthropometric features. Other factors affecting E run are altered by training: other anthropometric features, muscle and tendon properties, and running mechanics. Here, the key features that dictate the energy cost during distance running are reviewed in the context of skeletal muscle energetics.

  12. Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria and Aging: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Courtney M.; Johannsen, Darcy L.; Ravussin, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass and muscle strength. Declines in skeletal muscle mitochondria are thought to play a primary role in this process. Mitochondria are the major producers of reactive oxygen species, which damage DNA, proteins, and lipids if not rapidly quenched. Animal and human studies typically show that skeletal muscle mitochondria are altered with aging, including increased mutations in mitochondrial DNA, decreased activity of some mitochondrial enzymes, altered respiration with reduced maximal capacity at least in sedentary individuals, and reduced total mitochondrial content with increased morphological changes. However, there has been much controversy over measurements of mitochondrial energy production, which may largely be explained by differences in approach and by whether physical activity is controlled for. These changes may in turn alter mitochondrial dynamics, such as fusion and fission rates, and mitochondrially induced apoptosis, which may also lead to net muscle fiber loss and age-related sarcopenia. Fortunately, strategies such as exercise and caloric restriction that reduce oxidative damage also improve mitochondrial function. While these strategies may not completely prevent the primary effects of aging, they may help to attenuate the rate of decline. PMID:22888430

  13. Muscle-specific androgen receptor deletion shows limited actions in myoblasts but not in myofibers in different muscles in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rana, Kesha; Chiu, Maria W S; Russell, Patricia K; Skinner, Jarrod P; Lee, Nicole K L; Fam, Barbara C; Zajac, Jeffrey D; MacLean, Helen E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the direct muscle cell-mediated actions of androgens by comparing two different mouse lines. The cre-loxP system was used to delete the DNA-binding activity of the androgen receptor (AR) in mature myofibers (MCK mAR(ΔZF2)) in one model and the DNA-binding activity of the AR in both proliferating myoblasts and myofibers (α-actin mAR(ΔZF2)) in another model. We found that hind-limb muscle mass was normal in MCK mAR(ΔZF2) mice and that relative mass of only some hind-limb muscles was reduced in α-actin mAR(ΔZF2) mice. This suggests that myoblasts and myofibers are not the major cellular targets mediating the anabolic actions of androgens on male muscle during growth and development. Levator ani muscle mass was decreased in both mouse lines, demonstrating that there is a myofiber-specific effect in this unique androgen-dependent muscle. We found that the pattern of expression of genes including c-myc, Fzd4 and Igf2 is associated with androgen-dependent changes in muscle mass; therefore, these genes are likely to be mediators of anabolic actions of androgens. Further research is required to identify the major targets of androgen actions in muscle, which are likely to include indirect actions via other tissues. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. Unique expression of cytoskeletal proteins in human soft palate muscles.

    PubMed

    Shah, Farhan; Berggren, Diana; Holmlund, Thorbjörn; Levring Jäghagen, Eva; Stål, Per

    2016-03-01

    The human oropharyngeal muscles have a unique anatomy with diverse and intricate functions. To investigate if this specialization is also reflected in the cytoarchitecture of muscle fibers, intermediate filament proteins and the dystrophin-associated protein complex have been analyzed in two human palate muscles, musculus uvula (UV) and musculus palatopharyngeus (PP), with immunohistochenmical and morphological techniques. Human limb muscles were used as reference. The findings show that the soft palate muscle fibers have a cytoskeletal architecture that differs from the limb muscles. While all limb muscles showed immunoreaction for a panel of antibodies directed against different domains of cytoskeletal proteins desmin and dystrophin, a subpopulation of palate muscle fibers lacked or had a faint immunoreaction for desmin (UV 11.7% and PP 9.8%) and the C-terminal of the dystrophin molecule (UV 4.2% and PP 6.4%). The vast majority of these fibers expressed slow contractile protein myosin heavy chain I. Furthermore, an unusual staining pattern was also observed in these fibers for β-dystroglycan, caveolin-3 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase nNOS, which are all membrane-linking proteins associated with the dystrophin C-terminus. While the immunoreaction for nNOS was generally weak or absent, β-dystroglycan and caveolin-3 showed a stronger immunostaining. The absence or a low expression of cytoskeletal proteins otherwise considered ubiquitous and important for integration and contraction of muscle cells indicate a unique cytoarchitecture designed to meet the intricate demands of the upper airway muscles. It can be concluded that a subgroup of muscle fibers in the human soft palate appears to have special biomechanical properties, and their unique cytoarchitecture must be taken into account while assessing function and pathology in oropharyngeal muscles. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  15. Optimizing the Distribution of Leg Muscles for Vertical Jumping

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jeremy D.; Bobbert, Maarten F.; van Soest, Arthur J.; Gribble, Paul L.; Kistemaker, Dinant A.

    2016-01-01

    A goal of biomechanics and motor control is to understand the design of the human musculoskeletal system. Here we investigated human functional morphology by making predictions about the muscle volume distribution that is optimal for a specific motor task. We examined a well-studied and relatively simple human movement, vertical jumping. We investigated how high a human could jump if muscle volume were optimized for jumping, and determined how the optimal parameters improve performance. We used a four-link inverted pendulum model of human vertical jumping actuated by Hill-type muscles, that well-approximates skilled human performance. We optimized muscle volume by allowing the cross-sectional area and muscle fiber optimum length to be changed for each muscle, while maintaining constant total muscle volume. We observed, perhaps surprisingly, that the reference model, based on human anthropometric data, is relatively good for vertical jumping; it achieves 90% of the jump height predicted by a model with muscles designed specifically for jumping. Alteration of cross-sectional areas—which determine the maximum force deliverable by the muscles—constitutes the majority of improvement to jump height. The optimal distribution results in large vastus, gastrocnemius and hamstrings muscles that deliver more work, while producing a kinematic pattern essentially identical to the reference model. Work output is increased by removing muscle from rectus femoris, which cannot do work on the skeleton given its moment arm at the hip and the joint excursions during push-off. The gluteus composes a disproportionate amount of muscle volume and jump height is improved by moving it to other muscles. This approach represents a way to test hypotheses about optimal human functional morphology. Future studies may extend this approach to address other morphological questions in ethological tasks such as locomotion, and feature other sets of parameters such as properties of the skeletal

  16. Muscle insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism are controlled by the intrinsic muscle clock★

    PubMed Central

    Dyar, Kenneth A.; Ciciliot, Stefano; Wright, Lauren E.; Biensø, Rasmus S.; Tagliazucchi, Guidantonio M.; Patel, Vishal R.; Forcato, Mattia; Paz, Marcia I.P.; Gudiksen, Anders; Solagna, Francesca; Albiero, Mattia; Moretti, Irene; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L.; Baldi, Pierre; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Rizzuto, Rosario; Bicciato, Silvio; Pilegaard, Henriette; Blaauw, Bert; Schiaffino, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Circadian rhythms control metabolism and energy homeostasis, but the role of the skeletal muscle clock has never been explored. We generated conditional and inducible mouse lines with muscle-specific ablation of the core clock gene Bmal1. Skeletal muscles from these mice showed impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake with reduced protein levels of GLUT4, the insulin-dependent glucose transporter, and TBC1D1, a Rab-GTPase involved in GLUT4 translocation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity was also reduced due to altered expression of circadian genes Pdk4 and Pdp1, coding for PDH kinase and phosphatase, respectively. PDH inhibition leads to reduced glucose oxidation and diversion of glycolytic intermediates to alternative metabolic pathways, as revealed by metabolome analysis. The impaired glucose metabolism induced by muscle-specific Bmal1 knockout suggests that a major physiological role of the muscle clock is to prepare for the transition from the rest/fasting phase to the active/feeding phase, when glucose becomes the predominant fuel for skeletal muscle. PMID:24567902

  17. Muscle contracture diagnosis: the role of sonoelastography.

    PubMed

    Bruschetta, Daniele; Milardi, Demetrio; Trimarchi, Fabio; DI Mauro, Debora; Valenti, Andrea; Arrigo, Alessandro; Valenti, Barbara; Santoro, Giuseppe; Cascio, Filippo; Vaccarino, Gianluigi; Cacciola, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    Sonoelastography plays today a major role in musculoskeletal disease, showing minor muscle injuries not well appreciable in conventional B-mode ultrasonography and integrating it in major muscle injuries diagnosis. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the ability of elastosonography in the diagnosis of muscular contracture in football players presenting negative basic echography. We examined twenty-two football players using basic echography and elastosonography approximately 24-48 hours after the traumatic event and we subsequently re-evaluated them after two weeks. Conventional echography showed, in the early stage, no muscle injuries; in twenty-two out of twenty-two patients, sonoelastography had instead underlined a heterogeneous colorimetric map, related to decreased elasticity in the area of the muscle contracture. An evaluation effected 1-2 weeks later showed a clear improvement of the sonoelastographic appearance. This information will be useful for prognostication, post-traumatic monitoring and to detect subclinical changes in MIs even before there are changes on the routine B-mode ultrasound.

  18. Comprehensive Analysis of Tropomyosin Isoforms in Skeletal Muscles by Top-down Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yutong; Peng, Ying; Lin, Ziqing; Chen, Yi-Chen; Wei, Liming; Hacker, Timothy A.; Larsson, Lars; Ge, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles are heterogeneous in nature and are capable of performing various functions. Tropomyosin (Tpm) is a major component of the thin filament in skeletal muscles and plays an important role in controlling muscle contraction and relaxation. Tpm is known to consist of multiple isoforms resulting from different encoding genes and alternative splicing, along with post-translational modifications. However, a systematic characterization of Tpm isoforms in skeletal muscles is still lacking. Therefore, we employed top-down mass spectrometry (MS) to identify and characterize Tpm isoforms present in different skeletal muscles from multiple species, including swine, rat, and human. Our study revealed that Tpm1.1 and Tpm2.2 are the two major Tpm isoforms in swine and rat skeletal muscles, whereas Tpm1.1, Tpm2.2, and Tpm3.12 are present in human skeletal muscles. Tandem MS was utilized to identify the sequences of the major Tpm isoforms. Furthermore, quantitative analysis revealed muscle-type specific differences in the abundance of un-modified and modified Tpm isoforms in rat and human skeletal muscles. This study represents the first systematic investigation of Tpm isoforms in skeletal muscles, which not only demonstrates the capabilities of top-down MS for the comprehensive characterization of skeletal myofilament proteins but also provides the basis for further studies on these Tpm isoforms in muscle-related diseases. PMID:27090236

  19. Lower limb muscle impairment in myotonic dystrophy type 1: the need for better guidelines.

    PubMed

    Petitclerc, Émilie; Hébert, Luc J; Desrosiers, Johanne; Gagnon, Cynthia

    2015-04-01

    In myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), leg muscle weakness is a major impairment. There are challenges to obtaining a clear portrait of muscle strength impairment. A systematic literature review was conducted on lower limb strength impairment in late-onset and adult phenotypes to document variables which affect strength measurement. Thirty-two articles were reviewed using the COSMIN guidelines. Only a third of the studies described a reproducible protocol. Only 2 muscle groups have documented reliability for quantitative muscle testing and only 1 total score for manual muscle testing. Variables affecting muscle strength impairment are not described in most studies. This review illustrates the variability in muscle strength assessment in relation to DM1 characteristics and the questionable validity of the results with regard to undocumented methodological properties. There is therefore a clear need to adopt a consensus on the use of a standardized muscle strength assessment protocol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Development of Human Muscle Protein Measurement with MRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chen; Evans, Harlan; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1997-01-01

    It is known that micro-gravity has a strong influence on the human musculoskeletal system. A number of studies have shown that significant changes in skeletal muscles occur in both space flight and bedrest simulation. In our 5 week bedrest study, the cross-sectional area of soleus-gastrocnemius decreased about 12% while the cross-sectional area of anterior calf muscles decreased about 4%. Using volume measurements, these losses increased after 17 weeks to approximately 30% and 21% respectively. Significant muscle atrophy was also found on the SL-J crew members after only 8 days in space. It is important that these effects are fully understood so that countermeasures can be developed. The same knowledge might also be useful in preventing muscle atrophy related to other medical problems. A major problem with anatomical measurements of muscle during bed rest and microgravity is the influence of fluid shifts and water balance on the measurement of muscle volume, especially when the exposure duration is short and the atrophy is relatively small. Fluid shifts were documented in Skylab by visual observations of blood vessel distention, rapid changes in limb volume, center of mass measurements and subjective descriptions such as puffy faces and head fullness. It has been reported that the muscle water content of biopsied soleus muscles decreased following 8 hours of head down tilt bed rest. Three aspects of fluid shifts that can affect volume measurements are: first, the shift of fluid that occurs whenever there is a change from upright to a recumbent position and vice versa; second, the potential for fluid accumulation in the lower limbs resulting from muscle damage caused by overextending atrophied muscle or swelling caused by deconditioned precapillary sphincter muscles during reambulation; third, the net change of hydration level during and after bed rest or spaceflight. Because of these transitory fluid shifts, muscle protein is expected to represent muscle capacity

  1. Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meller, M. A.; Tiwari, R.; Wajcs, K. B.; Moses, C.; Reveles, I.; Garcia, E.

    2012-04-01

    Hydraulic Artificial Muscles (HAMs) consisting of a polymer tube constrained by a nylon mesh are presented in this paper. Despite the actuation mechanism being similar to its popular counterpart, which are pneumatically actuated (PAM), HAMs have not been studied in depth. HAMs offer the advantage of compliance, large force to weight ratio, low maintenance, and low cost over traditional hydraulic cylinders. Muscle characterization for isometric and isobaric tests are discussed and compared to PAMs. A model incorporating the effect of mesh angle and friction have also been developed. In addition, differential swelling of the muscle on actuation has also been included in the model. An application of lab fabricated HAMs for a meso-scale robotic system is also presented.

  2. Artificial muscles on heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 μW when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  3. Hysteresis in Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Jorgelina; Lynch, Stephen; Jones, David; Degens, Hans

    This paper presents examples of hysteresis from a broad range of scientific disciplines and demonstrates a variety of forms including clockwise, counterclockwise, butterfly, pinched and kiss-and-go, respectively. These examples include mechanical systems made up of springs and dampers which have been the main components of muscle models for nearly one hundred years. For the first time, as far as the authors are aware, hysteresis is demonstrated in single fibre muscle when subjected to both lengthening and shortening periodic contractions. The hysteresis observed in the experiments is of two forms. Without any relaxation at the end of lengthening or shortening, the hysteresis loop is a convex clockwise loop, whereas a concave clockwise hysteresis loop (labeled as kiss-and-go) is formed when the muscle is relaxed at the end of lengthening and shortening. This paper also presents a mathematical model which reproduces the hysteresis curves in the same form as the experimental data.

  4. Intramuscular architecture of the autochthonous back muscles in humans

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Heiko; Fröber, Rosemarie; Schilling, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Many training concepts take muscle properties such as contraction speed or muscle topography into account to achieve an optimal training outcome. Thus far, the internal architecture of muscles has largely been neglected, although it is well known that parameters such as pennation angles or the lengths of fascicles but also the proportions of fleshy and tendinous fascicle parts have a major impact on the contraction behaviour of a muscle. Here, we present the most detailed description of the intramuscular fascicle architecture of the human perivertebral muscles available so far. For this, one adult male cadaver was studied. Our general approach was to digitize the geometry of each fascicle of the muscles of back proper (Erector spinae) – the Spinalis thoracis, Iliocostalis lumborum, Longissimus thoracis and the Multifidus thoracis et lumborum – and of the deep muscles of the abdomen – Psoas minor, Psoas major and Quadratus lumborum – during a layerwise dissection. Architectural parameters such as fascicle angles to the sagittal and the frontal planes as well as fascicle lengths were determined for each fascicle, and are discussed regarding their consequences for the function of the muscle. For example, compared with the other dorsovertebral muscles, the Longissimus thoracis can produce greater shortening distances because of its relatively long fleshy portions, and it can store more elastic energy due to both its relatively long fleshy and tendinous fascicle portions. The Quadratus lumborum was outstanding because of its many architectural subunits defined by distinct attachment sites and fascicle lengths. The presented database will improve biomechanical models of the human trunk by allowing the incorporation of anisotropic muscle properties such as the fascicle direction into finite element models. This information will help to increase our understanding of the functionality of the human back musculature, and may thereby improve future training concepts

  5. Estimation of muscle response using three-dimensional musculoskeletal models before impact situation: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Bae, Tae Soo; Loan, Peter; Choi, Kuiwon; Hong, Daehie; Mun, Mu Seong

    2010-12-01

    When car crash experiments are performed using cadavers or dummies, the active muscles' reaction on crash situations cannot be observed. The aim of this study is to estimate muscles' response of the major muscle groups using three-dimensional musculoskeletal model by dynamic simulations of low-speed sled-impact. The three-dimensional musculoskeletal models of eight subjects were developed, including 241 degrees of freedom and 86 muscles. The muscle parameters considering limb lengths and the force-generating properties of the muscles were redefined by optimization to fit for each subject. Kinematic data and external forces measured by motion tracking system and dynamometer were then input as boundary conditions. Through a least-squares optimization algorithm, active muscles' responses were calculated during inverse dynamic analysis tracking the motion of each subject. Electromyography for major muscles at elbow, knee, and ankle joints was measured to validate each model. For low-speed sled-impact crash, experiment and simulation with optimized and unoptimized muscle parameters were performed at 9.4 m/h and 10 m/h and muscle activities were compared among them. The muscle activities with optimized parameters were closer to experimental measurements than the results without optimization. In addition, the extensor muscle activities at knee, ankle, and elbow joint were found considerably at impact time, unlike previous studies using cadaver or dummies. This study demonstrated the need to optimize the muscle parameters to predict impact situation correctly in computational studies using musculoskeletal models. And to improve accuracy of analysis for car crash injury using humanlike dummies, muscle reflex function, major extensor muscles' response at elbow, knee, and ankle joints, should be considered.

  6. Neural control of muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, S. R.; Markelonis, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    Cholinergic innervation regulates the physiological and biochemical properties of skeletal muscle. The mechanisms that appear to be involved in this regulation include soluble, neurally-derived polypeptides, transmitter-evoked muscle activity and the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, itself. Despite extensive research, the interacting neural mechanisms that control such macromolecules as acetylcholinesterase, the acetylcholine receptor and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase remain unclear. It may be that more simplified in vitro model systems coupled with recent dramatic advances in the molecular biology of neurally-regulated proteins will begin to allow researchers to unravel the mechanisms controlling the expression and maintenance of these macromolecules.

  7. Muscle force depends on the amount of transversal muscle loading.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Tobias; Till, Olaf; Stutzig, Norman; Günther, Michael; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2014-06-03

    Skeletal muscles are embedded in an environment of other muscles, connective tissue, and bones, which may transfer transversal forces to the muscle tissue, thereby compressing it. In a recent study we demonstrated that transversal loading of a muscle with 1.3Ncm(-2) reduces maximum isometric force (Fim) and rate of force development by approximately 5% and 25%, respectively. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of increasing transversal muscle loading on contraction dynamics. Therefore, we performed isometric experiments on rat M. gastrocnemius medialis (n=9) without and with five different transversal loads corresponding to increasing pressures of 1.3Ncm(-2) to 5.3Ncm(-2) at the contact area between muscle and load. Muscle loading was induced by a custom-made plunger which was able to move in transversal direction. Increasing transversal muscle loading resulted in an almost linear decrease in muscle force from 4.8±1.8% to 12.8±2% Fim. Compared to an unloaded isometric contraction, rate of force development decreased from 20.2±4.0% at 1.3Ncm(-2) muscle loading to 34.6±5.7% at 5.3Ncm(-2). Experimental observation of the impact of transversal muscle loading on contraction dynamics may help to better understand muscle tissue properties. Moreover, applying transversal loads to muscles opens a window to analyze three-dimensional muscle force generation. Data presented in this study may be important to develop and validate muscle models which enable simulation of muscle contractions under compression and enlighten the mechanisms behind. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spreading out Muscle Mass within a Hill-Type Model: A Computer Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Michael; Röhrle, Oliver; Haeufle, Daniel F. B.; Schmitt, Syn

    2012-01-01

    It is state of the art that muscle contraction dynamics is adequately described by a hyperbolic relation between muscle force and contraction velocity (Hill relation), thereby neglecting muscle internal mass inertia (first-order dynamics). Accordingly, the vast majority of modelling approaches also neglect muscle internal inertia. Assuming that such first-order contraction dynamics yet interacts with muscle internal mass distribution, this study investigates two questions: (i) what is the time scale on which the muscle responds to a force step? (ii) How does this response scale with muscle design parameters? Thereto, we simulated accelerated contractions of alternating sequences of Hill-type contractile elements and point masses. We found that in a typical small muscle the force levels off after about 0.2 ms, contraction velocity after about 0.5 ms. In an upscaled version representing bigger mammals' muscles, the force levels off after about 20 ms, and the theoretically expected maximum contraction velocity is not reached. We conclude (i) that it may be indispensable to introduce second-order contributions into muscle models to understand high-frequency muscle responses, particularly in bigger muscles. Additionally, (ii) constructing more elaborate measuring devices seems to be worthwhile to distinguish viscoelastic and inertia properties in rapid contractile responses of muscles. PMID:23227110

  9. Bone and Muscle: Interactions beyond Mechanical

    PubMed Central

    Brotto, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The musculoskeletal system is significantly more complex than portrayed by traditional reductionist approaches that have focused on and studied the components of this system separately. While bone and skeletal muscle are the two largest tissues within this system, this system also includes tendons, ligaments, cartilage, joints and other connective tissue along with vascular and nervous tissue. Because the main function of this system is locomotion, the mechanical interaction among the major players of this system is essential for the many shapes and forms observed in vertebrates and even in invertebrates. Thus, it is logical that the mechanical coupling theories of musculoskeletal development exert a dominant influence on our understanding of the biology of the musculoskeletal system, because these relationships are relatively easy to observe, measure, and perturb. Certainly much less recognized is the molecular and biochemical interaction among the individual players of the musculoskeletal system. In this brief review article, we first introduce some of the key reasons why the mechanical coupling theory has dominated our view of bone-muscle interactions followed by summarizing evidence for the secretory nature of bones and muscles. Finally, a number of highly physiological questions that cannot be answered by the mechanical theories alone will be raised along with different lines of evidence that support both a genetic and a biochemical communication between bones and muscles. It is hoped that these discussions will stimulate new insights into this fertile and promising new way of defining the relationships between these closely related tissues. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for biochemical communication between bone and muscle is important not only from a basic research perspective but also as a means to identify potential new therapies for bone and muscle diseases, especially for when they co-exist. PMID:26453500

  10. The biophysics of asthmatic airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Newman L; Li, Weilong; Jiang, He; Unruh, H; Ma, Xuefei

    2003-09-16

    It is clear that significant advances have been made in the understanding of the physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology of airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction and how the knowledge obtained from these approaches may be used to elucidate the pathogenesis of asthma. Not to belittle other theories of smooth muscle contraction extant in the field, perhaps the most outstanding development has been the formulation of plasticity theory. This may radically alter our understanding of smooth muscle contraction. Its message is that while shortening velocity and capacity are linear functions of length, active force is length independent. These changes are explained by the ability of thick filament protein to depolymerize at short lengths and to increase numbers of contractile units in series at lengths greater than optimal length or L(ref). Other advances are represented by the report that the major part of ASM shortening is complete within the initial first 20% of contraction time, that the nature and history of loading determine the extent of shortening and that these findings can be explained by the finding that the crossbridges are cycling four times faster than in the remaining time. Another unexpected finding is that late in the course of isotonic relaxation the muscle undergoes spontaneous activation which delays relaxation and smoothes it out; speculatively this could minimize turbulence of airflow. On the applied front evidence now shows the shortening ability of bronchial smooth muscle of human subjects of asthma is significantly increased. Measurements also indicate that increased smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase content, via increased actomyosin ATPase activity could be responsible for the changes in contractility.

  11. The muscle engram: the reflex that limits conventional occlusal treatment.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Martin D

    2011-10-01

    The engram (the masticatory "muscle memory") is shown to be a conditionable reflex whose muscle conditioning lasts less than two minutes, far shorter than previously thought. This reflex, reinforced and stored in the masticatory muscles at every swallow, adjusts masticatory muscle activity to guide the lower arch unerringly into its ICP. These muscle adjustments compensate for the continually changing intemal and external factors that affect the mandible's entry into the ICP. A simple quick experiment described in this article isolates the engram, enabling the reader to see its action clearly for the first time. It is urged that every reader perform this experiment. This experiment shows how the engram, by hiding the masticatory muscles' reaction (the hit-and-slide), limits the success of the therapist in achieving occlusion-muscle compatibility. This finding has major clinical implications. It means that, as regards the muscle aspect of treating occlusion, the dentist treating occlusion conventionally is working blind, a situation the neuromuscular school of occlusal thought seeks to correct. The controversy over occlusion continues.

  12. Mind-muscle connection training principle: influence of muscle strength and training experience during a pushing movement.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Colado, Juan Carlos; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effect of different attentional focus conditions on muscle activity during the push-up exercise and to assess the possible influence of muscle strength and training experience. Eighteen resistance-trained men performed 1RM bench press testing and were familiarized with the procedure during the first session. In the second session, three different conditions were randomly performed: regular push-up and push-up focusing on using the pectoralis major and triceps brachii muscles, respectively. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded and analyzed (EMG normalized to max; nEMG) for the triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscles. Participants had on average 8 (SD 6) years of training experience and 1RM of 1.25 (SD 0.28) kg per kg bodyweight. Focusing on using pectoralis major increased activity in this muscle by 9% nEMG (95% CI 5-13; Cohen's d 0.60) compared with the regular condition. Triceps activity was not significantly influenced by triceps focus although borderline significant, with a mean difference of 5% nEMG (95% CI 0-10; Cohen's d 0.30). However, years of training experience was positively associated with the ability to selectively activate the triceps (β = 0.41, P = 0.04), but not the pectoralis. Bench press 1RM was not significantly associated with the ability to selectively activate the muscles. Pectoralis activity can be increased when focusing on using this muscle during push-ups, whereas the ability to do this for the triceps is dependent on years of training experience. Maximal muscle strength does not appear to be a decisive factor for the ability to selectively activate these muscles.

  13. Spatial influence on breast muscle morphological structure, myofiber size, and gene expression associated with the wooden breast myopathy in broilers.

    PubMed

    Clark, D L; Velleman, S G

    2016-12-01

    The wooden breast (WB) myopathy is identified by the palpation of a rigid pectoralis major (p. major) muscle and is characterized as a fibrotic, necrotic p. major disorder in broilers. The objective of the current study was to determine spatial morphological and gene expression differences at 4 locations within WB affected muscle from different genetic lines. Morphology was evaluated in 2 broiler lines expressing the WB myopathy (Lines A and B) and a line without WB (Line C) at 3 ventral locations and one anterodorsal location in the p. major muscle. In WB affected muscle of Line A, fibrosis was greatest in the anterior locations of WB affected muscle. In Line B muscle, fibrosis was greatest in the anteroventral region and minimal in the anterodorsal or posterior regions. Average p. major myofiber diameter was 30% larger in Lines A and B compared to Line C. However, in Line A there were no differences between the percentage of large fibers (diameter >70 μm) in unaffected and WB affected muscles at any sampling region. The percentage of small fibers (diameter <10 μm), likely small regenerating fibers, and expression of myogenic determination factor 1 (MYOD1) and myogenin were increased in Line A WB affected muscle compared to unaffected muscle. In Line B, the percentage of small fibers and MYOD1 expression in WB affected muscle was not different from unaffected muscle. Connective tissue organization within WB affected muscle was also different in Lines A and B, which may be attributed to decorin, a proteoglycan that mediates collagen crosslinking, growth factor signaling, and cell growth. Decorin expression was increased at all locations within Line A. However, in Line B decorin was increased only in the fibrotic regions of the p. major. The compiled results provide evidence that the WB myopathy is not uniform throughout the entire p. major muscle and the anterior end of the p. major muscle was more affected by the condition. © 2016 Poultry Science Association

  14. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kyle P.; Zytnicki, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs) of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt) predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening) of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle lengthening conditions

  15. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    PubMed

    Blum, Kyle P; Lamotte D'Incamps, Boris; Zytnicki, Daniel; Ting, Lena H

    2017-09-01

    Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs) of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt) predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening) of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle lengthening conditions

  16. Analysis of muscle activation in lower extremity for static balance.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Kingshuk; Chatterjee, Debatri; Das, Rajat Kumar; Tripathy, Soumya Ranjan; Sinha, Aniruddha

    2017-07-01

    Balance plays an important role for human bipedal locomotion. Degeneration of balance control is prominent in stroke patients, elderly adults and even for majority of obese people. Design of personalized balance training program, in order to strengthen muscles, requires the analysis of muscle activation during an activity. In this paper we have proposed an affordable and portable approach to analyze the relationship between the static balance strategy and activation of various lower extremity muscles. To do that we have considered Microsoft Kinect XBox 360 as a motion sensing device and Wii balance board for measuring external force information. For analyzing the muscle activation pattern related to static balance, participants are asked to do the single limb stance (SLS) exercise on the balance board and in front of the Kinect. Static optimization to minimize the overall muscle activation pattern is carried out using OpenSim, which is an open-source musculoskeletal simulation software. The study is done on ten normal and ten obese people, grouped according to body mass index (BMI). Results suggest that the lower extremity muscles like biceps femoris, psoas major, sartorius, iliacus play the major role for both maintaining the balance using one limb as well as maintaining the flexion of the other limb during SLS. Further investigations reveal that the higher muscle activations of the flexed leg for normal group demonstrate higher strength. Moreover, the lower muscle activation of the standing leg for normal group demonstrate more headroom for the biceps femoris-short-head and psoas major to withstand the load and hence have better static balance control.

  17. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003975.htm Pelvic floor muscle training exercises To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises designed to ...

  18. Muscle abnormalities in osteogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Veilleux, L-N.; Trejo, P.; Rauch, F.

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is mainly characterized by bone fragility but muscle abnormalities have been reported both in OI mouse models and in children with OI. Muscle mass is decreased in OI, even when short stature is taken into account. Dynamic muscle tests aiming at maximal eccentric force production reveal functional deficits that can not be explained by low muscle mass alone. However, it appears that diaphyseal bone mass is normally adapted to muscle force. At present the determinants of muscle mass and function in OI have not been clearly defined. Physiotherapy interventions and bisphosphonate treatment appear to have some effect on muscle function in OI. Interventions targeting muscle mass have shown encouraging results in OI animal models and are an interesting area for further research. PMID:28574406

  19. Volumetric muscle loss injury repair using in situ fibrin gel cast seeded with muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs).

    PubMed

    Matthias, Nadine; Hunt, Samuel D; Wu, Jianbo; Lo, Jonathan; Smith Callahan, Laura A; Li, Yong; Huard, Johnny; Darabi, Radbod

    2018-03-01

    Volumetric muscle defect, caused by trauma or combat injuries, is a major health concern leading to severe morbidity. It is characterized by partial or full thickness loss of muscle and its bio-scaffold, resulting in extensive fibrosis and scar formation. Therefore, the ideal therapeutic option is to use stem cells combined with bio-scaffolds to restore muscle. For this purpose, muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) are a great candidate due to their unique multi-lineage differentiation potential. In this study, we evaluated the regeneration potential of MDSCs for muscle loss repair using a novel in situ fibrin gel casting. Muscle defect was created by a partial thickness wedge resection in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of NSG mice which created an average of 25% mass loss. If untreated, this defect leads to severe muscle fibrosis. Next, MDSCs were delivered using a novel in situ fibrin gel casting method. Our results demonstrated MDSCs are able to engraft and form new myofibers in the defect when casted along with fibrin gel. LacZ labeled MDSCs were able to differentiate efficiently into new myofibers and significantly increase muscle mass. This was also accompanied by significant reduction of fibrotic tissue in the engrafted muscles. Furthermore, transplanted cells also contributed to new vessel formation and satellite cell seeding. These results confirmed the therapeutic potential of MDSCs and feasibility of direct in situ casting of fibrin/MDSC mixture to repair muscle mass defects. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. OBLIQUELY STRIATED MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbluth, Jack

    1968-01-01

    Body muscle cells of the bloodworm Glycera, a polychaete annelid, were studied by electron microscopy and compared with muscle cells of the more slowly acting nematode Ascaris, which have been described previously. Both muscles are obliquely striated. The predominant type of bloodworm fiber is characterized by a prominent transversely oriented sarcoplasmic reticulum with numerous dyads at the surface of each cell. Thick myofilaments are ∼3 µ long and overlap along ∼60% of their length in extended fibers and ∼80% in shortened fibers. There is virtually no endomysium and very little intracellular skeleton, and the cells are attached by desmosomes to one another rather than to connective tissue. Dense bodies are absent from the fibers and in their place are Z lines, which are truly linear rather than planar. Scattered among the predominant fibers are others, less orderly in arrangement, in which the SR is much less prominent and in which the thick filaments are thicker and longer and overlap to an even smaller degree. It is suggested that physiological differences between bloodworm and Ascaris muscles derive from differences in the proportion of series to parallel linkages between the contractile elements, differences in the amount and disposition of the SR, and differences in the impedance to shear within the myofibrils. PMID:19806704

  1. Sculpturing new muscle phenotypes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babij, P.; Booth, F. W.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the pattern of muscle activity are followed by new patterns of protein synthesis, both in the contractile elements and in the enzymes of energy metabolism. Although the signal transducers have not been identified, techniques of molecular biology have clearly shown that the adaptive responses are the regulated consequence of differential gene expression.

  2. The Emerging Minority Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baccus, R. Eileen

    The United States is experiencing a major demographic transformation. Some studies have projected that by the year 2020, whites will be in the minority as their number is surpassed by those of Indian, Asian, African, and Spanish descent, to name a few. Educators must make a major commitment to see that all students have the opportunity to perform…

  3. MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM--mechanism of growth hormone stimulation of skeletal muscle growth in cattle.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H; Ge, X

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone, also called somatotropin (ST), is a polypeptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. The major functions of GH include stimulating bone and skeletal muscle growth, lipolysis, milk production, and expression of the IGF-I gene in the liver. Based on these functions, recombinant bovine ST (bST) and recombinant porcine ST (pST) have been used to improve milk production in dairy cows and lean tissue growth in pigs, respectively. However, despite these applications, the mechanisms of action of GH are not fully understood. Indeed, there has been a lot of controversy over the role of liver-derived circulating IGF-I and locally produced IGF-I in mediating the growth-stimulatory effect of GH during the last 15 yr. It is in this context that we have conducted studies to further understand how GH stimulates skeletal muscle growth in cattle. Our results do not support a role of skeletal muscle-derived IGF-I in GH-stimulated skeletal muscle growth in cattle. Our results indicate that GH stimulates skeletal muscle growth in cattle, in part, by stimulating protein synthesis in muscle through a GH receptor-mediated, IGF-I-independent mechanism. In this review, besides discussing these results, we also argue that liver-derived circulating IGF-I should be still considered as the major mechanism that mediates the growth-stimulatory effect of GH on skeletal muscle in cattle and other domestic animals.

  4. Task-level feedback can explain temporal recruitment of spatially fixed muscle synergies throughout postural perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Safavynia, Seyed A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that complex spatiotemporal patterns of muscle activity can be explained with a low-dimensional set of muscle synergies or M-modes. While it is clear that both spatial and temporal aspects of muscle coordination may be low dimensional, constraints on spatial versus temporal features of muscle coordination likely involve different neural control mechanisms. We hypothesized that the low-dimensional spatial and temporal features of muscle coordination are independent of each other. We further hypothesized that in reactive feedback tasks, spatially fixed muscle coordination patterns—or muscle synergies—are hierarchically recruited via time-varying neural commands based on delayed task-level feedback. We explicitly compared the ability of spatially fixed (SF) versus temporally fixed (TF) muscle synergies to reconstruct the entire time course of muscle activity during postural responses to anterior-posterior support-surface translations. While both SF and TF muscle synergies could account for EMG variability in a postural task, SF muscle synergies produced more consistent and physiologically interpretable results than TF muscle synergies during postural responses to perturbations. Moreover, a majority of SF muscle synergies were consistent in structure when extracted from epochs throughout postural responses. Temporal patterns of SF muscle synergy recruitment were well-reconstructed by delayed feedback of center of mass (CoM) kinematics and reproduced EMG activity of multiple muscles. Consistent with the idea that independent and hierarchical low-dimensional neural control structures define spatial and temporal patterns of muscle activity, our results suggest that CoM kinematics are a task variable used to recruit SF muscle synergies for feedback control of balance. PMID:21957219

  5. Terrestrial applications of bone and muscle research in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, F. W.

    1994-08-01

    Major applications to people on Earth are possible from NASA-sponsored research on bone and muscle which is conducted either in microgravity or on Earth using models mimicking microgravity. In microgravity bone and muscle mass are lost. Humans experience a similar loss under certain conditions on Earth. Bone and muscle loss exist on Earth as humans age from adulthood to senescence, during limb immobilization for healing of orthopedic injuries, during wheelchair confinement because of certain diseases, and during chronic bed rest prescribed for curing of diseases. NASA-sponsored research is dedicated to learning both what cause bone and muscle loss as well as finding out how to prevent this loss. The health ramifications of these discoveries will have major impact. Objective 1.6 of Healthy People 2000, a report from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, states that the performance of physical activities that improve muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility is particularly important to maintaining functional independence and social integration in older adults /1/. This objective further states that these types of physical activities are important because they may protect against disability, an event which costs the U.S. economy hugh sums of money. Thus NASA research related to bone and muscle loss has potential major impact on the quality of life in the U.S. Relative to its potential health benefits, NASA and Congressional support of bone and muscle research is funded is a very low level.

  6. Terrestrial applications of bone and muscle research in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Booth, F W

    1994-01-01

    Major applications to people on Earth are possible from NASA-sponsored research on bone and muscle which is conducted either in microgravity or on Earth using models mimicking microgravity. In microgravity bone and muscle mass are lost. Humans experience a similar loss under certain conditions on Earth. Bone and muscle loss exist on Earth as humans age from adulthood to senescence, during limb immobilization for healing of orthopedic injuries, during wheelchair confinement because of certain diseases, and during chronic bed rest prescribed for curing of diseases. NASA-sponsored research is dedicated to learning both what cause bone and muscle loss as well as finding out how to prevent this loss. The health ramifications of these discoveries will have major impact. Objective 1.6 of Healthy People 2000, a report from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, states that the performance of physical activities that improve muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility is particularly important to maintaining functional independence and social integration in older adults. This objective further states that these types of physical activities are important because they may protect against disability, an event which costs the U.S. economy huge sums of money. Thus NASA research related to bone and muscle loss has potential major impact on the quality of life in the U.S. Relative to its potential health benefits, NASA and Congressional support of bone and muscle research is funded at a very low level.

  7. Vitamin D and muscle function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Muscle weakness is a hallmark of severe vitamin D deficiency, but the effect of milder vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency on muscle mass and performance and risk of falling is uncertain. In this presentation, I review the evidence that vitamin D influences muscle mass and performance, balance, an...

  8. Hindlimb suspension reduces muscle regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Truong, Q.; Macius, A.; Schultz, E.

    1998-01-01

    Exposure of juvenile skeletal muscle to a weightless environment reduces growth and satellite cell mitotic activity. However, the effect of a weightless environment on the satellite cell population during muscle repair remains unknown. Muscle injury was induced in rat soleus muscles using the myotoxic snake venom, notexin. Rats were placed into hindlimb-suspended or weightbearing groups for 10 days following injury. Cellular proliferation during regeneration was evaluated using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Hindlimb suspension reduced (P < 0.05) regenerated muscle mass, regenerated myofiber diameter, uninjured muscle mass, and uninjured myofiber diameter compared to weightbearing rats. Hindlimb suspension reduced (P < 0.05) BrdU labeling in uninjured soleus muscles compared to weight-bearing muscles. However, hindlimb suspension did not abolish muscle regeneration because myofibers formed in the injured soleus muscles of hindlimb-suspended rats, and BrdU labeling was equivalent (P > 0.10) on myofiber segments isolated from the soleus muscles of hindlimb-suspended and weightbearing rats following injury. Thus, hindlimb suspension (weightlessness) does not suppress satellite cell mitotic activity in regenerating muscles before myofiber formation, but reduces growth of the newly formed myofibers.

  9. Nerve-muscle interactions during flight muscle development in Drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandes, J. J.; Keshishian, H.

    1998-01-01

    During Drosophila pupal metamorphosis, the motoneurons and muscles differentiate synchronously, providing an opportunity for extensive intercellular regulation during synapse formation. We examined the existence of such interactions by developmentally delaying or permanently eliminating synaptic partners during the formation of indirect flight muscles. When we experimentally delayed muscle development, we found that although adult-specific primary motoneuron branching still occurred, the higher order (synaptic) branching was suspended until the delayed muscle fibers reached a favourable developmental state. In reciprocal experiments we found that denervation caused a decrease in the myoblast pool. Furthermore, the formation of certain muscle fibers (dorsoventral muscles) was specifically blocked. Exceptions were the adult muscles that use larval muscle fibers as myoblast fusion targets (dorsal longitudinal muscles). However, when these muscles were experimentally compelled to develop without their larval precursors, they showed an absolute dependence on the motoneurons for their formation. These data show that the size of the myoblast pool and early events in fiber formation depend on the presence of the nerve, and that, conversely, peripheral arbor development and synaptogenesis is closely synchronized with the developmental state of the muscle.

  10. The evaluation of relationship between vitamin D and muscle power by micro manual muscle tester in end-stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Zahed, Nargesosadat; Chehrazi, Saghar; Falaknasi, Kianosh

    2014-09-01

    Muscle force of lower limb is a major factor for sustaining physical activity. Decreased muscle force can limit physical activity, which can increase mortality and morbidity in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Muscle force depends on several factors. One of the most important factors is 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) that affects muscle function in both uremic and non-uremic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between serum level of 25-OHD and muscle force of lower extremities in hemodialysis patients estimated by a Micro Manual Muscle Tester, a digital instrument that measures muscle force in kilograms This cross-sectional study was performed on 135 adult patients, 69 male (51%) and 66 female (69%) (mean: 1.4, standard deviation: 0.5), undergoing hemodialysis. Standard biochemistry parameters were measured before hemodialysis, including 25-OHD, calcium, albumin, para-hyroid hormone and C-reactive protein (CRP). Based on the result of serum level of 25-OHD, patients were classified into the following three groups: 85 patients (63%) were 25-OHD deficient (25-OHD <30), 43 patients (32%) had a normal level of 25-OHD (30-70) and seven patients (5%) had a toxic level of 25-OHD (>70) (mean: 1.42, standard deviation: 0.59). Also, based on the result of muscle force, patients were classified into the following three groups: 84/133 patients (62%) had weak muscle force (<5 kg), 46/133 patients (34%) had normal muscle force (5-10 kg) and three patients (21%) had strong muscle force (>10 kg) (mean: 1.39, standard deviation: 0.53). There was a significant relation between 25-OHD level and muscle force (P = 0.02), between age and muscle force (P = 0.002) and between gender and muscle force (P <0.001). In our opinion, 25-OHD can be a useful drug in ESRD patients to improve muscle force and physical activity.

  11. Physiological cross-sectional area of human leg muscles based on magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukunaga, T.; Roy, R. R.; Shellock, F. G.; Hodgson, J. A.; Day, M. K.; Lee, P. L.; Kwong-Fu, H.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to determine the physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSAs) of the major muscles or muscle groups of the lower leg. For 12 healthy subjects, the boundaries of each muscle or muscle group were digitized from images taken at 1-cm intervals along the length of the leg. Muscle volumes were calculated from the summation of each anatomical CSA (ACSA) and the distance between each section. Muscle length was determined as the distance between the most proximal and distal images in which the muscle was visible. The PCSA of each muscle was calculated as muscle volume times the cosine of the angle of fiber pinnation divided by fiber length, where published fiber length:muscle length ratios were used to estimate fiber lengths. The mean volumes of the major plantarflexors were 489, 245, and 140 cm3 for the soleus and medial (MG) and lateral (LG) heads of the gastrocnemius. The mean PCSA of the soleus was 230 cm2, about three and eight times larger than the MG (68 cm2) and LG (28 cm2), respectively. These PCSA values were eight (soleus), four (MG), and three (LG) times larger than their respective maximum ACSA. The major dorsiflexor, the tibialis anterior (TA), had a muscle volume of 143 cm2, a PCSA of 19 cm2, and an ACSA of 9 cm2. With the exception of the soleus, the mean fiber length of all subjects was closely related to muscle volume across muscles. The soleus fibers were unusually short relative to the muscle volume, thus potentiating its force potential.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  12. Activity Dependent Signal Transduction in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Susan L.

    1999-01-01

    The overall goals of this project are: 1) to define the initial signal transduction events whereby the removal of gravitational load from antigravity muscles, such as the soleus, triggers muscle atrophy, and 2) to develop countermeasures to prevent this from happening. Our rationale for this approach is that, if countermeasures can be developed to regulate these early events, we could avoid having to deal with the multiple cascades of events that occur downstream from the initial event. One of our major findings is that hind limb suspension causes an early and sustained increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca (2+)](sub i)). In most cells the consequences of changes in ([Ca (2+)](sub i))depend on the amplitude, frequency and duration of the Ca(2+) signal and on other factors in the intracellular environment. We propose that muscle remodeling in microgravity represents a change in the balance among several CA(2+) regulated signal transduction pathways, in particular those involving the transcription factors NFAT and NFkB and the pro-apoptotic protein BAD. Other Ca(2+) sensitive pathways involving PKC, ras, rac, and CaM kinase II may also contribute to muscle remodeling.

  13. Comparison of sarcoplasmic reticulum capabilities in toadfish (Opsanus tau) sonic muscle and rat fast twitch muscle.

    PubMed

    Feher, J J; Waybright, T D; Fine, M L

    1998-08-01

    The sonic muscle of the oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, can produce unfused contractions at 300 Hz. Electron microscopy shows a great abundance of the Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in this muscle, but no functional characterization of the capabilities of the SR has been reported. We measured the oxalate-supported Ca2+ uptake rate and capacities of homogenates of toadfish sonic muscle and rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle, and estimated the number of pump units by titration with thapsigargin, a high-affinity, specific inhibitor of the SR Ca-ATPase. The Ca2+ uptake rate averaged 70.9 +/- 9.5 mumol min -1 per g tissue for the toad fish sonic muscle, and 73.5 +/- 3.7 mumol min -1 g-1 for rat EDL. The capacity for Ca2+ -oxalate uptake was 161 +/- 20 mumol g -1 and 33 +/- 2 mumol g -1 for toadfish sonic muscle and rat EDL, respectively. Thus, the rates of Ca2+ uptake were similar in the two muscles, but the toadfish sonic muscle had about five times the capacity of the rat EDL. The number of pumps as estimated by thapsigargin titration was 68 +/- 4 nmol of Ca-ATPase per g tissue in the toadfish, and 42 +/- 5 nmol Ca-ATPase per g tissue in the rat EDL. The turnover number, defined as the Ca2+ uptake divided by the number of pumps, was 1065 +/- 150 min -1 for toadfish and 1786 +/- 230 min -1 for rat EDL (p < 0.05) at 37 degrees C. The Ca2+ uptake rate of toadfish sonic muscle at 22 degree C, a typical temperature for calling toadfish, averaged 42 +/- 1% of its rate at 37 degree C. At these operating temperatures, the toadfish SR is likely to be slower than the rat fast-twitch SR, yet the toadfish sonic muscle supports more rapid contractions. One explanation for this is that the voluminous SR provides activator Ca2+ for contraction, but the abundant parvalbumin plays a major role in relaxation.

  14. Increased susceptibility to fatigue of slow- and fast-twitch muscles from mice lacking the MG29 gene.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, R Y; Nosek, C M; Brotto, M A; Nishi, M; Takeshima, H; Nosek, T M; Ma, J

    2000-11-09

    Mitsugumin 29 (MG29), a major protein component of the triad junction in skeletal muscle, has been identified to play roles in the formation of precise junctional membrane structures important for efficient signal conversion in excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. We carried out several experiments to not only study the role of MG29 in normal muscle contraction but also to determine its role in muscle fatigue. We compared the in vitro contractile properties of three muscles types, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) (fast-twitch muscle), soleus (SOL) (slow-twitch muscle), and diaphragm (DPH) (mixed-fiber muscle), isolated from mice lacking the MG29 gene and wild-type mice prior to and after fatigue. Our results indicate that the mutant EDL and SOL muscles, but not DPH, are more susceptible to fatigue than the wild-type muscles. The mutant muscles not only fatigued to a greater extent but also recovered significantly less than the wild-type muscles. Following fatigue, the mutant EDL and SOL muscles produced lower twitch forces than the wild-type muscles; in addition, fatiguing produced a downward shift in the force-frequency relationship in the mutant mice compared with the wild-type controls. Our results indicate that fatiguing affects the E-C components of the mutant EDL and SOL muscles, and the effect of fatigue in these mutant muscles could be primarily due to an alteration in the intracellular Ca homeostasis.

  15. Poultry Meat Quality in Relation to Muscle Growth and Muscle Fiber Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ishamri; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2017-01-01

    Variations in the definition of poultry meat quality exist because the quality traits are not solely based on intrinsic and extrinsic factors but also consumers’ preference. Appearance quality traits (AQT), eating quality traits (EQT), and reliance quality traits (RQT) are the major factors focused by the consumer before buying good quality of poultry meat. AQT and EQT of poultry meat are controlled by physical and biochemical characteristics of muscle fibers which can be categorized into a total number of fibers (TNF), cross-sectional area of fibers (CSAF), and fiber type composition (FTC). In poultry meat, it has been shown that muscle fiber properties play a key role in meat quality because numerous studies have reported the relationships between quality traits and fiber characteristics. Despite intensive research has been carried out to manipulate the muscle fiber to improve poultry meat quality, demand in a rapid growth of poultry muscle has correlated to the deterioration in the meat quality. The present paper reviews the definition of poultry meat quality, meat quality traits, and variations of meat quality. Also, this review presents recent knowledge underlying the relationship between poultry meat quality traits and muscle fiber characteristics. PMID:29725209

  16. Muscle-Specific Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Deletion Induces Muscle Capillary Rarefaction Creating Muscle Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Jeffrey S.; Lantier, Louise; Hasenour, Clinton M.; James, Freyja D.; Bracy, Deanna P.; Wasserman, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Muscle insulin resistance is associated with a reduction in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) action and muscle capillary density. We tested the hypothesis that muscle capillary rarefaction critically contributes to the etiology of muscle insulin resistance in chow-fed mice with skeletal and cardiac muscle VEGF deletion (mVEGF−/−) and wild-type littermates (mVEGF+/+) on a C57BL/6 background. The mVEGF−/− mice had an ∼60% and ∼50% decrease in capillaries in skeletal and cardiac muscle, respectively. The mVEGF−/− mice had augmented fasting glucose turnover. Insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose disappearance was blunted in mVEGF−/− mice. The reduced peripheral glucose utilization during insulin stimulation was due to diminished in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscle insulin action and signaling. The decreased insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake was independent of defects in insulin action at the myocyte, suggesting that the impairment in insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake was due to poor muscle perfusion. The deletion of VEGF in cardiac muscle did not affect cardiac output. These studies emphasize the importance for novel therapeutic approaches that target the vasculature in the treatment of insulin-resistant muscle. PMID:23002035

  17. Syrtis Major - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-09

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows a region in Syrtis Major.

  18. Retained Myogenic Potency of Human Satellite Cells from Torn Rotator Cuff Muscles Despite Fatty Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Koide, Masashi; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Kanzaki, Makoto; Hatakeyama, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Yukinori; Minowa, Takashi; Takemura, Taro; Ando, Akira; Sekiguchi, Takuya; Yabe, Yutaka; Itoi, Eiji

    2018-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are a common shoulder problem in the elderly that can lead to both muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration due to less physical load. Satellite cells, quiescent cells under the basal lamina of skeletal muscle fibers, play a major role in muscle regeneration. However, the myogenic potency of human satellite cells in muscles with fatty infiltration is unclear due to the difficulty in isolating from small samples, and the mechanism of the progression of fatty infiltration has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the population of myogenic and adipogenic cells in disused supraspinatus (SSP) and intact subscapularis (SSC) muscles of the RCTs from the same patients using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The microstructure of the muscle with fatty infiltration was observed as a whole mount condition under multi-photon microscopy. Myogenic differentiation potential and gene expression were evaluated in satellite cells. The results showed that the SSP muscle with greater fatty infiltration surrounded by collagen fibers compared with the SSC muscle under multi-photon microscopy. A positive correlation was observed between the ratio of muscle volume to fat volume and the ratio of myogenic precursor to adipogenic precursor. Although no difference was observed in the myogenic potential between the two groups in cell culture, satellite cells in the disused SSP muscle showed higher intrinsic myogenic gene expression than those in the intact SSC muscle. Our results indicate that satellite cells from the disused SSP retain sufficient potential of muscle growth despite the fatty infiltration.

  19. Endocrine regulation of fetal skeletal muscle growth: impact on future metabolic health

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing sufficient skeletal muscle mass is essential for lifelong metabolic health. The intrauterine environment is a major determinant of the muscle mass that is present for the life course of an individual, because muscle fiber number is set at the time of birth. Thus, a compromised intrauterine environment from maternal nutrient restriction or placental insufficiency that restricts development of muscle fiber number can have permanent effects on the amount of muscle an individual will live with. Reduced muscle mass due to fewer muscle fibers persists even after compensatory or “catch up” postnatal growth occurs. Furthermore, muscle hypertrophy can only partially compensate for this limitation in fiber number. Compelling associations link low birth weight and decreased muscle mass to future insulin resistance, which can drive the development of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and risk for cardiovascular events later in life. There are gaps in knowledge about the origins of reduced muscle growth at the cellular level and how these patterns are set during fetal development. By understanding the nutrient and endocrine regulation of fetal skeletal muscle growth and development, we can direct research efforts towards improving muscle growth early in life in order to prevent the development of chronic metabolic disease later in life. PMID:24532817

  20. The Muscle Metabolome Differs between Healthy and Frail Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Fazelzadeh, Parastoo; Hangelbroek, Roland W J; Tieland, Michael; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Smilde, Age K; Alves, Rodrigo D A M; Vervoort, Jacques; Müller, Michael; van Duynhoven, John P M; Boekschoten, Mark V

    2016-02-05

    Populations around the world are aging rapidly. Age-related loss of physiological functions negatively affects quality of life. A major contributor to the frailty syndrome of aging is loss of skeletal muscle. In this study we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsy metabolome of healthy young, healthy older and frail older subjects to determine the effect of age and frailty on the metabolic signature of skeletal muscle tissue. In addition, the effects of prolonged whole-body resistance-type exercise training on the muscle metabolome of older subjects were examined. The baseline metabolome was measured in muscle biopsies collected from 30 young, 66 healthy older subjects, and 43 frail older subjects. Follow-up samples from frail older (24 samples) and healthy older subjects (38 samples) were collected after 6 months of prolonged resistance-type exercise training. Young subjects were included as a reference group. Primary differences in skeletal muscle metabolite levels between young and healthy older subjects were related to mitochondrial function, muscle fiber type, and tissue turnover. Similar differences were observed when comparing frail older subjects with healthy older subjects at baseline. Prolonged resistance-type exercise training resulted in an adaptive response of amino acid metabolism, especially reflected in branched chain amino acids and genes related to tissue remodeling. The effect of exercise training on branched-chain amino acid-derived acylcarnitines in older subjects points to a downward shift in branched-chain amino acid catabolism upon training. We observed only modest correlations between muscle and plasma metabolite levels, which pleads against the use of plasma metabolites as a direct read-out of muscle metabolism and stresses the need for direct assessment of metabolites in muscle tissue biopsies.

  1. Aspects of respiratory muscle fatigue in a mountain ultramarathon race.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Thomas U; Marty, Julia; Kerherve, Hugo; Millet, Guillaume Y; Verges, Samuel; Spengler, Christina M

    2015-03-01

    Ultramarathon running offers a unique possibility to investigate the mechanisms contributing to the limitation of endurance performance. Investigations of locomotor muscle fatigue show that central fatigue is a major contributor to the loss of strength in the lower limbs after an ultramarathon. In addition, respiratory muscle fatigue is known to limit exercise performance, but only limited data are available on changes in respiratory muscle function after ultramarathon running and it is not known whether the observed impairment is caused by peripheral and/or central fatigue. In 22 experienced ultra-trail runners, we assessed respiratory muscle strength, i.e., maximal voluntary inspiratory and expiratory pressures, mouth twitch pressure (n = 16), and voluntary activation (n = 16) using cervical magnetic stimulation, lung function, and maximal voluntary ventilation before and after a 110-km mountain ultramarathon with 5862 m of positive elevation gain. Both maximal voluntary inspiratory (-16% ± 13%) and expiratory pressures (-21% ± 14%) were significantly reduced after the race. Fatigue of inspiratory muscles likely resulted from substantial peripheral fatigue (reduction in mouth twitch pressure, -19% ± 15%; P < 0.01), as voluntary activation (-3% ± 6%, P = 0.09) only tended to be decreased, suggesting negligible or only mild levels of central fatigue. Forced vital capacity remained unchanged, whereas forced expiratory volume in 1 s, peak inspiratory and expiratory flow rates, and maximal voluntary ventilation were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Ultraendurance running reduces respiratory muscle strength for inspiratory muscles shown to result from significant peripheral muscle fatigue with only little contribution of central fatigue. This is in contrast to findings in locomotor muscles. Whether this difference between muscle groups results from inherent neuromuscular differences, their specific pattern of loading or other reasons remain to be clarified.

  2. Skeletal muscle proteomic signature and metabolic impairment in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Malenfant, Simon; Potus, François; Fournier, Frédéric; Breuils-Bonnet, Sandra; Pflieger, Aude; Bourassa, Sylvie; Tremblay, Ève; Nehmé, Benjamin; Droit, Arnaud; Bonnet, Sébastien; Provencher, Steeve

    2015-05-01

    Exercise limitation comes from a close interaction between cardiovascular and skeletal muscle impairments. To better understand the implication of possible peripheral oxidative metabolism dysfunction, we studied the proteomic signature of skeletal muscle in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Eight idiopathic PAH patients and eight matched healthy sedentary subjects were evaluated for exercise capacity, skeletal muscle proteomic profile, metabolism, and mitochondrial function. Skeletal muscle proteins were extracted, and fractioned peptides were tagged using an iTRAQ protocol. Proteomic analyses have documented a total of 9 downregulated proteins in PAH skeletal muscles and 10 upregulated proteins compared to healthy subjects. Most of the downregulated proteins were related to mitochondrial structure and function. Focusing on skeletal muscle metabolism and mitochondrial health, PAH patients presented a decreased expression of oxidative enzymes (pyruvate dehydrogenase, p < 0.01) and an increased expression of glycolytic enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase activity, p < 0.05). These findings were supported by abnormal mitochondrial morphology on electronic microscopy, lower citrate synthase activity (p < 0.01) and lower expression of the transcription factor A of the mitochondria (p < 0.05), confirming a more glycolytic metabolism in PAH skeletal muscles. We provide evidences that impaired mitochondrial and metabolic functions found in the lungs and the right ventricle are also present in skeletal muscles of patients. • Proteomic and metabolic analysis show abnormal oxidative metabolism in PAH skeletal muscle. • EM of PAH patients reveals abnormal mitochondrial structure and distribution. • Abnormal mitochondrial health and function contribute to exercise impairments of PAH. • PAH may be considered a vascular affliction of heart and lungs with major impact on peripheral muscles.

  3. Human skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, U F; Rasmussen, H N

    2000-04-01

    Under aerobic work, the oxygen consumption and major ATP production occur in the mitochondria and it is therefore a relevant question whether the in vivo rates can be accounted for by mitochondrial capacities measured in vitro. Mitochondria were isolated from human quadriceps muscle biopsies in yields of approximately 45%. The tissue content of total creatine, mitochondrial protein and different cytochromes was estimated. A number of activities were measured in functional assays of the mitochondria: pyruvate, ketoglutarate, glutamate and succinate dehydrogenases, palmitoyl-carnitine respiration, cytochrome oxidase, the respiratory chain and the ATP synthesis. The activities involved in carbohydrate oxidation could account for in vivo oxygen uptakes of 15-16 mmol O2 min-1 kg-1 or slightly above the value measured at maximal work rates in the knee-extensor model of Saltin and co-workers, i.e. without limitation from the cardiac output. This probably indicates that the maximal oxygen consumption of the muscle is limited by the mitochondrial capacities. The in vitro activities of fatty acid oxidation corresponded to only 39% of those of carbohydrate oxidation. The maximal rate of free energy production from aerobic metabolism of glycogen was calculated from the mitochondrial activities and estimates of the DeltaG or ATP hydrolysis and the efficiency of the actin-myosin reaction. The resultant value was 20 W kg-1 or approximately 70% of the maximal in vivo work rates of which 10-20% probably are sustained by the anaerobic ATP production. The lack of aerobic in vitro ATP synthesis might reflect termination of some critical interplay between cytoplasm and mitochondria.

  4. Piriformis muscle syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuncewicz, Elzbieta; Gajewska, Ewa; Sobieska, Magdalena; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    Sciatica is characterized by radiating pain from the sacro-lumbar region to the buttocks and down to the lower limb. The causes of sciatica usually relate to degenerative changes in the spine and lesions to the intervertebral discs. Secondary symptomatic sciatica may by caused by metastases to the vertebra, tuberculosis of the spine, tumors located inside the vertebral channel, or entrapment of the sciatic nerve in the piriformis muscle. The piriformis syndrome is primarily caused by fall injury, but other causes are possible, including pyomyositis, dystonia musculorum deformans, and fibrosis after deep injections. Secondary causes like irritation of the sacroiliac joint or lump near the sciatic notch have been described. In the general practice the so-called posttraumatic piriformis muscle syndrome is common. The right treatment can be started following a thorough investigation into the cause of symptoms.

  5. Muscle Motion Solenoid Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Shuji

    It is one of our dreams to mechanically recover the lost body for damaged humans. Realistic humanoid robots composed of such machines require muscle motion actuators controlled by all pulling actions. Particularly, antagonistic pairs of bi-articular muscles are very important in animal's motions. A system of actuators is proposed using the electromagnetic force of the solenoids with the abilities of the stroke length over 10 cm and the strength about 20 N, which are needed to move the real human arm. The devised actuators are based on developments of recent modern electro-magnetic materials, where old time materials can not give such possibility. Composite actuators are controlled by a high ability computer and software making genuine motions.

  6. Muscle cooling delays activation of the muscle metaboreflex in humans.

    PubMed

    Ray, C A; Hume, K M; Gracey, K H; Mahoney, E T

    1997-11-01

    Elevation of muscle temperature has been shown to increase muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during isometric exercise in humans. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of muscle cooling on MSNA responses during exercise. Eight subjects performed ischemic isometric handgrip at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction to fatigue followed by 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI), with and without local cooling of the forearm. Local cooling of the forearm decreased forearm muscle temperature from 31.8 +/- 0.4 to 23.1 +/- 0.8 degrees C (P = 0.001). Time to fatigue was not different during the control and cold trials (156 +/- 11 and 154 +/- 5 s, respectively). Arterial pressures and heart rate were not significantly affected by muscle cooling during exercise, although heart rate tended to be higher during the second minute of exercise (P = 0.053) during muscle cooling. Exercise-induced increases in MSNA were delayed during handgrip with local cooling compared with control. However, MSNA responses at fatigue and PEMI were not different between the two conditions. These findings suggest that muscle cooling delayed the activation of the muscle metaboreflex during ischemic isometric exercise but did not prevent its full expression during fatiguing contraction. These results support the concept that muscle temperature can play a role in the regulation of MSNA during exercise.

  7. Sports Injuries to the Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Benjamin F; Lubitz, Marc G; Kremchek, Timothy E

    2017-08-01

    Injuries to the latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles, while rare, are debilitating. They are seen in a variety of sports, although disproportionately in the throwing shoulder of baseball pitchers. There have been 25 case reports and 2 case series published on the nonoperative and operative management of these injuries. Latissimus dorsi and teres major muscle anatomy, function, and common injury patterns are well described in these case reports. Also well detailed are the typical patient presentation, physical examination, and imaging findings. Latissimus dorsi tendon injuries are sometimes treated operatively, whereas latissimus dorsi muscle belly or isolated teres major injuries are treated nonoperatively. Nonoperative treatment includes oral anti-inflammatories and shoulder physical therapy. A number of surgical patient positions, approaches, and fixation constructs have been described, although 2 techniques of positioning and surgical approach are used most commonly. Fixation is most often performed with suture anchors. Return-to-play timing, shoulder strength, and healing on magnetic resonance imaging are variable. No standard of care currently exists for the treatment of latissimus dorsi or teres major injuries. If treating a patient with an injury to either muscle, the clinician should be familiar with accumulated experience as reported in the published literature.

  8. STAT3 activation in skeletal muscle links muscle wasting and the acute phase response in cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Bonetto, Andrea; Aydogdu, Tufan; Kunzevitzky, Noelia; Guttridge, Denis C; Khuri, Sawsan; Koniaris, Leonidas G; Zimmers, Teresa A

    2011-01-01

    Cachexia, or weight loss despite adequate nutrition, significantly impairs quality of life and response to therapy in cancer patients. In cancer patients, skeletal muscle wasting, weight loss and mortality are all positively associated with increased serum cytokines, particularly Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the presence of the acute phase response. Acute phase proteins, including fibrinogen and serum amyloid A (SAA) are synthesized by hepatocytes in response to IL-6 as part of the innate immune response. To gain insight into the relationships among these observations, we studied mice with moderate and severe Colon-26 (C26)-carcinoma cachexia. Moderate and severe C26 cachexia was associated with high serum IL-6 and IL-6 family cytokines and highly similar patterns of skeletal muscle gene expression. The top canonical pathways up-regulated in both were the complement/coagulation cascade, proteasome, MAPK signaling, and the IL-6 and STAT3 pathways. Cachexia was associated with increased muscle pY705-STAT3 and increased STAT3 localization in myonuclei. STAT3 target genes, including SOCS3 mRNA and acute phase response proteins, were highly induced in cachectic muscle. IL-6 treatment and STAT3 activation both also induced fibrinogen in cultured C2C12 myotubes. Quantitation of muscle versus liver fibrinogen and SAA protein levels indicates that muscle contributes a large fraction of serum acute phase proteins in cancer. These results suggest that the STAT3 transcriptome is a major mechanism for wasting in cancer. Through IL-6/STAT3 activation, skeletal muscle is induced to synthesize acute phase proteins, thus establishing a molecular link between the observations of high IL-6, increased acute phase response proteins and muscle wasting in cancer. These results suggest a mechanism by which STAT3 might causally influence muscle wasting by altering the profile of genes expressed and translated in muscle such that amino acids liberated by increased proteolysis in cachexia are

  9. Muscle paralysis in thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Fraz Anwar; Sheikh, Aisha

    2015-05-29

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a condition characterised by muscle paralysis due to hypokalaemia usually secondary to thyrotoxicosis. We report a case of a 31-year-old man with no known comorbidities who presented to a tertiary healthcare unit with a 1-month history of difficulty in breathing, palpitations, weight loss and hoarseness of voice. On examination, his thyroid gland was palpable and fine hand tremors were present. An initial provisional diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was made. Three months after initial presentation, the patient presented in emergency with severe muscle pain and inability to stand. Laboratory results revealed hypokalaemia. All the symptoms reverted over the next few hours on administration of intravenous potassium. A diagnosis of TTP was established. After initial presentation, the patient was treated with carbimazole and propranolol. Once he was euthyroid, radioactive iodine ablation therapy (15 mCi) was carried out as definitive therapy, after which the patient's symptoms resolved; he is currently doing fine on levothyroxine replacement and there has been no recurrence of muscle paralysis. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Ca2+-Dependent Regulations and Signaling in Skeletal Muscle: From Electro-Mechanical Coupling to Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Gehlert, Sebastian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Suhr, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) plays a pivotal role in almost all cellular processes and ensures the functionality of an organism. In skeletal muscle fibers, Ca2+ is critically involved in the innervation of skeletal muscle fibers that results in the exertion of an action potential along the muscle fiber membrane, the prerequisite for skeletal muscle contraction. Furthermore and among others, Ca2+ regulates also intracellular processes, such as myosin-actin cross bridging, protein synthesis, protein degradation and fiber type shifting by the control of Ca2+-sensitive proteases and transcription factors, as well as mitochondrial adaptations, plasticity and respiration. These data highlight the overwhelming significance of Ca2+ ions for the integrity of skeletal muscle tissue. In this review, we address the major functions of Ca2+ ions in adult muscle but also highlight recent findings of critical Ca2+-dependent mechanisms essential for skeletal muscle-regulation and maintenance. PMID:25569087

  11. Experiment K-6-09. Morphological and biochemical investigation of microgravity-induced nerve and muscle breakdown. Part 1: Investigation of nerve and muscle breakdown during spaceflight; Part 2: Biochemical analysis of EDL and PLT muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Ellis, S.; Bain, J.; Sedlak, F.; Slocum, G.; Oganov, V.

    1990-01-01

    The present findings on rat hindlimb muscles suggest that skeletal muscle weakness induced by prolonged spaceflight can result from a combination of muscle fiber atrophy, muscle fiber segmental necrosis, degeneration of motor nerve terminals and destruction of microcirculatory vessels. Damage was confined to the red adductor longus (AL) and soleus muscles. The midbelly region of the AL muscle had more segmental necrosis and edema than the ends. Macrophages and neutrophils were the major mononucleated cells infiltrating and phagocytosing the cellular debris. Toluidine blue-positive mast cells were significantly decreased in Flight AL muscles compared to controls; this indicated that degranulation of mast cells contributed to tissue edema. Increased ubiquitination of disrupted myofibrils may have promoted myofilament degradation. Overall, mitochondria content and SDH activity were normal, except for a decrease in the subsarcolemmal region. The myofibrillar ATPase activity shifted toward the fast type in the Flight AL muscles. Some of the pathological changes may have occurred or been exacerbated during the 2 day postflight period of readaptation to terrestrial gravity. While simple atrophy should be reversible by exercise, restoration of pathological changes depends upon complex processes of regeneration by stem cells. Initial signs of muscle and nerve fiber regeneration were detected. Even though regeneration proceeds on Earth, the space environment may inhibit repair and cause progressive irreversible deterioration during long term missions. Muscles obtained from Flight rats sacrificed immediately (within a few hours) after landing are needed to distinguish inflight changes from postflight readaptation.

  12. Respiratory muscle training for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Nathan; Solis-Moya, Arturo

    2018-05-24

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common autosomal recessive disease in white populations, and causes respiratory dysfunction in the majority of individuals. Numerous types of respiratory muscle training to improve respiratory function and health-related quality of life in people with cystic fibrosis have been reported in the literature. Hence a systematic review of the literature is needed to establish the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training (either inspiratory or expiratory muscle training) on clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. To determine the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training on clinical outcomes in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials register comprising of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of most recent search: 17 April 2018.A hand search of the Journal of Cystic Fibrosis and Pediatric Pulmonology was performed, along with an electronic search of online trial databases up until 07 May 2018. Randomised controlled studies comparing respiratory muscle training with a control group in people with cystic fibrosis. Review authors independently selected articles for inclusion, evaluated the methodological quality of the studies, and extracted data. Additional information was sought from trial authors where necessary. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system MAIN RESULTS: Authors identified 19 studies, of which nine studies with 202 participants met the review's inclusion criteria. There was wide variation in the methodological and written quality of the included studies. Four of the nine included studies were published as abstracts only and lacking concise details, thus limiting the information available. Seven studies were parallel studies and two of a cross-over design. Respiratory

  13. Astaxanthin intake attenuates muscle atrophy caused by immobilization in rats.

    PubMed

    Shibaguchi, Tsubasa; Yamaguchi, Yusuke; Miyaji, Nobuyuki; Yoshihara, Toshinori; Naito, Hisashi; Goto, Katsumasa; Ohmori, Daijiro; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Sugiura, Takao

    2016-08-01

    Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment and has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of oxidative damage. We tested the hypothesis that astaxanthin intake would attenuate immobilization-induced muscle atrophy in rats. Male Wistar rats (14-week old) were fed for 24 days with either astaxanthin or placebo diet. After 14 days of each experimental diet intake, the hindlimb muscles of one leg were immobilized in plantar flexion position using a plaster cast. Following 10 days of immobilization, both the atrophic and the contralateral plantaris muscles were removed and analyzed to determine the level of muscle atrophy along with measurement of the protein levels of CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and selected proteases. Compared with placebo diet animals, the degree of muscle atrophy in response to immobilization was significantly reduced in astaxanthin diet animals. Further, astaxanthin supplementation significantly prevented the immobilization-induced increase in the expression of CuZn-SOD, cathepsin L, calpain, and ubiquitin in the atrophied muscle. These results support the postulate that dietary astaxanthin intake attenuates the rate of disuse muscle atrophy by inhibiting oxidative stress and proteolysis via three major proteolytic pathways. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  14. Diversity effect of capsaicin on different types of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gan; Wang, Lina; Xu, Yaqiong; Yang, Kelin; Luo, Lv; Wang, Leshan; Li, Yongxiang; Wang, Jiawen; Shu, Gang; Wang, Songbo; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiaotong; Xi, Qianyun; Sun, Jiajie; Zhang, Yongliang; Jiang, Qingyan

    2018-06-01

    Capsaicin is a major pungent content in green and red peppers which are widely used as spice, and capsaicin may activate different receptors. To determine whether capsaicin has different effects on different types of skeletal muscle, we applied different concentrations (0, 0.01, and 0.02%) of capsaicin in the normal diet and conducted a four-week experiment on Sprague-Dawley rats. The fiber type composition, glucose metabolism enzyme activity, and different signaling molecules' expressions of receptors were detected. Our results suggested that capsaicin reduced the body fat deposition, while promoting the slow muscle-related gene expression and increasing the enzyme activity in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. However, fatty acid metabolism was significantly increased only in the soleus muscle. The study of intracellular signaling suggested that the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and cannabinoid receptors in the soleus muscle were more sensitive to capsaicin. In conclusion, the distribution of TRPV1 and cannabinoid receptors differs in different types of muscle, and the different roles of capsaicin in different types of muscle may be related to the different degrees of activation of receptors.

  15. Exercise capacity, muscle strength and fatigue in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Marcellis, R G J; Lenssen, A F; Elfferich, M D P; De Vries, J; Kassim, S; Foerster, K; Drent, M

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the prevalence of exercise intolerance, muscle weakness and fatigue in sarcoidosis patients. Additionally, we evaluated whether fatigue can be explained by exercise capacity, muscle strength or other clinical characteristics (lung function tests, radiographic stages, prednisone usage and inflammatory markers). 124 sarcoidosis patients (80 males) referred to the Maastricht University Medical Centre (Maastricht, the Netherlands) were included (mean age 46.6±10.2 yrs). Patients performed a 6-min walk test (6MWT) and handgrip force (HGF), elbow flexor muscle strength (EFMS), quadriceps peak torque (QPT) and hamstring peak torque (HPT) tests. Maximal inspiratory pressure (P(I,max)) was recorded. All patients completed the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) questionnaire. The 6MWT was reduced in 45% of the population, while HGF, EFMS, QPT and HPT muscle strength were reduced in 15, 12, 27 and 18%, respectively. P(I,max) was reduced in 43% of the population. The majority of the patients (81%) reported fatigue (FAS ≥22). Patients with reduced peripheral muscle strength of the upper and/or lower extremities were more fatigued and demonstrated impaired lung functions, fat-free mass, P(I,max), 6MWT and quality of life. Fatigue was neither predicted by exercise capacity, nor by muscle strength. Besides fatigue, exercise intolerance and muscle weakness are frequent problems in sarcoidosis. We therefore recommend physical tests in the multidisciplinary management of sarcoidosis patients, even in nonfatigued patients.

  16. Estimation of skeletal muscle mass from body creatine content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures have been developed for studying the effect of changes in gravitational loading on skeletal muscle mass through measurements of the body creatine content. These procedures were developed for studies of gravitational scale effects in a four-species model, comprising the hamster, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit, which provides a sufficient range of body size for assessment of allometric parameters. Since intracellular muscle creatine concentration varies among species, and with age within a given species, the concentration values for metabolically mature individuals of these four species were established. The creatine content of the carcass, skin, viscera, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle was determined for each species. In addition, the skeletal muscle mass of the major body components was determined, as well as the total and fat-free masses of the body and carcass, and the percent skeletal muscle in each. It is concluded that these procedures are particularly useful for studying the effect of gravitational loading on the skeletal muscle content of the animal carcass, which is the principal weight-bearing organ of the body.

  17. US and MR Imaging of Pectoralis Major Injuries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yauk K; Skalski, Matt R; White, Eric A; Tomasian, Anderanik; Phan, Diane D; Patel, Dakshesh B; Matcuk, George R; Schein, Aaron J

    2017-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, the frequency of pectoralis major muscle injuries has increased in association with the increased popularity of bench press exercises. Injury of the pectoralis major can occur at the muscle origin, muscle belly, musculotendinous junction, intratendinous region, and/or humeral insertion-with or without bone avulsion. The extent of the tendon injury ranges from partial to complete tears. Treatment may be surgical or conservative, depending on the clinical scenario and anatomic characteristics of the injury. The radiologist has a critical role in the patient's treatment-first in detecting and then in characterizing the injury. In this article, the authors review the normal anatomy and anatomic variations of the pectoralis major muscle, classifications and typical patterns of pectoralis major injuries, and associated treatment considerations. The authors further provide an instructive guide for ultrasonographic (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging evaluation of pectoralis major injuries, with emphasis on a systematic approach involving the use of anatomic landmarks. After reviewing this article, the reader should have an understanding of how to perform-and interpret the findings of-US and MR imaging of the pectoralis major. The reader should also understand how to classify pectoralis major injuries, with emphasis on the key findings used to differentiate injuries for which surgical management is required from those for which nonsurgical management is required. Familiarity with the normal but complex anatomy of the pectoralis major is crucial for performing imaging-based evaluation and understanding the injury findings. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  18. Skeletal muscle satellite cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, E.; McCormick, K. M.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence now suggests that satellite cells constitute a class of myogenic cells that differ distinctly from other embryonic myoblasts. Satellite cells arise from somites and first appear as a distinct myoblast type well before birth. Satellite cells from different muscles cannot be functionally distinguished from one another and are able to provide nuclei to all fibers without regard to phenotype. Thus, it is difficult to ascribe any significant function to establishing or stabilizing fiber type, even during regeneration. Within a muscle, satellite cells exhibit marked heterogeneity with respect to their proliferative behavior. The satellite cell population on a fiber can be partitioned into those that function as stem cells and those which are readily available for fusion. Recent studies have shown that the cells are not simply spindle shaped, but are very diverse in their morphology and have multiple branches emanating from the poles of the cells. This finding is consistent with other studies indicating that the cells have the capacity for extensive migration within, and perhaps between, muscles. Complexity of cell shape usually reflects increased cytoplasmic volume and organelles including a well developed Golgi, and is usually associated with growing postnatal muscle or muscles undergoing some form of induced adaptive change or repair. The appearance of activated satellite cells suggests some function of the cells in the adaptive process through elaboration and secretion of a product. Significant advances have been made in determining the potential secretion products that satellite cells make. The manner in which satellite cell proliferative and fusion behavior is controlled has also been studied. There seems to be little doubt that cellcell coupling is not how satellite cells and myofibers communicate. Rather satellite cell regulation is through a number of potential growth factors that arise from a number of sources. Critical to the understanding of this form

  19. Skeletal muscle and nuclear hormone receptors: implications for cardiovascular and metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron G; Muscat, George E O

    2005-10-01

    Skeletal muscle is a major mass peripheral tissue that accounts for approximately 40% of the total body mass and a major player in energy balance. It accounts for >30% of energy expenditure, is the primary tissue of insulin stimulated glucose uptake, disposal, and storage. Furthermore, it influences metabolism via modulation of circulating and stored lipid (and cholesterol) flux. Lipid catabolism supplies up to 70% of the energy requirements for resting muscle. However, initial aerobic exercise utilizes stored muscle glycogen but as exercise continues, glucose and stored muscle triglycerides become important energy substrates. Endurance exercise increasingly depends on fatty acid oxidation (and lipid mobilization from other tissues). This underscores the importance of lipid and glucose utilization as an energy source in muscle. Consequently skeletal muscle has a significant role in insulin sensitivity, the blood lipid profile, and obesity. Moreover, caloric excess, obesity and physical inactivity lead to skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a risk factor for the development of type II diabetes. In this context skeletal muscle is an important therapeutic target in the battle against cardiovascular disease, the worlds most serious public health threat. Major risk factors for cardiovascular disease include dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and diabetes. These risk factors are directly influenced by diet, metabolism and physical activity. Metabolism is largely regulated by nuclear hormone receptors which function as hormone regulated transcription factors that bind DNA and mediate the patho-physiological regulation of gene expression. Metabolism and activity, which directly influence cardiovascular disease risk factors, are primarily driven by skeletal muscle. Recently, many nuclear receptors expressed in skeletal muscle have been shown to improve glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Skeletal muscle and nuclear receptors are

  20. Fragility fracture risk and skeletal muscle function.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, F R; Ara, I

    2016-01-01

    Low-intensity fractures are closely related with age-related musculoskeletal disorders, including osteoporosis, muscle dysfunction and sarcopenia, age-related chronic diseases, and pharmacological treatments. During the last years, a huge amount of information and recommendations has been released in relation to bone metabolism and mineral content. Muscle dysfunction and sarcopenia are highly prevalent during the second half of life, especially in older subjects. The development of sarcopenia may be slowed through healthy lifestyle changes, which include adequate dietary protein, vitamin D and mineral intakes, and regular physical activity. Prevention of falls should be integral, including correction in major involved factors in order to reduce fragility fracture, improve quality of life and appropriately focus clinical and economic resources. Therefore, to obtain better results a global approach is needed to prevent age-related fractures in frail patients that is not only centered on bone metabolism and antiresorptive drugs.

  1. Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Tina; Windisch, Wolfram

    2018-07-01

    In sarcoidosis, muscle involvement is common, but mostly asymptomatic. Currently, little is known about respiratory muscle and diaphragm involvement and function in patients with sarcoidosis. Reduced inspiratory muscle strength and/or a reduced diaphragm function may contribute to exertional dyspnea, fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life. Previous studies using volitional and non-volitional tests demonstrated a reduced inspiratory muscle strength in sarcoidosis compared to control subjects, and also showed that respiratory muscle function may even be significantly impaired in a subset of patients. Areas covered: This review examines the evidence on respiratory muscle involvement and its implications in sarcoidosis with emphasis on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The presented evidence was identified by a literature search performed in PubMed and Medline for articles about respiratory and skeletal muscle function in sarcoidosis through to January 2018. Expert commentary: Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is an underdiagnosed condition, which may have an important impact on dyspnea and health-related quality of life. Further studies are needed to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and extent of respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

  2. Systems Biology of Skeletal Muscle: Fiber Type as an Organizing Principle

    PubMed Central

    Greising, Sarah M; Gransee, Heather M; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle force generation and contraction are fundamental to countless aspects of human life. The complexity of skeletal muscle physiology is simplified by fiber type classification where differences are observed from neuromuscular transmission to release of intracellular Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the resulting recruitment and cycling of cross-bridges. This review uses fiber type classification as an organizing and simplifying principle to explore the complex interactions between the major proteins involved in muscle force generation and contraction. PMID:22811254

  3. Skeletal muscle inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huaizhu; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2017-01-03

    Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Under normal conditions, skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose disposal; thus, dysregulation of skeletal muscle metabolism can strongly influence whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation occurs in skeletal muscle in obesity and is mainly manifested by increased immune cell infiltration and proinflammatory activation in intermyocellular and perimuscular adipose tissue. By secreting proinflammatory molecules, immune cells may induce myocyte inflammation, adversely regulate myocyte metabolism, and contribute to insulin resistance via paracrine effects. Increased influx of fatty acids and inflammatory molecules from other tissues, particularly visceral adipose tissue, can also induce muscle inflammation and negatively regulate myocyte metabolism, leading to insulin resistance.

  4. Skeletal muscle inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huaizhu; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Under normal conditions, skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose disposal; thus, dysregulation of skeletal muscle metabolism can strongly influence whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation occurs in skeletal muscle in obesity and is mainly manifested by increased immune cell infiltration and proinflammatory activation in intermyocellular and perimuscular adipose tissue. By secreting proinflammatory molecules, immune cells may induce myocyte inflammation, adversely regulate myocyte metabolism, and contribute to insulin resistance via paracrine effects. Increased influx of fatty acids and inflammatory molecules from other tissues, particularly visceral adipose tissue, can also induce muscle inflammation and negatively regulate myocyte metabolism, leading to insulin resistance. PMID:28045398

  5. Glucocorticoid sensitivity, disuse, and the regulation of muscle mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almon, R. R.; Dubois, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    A new noninvasive immobilization procedure to be used on rats has been developed to study immobilization-induced muscle hypersensitivity to normal glucocorticoid concentration, subsequent muscle atrophy, and atrophy recovery. The immobilization procedure involves encasing the hind limb in a light-weight plasticlike cast (10 percent the usual plaster weight), completely resistant to animal gnawing. The effects of right-angle immobilization of the ankle on the slow fiber soleus, and the fast fiber extensor digitorum longus, resemble the effects of weightlessness. The increased concentration of glucocorticoid receptor sites in immobilized and denervated muscle is discussed, along with the chronic loss of muscle mass that occurs in practically all dystrophies. It is concluded that lack of mechanical work in a zero gravity environment is a major cause of glucocorticoid hypersensitivity in the body's musculature.

  6. Attracting Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Ifeakandu

    2011-01-01

    A disturbing concern that has been expressed by academic economists is the low interest in economics as a major, as evidenced by the declining enrollment in most of the economics departments in American colleges and universities. Though some college and university economics departments are experiencing or had experienced a decline in their majors…

  7. Mobilizing the Moral Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebman, Robert C.

    The Moral Majority has been more successful in mobilizing conservative Christians than three other evangelical groups--Third Century Publishers, Christian Voice, and the Religious Roundtable. According to the literature on social movements, four possible explanations for the success of such groups are that they have access to financial resources,…

  8. Major Biomass Conference

    Science.gov Websites

    Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference America, South America and Europe will focus on building a sustainable, profitable biomass business at the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas in Montreal. Scheduled presentations will cover all biomass

  9. REACH. Major Appliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Charles; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

  10. Today's "Neglected Majority"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley, Rod A.

    2007-01-01

    In 1985, then American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) President Dale Parnell wrote of the "neglected majority," a phrase he coined for the astounding 70 percent of high school graduates who did not plan or aspire to attain baccalaureate degrees. Twenty-two years later, community college and public policy leaders still face the…

  11. Isoflavin-β modifies muscle oxidative stress and prevents a thyrotoxicosis-induced loss of muscle mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Marinello, Poliana C; Bernardes, Sara S; Guarnier, Flávia A; Da Silva, Thamara N X; Borges, Fernando H; Lopes, Natália M D; Simão, Andréa N C; Armani, André; Cecchini, Rubens; Cecchini, Alessandra L

    2017-11-01

    We sought to verify whether isoflavin-beta (Iso-β), a mixture of isoflavones with antioxidant properties, could prevent thyrotoxicosis-induced loss of muscle mass and the participation of oxidative stress (OS) in the mechanisms of this prevention. Two experimental periods of thyrotoxicosis induction were used in Wistar rats: 3 and 5 days to assess Iso-β effects before and after thyrotoxicosis-induced muscle wasting. After euthanasia, peritoneal fat and gastrocnemius muscle were collected, weighed, and muscle OS was assessed. Iso-β prevented the loss of gastrocnemius mass in thyrotoxic rats through the prevention of muscle OS generation during thyrotoxicosis, increasing muscle total antioxidant capacity and decreasing mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl content. Iso-β decreased oxidative modification of proteins, which is known to exert a major role during proteolysis induction and is present in thyrotoxic myopathy, highlighting the potential action of Iso-β in this complication of the disease. Muscle Nerve 56: 975-981, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of breathing maneuver and sitting posture on muscle activity in inspiratory accessory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the influence of breathing maneuver and sitting posture on tidal volume (TV), respiratory rate (RR), and muscle activity of the inspiratory accessory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Twelve men with COPD participated in the study. Inductive respiratory plethysmography and surface electromyography were used to simultaneously measure TV, RR, and muscle activity of the inspiratory accessory muscles [the scalenus (SM), sternocleidomastoid (SCM), and pectoralis major (PM) muscles] during quiet natural breathing (QB) and pursed-lips breathing (PLB) in three sitting postures: neutral position (NP), with armm support (WAS), and with arm and head support (WAHS). Results Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was employed. In a comparison of breathing patterns, PLB significantly increased TV and decreased RR compared to QB. Muscle activity in the SM and SCM increased significantly in PLB compared to QB. In a comparison of sitting postures, the muscle activity of the SM, SCM, and PM increased in the forward-leaning position. Conclusions The results suggest that in COPD, PLB induced a favorable breathing pattern (increased TV and reduced RR) compared to QB. Additionally, WAS and WAHS positions increased muscle activity of the inspiratory accessory muscles during inspiration versus NP. Differential involvement of accessory respiratory muscles can be readily studied in COPD patients, allowing monitoring of respiratory load during pulmonary rehabilitation. PMID:22958459

  13. Automatic facial mimicry in response to dynamic emotional stimuli in five-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Isomura, Tomoko; Nakano, Tamami

    2016-12-14

    Human adults automatically mimic others' emotional expressions, which is believed to contribute to sharing emotions with others. Although this behaviour appears fundamental to social reciprocity, little is known about its developmental process. Therefore, we examined whether infants show automatic facial mimicry in response to others' emotional expressions. Facial electromyographic activity over the corrugator supercilii (brow) and zygomaticus major (cheek) of four- to five-month-old infants was measured while they viewed dynamic clips presenting audiovisual, visual and auditory emotions. The audiovisual bimodal emotion stimuli were a display of a laughing/crying facial expression with an emotionally congruent vocalization, whereas the visual/auditory unimodal emotion stimuli displayed those emotional faces/vocalizations paired with a neutral vocalization/face, respectively. Increased activation of the corrugator supercilii muscle in response to audiovisual cries and the zygomaticus major in response to audiovisual laughter were observed between 500 and 1000 ms after stimulus onset, which clearly suggests rapid facial mimicry. By contrast, both visual and auditory unimodal emotion stimuli did not activate the infants' corresponding muscles. These results revealed that automatic facial mimicry is present as early as five months of age, when multimodal emotional information is present. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Accessory Muscles of the Extremities.

    PubMed

    Vanhoenacker, Filip M; Desimpel, Julie; Mespreuve, Marc; Tagliafico, Alberto

    2018-07-01

    Accessory muscles and variations are not uncommon at the upper and lower extremity. They are often overlooked because they are asymptomatic and present as incidental findings on imaging. However, they may present as a soft tissue swelling, thereby mimicking soft tissue tumors. Other symptoms are attributed to impingement on neurovascular structures and to exercise-related pain. Thorough knowledge of the anatomy, systematic imaging analysis, and the awareness of it are the clues to correct identification. On ultrasound, accessory muscles have a similar echotexture as other muscles, whereas the signal intensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is similar to muscle. Because of the intrinsic contrast with the adjacent intermuscular fat, accessory muscles are best depicted on MRI without fat suppression. This article provides a short overview of the anatomy of most prevalent accessory muscles of the upper and lower limb and its potential pathogenic nature. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Ultrasound of skeletal muscle injury.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eamon Su Chun; McNally, Eugene G

    2007-06-01

    The professional and recreational demands of modern society make the treatment of muscle injury an increasingly important clinical problem, particularly in the athletic population. In the elite athlete, significant financial and professional pressures may also exist that emphasize the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment. With new advances in ultrasound technology, images of exquisite detail allow diagnosis of muscle injury that matches the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, the benefits of real-time and Doppler imaging, ability to perform interventional procedures, and relative cost benefits compared with MRI place ultrasound at the forefront for investigation for these injuries in many circumstances. Muscle injury may be divided into acute and chronic pathology, with muscle strain injury the most common clinical problem presenting to sports physicians. This article reviews the spectrum of acute and chronic muscle injuries, with particular attention to clinical features and some common or important muscle strain injuries.

  16. Specific fibre composition and metabolism of the rectus abdominis muscle of bovine Charolais cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An important variability of contractile and metabolic properties between muscles has been highlighted. In the literature, the majority of studies on beef sensorial quality concerns M. longissimus thoracis. M. rectus abdominis (RA) is easy to sample without huge carcass depreciation and may appear as an alternative to M. longissimus thoracis for fast and routine physicochemical analysis. It was considered interesting to assess the muscle fibres of M. rectus abdominis in comparison with M. longissimus thoracis (LT) and M. triceps brachii (TB) on the basis of metabolic and contractile properties, area and myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) proportions. Immuno-histochemical, histochemical, histological and enzymological techniques were used. This research concerned two populations of Charolais cattle: RA was compared to TB in a population of 19 steers while RA was compared to LT in a population of 153 heifers. Results RA muscle had higher mean fibre areas (3350 μm2 vs 2142 to 2639 μm2) than the two other muscles. In RA muscle, the slow-oxidative fibres were the largest (3957 μm2) and the fast-glycolytic the smallest (2868 μm2). The reverse was observed in TB muscle (1725 and 2436 μm2 respectively). In RA muscle, the distinction between fast-oxidative-glycolytic and fast-glycolytic fibres appeared difficult or impossible to establish, unlike in the other muscles. Consequently the classification based on ATPase and SDH activities seemed inappropriate, since the FOG fibres presented rather low SDH activity in this muscle in comparison to the other muscles of the carcass. RA muscle had a higher proportion of I fibres than TB and LT muscles, balanced by a lower proportion either of IIX fibres (in comparison to TB muscle) or of IIA fibres (in comparison to LT muscle). However, both oxidative and glycolytic enzyme activities were lower in RA than in TB muscle, although the LDH/ICDH ratio was higher in RA muscle (522 vs 340). Oxidative enzyme activities were

  17. Diversification of the muscle proteome through alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Nakka, Kiran; Ghigna, Claudia; Gabellini, Davide; Dilworth, F Jeffrey

    2018-03-06

    Skeletal muscles express a highly specialized proteome that allows the metabolism of energy sources to mediate myofiber contraction. This muscle-specific proteome is partially derived through the muscle-specific transcription of a subset of genes. Surprisingly, RNA sequencing technologies have also revealed a significant role for muscle-specific alternative splicing in generating protein isoforms that give specialized function to the muscle proteome. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge with respect to the mechanisms that allow pre-mRNA transcripts to undergo muscle-specific alternative splicing while identifying some of the key trans-acting splicing factors essential to the process. The importance of specific splicing events to specialized muscle function is presented along with examples in which dysregulated splicing contributes to myopathies. Though there is now an appreciation that alternative splicing is a major contributor to proteome diversification, the emergence of improved "targeted" proteomic methodologies for detection of specific protein isoforms will soon allow us to better appreciate the extent to which alternative splicing modifies the activity of proteins (and their ability to interact with other proteins) in the skeletal muscle. In addition, we highlight a continued need to better explore the signaling pathways that contribute to the temporal control of trans-acting splicing factor activity to ensure specific protein isoforms are expressed in the proper cellular context. An understanding of the signal-dependent and signal-independent events driving muscle-specific alternative splicing has the potential to provide us with novel therapeutic strategies to treat different myopathies.

  18. Electrical stimulation as a biomimicry tool for regulating muscle cell behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ahadian, Samad; Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Kaji, Hirokazu; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing need to understand muscle cell behaviors and to engineer muscle tissues to replace defective tissues in the body. Despite a long history of the clinical use of electric fields for muscle tissues in vivo, electrical stimulation (ES) has recently gained significant attention as a powerful tool for regulating muscle cell behaviors in vitro. ES aims to mimic the electrical environment of electroactive muscle cells (e.g., cardiac or skeletal muscle cells) by helping to regulate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. As a result, it can be used to enhance the alignment and differentiation of skeletal or cardiac muscle cells and to aid in engineering of functional muscle tissues. Additionally, ES can be used to control and monitor force generation and electrophysiological activity of muscle tissues for bio-actuation and drug-screening applications in a simple, high-throughput, and reproducible manner. In this review paper, we briefly describe the importance of ES in regulating muscle cell behaviors in vitro, as well as the major challenges and prospective potential associated with ES in the context of muscle tissue engineering. PMID:23823664

  19. Electrical stimulation as a biomimicry tool for regulating muscle cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Ahadian, Samad; Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Kaji, Hirokazu; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing need to understand muscle cell behaviors and to engineer muscle tissues to replace defective tissues in the body. Despite a long history of the clinical use of electric fields for muscle tissues in vivo, electrical stimulation (ES) has recently gained significant attention as a powerful tool for regulating muscle cell behaviors in vitro. ES aims to mimic the electrical environment of electroactive muscle cells (e.g., cardiac or skeletal muscle cells) by helping to regulate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. As a result, it can be used to enhance the alignment and differentiation of skeletal or cardiac muscle cells and to aid in engineering of functional muscle tissues. Additionally, ES can be used to control and monitor force generation and electrophysiological activity of muscle tissues for bio-actuation and drug-screening applications in a simple, high-throughput, and reproducible manner. In this review paper, we briefly describe the importance of ES in regulating muscle cell behaviors in vitro, as well as the major challenges and prospective potential associated with ES in the context of muscle tissue engineering.

  20. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights.

    PubMed

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people's beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples), which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian) males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term "muscle dysmorphia" entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base than currently exists. Future work will help clinicians assist a group of people whose quality of life and health are placed at risk by their muscular preoccupation.

  1. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people’s beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples), which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian) males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term “muscle dysmorphia” entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base than currently exists. Future work will help clinicians assist a group of people whose quality of life and health are placed at risk by their muscular preoccupation. PMID:27536165

  2. Coding in Muscle Disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lyell K; Ney, John P

    2016-12-01

    Accurate coding is critically important for clinical practice and research. Ongoing changes to diagnostic and billing codes require the clinician to stay abreast of coding updates. Payment for health care services, data sets for health services research, and reporting for medical quality improvement all require accurate administrative coding. This article provides an overview of administrative coding for patients with muscle disease and includes a case-based review of diagnostic and Evaluation and Management (E/M) coding principles in patients with myopathy. Procedural coding for electrodiagnostic studies and neuromuscular ultrasound is also reviewed.

  3. Muscle Stimulation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Goddard Space Flight Center contract, Electrologic of America was able to refine the process of densely packing circuitry on personal computer boards, providing significant contributions to the closed-loop systems for the Remote Manipulator System Simulator. The microcircuitry work was then applied to the StimMaster FES Ergometer, an exercise device used to stimulate muscles suffering from paralysis. The electrical stimulation equipment was developed exclusively for V-Care Health Systems, Inc. Product still commercially available as of March 2002.

  4. New twist on artificial muscles

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Carter S.; Li, Na; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Aliev, Ali E.; Di, Jiangtao; Baughman, Ray H.

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight artificial muscle fibers that can match the large tensile stroke of natural muscles have been elusive. In particular, low stroke, limited cycle life, and inefficient energy conversion have combined with high cost and hysteretic performance to restrict practical use. In recent years, a new class of artificial muscles, based on highly twisted fibers, has emerged that can deliver more than 2,000 J/kg of specific work during muscle contraction, compared with just 40 J/kg for natural muscle. Thermally actuated muscles made from ordinary polymer fibers can deliver long-life, hysteresis-free tensile strokes of more than 30% and torsional actuation capable of spinning a paddle at speeds of more than 100,000 rpm. In this perspective, we explore the mechanisms and potential applications of present twisted fiber muscles and the future opportunities and challenges for developing twisted muscles having improved cycle rates, efficiencies, and functionality. We also demonstrate artificial muscle sewing threads and textiles and coiled structures that exhibit nearly unlimited actuation strokes. In addition to robotics and prosthetics, future applications include smart textiles that change breathability in response to temperature and moisture and window shutters that automatically open and close to conserve energy. PMID:27671626

  5. New twist on artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Haines, Carter S; Li, Na; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Aliev, Ali E; Di, Jiangtao; Baughman, Ray H

    2016-10-18

    Lightweight artificial muscle fibers that can match the large tensile stroke of natural muscles have been elusive. In particular, low stroke, limited cycle life, and inefficient energy conversion have combined with high cost and hysteretic performance to restrict practical use. In recent years, a new class of artificial muscles, based on highly twisted fibers, has emerged that can deliver more than 2,000 J/kg of specific work during muscle contraction, compared with just 40 J/kg for natural muscle. Thermally actuated muscles made from ordinary polymer fibers can deliver long-life, hysteresis-free tensile strokes of more than 30% and torsional actuation capable of spinning a paddle at speeds of more than 100,000 rpm. In this perspective, we explore the mechanisms and potential applications of present twisted fiber muscles and the future opportunities and challenges for developing twisted muscles having improved cycle rates, efficiencies, and functionality. We also demonstrate artificial muscle sewing threads and textiles and coiled structures that exhibit nearly unlimited actuation strokes. In addition to robotics and prosthetics, future applications include smart textiles that change breathability in response to temperature and moisture and window shutters that automatically open and close to conserve energy.

  6. Mechanical Properties of Respiratory Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Sieck, Gary C.; Ferreira, Leonardo F.; Reid, Michael B.; Mantilla, Carlos B.

    2014-01-01

    Striated respiratory muscles are necessary for lung ventilation and to maintain the patency of the upper airway. The basic structural and functional properties of respiratory muscles are similar to those of other striated muscles (both skeletal and cardiac). The sarcomere is the fundamental organizational unit of striated muscles and sarcomeric proteins underlie the passive and active mechanical properties of muscle fibers. In this respect, the functional categorization of different fiber types provides a conceptual framework to understand the physiological properties of respiratory muscles. Within the sarcomere, the interaction between the thick and thin filaments at the level of cross-bridges provides the elementary unit of force generation and contraction. Key to an understanding of the unique functional differences across muscle fiber types are differences in cross-bridge recruitment and cycling that relate to the expression of different myosin heavy chain isoforms in the thick filament. The active mechanical properties of muscle fibers are characterized by the relationship between myoplasmic Ca2+ and cross-bridge recruitment, force generation and sarcomere length (also cross-bridge recruitment), external load and shortening velocity (cross-bridge cycling rate), and cross-bridge cycling rate and ATP consumption. Passive mechanical properties are also important reflecting viscoelastic elements within sarcomeres as well as the extracellular matrix. Conditions that affect respiratory muscle performance may have a range of underlying pathophysiological causes, but their manifestations will depend on their impact on these basic elemental structures. PMID:24265238

  7. Bipolar Latissimus Dorsi Transfer for Restoration of Pectoralis Major Function in Poland Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Patrick; Leyngold, Mark; Mast, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    Poland syndrome typically presents as a unilateral congenital complete or partial absence of the pectoralis major muscle, variably with other associated anomalies. Reconstruction of the defect typically concentrates on aesthetic restoration with functional outcomes being unsuccessful or limited. We present an innovative means of true muscle transfer that provided functional benefit to increase upper extremity strength. A 16-year-old adolescent boy with Poland syndrome manifesting as left pectoralis major muscle agenesis wished to undergo functional reconstruction. He wanted to play on his high school football team, but could not meet the minimum weightlifting requirements. An ipsilateral latissimus dorsi muscle bipolar functional transfer was done with bone-anchored inset into the sternum and humerus so that muscle flexion would replace the absent pectoralis major. A progressive weight training program was then instituted postoperatively. At 9 months, a significant increase in left upper extremity strength was confirmed. The patient ultimately was able to surpass the weightlifting requirements for his high school football team, and joined the team. Our highlighted procedure restored functional outcome using both plastic surgical principles and orthopedic techniques for muscle and tendon repair: bipolar muscle transfer and load-bearing muscle inset. Heretofore, transfer of the latissimus for provision of pectoralis major function has not been reported. Functional reconstruction was possible due to stable, bipolar muscle transfer with load-bearing muscle attachments into cortical bone of the anterior sternum and anteromedial aspect of the humerus. The techniques described should be within the skill set of most plastic surgeons, so that functional restoration for those with Poland syndrome is possible and accessible.

  8. How tendons buffer energy dissipation by muscle

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Thomas J.; Konow, Nicolai

    2013-01-01

    To decelerate the body and limbs, muscles actively lengthen to dissipate energy. During rapid energy-dissipating events, tendons buffer the work done on muscle by temporarily storing elastic energy, then releasing this energy to do work on the muscle. This elastic mechanism may reduce the risk of muscle damage by reducing peak forces and lengthening rates of active muscle. PMID:23873133

  9. New function of the myostatin/activin type I receptor (ALK4) as a mediator of muscle atrophy and muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pasteuning-Vuhman, Svitlana; Boertje-van der Meulen, Johanna W.; van Putten, Maaike; Overzier, Maurice; ten Dijke, Peter; Kiełbasa, Szymon M.; Arindrarto, Wibowo; Wolterbeek, Ron; Lezhnina, Ksenia V.; Ozerov, Ivan V.; Aliper, Aleksandr M.; Hoogaars, Willem M.; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Loomans, Cindy J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle fibrosis and impaired muscle regeneration are major contributors to muscle wasting in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Muscle growth is negatively regulated by myostatin (MSTN) and activins. Blockage of these pathways may improve muscle quality and function in DMD. Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) were designed specifically to block the function of ALK4, a key receptor for the MSTN/activin pathway in skeletal muscle. AON-induced exon skipping resulted in specific Alk4 down-regulation, inhibition of MSTN activity, and increased myoblast differentiation in vitro. Unexpectedly, a marked decrease in muscle mass (10%) was found after Alk4 AON treatment in mdx mice. In line with in vitro results, muscle regeneration was stimulated, and muscle fiber size decreased markedly. Notably, when Alk4 was down-regulated in adult wild-type mice, muscle mass decreased even more. RNAseq analysis revealed dysregulated metabolic functions and signs of muscle atrophy. We conclude that ALK4 inhibition increases myogenesis but also regulates the tight balance of protein synthesis and degradation. Therefore, caution must be used when developing therapies that interfere with MSTN/activin pathways.—Pasteuning-Vuhman, S., Boertje-van der Meulen, J. W., van Putten, M., Overzier, M., ten Dijke, P., Kiełbasa, S. M., Arindrarto, W., Wolterbeek, R., Lezhnina, K. V., Ozerov, I. V., Aliper, A. M., Hoogaars, W. M., Aartsma-Rus, A., Loomans, C. J. M. New function of the myostatin/activin type I receptor (ALK4) as a mediator of muscle atrophy and muscle regeneration. PMID:27733450

  10. Pectoralis Major Repair With Unicortical Button Fixation And Suture Tape.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Anthony; Ferrari, Marcio B; Frangiamore, Salvatore J; Sanchez, George; Kruckeberg, Bradley M; Provencher, Matthew T

    2017-06-01

    Although injuries of the pectoralis major muscle are generally uncommon, ruptures of the pectoralis major are occasionally seen in younger, more active patients who participate in weightlifting activities. These injuries usually occur during maximal contraction of the muscle, while in extension and external rotation. In the case of a rupture, operative treatment is advocated especially in young, active patients regardless of the chronicity of the injury. Various surgical techniques for reattachment of the avulsed tendon have been described, but bone tunnel and suture anchor repair techniques are most widely used. In this Technical Note, we present our preferred technique for acute pectoralis major rupture repair involving use of cortical buttons for tendon stump-to-bone fixation.

  11. Trunk extensor muscle fatigue influences trunk muscle activities.

    PubMed

    Hoseinpoor, Tahere Seyed; Kahrizi, Sedighe; Mobini, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Trunk muscles fatigue is one of the risk factors in workplaces and daily activities. Loads would be redistributed among active and passive tissues in a non-optimal manner in fatigue conditions. Therefore, a single tissue might be overloaded with minimal loads and as a result the risk of injury would increase. The goal of this paper was to assess the electromyographic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles after trunk extensor muscles fatigue induced by cyclic lifting task. This was an experimental study that twenty healthy women participated. For assessing automatic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles before and after the fatigue task, electromyographic activities of 6 muscles: thorasic erector spine (TES), lumbar erector spine (LES), lumbar multifidus (LMF), transverse abdominis/ internal oblique (TrA/IO), rectus abdominis (RA) and external oblique (EO) were recorded in standing position with no load and symmetric axial loads equal to 25% of their body weights. Statistical analysis showed that all the abdominal muscles activity decreased with axial loads after performing fatigue task but trunk extensor activity remained constant. Results of the current study indicated that muscle recruitment strategies changed with muscle fatigue and load bearing, therefore risks of tissue injury may increase in fatigue conditions.

  12. Simulating the effect of muscle weakness and contracture on neuromuscular control of normal gait in children.

    PubMed

    Fox, Aaron S; Carty, Christopher P; Modenese, Luca; Barber, Lee A; Lichtwark, Glen A

    2018-03-01

    Altered neural control of movement and musculoskeletal deficiencies are common in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP), with muscle weakness and contracture commonly experienced. Both neural and musculoskeletal deficiencies are likely to contribute to abnormal gait, such as equinus gait (toe-walking), in children with SCP. However, it is not known whether the musculoskeletal deficiencies prevent normal gait or if neural control could be altered to achieve normal gait. This study examined the effect of simulated muscle weakness and contracture of the major plantarflexor/dorsiflexor muscles on the neuromuscular requirements for achieving normal walking gait in children. Initial muscle-driven simulations of walking with normal musculoskeletal properties by typically developing children were undertaken. Additional simulations with altered musculoskeletal properties were then undertaken; with muscle weakness and contracture simulated by reducing the maximum isometric force and tendon slack length, respectively, of selected muscles. Muscle activations and forces required across all simulations were then compared via waveform analysis. Maintenance of normal gait appeared robust to muscle weakness in isolation, with increased activation of weakened muscles the major compensatory strategy. With muscle contracture, reduced activation of the plantarflexors was required across the mid-portion of stance suggesting a greater contribution from passive forces. Increased activation and force during swing was also required from the tibialis anterior to counteract the increased passive forces from the simulated dorsiflexor muscle contracture. Improvements in plantarflexor and dorsiflexor motor function and muscle strength, concomitant with reductions in plantarflexor muscle stiffness may target the deficits associated with SCP that limit normal gait. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Statins and muscle pain].

    PubMed

    Yosef, Yoni; Schurr, Daniel; Constantini, Naama

    2014-07-01

    Statins are used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The treatment is quite safe but not free of side effects, particularly muscle pain. Fear of pain may prevent patients from carrying out exercise or diminish their motivation to return and engage in it, even though both the statins and the exercise have a proven benefit in both treatment and prevention, and a synergistic effect enhances this benefit. Prevalence of muscular pain ranges from 1-30%. Pain usually appears at the beginning of treatment, but can occur even after months and under any of the existing agents. The creatine phosphokinase (CPK) enzyme level may rise, but not necessarily. Increases to exceptional values (10 times the upper normal level) are relatively rare and rhabdomyolysis is extremely rare. The risk increases with age, co-morbidities and especially when taken concurrently with drugs that are metabolized in a similar pathway. Pain usually passes within a month after discontinuing treatment, but may persist for six months or more. Studies have examined the effect of statin therapy on the ability to perform physical activity, but results are inconsistent. The increased rise of CPK was observed under statin therapy, a tendency that increased with age. However, it was not accompanied by an increased incidence of muscle pain or rhabdomyolysis. Considering the above we recommend encouraging patients to exercise. However, patients should be instructed to report new or worsening muscular pains. Discontinuation, lowering dose or replacement should be considered when pain is suspected to be related with treatment.

  14. Muscle and Limb Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Tsianos, George A; Loeb, Gerald E

    2017-03-16

    Understanding of the musculoskeletal system has evolved from the collection of individual phenomena in highly selected experimental preparations under highly controlled and often unphysiological conditions. At the systems level, it is now possible to construct complete and reasonably accurate models of the kinetics and energetics of realistic muscles and to combine them to understand the dynamics of complete musculoskeletal systems performing natural behaviors. At the reductionist level, it is possible to relate most of the individual phenomena to the anatomical structures and biochemical processes that account for them. Two large challenges remain. At a systems level, neuroscience must now account for how the nervous system learns to exploit the many complex features that evolution has incorporated into muscle and limb mechanics. At a reductionist level, medicine must now account for the many forms of pathology and disability that arise from the many diseases and injuries to which this highly evolved system is inevitably prone. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:429-462, 2017. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Anatomy of psoas muscle innervation: Cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Mark A; Sanders, Luke E; Guan, Jian; Dailey, Andrew T; Taylor, William; Morton, David A

    2017-05-01

    Hip flexion weakness is relatively common after lateral transpsoas surgery. Persistent weakness may result from injury to the innervation of the psoas major muscles (PMMs); however, anatomical texts have conflicting descriptions of this innervation, and the branching pattern of the nerves within the psoas major, particularly relative to vertebral anatomy, has not been described. The authors dissected human cadavers to describe the branching pattern of nerves supplying the PMMs. Sixteen embalmed cadavers were dissected, and the fine branching pattern of the innervation to the PMM was studied in 24 specimens. The number of branches and width and length of each branch of nerves to the PMMs were quantified. Nerve branches innervating the PMMs arose from spinal nerve levels L1-L4, with an average of 6.3 ± 1.1 branches per muscle. The L1 nerve branch was the least consistently present, whereas L2 and L3 branches were the most robust, the most numerous, and always present. The nerve branches to the psoas major commonly crossed the intervertebral (IV) disc obliquely prior to ramification within the muscle; 76%, 80%, and 40% of specimens had a branch to the PMM cross the midportion of the L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 IV discs, respectively. The PMMs are segmentally innervated from the L2-L4 ventral rami branches, where these branches course obliquely across the L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 IV discs. Knowledge of the mapping of nerve branches to the PMMs may reduce injury and the incidence of persistent weak hip flexion during lateral transpsoas surgery. Clin. Anat. 30:479-486, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Powerful signals for weak muscles.

    PubMed

    Saini, Amarjit; Faulkner, Steve; Al-Shanti, Nasser; Stewart, Claire

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarise, evaluate and critique the different mechanisms involved in anabolic growth of skeletal muscle and the catabolic processes involved in cancer cachexia and sarcopenia of ageing. This is highly relevant, since they represent targets for future promising clinical investigations. Sarcopenia is an inevitable process associated with a gradual reduction in muscle mass and strength, associated with a reduction in motor unit number and atrophy of muscle fibres, especially the fast type IIa fibres. The loss of muscle mass with ageing is clinically important because it leads to diminished functional ability and associated complications. Cachexia is widely recognised as severe and rapid wasting accompanying disease states such as cancer or immunodeficiency disease. One of the main characteristics of cancer cachexia is asthenia or lack of strength, which is directly related to the muscle loss. Indeed, apart from the speed of loss, muscle wasting during cancer and ageing share many common metabolic pathways and mediators. In healthy young individuals, muscles maintain their mass and function because of a balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation associated with rates of anabolic and catabolic processes, respectively. Muscles grow (hypertrophy) when protein synthesis exceeds protein degradation. Conversely, muscles shrink (atrophy) when protein degradation dominates. These processes are not occurring independently of each other, but are finely coordinated by a web of intricate signalling networks. Such signalling networks are in charge of executing environmental and cellular cues that ultimately determine whether muscle proteins are synthesised or degraded. Increasing our understanding for the pathways involved in hypertrophy and atrophy and particularly the interaction of these pathways is essential in designing therapeutic strategies for both prevention and treatment of muscle wasting conditions with age and with

  17. Ramadan major dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest.

  18. Cytokines and major depression.

    PubMed

    Schiepers, Olga J G; Wichers, Marieke C; Maes, Michael

    2005-02-01

    In the research field of psychoneuroimmunology, accumulating evidence has indicated the existence of reciprocal communication pathways between nervous, endocrine and immune systems. In this respect, there has been increasing interest in the putative involvement of the immune system in psychiatric disorders. In the present review, the role of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma, in the aetiology and pathophysiology of major depression, is discussed. The 'cytokine hypothesis of depression' implies that proinflammatory cytokines, acting as neuromodulators, represent the key factor in the (central) mediation of the behavioural, neuroendocrine and neurochemical features of depressive disorders. This view is supported by various findings. Several medical illnesses, which are characterised by chronic inflammatory responses, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, have been reported to be accompanied by depression. In addition, administration of proinflammatory cytokines, e.g. in cancer or hepatitis C therapies, has been found to induce depressive symptomatology. Administration of proinflammatory cytokines in animals induces 'sickness behaviour', which is a pattern of behavioural alterations that is very similar to the behavioural symptoms of depression in humans. The central action of cytokines may also account for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity that is frequently observed in depressive disorders, as proinflammatory cytokines may cause HPA axis hyperactivity by disturbing the negative feedback inhibition of circulating corticosteroids (CSs) on the HPA axis. Concerning the deficiency in serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmission that is concomitant with major depression, cytokines may reduce 5-HT levels by lowering the availability of its precursor tryptophan (TRP) through activation of the TRP-metabolising enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Although the central effects of

  19. Discovery Orbiter Major Modifications

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-27

    During power-up of the orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility, a technician moves a circuit reset on the cockpit console. Discovery has been undergoing Orbiter Major Modifications in the past year, ranging from wiring, control panels and black boxes to gaseous and fluid systems tubing and components. These systems were deserviced, disassembled, inspected, modified, reassembled, checked out and reserviced, as were most other systems onboard. The work includes the installation of the Multifunction Electronic Display Subsystem (MEDS) - a state-of-the-art “glass cockpit.”

  20. Muscle force compensation among synergistic muscles after fatigue of a single muscle.

    PubMed

    Stutzig, Norman; Siebert, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine control strategies among synergistic muscles after fatigue of a single muscle. It was hypothesized that the compensating mechanism is specific for each fatigued muscle. The soleus (SOL), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and medialis (GM) were fatigued in separate sessions on different days. In each experiment, subjects (n = 11) performed maximal voluntary contractions prior to and after fatiguing a single muscle (SOL, GL or GM) while the voluntary muscle activity and torque were measured. Additionally, the maximal single twitch torque of the plantarflexors and the maximal spinal reflex activity (H-reflex) of the SOL, GL and GM were determined. Fatigue was evoked using neuromuscular stimulation. Following fatigue the single twitch torque decreased by -20.1%, -19.5%, and -23.0% when the SOL, GL, or GM, have been fatigued. The maximal voluntary torque did not decrease in any session but the synergistic voluntary muscle activity increased significantly. Moreover, we found no alterations in spinal reflex activity. It is concluded that synergistic muscles compensate each other. Furthermore, it seems that self-compensating mechanism of the fatigued muscles occurred additionally. The force compensation does not depend on the function of the fatigued muscle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Intermuscular relationship of human muscle fiber type proportions: slow leg muscles predict slow neck muscles.

    PubMed

    Vikne, Harald; Gundersen, Kristian; Liestøl, Knut; Maelen, Jan; Vøllestad, Nina

    2012-04-01

    Our aim in this study was to examine whether the muscle fiber type proportions in different muscles from the same individual are interrelated. Samples were excised from five skeletal muscles in each of 12 human autopsy cases, and the fiber type proportions were determined by immunohistochemistry. We further examined the intermuscular relationship in fiber type proportion by reanalyzing three previously published data sets involving other muscles. Subjects demonstrated a predominantly high or low proportion of type 1 fibers in all examined muscles, and the overall difference between individuals was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Accordingly, the type 1 fiber proportions in most muscles were positively correlated (median r = 0.42, range -0.03-0.80). Similar results were also obtained from the three reanalyzed data sets. We suggest the existence of an across-muscle phenotype with respect to fiber type proportions; some individuals display generally faster muscles and some individuals slower muscles when compared with others. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Building Muscles, Keeping Muscles: Protein Turnover During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, Arny; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As we age we lose muscle mass and strength. The problem is a matter of use it or lose it and more - a fact to which any active senior can attest. An imbalance in the natural cycle of protein turnover may be a contributing factor to decreased muscle mass. But the answer is not so simple, since aging is associated with changes in hormones, activity levels, nutrition, and often, disease. The human body constantly uses amino acids to build muscle protein, which then breaks down and must be replaced. When protein turnover gets out of balance, so that more protein breaks down than the body can replace, the result is muscle loss. This is not just the bane of aging, however. Severely burned people may have difficulty building new muscle long after the burned skin has been repaired. Answers to why we lose muscle mass and strength - and how doctors can fix it - may come from space. Astronauts usually eat a well-balanced diet and maintain an exercise routine to stay in top health. During long-duration flight, they exercise regularly to reduce the muscle loss that results from being in a near-weightless environment. Despite these precautions, astronauts lose muscle mass and strength during most missions. They quickly recover after returning to Earth - this is a temporary condition in an otherwise healthy population. Members of the STS-107 crew are participating in a study of the effects of space flight, hormone levels, and stress on protein turnover. When we are under stress, the body responds with a change in hormone levels. Researchers hypothesize that this stress-induced change in hormones along with the near-weightlessness might result in the body synthesizing less muscle protein, causing muscles to lose their strength and size. Astronauts, who must perform numerous duties in a confined and unusual environment, experience some stress during their flight, making them excellent candidates for testing the researchers' hypothesis.

  3. Axonal regeneration through acellular muscle grafts

    PubMed Central

    HALL, SUSAN

    1997-01-01

    The management of peripheral nerve injury remains a major clinical problem. Progress in this field will almost certainly depend upon manipulating the pathophysiological processes which are triggered by traumatic injuries. One of the most important determinants of functional outcome after the reconstruction of a transected peripheral nerve is the length of the gap between proximal and distal nerve stumps. Long defects (> 2 cm) must be bridged by a suitable conduit in order to support axonal regrowth. This review examines the cellular and acellular elements which facilitate axonal regrowth and the use of acellular muscle grafts in the repair of injuries in the peripheral nervous system. PMID:9034882

  4. The pharmacological management of post-stroke muscle spasticity.

    PubMed

    Bakheit, Abdel Magid O

    2012-12-01

    Muscle hypertonia following upper motor neurone lesions (referred to here as 'spasticity') is a common problem in patients with neurological disease, and its management is one of the major challenges in clinical practice. Understanding the pathogenesis and clinical course of spasticity is essential for the effective management of this condition. The hypertonia initially results from increased excitability of the alpha motor neurones due to an imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory influences of the vestibulospinal and reticulospinal tracts. This is the 'neural component' of muscle hypertonia. However, usually within 3-4 weeks, changes in the structure and mechanical properties of the paralysed muscles and the effect of thixotropy also contribute to the hypertonia. The selection of the optimal treatment option is often influenced by whether the neural or the non-neural component is more pronounced. Muscle spasticity often interferes with motor function or causes distressing symptoms, such as painful muscle spasms. If untreated, spasticity may also lead to soft tissue shortening (fixed contractures). However, spasticity can also be beneficial to patients. For example, despite severe leg muscle weakness, most hemiplegic patients are able to walk because the spasticity of the extensor muscles braces the lower limb in a rigid pillar. Other reported benefits of spasticity include the maintenance of muscle bulk and bone mineral density and possibly a reduced risk of lower limb deep vein thrombosis. Several factors, such as skin pressure sores, faecal impaction, urinary tract infections and stones in the urinary bladder, can aggravate muscle spasticity. These factors should always be looked for as their adequate treatment is often sufficient to reduce muscle tone without the need for specific antispasticity medication. Therefore, a careful evaluation of the patient's symptoms and their impact on function, and the setting of clear and realistic therapy goals are

  5. Arrest is a regulator of fiber-specific alternative splicing in the indirect flight muscles of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Oas, Sandy T.

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster flight muscles are distinct from other skeletal muscles, such as jump muscles, and express several uniquely spliced muscle-associated transcripts. We sought to identify factors mediating splicing differences between the flight and jump muscle fiber types. We found that the ribonucleic acid–binding protein Arrest (Aret) is expressed in flight muscles: in founder cells, Aret accumulates in a novel intranuclear compartment that we termed the Bruno body, and after the onset of muscle differentiation, Aret disperses in the nucleus. Down-regulation of the aret gene led to ultrastructural changes and functional impairment of flight muscles, and transcripts of structural genes expressed in the flight muscles became spliced in a manner characteristic of jump muscles. Aret also potently promoted flight muscle splicing patterns when ectopically expressed in jump muscles or tissue culture cells. Genetically, aret is located downstream of exd (extradenticle), hth (homothorax), and salm (spalt major), transcription factors that control fiber identity. Our observations provide insight into a transcriptional and splicing regulatory network for muscle fiber specification. PMID:25246617

  6. Human skeletal muscle biochemical diversity.

    PubMed

    Tirrell, Timothy F; Cook, Mark S; Carr, J Austin; Lin, Evie; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

    2012-08-01

    The molecular components largely responsible for muscle attributes such as passive tension development (titin and collagen), active tension development (myosin heavy chain, MHC) and mechanosensitive signaling (titin) have been well studied in animals but less is known about their roles in humans. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of titin, collagen and MHC isoform distributions in a large number of human muscles, to search for common themes and trends in the muscular organization of the human body. In this study, 599 biopsies were obtained from six human cadaveric donors (mean age 83 years). Three assays were performed on each biopsy - titin molecular mass determination, hydroxyproline content (a surrogate for collagen content) and MHC isoform distribution. Titin molecular mass was increased in more distal muscles of the upper and lower limbs. This trend was also observed for collagen. Percentage MHC-1 data followed a pattern similar to collagen in muscles of the upper extremity but this trend was reversed in the lower extremity. Titin molecular mass was the best predictor of anatomical region and muscle functional group. On average, human muscles had more slow myosin than other mammals. Also, larger titins were generally associated with faster muscles. These trends suggest that distal muscles should have higher passive tension than proximal ones, and that titin size variability may potentially act to 'tune' the protein's mechanotransduction capability.

  7. Human skeletal muscle biochemical diversity

    PubMed Central

    Tirrell, Timothy F.; Cook, Mark S.; Carr, J. Austin; Lin, Evie; Ward, Samuel R.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The molecular components largely responsible for muscle attributes such as passive tension development (titin and collagen), active tension development (myosin heavy chain, MHC) and mechanosensitive signaling (titin) have been well studied in animals but less is known about their roles in humans. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of titin, collagen and MHC isoform distributions in a large number of human muscles, to search for common themes and trends in the muscular organization of the human body. In this study, 599 biopsies were obtained from six human cadaveric donors (mean age 83 years). Three assays were performed on each biopsy – titin molecular mass determination, hydroxyproline content (a surrogate for collagen content) and MHC isoform distribution. Titin molecular mass was increased in more distal muscles of the upper and lower limbs. This trend was also observed for collagen. Percentage MHC-1 data followed a pattern similar to collagen in muscles of the upper extremity but this trend was reversed in the lower extremity. Titin molecular mass was the best predictor of anatomical region and muscle functional group. On average, human muscles had more slow myosin than other mammals. Also, larger titins were generally associated with faster muscles. These trends suggest that distal muscles should have higher passive tension than proximal ones, and that titin size variability may potentially act to ‘tune’ the protein's mechanotransduction capability. PMID:22786631

  8. Muscle fiber type specific induction of slow myosin heavy chain 2 gene expression by electrical stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Crew, Jennifer R.; Falzari, Kanakeshwari; DiMario, Joseph X., E-mail: joseph.dimario@rosalindfranklin.edu

    Vertebrate skeletal muscle fiber types are defined by a broad array of differentially expressed contractile and metabolic protein genes. The mechanisms that establish and maintain these different fiber types vary throughout development and with changing functional demand. Chicken skeletal muscle fibers can be generally categorized as fast and fast/slow based on expression of the slow myosin heavy chain 2 (MyHC2) gene in fast/slow muscle fibers. To investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control fiber type formation in secondary or fetal muscle fibers, myoblasts from the fast pectoralis major (PM) and fast/slow medial adductor (MA) muscles were isolated, allowed tomore » differentiate in vitro, and electrically stimulated. MA muscle fibers were induced to express the slow MyHC2 gene by electrical stimulation, whereas PM muscle fibers did not express the slow MyHC2 gene under identical stimulation conditions. However, PM muscle fibers did express the slow MyHC2 gene when electrical stimulation was combined with inhibition of inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) activity. Electrical stimulation was sufficient to increase nuclear localization of expressed nuclear-factor-of-activated-T-cells (NFAT), NFAT-mediated transcription, and slow MyHC2 promoter activity in MA muscle fibers. In contrast, both electrical stimulation and inhibitors of IP3R activity were required for these effects in PM muscle fibers. Electrical stimulation also increased levels of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} co-activator-1 (PGC-1{alpha}) protein in PM and MA muscle fibers. These results indicate that MA muscle fibers can be induced by electrical stimulation to express the slow MyHC2 gene and that fast PM muscle fibers are refractory to stimulation-induced slow MyHC2 gene expression due to fast PM muscle fiber specific cellular mechanisms involving IP3R activity.« less

  9. Relationships of 35 lower limb muscles to height and body mass quantified using MRI.

    PubMed

    Handsfield, Geoffrey G; Meyer, Craig H; Hart, Joseph M; Abel, Mark F; Blemker, Silvia S

    2014-02-07

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the body and serves various physiological functions including the generation of movement and support. Whole body motor function requires adequate quantity, geometry, and distribution of muscle. This raises the question: how do muscles scale with subject size in order to achieve similar function across humans? While much of the current knowledge of human muscle architecture is based on cadaver dissection, modern medical imaging avoids limitations of old age, poor health, and limited subject pool, allowing for muscle architecture data to be obtained in vivo from healthy subjects ranging in size. The purpose of this study was to use novel fast-acquisition MRI to quantify volumes and lengths of 35 major lower limb muscles in 24 young, healthy subjects and to determine if muscle size correlates with bone geometry and subject parameters of mass and height. It was found that total lower limb muscle volume scales with mass (R(2)=0.85) and with the height-mass product (R(2)=0.92). Furthermore, individual muscle volumes scale with total muscle volume (median R(2)=0.66), with the height-mass product (median R(2)=0.61), and with mass (median R(2)=0.52). Muscle volume scales with bone volume (R(2)=0.75), and muscle length relative to bone length is conserved (median s.d.=2.1% of limb length). These relationships allow for an arbitrary subject's individual muscle volumes to be estimated from mass or mass and height while muscle lengths may be estimated from limb length. The dataset presented here can further be used as a normative standard to compare populations with musculoskeletal pathologies. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Quantitative PCR Analysis of Laryngeal Muscle Fiber Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Daele, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    Voice and swallowing dysfunction as a result of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis can be improved with vocal fold injections or laryngeal framework surgery. However, denervation atrophy can cause late-term clinical failure. A major determinant of skeletal muscle physiology is myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression, and previous protein analyses…

  11. Genetics Home Reference: rippling muscle disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the CAV3 gene. Muscle conditions caused by CAV3 gene mutations are called caveolinopathies. The CAV3 gene provides instructions ... role in controlling muscle contraction and relaxation. CAV3 gene mutations that cause rippling muscle disease result in a ...

  12. Caring for muscle spasticity or spasms

    MedlinePlus

    High muscle tone - care; Increased muscle tension - care; Upper motor neuron syndrome - care; Muscle stiffness - care ... and doing daily tasks. Talk with your health care provider or physical therapist first before starting any ...

  13. New method for maximum mobilization of temporalis muscle flap.

    PubMed

    Masic, Tarik; Babajic, Emina; Dervisevic, Almir; Hassouba, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Pedicled temporalis muscle flap presenting a good flap for closing large craniofacial defects. Careful surgeons usually do not mobilize temporalis muscle flap enough to make appropriate use, fully closure, especially if defect exceeds the median line. Temporalis flap was used in 16 patients, ages ranged between 12 and 76. In all cases defect reconstruction was done by useing new method of extending standard temporal muscle flap. During surgical procedure it is very important to keep periosteal elevator in close contact with the bone. Then, there is no risk for pedicle injury. After vascular pedicle is identified elevating temporal muscle has to be continued by releasing the muscle insertion from the coronoid process. By this way, flap length and arc of rotation is increased. The flap remained viable in all instances. Most of the patients experienced no perioperative complications. There was no major complications or mortality as a result of performed procedures. With this division, flap length was increased at least 2 cm wich is enough for covering defects crossing the midline. Instead of using bilateral temporalis muscle flaps for defect closure, unilateral is sufficient. With this extension of the pedicle length now rotation point is not at the level of the zygomatic arch but lower part mandibular neck.

  14. The peroneus quartus muscle: clinical correlation with evolutionary importance.

    PubMed

    Athavale, Sunita Arvind; Gupta, Vanita; Kotgirwar, Sheetal; Singh, Vikrant

    2012-06-01

    The peroneus quartus (PQ) is an accessory muscle of the peroneal/lateral compartment of the leg. The muscle has often been implicated as a cause of pain in the lateral ankle region, and subluxation or attrition of the peroneal tendons. The present study was aimed at observing the prevalence and morphology of this muscle in human cadavers. Ninety-two embalmed lower limbs were dissected for this study. The PQ muscle was found in 21% of the limbs. In all these limbs it originated from the lower part of the lateral surface of the fibula, the undersurface of peroneus brevis and the posterior intermuscular septum. In the majority of limbs, insertion was on the retrotrochlear eminence of the calcaneus. Taking into account the possibility of this muscle being a cause of lateral ankle pathology, the present study attempts to correlate the findings with the anatomy of the surrounding region. The frequent occurrence of this muscle in humans is suggestive of a progressive evolutionary change to evert the foot in order to assume a bipedal gait.

  15. Muscle development is disrupted in zebrafish embryos deficient for Fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Chelsi J.; Peterson, Matthew T.; Khalil, Andre; Henry, Clarissa A.

    2008-01-01

    After somitogenesis, skeletal muscle precursors elongate into muscle fibers that anchor to the somite boundary, which becomes the myotome boundary. Fibronectin (Fn) is a major component of the extracellular matrix in both boundaries. Although Fn is required for somitogenesis, effects of Fn disruption on subsequent muscle development are unknown. We show fn knockdown disrupts myogenesis. Muscle morphogenesis is more disrupted in fn morphants than in a mutant where initial somite boundaries did not form, aei/deltaD. We quantified this disruption using the 2D Wavelet-Transform Modulus Maxima method, which uses the variation of intensity in an image with respect to the direction considered to characterize the structure in a cell lattice. We show that fibers in fn morphants are less organized than in aei/deltaD mutant embryos. Fast- and slow-twitch muscle lengths are also more frequently uncoupled. These data suggest fn may function to regulate fiber organization and limit fast-twitch muscle fiber length. PMID:18729220

  16. A mechanism for trauma induced muscle wasting and immune dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madihally, S.; Toner, M.; Yarmush, M.; Mitchell, R.

    A diverse physiological conditions lead to a hypercatabolic state marked by the loss of proteins, primarily derived from skeletal muscle. The sustained loss of proteins results in loss of muscle mass and strength, poor healing, and long-term hospitalization. These problems are further compounded by the deterioration of immunity to infection which is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality of traumatic patients. In an attempt to understand the signal propagation mechanism(s), we tested the role of Interferon-? (IFN-? ) in an animal burn injury model; IFN-? is best conceptualized as a macrophage activating protein and known to modulate a variety of intracellular processes potentially relevant to muscle wasting and immune dysfunction. Mice congenitally -deficient in IFN-? , and IFN-? -Receptor, and wild type (WT) animals treated with IFN-? neutralizing antibody received either a 20% total body surface area burn or a control sham treatment. At days 1, 2, and 7 following treatment, skeletal muscle, peripheral blood, and spleen were harvested from both groups. Overall body weight, protein turnovers, changes in the lymphocyte subpopulations and alterations in the major histocompatibility complex I expression (MHC I) and proliferation capacity of lymphocytes was measured using mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). These results indicate that we can prevent both muscle wasting and immune dysfunction. Based on these observations and our previous other animal model results (using insulin therapy), a novel mechanism of interactions leading to muscle wasting and immune dysfunction will be discussed. Further, implications of these findings on future research and clinical therapies will be discussed in detail.

  17. Persistent orofacial muscle pain: Its synonymous terminology and presentation.

    PubMed

    Spierings, Egilius L H; Mulder, Maxim J H L

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to describe the presentation of persistent orofacial muscle pain, also commonly referred to as myofascial temporomandibular disorder. In this practice survey, the authors reviewed the demographic and clinical features of 34 patients who were evaluated and diagnosed personally. The majority of the 34 patients were women (82.4%), and their age at consultation averaged 44.6 ± 12.6 (SD) years. The median pain duration was 4.0 years (range: 0.2-34 years). In 97.1% of patients, the pain occurred daily and continuously, and in 51.9% it was unilateral. Chewing or eating made the pain worse in 50% of the patients, and talking in 29.4%. On examination, tightness of the masseter muscle(s) was present in 58.8%, and tenderness in 58.8%. Persistent orofacial muscle pain mostly affects women, generally occurs daily and continuously, and is equally often unilateral and bilateral. Chewing, eating, and talking are the most common aggravating factors, and tightness or tenderness of the masseter muscle(s) is often found on examination.

  18. Renal function alterations during skeletal muscle disuse in simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Bryan J.

    1992-01-01

    This project was to examine the alterations in renal functions during skeletal muscle disuse in simulated microgravity. Although this area could cover a wide range of investigative efforts, the limited funding resulted in the selection of two projects. These projects would result in data contributing to an area of research deemed high priority by NASA and would address issues of the alterations in renal response to vasoactive stimuli during conditions of skeletal muscle disuse as well as investigate the contribution of skeletal muscle disuse, conditions normally found in long term human exposure to microgravity, to the balance of fluid and macromolecules within the vasculature versus the interstitium. These two projects selected are as follows: investigate the role of angiotensin 2 on renal function during periods of simulated microgravity and skeletal muscle disuse to determine if the renal response is altered to changes in circulating concentrations of angiotensin 2 compared to appropriate controls; and determine if the shift of fluid balance from vasculature to the interstitium, the two components of extracellular fluid volume, that occur during prolonged exposure to microgravity and skeletal muscle disuse is a result, in part, to alterations in the fluid and macromolecular balance in the peripheral capillary beds, of which the skeletal muscle contains the majority of recruitment capillaries. A recruitment capillary bed would be most sensitive to alterations in Starling forces and fluid and macromolecular permeability.

  19. Combination of small RNAs for skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, NaJung; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony; Lee, Sang Jin

    2016-03-01

    Selectively controlling the expression of the target genes through RNA interference (RNAi) has significant therapeutic potential for injuries or diseases of tissues. We used this strategy to accelerate and enhance skeletal muscle regeneration for the treatment of muscular atrophy. In this study, we used myostatin small interfering (si)RNA (siGDF-8), a major inhibitory factor in the development and postnatal regeneration of skeletal muscle and muscle-specific microRNAs (miR-1 and -206) to further accelerate muscle regeneration. This combination of 3 small RNAs significantly improved the gene expression of myogenic regulatory factors in vitro, suggesting myogenic activation. Moreover, cell proliferation and myotube formation improved without compromising each other, which indicates the myogenic potential of this combination of small RNAs. The recovery of chemically injured tibialis anterior muscles in rats was significantly accelerated, both functionally and structurally. This novel combination of siRNA and miRNAs has promising therapeutic potential to improve in situ skeletal muscle regeneration. © FASEB.

  20. Regeneration of injured skeletal muscle after the injury

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Tero AH; Järvinen, Markku; Kalimo, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    Summary Muscle injuries are one of the most common traumas occurring in sports. Despite their clinical importance, few clinical studies exist on the treatment of these traumas. Thus, the current treatment recommendations for muscle injuries have either been derived from experimental studies or been tested only empirically. Although non operative treatment should almost always be the 1st choice as it results in good functional outcomes in the majority of athletes with muscle injuries, the consequences of failed treatment can be very dramatic, possibly postponing an athlete’s return to sports for weeks or even months. Moreover, the recognition of some basic principles of skeletal muscle regeneration and healing processes can considerably help in both avoiding the imminent dangers and accelerating the return to competition. Accordingly, in this review, the authors have summarized the prevailing understanding on the biology of muscle regeneration in hopes of extending these findings to clinical practice in an attempt to propose an evidence-based approach for the diagnosis and optimal treatment of skeletal muscle injuries. PMID:24596699

  1. Leiomyoma of the sternothyroid muscle.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Meghan E; Khorsandi, Azita S; Guerrero, Dominick R; Brett, Elise M; Sarlin, Jonathan; Urken, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas are benign cutaneous tumors of smooth muscle origin. Only a small percentage of leiomyomas arise in the head and neck region. We present the first case of leiomyoma arising in the sternothyroid muscle of the neck. We analyze the clinical presentation, pathology, and histology for a single case study. The histologic findings of the tumor located in the sternothyroid muscle support the diagnosis of leiomyoma. This is the first case of leiomyoma arising in the sternothyroid muscle, and only the second reported case of leiomyoma in the strap muscles of the neck. Leiomyoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors in the head and neck region. A histological analysis is essential in determining both tumor type and subtype, which will inform the proper course of treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Muscle injuries: diagnostics and treatments].

    PubMed

    Kieb, M; Lorbach, O; Engelhardt, M

    2010-12-01

    Muscle injuries are common in sports. They are usually caused by either acute (mostly eccentric mechanisms) or chronic overloading with a lack of muscle coordination. They present in clinical practice as bruises and muscle sprains. Due to the rigours of a modern society and the high economic cost of time off work, an effective treatment needs to be employed. The key to an optimised therapy rests in the appropriate timing between immobilisation and mobilisation. The interval to muscle repair might be shortened by certain adjuvant therapies. In doing so, it is important that no physiological phases of wound healing are overlooked. Muscle healing can be accelerated by externally induced higher metabolic turnover. Surgical therapy is sometimes necessary in selected cases and in serious injuries.

  3. Fuel-powered artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Ebron, Von Howard; Yang, Zhiwei; Seyer, Daniel J; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Oh, Jiyoung; Xie, Hui; Razal, Joselito; Hall, Lee J; Ferraris, John P; Macdiarmid, Alan G; Baughman, Ray H

    2006-03-17

    Artificial muscles and electric motors found in autonomous robots and prosthetic limbs are typically battery-powered, which severely restricts the duration of their performance and can necessitate long inactivity during battery recharge. To help solve these problems, we demonstrated two types of artificial muscles that convert the chemical energy of high-energy-density fuels to mechanical energy. The first type stores electrical charge and uses changes in stored charge for mechanical actuation. In contrast with electrically powered electrochemical muscles, only half of the actuator cycle is electrochemical. The second type of fuel-powered muscle provides a demonstrated actuator stroke and power density comparable to those of natural skeletal muscle and generated stresses that are over a hundred times higher.

  4. Moment arms of the human neck muscles in flexion, bending and rotation.

    PubMed

    Ackland, David C; Merritt, Jonathan S; Pandy, Marcus G

    2011-02-03

    There is a paucity of data available for the moment arms of the muscles of the human neck. The objective of the present study was to measure the moment arms of the major cervical spine muscles in vitro. Experiments were performed on five fresh-frozen human head-neck specimens using a custom-designed robotic spine testing apparatus. The testing apparatus replicated flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation of each individual intervertebral joint in the cervical spine while all other joints were kept immobile. The tendon excursion method was used to measure the moment arms of 30 muscle sub-regions involving 13 major muscles of the neck about all three axes of rotation of each joint for the neutral position of the cervical spine. Significant differences in the moment arm were observed across sub-regions of individual muscles and across the intervertebral joints spanned by each muscle (p<0.05). Overall, muscle moment arms were larger in flexion-extension and lateral bending than in axial rotation, and most muscles had prominent moment arms in at least 2 out of the 3 joint motions investigated. This study emphasizes the importance of detailed representation of a muscle's architecture in prediction of its torque capacity about the individual joints of the cervical spine. The dataset produced may be useful in developing and validating computational models of the human neck. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of postmortem aging and USDA quality grade on Warner-Bratzler shear force values of seventeen individual beef muscles.

    PubMed

    Gruber, S L; Tatum, J D; Scanga, J A; Chapman, P L; Smith, G C; Belk, K E

    2006-12-01

    Forty USDA Select and 40 upper two-thirds USDA Choice beef carcasses were used to determine the effects of postmortem aging on tenderness of 17 individual beef muscles. Biceps femoris-long head, complexus, gluteus medius, infraspinatus, longissimus dorsi, psoas major, rectus femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, serratus ventralis, spinalis dorsi, supraspinatus, tensor fasciae latae, teres major, triceps brachii-long head, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis muscles were removed from each carcass. Seven steaks (2.54-cm thick) were cut from every muscle, and each steak was assigned to one of the following postmortem aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, or 28 d postmortem. After completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage (2 degrees C, never frozen), cooked to a peak internal temperature of 71 degrees C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Analysis of WBSF revealed a 3-way interaction (P = 0.004) among individual muscle, USDA quality grade, and postmortem aging period. With the exception of the Select teres major, WBSF of all muscles (both quality grades) decreased with increasing time of postmortem storage. Nonlinear regression was used to characterize the extent (aging response) and rate of decrease in WBSF from 2 through 28 d postmortem for each muscle within each quality grade. In general, WBSF of upper two-thirds Choice muscles decreased more rapidly from 2 to 10 d postmortem than did corresponding Select muscles. Muscles that had greater aging responses generally had greater 2-d WBSF values. The upper two-thirds Choice psoas major, serratus ventralis, and vastus lateralis muscles required similar aging times to complete a majority of the aging response (< or =0.1 kg of aging response remaining) compared with analogous Select muscles. The upper two-thirds Choice complexus, gluteus medius, semitendinosus, triceps brachii-long head, and vastus medialis muscles required 4 to 6 d less time to complete a

  6. Relationships among muscle fiber type composition, fiber diameter and MRF gene expression in different skeletal muscles of naturally grazing Wuzhumuqin sheep during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Siqin, Qimuge; Nishiumi, Tadayuki; Yamada, Takahisa; Wang, Shuiqing; Liu, Wenjun; Wu, Rihan; Borjigin, Gerelt

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships among muscle fiber-type composition, fiber diameter, and myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) gene expression in different skeletal muscles during development in naturally grazing Wuzhumuqin sheep. Three major muscles (i.e. the Longissimus dorsi (LD), Biceps femoris (BF) and Triceps brachii (TB)) were obtained from 20 Wuzhumuqin sheep and 20 castrated rams at each of the following ages: 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months. Muscle fiber-type composition and fiber diameter were measured using histochemistry and morphological analysis, and MRF gene expression levels were determined using real-time PCR. In the LD muscle, changes in the proportion of each of different types of fiber (I, IIA and IIB) were relatively small. In the BF muscle, a higher proportion of type I and a 6.19-fold lower proportion of type IIA fibers were observed (P < 0.05). In addition, the compositions of type I and IIA fibers continuously changed in the TB muscle (P < 0.05). Moreover, muscle diameter gradually increased throughout development (P < 0.05). Almost no significant difference was found in MRF gene expression patterns, which appeared to be relatively stable. These results suggest that changes in fiber-type composition and increases in fiber size may be mutually interacting processes during muscle development. © 2017 The Authors Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Bulk muscles, loose cables

    PubMed Central

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. PMID:25326558

  8. Bulk muscles, loose cables.

    PubMed

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-10-17

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Neonatal myosin in bovine and pig tensor tympani muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Scapolo, P A; Rowlerson, A; Mascarello, F; Veggetti, A

    1991-01-01

    In previous studies of middle ear muscles, the classification of fibre types by histochemical methods was particularly difficult in the bovine and porcine tensor tympani muscle, suggesting the presence of immature fibres. We therefore reexamined the tensor tympani from pigs and cattle of various ages immunohistochemically, using a panel of antimyosin antibodies, including one (anti-NE) specific for neonatal and embryonic myosins. Fibres positive to anti-NE were found in tensor tympani in both species in all ages examined; only a few of these fibres reacted exclusively with this antibody; some also contained slow myosin and the majority also contained adult fast (type IIA) myosin. Furthermore, although the remaining fibres included some of the classical types I and IIA, the majority of them showed a mismatch between their histochemical and immunohistochemical profiles. The morphological appearance of the muscle, the widespread presence of neonatal myosin (often together with another myosin in the same fibre) and the persistence of this composition from birth to adulthood, could be explained by an incomplete development of the muscle fibres, resulting in a 'muscle' much better suited to the role of a ligament. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:1810932

  10. Complement activation promotes muscle inflammation during modified muscle use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenette, J.; Cai, B.; Tidball, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Modified muscle use can result in muscle inflammation that is triggered by unidentified events. In the present investigation, we tested whether the activation of the complement system is a component of muscle inflammation that results from changes in muscle loading. Modified rat hindlimb muscle loading was achieved by removing weight-bearing from the hindlimbs for 10 days followed by reloading through normal ambulation. Experimental animals were injected with the recombinant, soluble complement receptor sCR1 to inhibit complement activation. Assays for complement C4 or factor B in sera showed that sCR1 produced large reductions in the capacity for activation of the complement system through both the classical and alternative pathways. Analysis of complement C4 concentration in serum in untreated animals showed that the classical pathway was activated during the first 2 hours of reloading. Analysis of factor B concentration in untreated animals showed activation of the alternative pathway at 6 hours of reloading. Administration of sCR1 significantly attenuated the invasion of neutrophils (-49%) and ED1(+) macrophages (-52%) that occurred in nontreated animals after 6 hours of reloading. The presence of sCR1 also reduced significantly the degree of edema by 22% as compared to untreated animals. Together, these data show that increased muscle loading activated the complement system which then briefly contributes to the early recruitment of inflammatory cells during modified muscle loading.

  11. Aerobic metabolism on muscle contraction in porcine gastric smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Hidenori; Kaneda, Takeharu; Nagai, Yuta; Urakawa, Norimoto; Shimizu, Kazumasa

    2018-05-18

    Exposure to chronic hypoxic conditions causes various gastric diseases, including gastric ulcers. It has been suggested that gastric smooth muscle contraction is associated with aerobic metabolism. However, there are no reports on the association between gastric smooth muscle contraction and aerobic metabolism, and we have investigated this association in the present study. High K + - and carbachol (CCh)-induced muscle contractions involved increasing O 2 consumption. Aeration with N 2 (hypoxia) and NaCN significantly decreased high K + - and CCh-induced muscle contraction and O 2 consumption. In addition, hypoxia and NaCN significantly decreased creatine phosphate (PCr) contents in the presence of high K + . Moreover, decrease in CCh-induced contraction and O 2 consumption was greater than that of high K + . Our results suggest that hypoxia and NaCN inhibit high K + - and CCh-induced contractions in gastric fundus smooth muscles by decreasing O 2 consumption and intracellular PCr content. However, the inhibition of CCh-induced muscle contraction was greater than that of high K + -induced muscle contraction.

  12. Muscle spindle autogenetic inhibition in the extraocular muscles of lamb.

    PubMed

    Pettorossi, V E; Filippi, G M

    1981-09-01

    The role of extraocular muscle (EOM) proprioceptors on eye motility has been investigated in lambs on "encéphale isolé", by evaluating the tension of EOMs at various lengths and velocities of stretch before and after proprioceptive blocks. The EOM tension, in the absence of proprioceptive input, was higher than in normal conditions. Such an effect occurred at lengthening values greater than 3 mm of stretch from resting muscle length, corresponding to 18 degrees of eye deviation and was dependent on the velocity of the stretch, being more effective at high velocity. The muscle receptors responsible for this effect was determined by comparing the sensitivity to vibratory stimulation of spindles and tendon organs to the amount of inhibition provoked by the same stimulation on an EOM electromyographic activity. The tension inhibition appeared to be correlated to muscle spindle activation. Thus, the presence of muscle spindles can determine a reduction of the tension within the stretched muscles. This result suggests that the EOM length and velocity signals operate moment to moment reduction on the stiffness of the muscle which antagonizes eye displacement, thus facilitating the ocular movements.

  13. Adeno-associated virus serotype 8 efficiently delivers genes to muscle and heart.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong; Zhu, Tong; Qiao, Chunping; Zhou, Liqiao; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Chunlian; Li, Juan; Xiao, Xiao

    2005-03-01

    Systemic gene delivery into muscle has been a major challenge for muscular dystrophy gene therapy, with capillary blood vessels posing the principle barrier and limiting vector dissemination. Previous efforts to deliver genes into multiple muscles have relied on isolated vessel perfusion or pharmacological interventions to enforce broad vector distribution. We compared the efficiency of multiple adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors after a single injection via intraperitoneal or intravenous routes without additional intervention. We show that AAV8 is the most efficient vector for crossing the blood vessel barrier to attain systemic gene transfer in both skeletal and cardiac muscles of mice and hamsters. Serotypes such as AAV1 and AAV6, which demonstrate robust infection in skeletal muscle cells, were less effective in crossing the blood vessel barrier. Gene expression persisted in muscle and heart, but diminished in tissues undergoing rapid cell division, such as neonatal liver. This technology should prove useful for muscle-directed systemic gene therapy.

  14. Kruppel-like factor 15 regulates skeletal muscle lipid flux and exercise adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Saptarsi M.; Jeyaraj, Darwin; Anand, Priti; Zhu, Han; Lu, Yuan; Prosdocimo, Domenick A.; Eapen, Betty; Kawanami, Daiji; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Brotto, Leticia; Fujioka, Hisashi; Kerner, Janos; Rosca, Mariana G.; McGuinness, Owen P.; Snow, Rod J.; Russell, Aaron P.; Gerber, Anthony N.; Bai, Xiaodong; Yan, Zhen; Nosek, Thomas M.; Brotto, Marco; Hoppel, Charles L.; Jain, Mukesh K.

    2012-01-01

    The ability of skeletal muscle to enhance lipid utilization during exercise is a form of metabolic plasticity essential for survival. Conversely, metabolic inflexibility in muscle can cause organ dysfunction and disease. Although the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) is an important regulator of glucose and amino acid metabolism, its endogenous role in lipid homeostasis and muscle physiology is unknown. Here we demonstrate that KLF15 is essential for skeletal muscle lipid utilization and physiologic performance. KLF15 directly regulates a broad transcriptional program spanning all major segments of the lipid-flux pathway in muscle. Consequently, Klf15-deficient mice have abnormal lipid and energy flux, excessive reliance on carbohydrate fuels, exaggerated muscle fatigue, and impaired endurance exercise capacity. Elucidation of this heretofore unrecognized role for KLF15 now implicates this factor as a central component of the transcriptional circuitry that coordinates physiologic flux of all three basic cellular nutrients: glucose, amino acids, and lipids. PMID:22493257

  15. The putative involvement of the transabdominal muscles in dysphonia: a preliminary study and thoughts.

    PubMed

    Rubin, J S; Macdonald, I; Blake, E

    2011-03-01

    Real-time ultrasound was used as an adjunct to assess patterns of periabdominal musculature in 14 individual with dysphonia and muscle tension dysphonia. Fourteen individuals with muscle tension dysphonia were evaluated with real-time ultrasound as a part of their initial evaluation and management. In 13 of 14 individuals, there was an imbalance found during phonation between the transversus abdominis muscles (TAs) and internal oblique muscles (IOs), whereby the IOs were found to be overactive and the TAs underactive. After physiotherapy, this pattern was reversed. The abdominal muscle pattern of overactivity of the internal oblique and underactivity of the TA during phonation was found to be present in the large majority of patients in this pilot sample who had presented with muscle tension dysphonia. The significance of this is unclear but deserves further review. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. New insights into the benefits of exercise for muscle health in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myositis.

    PubMed

    Alemo Munters, Li; Alexanderson, Helene; Crofford, Leslie J; Lundberg, Ingrid E

    2014-07-01

    With recommended treatment, a majority with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) develop muscle impairment and poor health. Beneficial effects of exercise have been reported on muscle performance, aerobic capacity and health in chronic polymyositis and dermatomyositis and to some extent in active disease and inclusion body myositis (IBM). Importantly, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate that improved health and decreased clinical disease activity could be mediated through increased aerobic capacity. Recently, reports seeking mechanisms underlying effects of exercise in skeletal muscle indicate increased aerobic capacity (i.e. increased mitochondrial capacity and capillary density, reduced lactate levels), activation of genes in aerobic phenotype and muscle growth programs, and down regulation in genes related to inflammation. Altogether, exercise contributes to both systemic and within-muscle adaptations demonstrating that exercise is fundamental to improve muscle performance and health in IIM. There is a need for RCTs to study effects of exercise in active disease and IBM.

  17. Physics of muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Caruel, M; Truskinovsky, L

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called 'descending limb' of the isometric tetanus.

  18. Physics of muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruel, M.; Truskinovsky, L.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called ‘descending limb’ of the isometric tetanus.

  19. Mechanical principles of effects of botulinum toxin on muscle length-force characteristics: an assessment by finite element modeling.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, Ahu N; Huijing, Peter A; Yucesoy, Can A

    2014-05-07

    Recent experiments involving muscle force measurements over a range of muscle lengths show that effects of botulinum toxin (BTX) are complex e.g., force reduction varies as a function of muscle length. We hypothesized that altered conditions of sarcomeres within active parts of partially paralyzed muscle is responsible for this effect. Using finite element modeling, the aim was to test this hypothesis and to study principles of how partial activation as a consequence of BTX affects muscle mechanics. In order to model the paralyzing effect of BTX, only 50% of the fascicles (most proximal, or middle, or most distal) of the modeled muscle were activated. For all muscle lengths, a vast majority of sarcomeres of these BTX-cases were at higher lengths than identical sarcomeres of the BTX-free muscle. Due to such "longer sarcomere effect", activated muscle parts show an enhanced potential of active force exertion (up to 14.5%). Therefore, a muscle force reduction originating exclusively from the paralyzed muscle fiber populations, is compromised by the changes of active sarcomeres leading to a smaller net force reduction. Moreover, such "compromise to force reduction" varies as a function of muscle length and is a key determinant of muscle length dependence of force reduction caused by BTX. Due to longer sarcomere effect, muscle optimum length tends to shift to a lower muscle length. Muscle fiber-extracellular matrix interactions occurring via their mutual connections along full peripheral fiber lengths (i.e., myofascial force transmission) are central to these effects. Our results may help improving our understanding of mechanisms of how the toxin secondarily affects the muscle mechanically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Housing system influences abundance of Pax3 and Pax7 in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Yin, H D; Li, D Y; Zhang, L; Yang, M Y; Zhao, X L; Wang, Y; Liu, Y P; Zhu, Q

    2014-06-01

    Paired box (Pax) proteins 3 and 7 are associated with activation of muscle satellite cells and play a major role in hyperplastic and hypertrophic growth in postnatal skeletal muscle fibers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of housing system on abundance of Pax3 and Pax7 in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles. At 42 d, 1,200 chickens with similar BW were randomly assigned to cage, pen, and free-range group. The mRNA abundance was measured in pectoralis major and thigh muscle at d 56, 70, and 84, and the protein expression was quantified at d 84. Increases in mRNA abundance of PAX3 and PAX7 with age were less pronounced in caged system chickens than in pen and free-range chickens from d 56 to 84, and free-range chickens showed a more pronounced increase in gene expression with age compared with penned chickens. At d 84, quantities of PAX3 and PAX7 mRNA and protein were highest in both pectoralis major and thigh muscle of chickens raised in the free-range group, lowest in penned chickens, and intermediate in caged chickens (P < 0.05). These data indicate that housing system may influence muscle fiber muscle accretion by coordinating the expression of Pax3 and Pax7 in adult chicken skeletal muscles. Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. MR relaxometry for the facial ageing assessment: the preliminary study of the age dependency in the MR relaxometry parameters within the facial soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Buch, K; Fujita, A; Christiansen, C L; Jara, H; Sakai, O

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the location-specific tissue properties and age-related changes of the facial fat and facial muscles using quantitative MRI (qMRI) analysis of longitudinal magnetization (T1) and transverse magnetization (T2) values. 38 subjects (20 males and 18 females, 0.5-87 years old) were imaged with a mixed turbo-spin echo sequence at 1.5 T. T1 and T2 measurements were obtained within regions of interest in six facial fat regions including the buccal fat and subcutaneous cheek fat, four eyelid fat regions (lateral upper, medial upper, lateral lower and medial lower) and five facial muscles including the orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris, buccinator, zygomaticus major and masseter muscles bilaterally. Within the zygomaticus major muscle, age-associated T1 decreases in females and T1 increases in males were observed in later life with an increase in T2 values with age. The orbicularis oculi muscles showed lower T1 and higher T2 values compared to the masseter, orbicularis oris and buccinator muscles, which demonstrated small age-related changes. The dramatic age-related changes were also observed in the eyelid fat regions, particularly within the lower eyelid fat; negative correlations with age in T1 values (p<0.0001 for age) and prominent positive correlation in T2 values in male subjects (p<0.0001 for male×age). Age-related changes were not observed in T2 values within the subcutaneous cheek fat. This study demonstrates proof of concept using T1 and T2 values to assess age-related changes of the facial soft tissues, demonstrating tissue-specific qMRI measurements and non-uniform ageing patterns within different regions of facial soft tissues.

  2. Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) in Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Louise H.; Petersson, Stine J.; Sellathurai, Jeeva; Andersen, Ditte C.; Thayssen, Susanne; Sant, Dorte J.; Jensen, Charlotte H.; Schrøder, Henrik D.

    2009-01-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC)/osteonectin is expressed in different tissues during remodeling and repair, suggesting a function in regeneration. Several gene expression studies indicated that SPARC was expressed in response to muscle damage. Studies on myoblasts further indicated a function of SPARC in skeletal muscle. We therefore found it of interest to study SPARC expression in human skeletal muscle during development and in biopsies from Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy and congenital muscular dystrophy, congenital myopathy, inclusion body myositis, and polymyositis patients to analyze SPARC expression in a selected range of inherited and idiopathic muscle wasting diseases. SPARC-positive cells were observed both in fetal and neonatal muscle, and in addition, fetal myofibers were observed to express SPARC at the age of 15–16 weeks. SPARC protein was detected in the majority of analyzed muscle biopsies (23 of 24), mainly in mononuclear cells of which few were pax7 positive. Myotubes and regenerating myofibers also expressed SPARC. The expression-degree seemed to reflect the severity of the lesion. In accordance with these in vivo findings, primary human-derived satellite cells were found to express SPARC both during proliferation and differentiation in vitro. In conclusion, this study shows SPARC expression both during muscle development and in regenerating muscle. The expression is detected both in satellite cells/myoblasts and in myotubes and muscle fibers, indicating a role for SPARC in the skeletal muscle compartment. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:29–39, 2009) PMID:18796407

  3. Biochemical and physical factors affecting discoloration characteristics of 19 bovine muscles.

    PubMed

    McKenna, D R; Mies, P D; Baird, B E; Pfeiffer, K D; Ellebracht, J W; Savell, J W

    2005-08-01

    Steaks from muscles (n=19 from nine beef carcasses) were evaluated over the course of retail display (0-, 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- or 5-d) for objective measures of discoloration (metmyoglobin, oxymyoglobin, L*-, a*-, and b*-values), reducing ability (metmyoglobin reductase activity (MRA), resistance to induced metmyoglobin formation (RIMF), and nitric oxide metmyoglobin reducing ability (NORA)), oxygen consumption rate (OCR), oxygen penetration depth, myoglobin content, oxidative rancidity, and pH. Muscles were grouped according to objective color measures of discoloration. M. longissimus lumborum, M. longissimus thoracis, M. semitendinosus, and M. tensor fasciae latae were grouped as "high" color stability muscles, M. semimembranosus, M. rectus femoris, and M. vastus lateralis were grouped as "moderate" color stability muscles, M. trapezius, M. gluteus medius, and M. latissimus dorsi were grouped as "intermediate" color stability muscles, M. triceps brachi - long head, M. biceps femoris, M. pectoralis profundus, M. adductor, M. triceps brachi - lateral head, and M. serratus ventralis were grouped as "low" color stability muscles, and M. supraspinatus, M. infraspinatus, and M. psoas major were grouped as "very low" color stability muscles. Generally, muscles of high color stability had high RIMF, nitric oxide reducing ability, and oxygen penetration depth and possessed low OCRs, myoglobin content, and oxidative rancidity. In contrast, muscles of low color stability had high MRA, OCRs, myoglobin content, and oxidative rancidity and low RIMF, NORA, and oxygen penetration depth. Data indicate that discoloration differences between muscles are related to the amount of reducing activity relative to the OCR.

  4. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Catoire, Milène; Mensink, Marco; Boekschoten, Mark V; Hangelbroek, Roland; Müller, Michael; Schrauwen, Patrick; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max). Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  5. Pronounced Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Gene Expression in Resting and Exercising Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Catoire, Milène; Mensink, Marco; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Hangelbroek, Roland; Müller, Michael; Schrauwen, Patrick; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44–56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% Wmax. Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle. PMID:23226462

  6. Muscle-specific gene expression is underscored by differential stressor responses and coexpression changes.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Sánchez, Natalia; Rueda, Julia; Reverter, Antonio; Carabaño, María Jesús; Díaz, Clara

    2012-03-01

    Variations on the transcriptome from one skeletal muscle type to another still remain unknown. The reliable identification of stable gene coexpression networks is essential to unravel gene functions and define biological processes. The differential expression of two distinct muscles, M. flexor digitorum (FD) and M. psoas major (PM), was studied using microarrays in cattle to illustrate muscle-specific transcription patterns and to quantify changes in connectivity regarding the expected gene coexpression pattern. A total of 206 genes were differentially expressed (DE), 94 upregulated in PM and 112 in FD. The distribution of DE genes in pathways and biological functions was explored in the context of system biology. Global interactomes for genes of interest were predicted. Fast/slow twitch genes, genes coding for extracellular matrix, ribosomal and heat shock proteins, and fatty acid uptake centred the specific gene expression patterns per muscle. Genes involved in repairing mechanisms, such as ribosomal and heat shock proteins, suggested a differential ability of muscles to react to similar stressing factors, acting preferentially in slow twitch muscles. Muscle attributes do not seem to be completely explained by the muscle fibre composition. Changes in connectivity accounted for 24% of significant correlations between DE genes. Genes changing their connectivity mostly seem to contribute to the main differential attributes that characterize each specific muscle type. These results underscore the unique flexibility of skeletal muscle where a substantial set of genes are able to change their behavior depending on the circumstances.

  7. Effects of nandrolone on recovery after neurotization of chronically denervated muscle in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Jonathan; Feher, Joseph; Shall, Mary; Vota, Scott; Fox, Michael A; Mallu, Satya; Razavi, Ashkon; Friebe, Ilvy; Shah, Sagar; Spita, Nathalie

    2013-10-01

    Suboptimal recovery following repair of major peripheral nerves has been partially attributed to denervation atrophy. Administration of anabolic steroids in conjunction with neurotization may improve functional recovery of chronically denervated muscle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the administration of nandrolone on muscle recovery following prolonged denervation in a rat model. Eight groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats (15 rats per group, 120 in all) were divided into 3- or 6-month denervated hind limb and sham surgery groups and, then, nandrolone treatment groups and sham treatment groups. Evaluation of treatment effects included nerve conduction, force of contraction, comparative morphology, histology (of muscle fibers), protein electrophoresis (for muscle fiber grouping), and immunohistochemical evaluation. Although a positive trend was noted, neither reinnervated nor normal muscle showed a statistically significant increase in peak muscle force following nandrolone treatment. Indirect measures, including muscle mass (weight and diameter), muscle cell size, muscle fiber type, and satellite cell counts, all failed to support significant anabolic effect. There does not seem to be a functional benefit from nandrolone treatment following reinnervation of either mild or moderately atrophic muscle (related to prolonged denervation) in a rodent model.

  8. Rupture of the pectoralis major: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Schofer, Joel M

    2010-02-01

    Rupture of the pectoralis major muscle is a rare clinical entity that is becoming more common due to the increasing popularity of weightlifting and recreational sports. Due to the rarity of this condition, it may be missed at initial presentation and inappropriately treated, potentially leading to increased disability. This case highlights the mechanism of injury, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of rupture of the pectoralis major. The patient was a 31-year-old male bodybuilder who presented to the Emergency Department with acute pain and swelling in the left axilla after performing a bench press with a 400-pound barbell. The diagnosis of pectoralis major rupture was suspected and confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, and early surgical repair was performed. The most common mechanism of injury is excessive tension on a maximally contracted pectoralis major muscle. Weightlifting, specifically bench pressing, is a common cause. The diagnosis can usually be made based on a patient's history and physical examination, but shortly after injury, the diagnosis may be obscured by severe pain and swelling. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging modality of choice when the diagnosis remains unclear, and can avoid surgical delays. Early diagnosis and treatment within 3 to 8 weeks after the injury has the advantage of avoiding adhesions and muscle atrophy, and can prevent a delayed return to normal activities. Given the trend toward improved results with early surgical repair of complete rupture, it is important to raise awareness about pectoralis major muscle injury among Emergency Physicians to prevent missed or delayed diagnosis and repair. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Growth Factors and Tension-Induced Skeletal Muscle Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1994-01-01

    The project investigated biochemical mechanisms to enhance skeletal muscle growth, and developed a computer based mechanical cell stimulator system. The biochemicals investigated in this study were insulin/(Insulin like Growth Factor) IGF-1 and Steroids. In order to analyze which growth factors are essential for stretch-induced muscle growth in vitro, we developed a defined, serum-free medium in which the differentiated, cultured avian muscle fibers could be maintained for extended periods of time. The defined medium (muscle maintenance medium, MM medium) maintains the nitrogen balance of the myofibers for 3 to 7 days, based on myofiber diameter measurements and myosin heavy chain content. Insulin and IGF-1, but not IGF-2, induced pronounced myofiber hypertrophy when added to this medium. In 5 to 7 days, muscle fiber diameters increase by 71 % to 98% compared to untreated controls. Mechanical stimulation of the avian muscle fibers in MM medium increased the sensitivity of the cells to insulin and IGF-1, based on a leftward shift of the insulin dose/response curve for protein synthesis rates. (54). We developed a ligand binding assay for IGF-1 binding proteins and found that the avian skeletal muscle cultures produced three major species of 31, 36 and 43 kD molecular weight (54) Stretch of the myofibers was found to have no significant effect on the efflux of IGF-1 binding proteins, but addition of exogenous collagen stimulated IGF-1 binding protein production 1.5 to 5 fold. Steroid hormones have a profound effect on muscle protein turnover rates in vivo, with the stress-related glucocorticoids inducing rapid skeletal muscle atrophy while androgenic steroids induce skeletal muscle growth. Exercise in humans and animals reduces the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids and may enhance the anabolic effects of androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle. In our continuing work on the involvement of exogenrus growth factors in stretch-induced avian skeletal muscle growth, we

  10. Association of walking speed with sagittal spinal alignment, muscle thickness, and echo intensity of lumbar back muscles in middle-aged and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Mitsuhiro; Ikezoe, Tome; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Minami, Seigo; Aoyama, Junichi; Ibuki, Satoko; Kimura, Misaka; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2016-06-01

    Age-related change of spinal alignment in the standing position is known to be associated with decreases in walking speed, and alteration in muscle quantity (i.e., muscle mass) and muscle quality (i.e., increases in the amount of intramuscular non-contractile tissue) of lumbar back muscles. Additionally, the lumbar lordosis angle in the standing position is associated with walking speed, independent of lower-extremity muscle strength, in elderly individuals. However, it is unclear whether spinal alignment in the standing position is associated with walking speed in the elderly, independent of trunk muscle quantity and quality. The present study investigated the association of usual and maximum walking speed with age, sagittal spinal alignment in the standing position, muscle quantity measured as thickness, and quality measured as echo intensity of lumbar muscles in 35 middle-aged and elderly women. Sagittal spinal alignment in the standing position (thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, and sacral anterior inclination angle) using a spinal mouse, and muscle thickness and echo intensity of the lumbar muscles (erector spinae, psoas major, and lumbar multifidus) using an ultrasound imaging device were also measured. Stepwise regression analysis showed that only age was a significant determinant of usual walking speed. The thickness of the lumbar erector spinae muscle was a significant, independent determinant of maximal walking speed. The results of this study suggest that a decrease in maximal walking speed is associated with the decrease in lumbar erector spinae muscles thickness rather than spinal alignment in the standing position in middle-aged and elderly women.

  11. Muscle recruitment patterns of the subscapularis, serratus anterior and other shoulder girdle muscles during isokinetic internal and external rotations.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Sylvain; Tremblay, Jonathan; Begon, Mickael

    2018-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in peak muscle activity and recruitment patterns during high- and low-velocity, concentric and eccentric, internal and external isokinetic shoulder rotations. Electromyographic activity of the rotator cuff and eight superficial muscles of the shoulder girdle was recorded on 25 healthy adults during isokinetic internal and external shoulder rotation at 60°/s and 240°/s. Peak muscle activity, electromyographic envelopes and peak isokinetic moments were analyzed using three-factor ANOVA and statistical parametric mapping. The subscapularis and serratus anterior showed moderate to high peak activity levels during each conditions, while the middle and posterior deltoids, upper, middle and lower trapezius, infraspinatus and supraspinatus showed higher peak activity levels during external rotations (+36.5% of maximum voluntary activation (MVA)). The pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi were more active during internal rotations (+40% of MVA). Only middle trapezius and pectoralis major electromyographic activity decreased with increasing velocity. Peak muscle activity was similar or lower during eccentric contractions, although the peak isokinetic moment increased by 35% on average. The subscapularis and serratus anterior appear to be important stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint and scapula. Isokinetic eccentric training at high velocities may allow for faster recruitment of the shoulder girdle muscles, which could improve joint stability during shoulder internal and external rotations.

  12. Skeletal muscle IL-6 regulates muscle substrate utilization and adipose tissue metabolism during recovery from an acute bout of exercise.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Jakob G; Gudiksen, Anders; Bertholdt, Lærke; Overby, Peter; Villesen, Ida; Schwartz, Camilla L; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    An acute bout of exercise imposes a major challenge on whole-body metabolism and metabolic adjustments are needed in multiple tissues during recovery to reestablish metabolic homeostasis. It is currently unresolved how this regulation is orchestrated between tissues. This study was undertaken to clarify the role of skeletal muscle derived interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the coordination of the metabolic responses during recovery from acute exercise. Skeletal muscle specific IL-6 knockout (IL-6 MKO) and littermate Control mice were rested or ran on a treadmill for 2h. Plasma, skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue were obtained after 6 and 10h of recovery. Non-exercised IL-6 MKO mice had higher plasma lactate and lower plasma non-esterified fatty acids than Controls. The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the active form was, in skeletal muscle, higher in IL-6 MKO mice than Controls in non-exercised mice and 6h after exercise. IL-6 MKO mice had lower glucose transporter 4 protein content in inguinal adipose tissue (WAT) than Control in non-exercised mice and 10h after treadmill running. Epididymal WAT hormone sensitive lipase phosphorylation and inguinal WAT mitogen activated kinase P38 phosphorylation were higher in IL-6 MKO than Control mice 6h after exercise. These findings indicate that skeletal muscle IL-6 may play an important role in the regulation of substrate utilization in skeletal muscle, basal and exercise-induced adaptations in adipose tissue glucose uptake and lipolysis during recovery from exercise. Together this indicates that skeletal muscle IL-6 contributes to reestablishing metabolic homeostasis during recovery from exercise by regulating WAT and skeletal muscle metabolism.

  13. Overview of the Muscle Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Christine A.; Gomez, Christopher G.; Novak, Stefanie M.; Mi-Mi, Lei; Gregorio, Carol C.

    2018-01-01

    Cardiac and skeletal striated muscles are intricately designed machines responsible for muscle contraction. Coordination of the basic contractile unit, the sarcomere, and the complex cytoskeletal networks are critical for contractile activity. The sarcomere is comprised of precisely organized individual filament systems that include thin (actin), thick (myosin), titin, and nebulin. Connecting the sarcomere to other organelles (e.g., mitochondria and nucleus) and serving as the scaffold to maintain cellular integrity are the intermediate filaments. The costamere, on the other hand, tethers the sarcomere to the cell membrane. Unique structures like the intercalated disc in cardiac muscle and the myotendinous junction in skeletal muscle help synchronize and transmit force. Intense investigation has been done on many of the proteins that make up these cytoskeletal assemblies. Yet the details of their function and how they interconnect have just started to be elucidated. A vast number of human myopathies are contributed to mutations in muscle proteins; thus understanding their basic function provides a mechanistic understanding of muscle disorders. In this review, we highlight the components of striated muscle with respect to their interactions, signaling pathways, functions, and connections to disease. PMID:28640448

  14. Imaging Patterns of Muscle Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marc-André; Wolf, Marcel; Wattjes, Mike P

    2018-07-01

    The role of muscle imaging in the diagnosis of inherited and acquired muscle diseases has gained clinical relevance. In particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used for diagnostic purposes, especially with its capability of whole-body musculature assessment. The assessment and quantification of muscle involvement in muscle diseases can be of diagnostic value by identifying a certain involvement pattern and thus narrowing the differential diagnosis and supporting the clinical diagnosis. In addition, more recently the role of imaging has gone beyond diagnostic purposes and includes disease as well as treatment monitoring. Conventional and quantitative muscle MRI techniques allow for the detection of subclinical disease progression (e.g., in muscular dystrophies) and is a powerful surrogate outcome measure in clinical trials. We present and discuss recent data on the role of conventional and quantitative MRI in the diagnosis and monitoring of inherited dystrophic muscle diseases as well as muscle denervation. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. [Muscles and connective tissue: histology].

    PubMed

    Delage, J-P

    2012-10-01

    Here, we give some comments about the DVD movies "Muscle Attitudes" from Endovivo productions, the movies up lighting some loss in the attention given to studies on the connective tissue, and especially them into muscles. The main characteristics of the different components in the intra-muscular connective tissue (perimysium, endomysium, epimysium) are shown here with special references to their ordered architecture and special references to their spatial distributions. This connective tissue is abundant into the muscles and is in continuity with the muscles in vicinity, with their tendons and their sheath, sticking the whole on skin. This connective tissue has also very abundant connections on the muscles fibres. It is then assumed that the connective tissue sticks every organs or cells of the locomotion system. Considering the elastic properties of the collagen fibres which are the most abundant component of connective tissue, it is possible to up light a panel of connective tissue associated functions such as the transmission of muscle contractions or the regulation of protein and energetic muscles metabolism. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  16. Immunology Guides Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sass, F Andrea; Fuchs, Michael; Pumberger, Matthias; Geissler, Sven; Duda, Georg N; Perka, Carsten; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina

    2018-03-13

    Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is diminished. Despite research efforts to investigate the physiological healing cascade following trauma, our understanding of the early onset of healing and how it potentially determines success or failure is still only fragmentary. This review focuses on the initial physiological pathways following skeletal muscle trauma in comparison to bone and tendon trauma and what conclusions can be drawn from new scientific insights for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Strategies to support regeneration of muscle tissue after injury are scarce, even though muscle trauma has a high incidence. Based on tissue specific differences, possible clinical treatment options such as local immune-modulatory and cell therapeutic approaches are suggested that aim to support the endogenous regenerative potential of injured muscle tissues.

  17. Immunology Guides Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sass, F. Andrea; Pumberger, Matthias; Geissler, Sven; Duda, Georg N.; Perka, Carsten; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is diminished. Despite research efforts to investigate the physiological healing cascade following trauma, our understanding of the early onset of healing and how it potentially determines success or failure is still only fragmentary. This review focuses on the initial physiological pathways following skeletal muscle trauma in comparison to bone and tendon trauma and what conclusions can be drawn from new scientific insights for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Strategies to support regeneration of muscle tissue after injury are scarce, even though muscle trauma has a high incidence. Based on tissue specific differences, possible clinical treatment options such as local immune-modulatory and cell therapeutic approaches are suggested that aim to support the endogenous regenerative potential of injured muscle tissues. PMID:29534011

  18. Muscle performance after the menopause.

    PubMed

    Sirola, Joonas; Rikkonen, Toni

    2005-06-01

    The timing of the menopause transition has remained fairly constant throughout history. It represents a milestone in female health and, after passing through it, women experience increased musculoskeletal and cardiovascular morbidity. Muscle performance is an important determinant of functional capacity and quality of life among the elderly and is also involved in the maintenance of balance. Therefore, good muscle strength can prevent fragility fractures and lessen the burden of osteoporosis. Muscle strength begins to decline during the perimenopausal years and this phenomenon seems to be partly estrogen dependent. Randomized controlled trials have indicated that hormone replacement therapy may prevent a decline in muscle performance, although the exact mechanism of estrogen-dependent sarcopenia remains to be clarified. Exercises have been shown to improve postmenopausal muscle performance and hormone replacement therapy may also potentiate these beneficial effects. Improvement or maintenance of muscle strength alone, however, may not be considered as a primary indication for long-term hormone replacement therapy in view of current knowledge of its risks and benefits. Work history and educational background may be associated with postmenopausal muscle performance, which itself has unique associations with skeletal and cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Development of Postural Muscles and Their Innervation

    PubMed Central

    IJkema-Paassen, J.; Gramsbergen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Control of posture is a prerequisite for efficient motor performance. Posture depends on muscles capable of enduring contractions, whereas movements often require quick, forceful muscle actions. To serve these different goals, muscles contain fibers that meet these different tasks. Muscles with strong postural functions mainly consist of slow muscle fibers with a great resistance against fatigue. Flexor muscles in the leg and arm muscles are mainly composed of fast muscle fibers producing relatively large forces that are rapidly fatigable. Development of the neuromuscular system continues after birth. We discuss in the human baby and in animal experiments changes in muscle fiber properties, regression from polyneural into mononeural innervation, and developmental changes in the motoneurons of postural muscles during that period. The regression of poly-neural innervation in postural muscles and the development of dendrite bundles of their motoneurons seem to be linked to the transition from the immature into the adult-like patterns of moving and postural control. PMID:16097482

  20. Predicting Major Solar Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares are two examples of major explosions from the surface of the Sun but theyre not the same thing, and they dont have to happen at the same time. A recent study examines whether we can predict which solar flares will be closely followed by larger-scale CMEs.Image of a solar flare from May 2013, as captured by NASAs Solar Dynamics Observatory. [NASA/SDO]Flares as a Precursor?A solar flare is a localized burst of energy and X-rays, whereas a CME is an enormous cloud of magnetic flux and plasma released from the Sun. We know that some magnetic activity on the surface of the Sun triggers both a flare and a CME, whereas other activity only triggers a confined flare with no CME.But what makes the difference? Understanding this can help us learn about the underlying physical drivers of flares and CMEs. It also might help us to better predict when a CME which can pose a risk to astronauts, disrupt radio transmissions, and cause damage to satellites might occur.In a recent study, Monica Bobra and Stathis Ilonidis (Stanford University) attempt to improve our ability to make these predictions by using a machine-learning algorithm.Classification by ComputerUsing a combination of 6 or more features results in a much better predictive success (measured by the True Skill Statistic; higher positive value = better prediction) for whether a flare will be accompanied by a CME. [Bobra Ilonidis 2016]Bobra and Ilonidis used magnetic-field data from an instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory to build a catalog of solar flares, 56 of which were accompanied by a CME and 364 of which were not. The catalog includes information about 18 different features associated with the photospheric magnetic field of each flaring active region (for example, the mean gradient of the horizontal magnetic field).The authors apply a machine-learning algorithm known as a binary classifier to this catalog. This algorithm tries to predict, given a set of features

  1. Bigorexia: bodybuilding and muscle dysmorphia.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Philip E

    2009-05-01

    Muscle dysmorphia is an emerging condition that primarily affects male bodybuilders. Such individuals obsess about being inadequately muscular. Compulsions include spending hours in the gym, squandering excessive amounts of money on ineffectual sports supplements, abnormal eating patterns or even substance abuse. In this essay, I illustrate the features of muscle dysmorphia by employing the first-person account of a male bodybuilder afflicted by this condition. I briefly outline the history of bodybuilding and examine whether the growth of this sport is linked to a growing concern with body image amongst males. I suggest that muscle dysmorphia may be a new expression of a common pathology shared with the eating disorders.

  2. Regenerating muscle with arginine methylation

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Roméo S.; Richard, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) is a family of nine proteins catalyzing the methylation of arginine residues. They were recently shown to be essential for proper regeneration of skeletal muscles. However, the mechanisms triggering the methylation event, as well as how the methylated substrates regulate muscle stem cell function and fate decision remain to be determined. This point-of-view will discuss the recent findings on the specific role of PRMT1, CARM1/PRMT4, PRMT5, and PRMT7 in muscle stem cell fate guidance, and shed light on the future challenges which could help defining the therapeutic potential of PRMT inhibitors against muscular disorders and aging. PMID:28301308

  3. Regenerating muscle with arginine methylation.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Roméo S; Richard, Stéphane

    2017-05-27

    Protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) is a family of nine proteins catalyzing the methylation of arginine residues. They were recently shown to be essential for proper regeneration of skeletal muscles. However, the mechanisms triggering the methylation event, as well as how the methylated substrates regulate muscle stem cell function and fate decision remain to be determined. This point-of-view will discuss the recent findings on the specific role of PRMT1, CARM1/PRMT4, PRMT5, and PRMT7 in muscle stem cell fate guidance, and shed light on the future challenges which could help defining the therapeutic potential of PRMT inhibitors against muscular disorders and aging.

  4. Management of cricopharyngeus muscle dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Maggie A; Belafsky, Peter C

    2013-12-01

    The cricopharyngeus muscle (CPM) is a key component of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). In dysphagia, cricopharyngeus muscle dysfunction (CPD) refers to the muscle's failure to appropriately and completely relax or expand during deglutition. A variety of disease processes may cause CPD, and the resultant clinical manifestation is solid food or solid and liquid dysphagia. Several diagnostic tools are available for dysphagia clinicians to distinguish CPD from other causes of UES dysfunction. For CPD, accurate diagnosis is paramount for the recommendation of appropriate treatment. In appropriately selected patients, intervention at the CPM may yield significant improvement in dysphagia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Age-related changes in rat intrinsic laryngeal muscles: analysis of muscle fibers, muscle fiber proteins, and subneural apparatuses.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Naoya; Taguchi, Aki; Motoyoshi, Kazumi; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Gyo, Kiyofumi; Desaki, Junzo

    2013-03-01

    We compared age-related changes in the intrinsic laryngeal muscles of aged and young adult rats by determining the number and diameter of muscle fibers, contractile muscle protein (myosin heavy chain isoforms, MHC) composition, and the morphology of the subneural apparatuses. In aged rats, both the numbers and the diameters of muscle fibers decreased in the cricothyroid (CT) muscle. The number of fibers, but not diameter, decreased in the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle. In the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle, neither the number nor the diameter of fibers changed significantly. Aging was associated with a decrease in type IIB and an increase in type IIA MHC isoform levels in CT muscle, but no such changes were observed in the TA or PCA muscles. Morphological examination of primary synaptic clefts of the subneural apparatus revealed that aging resulted in decreased labyrinthine and increased depression types in only the CT muscle. In the aged group, morphologically immature subneural apparatuses were found infrequently in the CT muscle, indicating continued tissue remodeling. We suggest, therefore, that age-related changes in the intrinsic laryngeal muscles primarily involve the CT muscle, whereas the structures of the TA and PCA muscles may better resist aging processes and therefore are less vulnerable to functional impairment. This may reflect differences in their roles; the CT muscle controls the tone of the vocal folds, while the TA and PCA muscles play an essential role in vital activities such as respiration and swallowing.

  6. Recovery of pectoralis major and triceps brachii after bench press exercise.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Diogo V; Gentil, Paulo; Soares, Saulo Rodrigo Sampaio; Bottaro, Martim

    2017-11-01

    The present study evaluated and compared the recovery of pectoralis major (PM) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles of trained men after bench press exercise. Eighteen volunteers performed eight sets of bench press exercise to momentary muscle failure and were evaluated for TB and PM peak torque and total work on an isokinetic dynamometer. PM peak torque and total work remained lower than baseline for 72 and 96 h, respectively. TB peak torque was only different from baseline immediately post training, while total work was significantly lower than baseline immediately and 48 h after training. Normalized peak torque values were only different between TB and PM at 48 h after training. Considering the small and nonsignificant difference between the recovery of TB and PM muscles, the results suggest that bench press exercise may promote a similar stress on these muscles. Muscle Nerve 56: 963-967, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Activation of respiratory muscles during respiratory muscle training.

    PubMed

    Walterspacher, Stephan; Pietsch, Fabian; Walker, David Johannes; Röcker, Kai; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim

    2018-01-01

    It is unknown which respiratory muscles are mainly activated by respiratory muscle training. This study evaluated Inspiratory Pressure Threshold Loading (IPTL), Inspiratory Flow Resistive Loading (IFRL) and Voluntary Isocapnic Hyperpnea (VIH) with regard to electromyographic (EMG) activation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM), parasternal muscles (PARA) and the diaphragm (DIA) in randomized order. Surface EMG were analyzed at the end of each training session and normalized using the peak EMG recorded during maximum inspiratory maneuvers (Sniff nasal pressure: SnPna, maximal inspiratory mouth occlusion pressure: PImax). 41 healthy participants were included. Maximal activation was achieved for SCM by SnPna; the PImax activated predominantly PARA and DIA. Activations of SCM and PARA were higher in IPTL and VIH than for IFRL (p<0.05). DIA was higher applying IPTL compared to IFRL or VIH (p<0.05). IPTL, IFRL and VIH differ in activation of inspiratory respiratory muscles. Whereas all methods mainly stimulate accessory respiratory muscles, diaphragm activation was predominant in IPTL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Eccentric muscle challenge shows osteopontin polymorphism modulation of muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Barfield, Whitney L; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Wu, Chung-Sheih; Lin, Stephen; Chen, Yue; Wang, Paul C; Kanaan, Yasmine; Bond, Vernon; Hoffman, Eric P

    2014-08-01

    A promoter polymorphism of the osteopontin (OPN) gene (rs28357094) has been associated with multiple inflammatory states, severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and muscle size in healthy young adults. We sought to define the mechanism of action of the polymorphism, using allele-specific in vitro reporter assays in muscle cells, and a genotype-stratified intervention in healthy controls. In vitro reporter constructs showed the G allele to respond to estrogen treatment, whereas the T allele showed no transcriptional response. Young adult volunteers (n = 187) were enrolled into a baseline study, and subjects with specific rs28357094 genotypes enrolled into an eccentric muscle challenge intervention [n = 3 TT; n = 3 GG/GT (dominant inheritance model)]. Female volunteers carrying the G allele showed significantly greater inflammation and increased muscle volume change as determined by magnetic resonance imaging T1- and T2-weighted images after eccentric challenge, as well as greater decrement in biceps muscle force. Our data suggest a model where the G allele enables enhanced activities of upstream enhancer elements due to loss of Sp1 binding at the polymorphic site. This results in significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory OPN cytokine during tissue remodeling in response to challenge in G allele carriers, promoting muscle hypertrophy in normal females, but increased damage in DMD patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Ethanol Exposure Causes Muscle Degeneration in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Elizabeth C.; Pasquarella, Maggie E.; Goody, Michelle F.

    2018-01-01

    Alcoholic myopathies are characterized by neuromusculoskeletal symptoms such as compromised movement and weakness. Although these symptoms have been attributed to neurological damage, EtOH may also target skeletal muscle. EtOH exposure during zebrafish primary muscle development or adulthood results in smaller muscle fibers. However, the effects of EtOH exposure on skeletal muscle during the growth period that follows primary muscle development are not well understood. We determined the effects of EtOH exposure on muscle during this phase of development. Strikingly, muscle fibers at this stage are acutely sensitive to EtOH treatment: EtOH induces muscle degeneration. The severity of EtOH-induced muscle damage varies but muscle becomes more refractory to EtOH as muscle develops. NF-kB induction in muscle indicates that EtOH triggers a pro-inflammatory response. EtOH-induced muscle damage is p53-independent. Uptake of Evans blue dye shows that EtOH treatment causes sarcolemmal instability before muscle fiber detachment. Dystrophin-null sapje mutant zebrafish also exhibit sarcolemmal instability. We tested whether Trichostatin A (TSA), which reduces muscle degeneration in sapje mutants, would affect EtOH-treated zebrafish. We found that TSA and EtOH are a lethal combination. EtOH does, however, exacerbate muscle degeneration in sapje mutants. EtOH also disrupts adhesion of muscle fibers to their extracellular matrix at the myotendinous junction: some detached muscle fibers retain beta-Dystroglycan indicating failure of muscle end attachments. Overexpression of Paxillin, which reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish deficient for beta-Dystroglycan, is not sufficient to rescue degeneration. Taken together, our results suggest that EtOH exposure has pleiotropic deleterious effects on skeletal muscle. PMID:29615556

  10. Muscle strength at the trunk*.

    PubMed

    Smidt, G L; Amundsen, L R; Dostal, W F

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the strength of trunk flexors and extensors in normal male subjects during isometric, concentric, and eccentric contractions. Subjects were tested in the sidelying position to minimize the effects of gravity. The pelvis and lower extremities were measured on a custom built force table (lowa Force Table). Muscle strength was expressed as a moment of force (external force times the moment arm) in Newton-meter (Nm) units. Greater Nm were registered in the muscle-lengthened position than in the muscle-shortened position for all isometric contractions. The Nm registered for eccentric contractions always exceeded the Nm registered for concentric contractions of the same muscle group. The Nm registered during contractions of trunk extensors always exceeded the values obtained during corresponding modes of contractions (isometric, eccentric, and concentric) of trunk flexors.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1980;1(3):165-170.

  11. Knitting and weaving artificial muscles

    PubMed Central

    Maziz, Ali; Concas, Alessandro; Khaldi, Alexandre; Stålhand, Jonas; Persson, Nils-Krister; Jager, Edwin W. H.

    2017-01-01

    A need exists for artificial muscles that are silent, soft, and compliant, with performance characteristics similar to those of skeletal muscle, enabling natural interaction of assistive devices with humans. By combining one of humankind’s oldest technologies, textile processing, with electroactive polymers, we demonstrate here the feasibility of wearable, soft artificial muscles made by weaving and knitting, with tunable force and strain. These textile actuators were produced from cellulose yarns assembled into fabrics and coated with conducting polymers using a metal-free deposition. To increase the output force, we assembled yarns in parallel by weaving. The force scaled linearly with the number of yarns in the woven fabric. To amplify the strain, we knitted a stretchable fabric, exhibiting a 53-fold increase in strain. In addition, the textile construction added mechanical stability to the actuators. Textile processing permits scalable and rational production of wearable artificial muscles, and enables novel ways to design assistive devices. PMID:28138542

  12. Compensatory Hypertrophy of Skeletal Muscle: Contractile Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianuzzo, C. D.; Chen, V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using rats that demonstrates contractile characteristics of normal and hypertrophied muscle. Compensatory hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle is induced by surgical removal of the synergistic gastrocnemium muscle. Includes methods for determination of contractile properties of normal and hypertrophied muscle and…

  13. Hypodynamic and hypokinetic condition of skeletal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katinas, G. S.; Oganov, V. S.; Potapov, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented in regard to the effect of unilateral brachial amputation on the physiological characteristics of two functionally different muscles, the brachial muscle (flexor of the brachium) and the medial head of the brachial triceps muscle (extensor of the brachium), which in rats represents a separate muscle. Hypokinesia and hypodynamia were studied.

  14. Sleep, Muscle Mass and Muscle Function in Older People.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Nikolaus; Spira, Dominik; Norman, Kristina; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2016-04-15

    Loss of muscle mass, particularly in old age, can restrict mobility and physical function. Sleep is thought to play a key role in the maintenance of muscle mass; sleep disturbances have a prevalence of 6-30% in Germany. In this study, based on data from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II), we analyze the relationship between sleep efficiency and quality on the one hand, and muscle mass and muscle function on the other. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1196 subjects (52.5% women; 68 ± 4 years). Sleep behavior was assessed with questions from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; appendicular lean mass (ALM) with dual x-ray absorp - tiometry; and muscle function with a measure of grip strength and with questionnaires about physical activity and impairment of physical activities. Low muscle mass was determined from the ALM corrected by the body-mass index (BMI), i.e., from the ratio ALM/BMI. 19.1% of the women and 13.4% of the men reported poor sleep quality. Men whose ALM/BMI ratio was below the cutoff value for low muscle mass more frequently reported very poor sleep efficiency (9.1% , versus 4.8% in women; p<0.002). The adjusted odds ratio for low muscle mass was 2.8 for men with poor sleep quality (95% confidence interval: [1.1; 6.7]) and 4.3 for men with poor sleep efficiency [1.2; 15.1]. In women, there was no statistically significant association between sleep quality and efficiency on the one hand and ALM/BMI values below cutoff on the other, but poor sleep quality was found to be associated with reduced grip strength (16.25 kg ± 2.33 kg versus 15.67 kg ± 2.38 kg; p = 0.009) and low appendicular lean mass (ALM: 16.25 kg ± 2.33 kg versus 15.67 kg ± 2.38 kg; p = 0.016). These findings support the hypothesis of a link between sleep and muscle mass. The dependence of muscle mass on sleep behavior needs to be investigated in longitudinal studies.

  15. Muscle Contraction Arrests Tumor Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-05-1-0464 TITLE: Muscle Contraction Arrests Tumor Growth...DATE 01-09-2006 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Sep 2005 – 31 Aug 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Muscle ... Contraction Arrests Tumor Growth 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05-1-0464 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Kim Westerlind, Ph.D. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  16. Tendon entheses of the human masticatory muscles.

    PubMed

    Hems, T; Tillmann, B

    2000-09-01

    Tendons attach to the limb skeleton via chondral-apophysary or periosteal-diaphysary entheses. It was the aim of the present study to investigate the tendon entheses of the temporal, the masseter, as well as the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles, considering the biomechanics and the mode of osteogenesis at the attachment sites. The origin and insertion zones of the four masticatory muscles were studied histologically and by polarization light microscopy in six halves of human heads. Contrary to the limb skeleton no causal relationship between the histological structure of the tendon entheses and the osteogenic mode of the bone areas involved was observed in the masticatory muscles that were studied. Based on the histological findings, a purely structural classification of the tendon attachments irrespective of the osteogenesis is therefore proposed that is applicable to the entire skeleton. It is possible to distinguish between tendon entheses inserting into periosteum, into bone or into fibrocartilage. Tendon attachments with periosteal insertion are found at the temporal plane, the retromolar triangle, zygomatic arch, lateral pterygoid plate, in the caudal zone of the pterygoid fovea of the neck of mandible as well as major portions of the ramus and angle of the mandible. The attachment zones in which collagen fibrils of tendons insert into the bone via the periosteum correspond in their structure to plane periosteal-diaphysary insertions into the diaphyses of long bones. Attachment zones to the bone are present at the inferior temporal line, the base of the coronoid process, the caudal surface of the zygomatic arch, the cranial zones of the pterygoid fovea of the neck of the mandible as well as at circumscribed areas of the ramus and angle of the mandible. In these zones the collagen fibers of the tendon insert immediately into the bone without any mediation of other tissues. The entheses resemble those of circumscribed periosteal-diaphysary attachments to

  17. Role of IGF-I Signaling in Muscle Bone Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bikle, Daniel D; Tahimic, Candice; Chang, Wenhan; Wang, Yongmei; Philippou, Anastassios; Barton, Elisabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle and bone rely on a number of growth factors to undergo development, modulate growth, and maintain physiological strength. A major player in these actions is insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). However, because this growth factor can directly enhance muscle mass and bone density, it alters the state of the musculoskeletal system indirectly through mechanical crosstalk between these two organ systems. Thus, there are clearly synergistic actions of IGF-I that extend beyond the direct activity through its receptor. This review will cover the production and signaling of IGF-I as it pertains to muscle and bone, the chemical and mechanical influences that arise from IGF-I activity, and the potential for therapeutic strategies based on IGF-I. PMID:26453498

  18. Unlike myofibers, neuromuscular junctions remain stable during prolonged muscle unloading.

    PubMed

    Deschenes, Michael R; Will, Kristin M; Booth, Frank W; Gordon, Scott E

    2003-06-15

    This study assessed the effect of muscle unloading on the neuromuscular system. Sixteen male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to either a hindlimb suspension (unloaded) or control group (N=8/group) for 16 days. Following this intervention period, pre- and postsynaptic features of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of soleus muscles were stained with cytofluorescent techniques, and myofibers were histochemically stained for ATPase activity. The data indicate that 16 days of muscle unloading resulted in significant (P<0.05) atrophy among myofibers (>50%) that was evident among all three major fiber types (I, IIA and IIX), but failed to significantly alter any aspect of NMJ morphology quantified. These results demonstrate an impressive degree of NMJ resilience despite dramatic remodeling of associated myofibers. This may be of benefit during post-unloading rehabilitative measures where effective neuromuscular communication is essential.

  19. Protein machines and self assembly in muscle organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barral, J. M.; Epstein, H. F.

    1999-01-01

    The remarkable order of striated muscle is the result of a complex series of protein interactions at different levels of organization. Within muscle, the thick filament and its major protein myosin are classical examples of functioning protein machines. Our understanding of the structure and assembly of thick filaments and their organization into the regular arrays of the A-band has recently been enhanced by the application of biochemical, genetic, and structural approaches. Detailed studies of the thick filament backbone have shown that the myosins are organized into a tubular structure. Additional protein machines and specific myosin rod sequences have been identified that play significant roles in thick filament structure, assembly, and organization. These include intrinsic filament components, cross-linking molecules of the M-band and constituents of the membrane-cytoskeleton system. Muscle organization is directed by the multistep actions of protein machines that take advantage of well-established self-assembly relationships. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Improved Cell Culture Method for Growing Contracting Skeletal Muscle Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquette, Michele L.; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2013-01-01

    An improved method for culturing immature muscle cells (myoblasts) into a mature skeletal muscle overcomes some of the notable limitations of prior culture methods. The development of the method is a major advance in tissue engineering in that, for the first time, a cell-based model spontaneously fuses and differentiates into masses of highly aligned, contracting myotubes. This method enables (1) the construction of improved two-dimensional (monolayer) skeletal muscle test beds; (2) development of contracting three-dimensional tissue models; and (3) improved transplantable tissues for biomedical and regenerative medicine applications. With adaptation, this method also offers potential application for production of other tissue types (i.e., bone and cardiac) from corresponding precursor cells.

  1. Evaluation of muscle hyperactivity of the grimacing muscles by unilateral tight eyelid closure and stapedius muscle tone.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Masato; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Nagai, Fumio

    2012-10-01

    Muscle hyperactivity of grimacing muscles, including the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles that cause crow's feet and a glabellar frown line with ageing, cannot be accurately evaluated by surface observation. In 71 subjects, this study investigated the extent to which grimacing muscles are innervated by the bilateral motor cortices, whether the corticofacial projection to the grimacing muscles affects the facially innervated stapedius muscle tone by measuring static compliance of the tympanic membrane, and whether unilateral tight eyelid closure with contraction of the grimacing muscles changes static compliance. Unilateral tight eyelid closure and its subsequent change in the contralateral vertical medial eyebrow position revealed that motor neurons of the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles were innervated by the bilateral motor cortices with weak-to-strong contralateral dominance. The orbicularis oculi, corrugator supercilii, and stapedius muscles innervated by the bilateral motor cortices had increased muscle hyperactivity, which lowered the vertical medial eyebrow position and decreased the static compliance of the tympanic membrane more than those innervated by the unilateral motor cortex. Unilateral enhanced tight eyelid closure with contraction of the grimacing muscles in certain subjects ipsilaterally decreased the static compliance with increased contraction of the stapedius muscle, which probably occurs to immobilise the tympanic membrane and protect the inner ear from loud sound. Evaluation of unilateral tight eyelid closure and the subsequent change in the contralateral vertical medial eyebrow position as well as a measurement of the static compliance for the stapedius muscle tone has revealed muscle hyperactivity of grimacing muscles.

  2. Effects of muscle fiber type on glycolytic potential and meat quality traits in different Tibetan pig muscles and their association with glycolysis-related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shen, L Y; Luo, J; Lei, H G; Jiang, Y Z; Bai, L; Li, M Z; Tang, G Q; Li, X W; Zhang, S H; Zhu, L

    2015-11-13

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition, glycolytic potential, mitochondrial content, and gene expression related to energy metabolism were analyzed in eight muscles from Tibetan pigs, to study how meat quality develops in different muscle tissues. The muscles were classified into three clusters, based on MyHC composition: masseter, trapezius, and latissimus dorsi as 'slow-oxidative-type'; psoas major and semimembranosus as 'intermediate-type'; and longissimus dorsi, obliquus externus abdominis, and semitendinosus as 'fast-glycolytic-type'. The 'slow-oxidative-type' muscles had the highest MyHC I and MyHC IIA content (P < 0.01); 'intermediate-type' muscles, the highest MyHC IIx content (P < 0.01); and 'fast-glycolytic-type' muscles, the highest MyHC IIb content (P < 0.01). The pH values measured in 'slow-oxidative-type' muscles were higher than those in the other clusters were; however, the color of 'fast-glycolytic-type' muscles was palest (P < 0.01). Mitochondrial content increased in the order: fast-glycolytic-type < intermediate-type < slow-oxidative-type. In the 'slow-oxidative-type' muscles, the expression levels of genes related to ATP synthesis were higher, but were lower for those related to glycogen synthesis and glycolysis. Mitochondrial content was significantly positively correlated with MyHC I content, but negatively correlated with MyHC IIb content. MyHC I and mitochondrial content were both negatively correlated with glycolytic potential. Overall, muscles used frequently in exercise had a higher proportion of type I fibers. 'Slow-oxidative-type' muscles, rich in type I fibers with higher mitochondrial and lower glycogen and glucose contents, had a higher ATP synthesis efficiency and lower glycolytic capacity, which contributed to their superior meat quality.

  3. Androgen signaling in myocytes contributes to the maintenance of muscle mass and fiber type regulation but not to muscle strength or fatigue.

    PubMed

    Ophoff, Jill; Van Proeyen, Karen; Callewaert, Filip; De Gendt, Karel; De Bock, Katrien; Vanden Bosch, An; Verhoeven, Guido; Hespel, Peter; Vanderschueren, Dirk

    2009-08-01

    Muscle frailty is considered a major cause of disability in the elderly and chronically ill. However, the exact role of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in muscle remains unclear. Therefore, a postmitotic myocyte-specific AR knockout (mARKO) mouse model was created and investigated together with a mouse model with ubiquitous AR deletion. Muscles from mARKO mice displayed a marked reduction in AR protein (60-88%). Interestingly, body weights and lean body mass were lower in mARKO vs. control mice (-8%). The weight of the highly androgen-sensitive musculus levator ani was significantly reduced (-46%), whereas the weights of other peripheral skeletal muscles were not or only slightly reduced. mARKO mice had lower intra-abdominal fat but did not demonstrate a cortical or trabecular bone phenotype, indicating that selective ablation of the AR in myocytes affected male body composition but not skeletal homeostasis. Furthermore, muscle contractile performance in mARKO mice did not differ from their controls. Myocyte-specific AR ablation resulted in a conversion of fast toward slow fibers, without affecting muscle strength or fatigue. Similar results were obtained in ubiquitous AR deletion, showing lower body weight, whereas some but not all muscle weights were reduced. The percent slow fibers was increased, but no changes in muscle strength or fatigue could be detected. Together, our findings show that myocyte AR signaling contributes to the maintenance of muscle mass and fiber type regulation but not to muscle strength or fatigue. The levator ani weight remains the most sensitive and specific marker of AR-mediated anabolic action on muscle.

  4. Assessment of muscle fatigue using electromygraphm sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmi, Muhammad Hazimin Bin; Ping, Chew Sue; Ishak, Nur Elliza Binti; Saad, Mohd Alimi Bin Mohd; Mokhtar, Anis Shahida Niza Binti

    2017-08-01

    Muscle fatigue is condition of muscle decline in ability after undergoing any physical activity. Observation of the muscle condition of an athlete during training is crucial to prevent or minimize injury and able to achieve optimum performance in actual competition. The aim of this project is to develop a muscle monitoring system to detect muscle fatigue in swimming athlete. This device is capable to measure muscle stress level of the swimmer and at the same time provide indication of muscle fatigue level to trainer. Electromyography signal was recorded from the muscle movement while practicing the front crawl stroke repetitively. The time domain data was processed to frequency spectra in order to study the effect of muscle fatigue. The results show that the recorded EMG signal is able to sense muscle fatigue.

  5. Maximum toe flexor muscle strength and quantitative analysis of human plantar intrinsic and extrinsic muscles by a magnetic resonance imaging technique.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Yamauchi, Junichiro; Otsuka, Mitsuo; Tottori, Nobuaki; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Isaka, Tadao

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between the maximum isometric toe flexor muscle strength (TFS) and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the plantar intrinsic and extrinsic muscles and to identify the major determinant of maximum TFS among CSA of the plantar intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. Twenty six young healthy participants (14 men, 12 women; age, 20.4 ± 1.6 years) volunteered for the study. TFS was measured by a specific designed dynamometer, and CSA of plantar intrinsic and extrinsic muscles were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To measure TFS, seated participants optimally gripped the bar with their toes and exerted maximum force on the dynamometer. For each participant, the highest force produced among three trials was used for further analysis. To measure CSA, serial T1-weighted images were acquired. TFS was significantly correlated with CSA of the plantar intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses identified that the major determinant of TFS was CSA of medial parts of plantar intrinsic muscles (flexor hallucis brevis, flexor digitorum brevis, quadratus plantae, lumbricals and abductor hallucis). There was no significant difference between men and women in TFS/CSA. CSA of the plantar intrinsic and extrinsic muscles is one of important factors for determining the maximum TFS in humans.

  6. Different Muscle-Recruitment Strategies Among Elite Breaststrokers.

    PubMed

    Guignard, Brice; Olstad, Bjørn H; Simbaña Escobar, David; Lauer, Jessy; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Rouard, Annie H

    2015-11-01

    To investigate electromyographical (EMG) profiles characterizing the lower-limb flexion-extension in an aquatic environment in high-level breaststrokers. The 2-dimensional breaststroke kick of 1 international- and 2 national-level female swimmers was analyzed during 2 maximal 25-m swims. The activities of biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior were recorded. The breaststroke kick was divided in 3 phases, according to the movements performed in the sagittal plane: push phase (PP) covering 27% of the total kick duration, glide phase (GP) 41%, and recovery phase (RP) 32%. Intrasubject reproducibility of the EMG and kinematics was observed from 1 stroke cycle to another. In addition, important intersubject kinematic reproducibility was noted, whereas muscle activities discriminated the subjects: The explosive PP was characterized by important muscle-activation peaks. During the recovery, muscles were likewise solicited for swimmers 1 (S1) and 2 (S2), while the lowest activities were observed during GP for S2 and swimmer 3 (S3), but not for S1, who maintained major muscle solicitations. The main muscle activities were observed during PP to perform powerful lower-limb extension. The most-skilled swimmer (S1) was the only 1 to solicit her muscles during GP to actively reach better streamlining. Important activation peaks during RP correspond to the limbs acting against water drag. Such differences in EMG strategies among an elite group highlight the importance of considering the muscle parameters used to effectively control the intensity of activation among the phases for a more efficient breaststroke kick.

  7. Pilot study on quantitative assessment of muscle imbalance: differences of muscle synergies, equilibrium-point trajectories, and endpoint stiffness in normal and pathological upper-limb movements.

    PubMed

    Oku, Takanori; Uno, Kanna; Nishi, Tomoki; Kageyama, Masayuki; Phatiwuttipat, Pipatthana; Koba, Keitaro; Yamashita, Yuto; Murakami, Kenta; Uemura, Mitsunori; Hirai, Hiroaki; Miyazaki, Fumio; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for assessment of muscle imbalance based on muscle synergy hypothesis and equilibrium point (EP) hypothesis of motor control. We explain in detail the method for extracting muscle synergies under the concept of agonist-antagonist (AA) muscle pairs and for estimating EP trajectories and endpoint stiffness of human upper limbs in a horizontal plane using an electromyogram. The results of applying this method to the reaching movement of one normal subject and one hemiplegic subject suggest that (1) muscle synergies (the balance among coactivation of AA muscle pairs), particularly the synergies that contributes to the angular directional kinematics of EP and the limb stiffness, are quite different between the normal subject and the hemiplegic subject; (2) the concomitant EP trajectory is also different between the normal and hemiplegic subjects, corresponding to the difference of muscle synergies; and (3) the endpoint (hand) stiffness ellipse of the hemiplegic subject becomes more elongated and orientation of the major axis rotates clockwise more than that of the normal subject. The level of motor impairment would be expected to be assessed from a comparison of these differences of muscle synergies, EP trajectories, and endpoint stiffness among normal and pathological subjects using the method.

  8. Muscle forces analysis in the shoulder mechanism during wheelchair propulsion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hwai-Ting; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; An, Kai-Nan

    2004-01-01

    This study combines an ergometric wheelchair, a six-camera video motion capture system and a prototype computer graphics based musculoskeletal model (CGMM) to predict shoulder joint loading, muscle contraction force per muscle and the sequence of muscular actions during wheelchair propulsion, and also to provide an animated computer graphics model of the relative interactions. Five healthy male subjects with no history of upper extremity injury participated. A conventional manual wheelchair was equipped with a six-component load cell to collect three-dimensional forces and moments experienced by the wheel, allowing real-time measurement of hand/rim force applied by subjects during normal wheelchair operation. An ExpertVision six-camera video motion capture system collected trajectory data of markers attached on anatomical positions. The CGMM was used to simulate and animate muscle action by using an optimization technique combining observed muscular motions with physiological constraints to estimate muscle contraction forces during wheelchair propulsion. The CGMM provides results that satisfactorily match the predictions of previous work, disregarding minor differences which presumably result from differing experimental conditions, measurement technologies and subjects. Specifically, the CGMM shows that the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, anterior deltoid, pectoralis major and biceps long head are the prime movers during the propulsion phase. The middle and posterior deltoid and supraspinatus muscles are responsible for arm return during the recovery phase. CGMM modelling shows that the rotator cuff and pectoralis major play an important role during wheelchair propulsion, confirming the known risk of injury for these muscles during wheelchair propulsion. The CGMM successfully transforms six-camera video motion capture data into a technically useful and visually interesting animated video model of the shoulder musculoskeletal system. The CGMM further yields accurate

  9. Influence of type of muscles on nutritional value of foal meat.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Pateiro, Mirian

    2013-03-01

    The effect of type of muscle on nutritional characteristic (fatty acid profile, amino acid content, cholesterol and major and minor mineral) of foal meat was investigated. Six muscles: longissimus dorsi (LD), semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST), biceps femoris (BF), triceps brachii (TB) and psoas major & minor (PM) from twelve foals slaughtered at 15 months from an extensive production system in freedom regimen were extracted for this study. Horse meat is characterized by low fat, low cholesterol content, rich in iron and in vitamin B. Statistical analysis showed that the cholesterol content did not show significant differences (P>0.05) among muscle with mean value range between 0.62 and 0.57 mg/100g. Most fatty acid presented significant differences (P<0.05) with respect to the type of muscle. The obtained results showed that except for the polyunsaturated linoleic acid, the highest contents of fatty acids were found in the hindquarter muscles. Regarding amino acid profile, significant differences (P<0.05) were observed among muscles and our results indicated that, 100g of foal meat covered from 80.6 to 86.7% for the daily requirement for an adult man weighing 70 kg for essential amino acids for ST and LD muscles, respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant differences (P=0.050) for the EAA (essential amino acids) index, which was highest for TB muscle, followed by BF and SM muscles, while the lowest values were reported by ST muscle. Finally, foal meat seems to be a very good nutritional source of major and minor minerals. The higher nutritional value of foal meat will be of great importance in the promotion of this meat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bilateral responses of upper limb muscles to transcranial magnetic stimulation in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Bawa, P; Hamm, J D; Dhillon, P; Gross, P A

    2004-10-01

    Anatomical and behavioural work on primates has shown bilateral innervation of axial and proximal limb muscles, and contralateral control of distal limb muscles. The following study examined if a clear boundary exists between the distal and proximal upper limb muscles that are controlled contralaterally or bilaterally. The right motor cortical area representing the upper limb was stimulated, while surface EMG was recorded bilaterally from various upper limb muscles during rest and phasic voluntary contractions. Peak-to-peak amplitude of motor evoked potential (MEP) was measured for each muscle on both sides. The ratio R = (ipsilateral MEP: contralateral MEP) was calculated for seven pairs of muscles. For each of the seven pairs, R was less than 1.0, implying that for each muscle and subject, the contralateral control is stronger. The boundary where R changed from almost zero to a clearly measurable magnitude depended on the subject. Ipsilateral MEPs from trapezius and pectoralis could be recorded with a small background contraction from almost all subjects; on the other hand, in deltoid and biceps brachii, ipsilateral MEPs were observed only with bimanual phasic contractions. The forearm and hand muscles, in general, did not show any ipsilateral MEPs. Major differences between subjects lay in the presence or the absence of ipsilateral MEPs in biceps brachii and deltoid, without defining a sharp boundary between proximal and distal muscles.

  11. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy and strength gain: strategies and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hayao; Loenneke, J P; Thiebaud, R S; Abe, T

    2015-03-01

    Cycle training is widely performed as a major part of any exercise program seeking to improve aerobic capacity and cardiovascular health. However, the effect of cycle training on muscle size and strength gain still requires further insight, even though it is known that professional cyclists display larger muscle size compared to controls. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the effects of cycle training on muscle size and strength of the lower extremity and the possible mechanisms for increasing muscle size with cycle training. It is plausible that cycle training requires a longer period to significantly increase muscle size compared to typical resistance training due to a much slower hypertrophy rate. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy similarly between young and older age groups, while strength gain seems to favor older adults, which suggests that the probability for improving in muscle quality appears to be higher in older adults compared to young adults. For young adults, higher-intensity intermittent cycling may be required to achieve strength gains. It also appears that muscle hypertrophy induced by cycle training results from the positive changes in muscle protein net balance.

  12. Molecular and biological pathways of skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Gea, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) will be a major leading cause of death worldwide in the near future. Weakness and atrophy of the quadriceps are associated with a significantly poorer prognosis and increased mortality in COPD. Despite that skeletal muscle dysfunction may affect both respiratory and limb muscle groups in COPD, the latter are frequently more severely affected. Therefore, muscle dysfunction in COPD is a common systemic manifestation that should be evaluated on routine basis in clinical settings. In the present review, several aspects of COPD muscle dysfunction are being reviewed, with special emphasis on the underlying biological mechanisms. Figures on the prevalence of COPD muscle dysfunction and the most relevant etiologic contributors are also provided. Despite that ongoing research will shed light into the contribution of additional mechanisms to COPD muscle dysfunction, current knowledge points toward the involvement of a wide spectrum of cellular and molecular events that are differentially expressed in respiratory and limb muscles. Such mechanisms are thoroughly described in the article. The contribution of epigenetic events on COPD muscle dysfunction is also reviewed. We conclude that in view of the latest discoveries, from now, on new avenues of research should be designed to specifically target cellular mechanisms and pathways that impair muscle mass and function in COPD using pharmacological strategies and/or exercise training modalities. PMID:27056059

  13. Quantitative evaluation of skeletal muscle defects in second harmonic generation images.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenhua; Raben, Nina; Ralston, Evelyn

    2013-02-01

    Skeletal muscle pathologies cause irregularities in the normally periodic organization of the myofibrils. Objective grading of muscle morphology is necessary to assess muscle health, compare biopsies, and evaluate treatments and the evolution of disease. To facilitate such quantitation, we have developed a fast, sensitive, automatic imaging analysis software. It detects major and minor morphological changes by combining texture features and Fourier transform (FT) techniques. We apply this tool to second harmonic generation (SHG) images of muscle fibers which visualize the repeating myosin bands. Texture features are then calculated by using a Haralick gray-level cooccurrence matrix in MATLAB. Two scores are retrieved from the texture correlation plot by using FT and curve-fitting methods. The sensitivity of the technique was tested on SHG images of human adult and infant muscle biopsies and of mouse muscle samples. The scores are strongly correlated to muscle fiber condition. We named the software MARS (muscle assessment and rating scores). It is executed automatically and is highly sensitive even to subtle defects. We propose MARS as a powerful and unbiased tool to assess muscle health.

  14. Effective therapy of transected quadriceps muscle in rat: Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    PubMed

    Staresinic, Mario; Petrovic, Igor; Novinscak, Tomislav; Jukic, Ivana; Pevec, Damira; Suknaic, Slaven; Kokic, Neven; Batelja, Lovorka; Brcic, Luka; Boban-Blagaic, Alenka; Zoric, Zdenka; Ivanovic, Domagoj; Ajduk, Marko; Sebecic, Bozidar; Patrlj, Leonardo; Sosa, Tomislav; Buljat, Gojko; Anic, Tomislav; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2006-05-01

    We report complete transection of major muscle and the systemic peptide treatment that induces healing of quadriceps muscle promptly and then maintains the healing with functional restoration. Initially, stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736 Pliva, Croatia; in trials for inflammatory bowel disease; wound treatment; no toxicity reported; effective alone without carrier) also superiorly accelerates the healing of transected Achilles tendon. Regularly, quadriceps muscle completely transected transversely 1.0 cm proximal to patella presents a definitive defect that cannot be compensated in rat. BPC 157 (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg/kg) is given intraperitoneally, once daily; the first application 30 min posttransection, the final 24 h before sacrifice. It consistently improves muscle healing throughout the whole 72-day period. Improved are: (i) biomechanic (load of failure increased); (ii) function (walking recovery and extensor postural thrust/motor function index returned toward normal healthy values); (iii) microscopy/immunochemistry [i.e., mostly muscle fibers connect muscle segments; absent gap; significant desmin positivity for ongoing regeneration of muscle; larger myofibril diameters on both sides, distal and proximal (normal healthy rat-values reached)]; (iv) macroscopic presentation (stumps connected; subsequently, atrophy markedly attenuated; finally, presentation close to normal noninjured muscle, no postsurgery leg contracture). Thus, posttransection healing-consistently improved-may suggest this peptide therapeutic application in muscle disorders. Copyright 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of skeletal muscle defects in second harmonic generation images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenhua; Raben, Nina; Ralston, Evelyn

    2013-02-01

    Skeletal muscle pathologies cause irregularities in the normally periodic organization of the myofibrils. Objective grading of muscle morphology is necessary to assess muscle health, compare biopsies, and evaluate treatments and the evolution of disease. To facilitate such quantitation, we have developed a fast, sensitive, automatic imaging analysis software. It detects major and minor morphological changes by combining texture features and Fourier transform (FT) techniques. We apply this tool to second harmonic generation (SHG) images of muscle fibers which visualize the repeating myosin bands. Texture features are then calculated by using a Haralick gray-level cooccurrence matrix in MATLAB. Two scores are retrieved from the texture correlation plot by using FT and curve-fitting methods. The sensitivity of the technique was tested on SHG images of human adult and infant muscle biopsies and of mouse muscle samples. The scores are strongly correlated to muscle fiber condition. We named the software MARS (muscle assessment and rating scores). It is executed automatically and is highly sensitive even to subtle defects. We propose MARS as a powerful and unbiased tool to assess muscle health.

  16. The effect of post-mortem ageing and heating on water retention in bovine muscles.

    PubMed

    Kołczak, Tadeusz; Krzysztoforski, Krzysztof; Palka, Krystyna

    2007-04-01

    The muscles semitendinosus (ST) and psoas major (PM) were removed from chilled young bull carcasses 24h after slaughter and stored at 4°C. At the 1st, 6th and 12th day of post-mortem ageing the chemical composition (moisture, fat, protein, collagen) and contents of free, immobilized and unfreezable water in the muscles were estimated. The muscle steaks were boiled at 100°C, roasted at 170°C or fried at 160°C to an internal temperature of 75°C, and the amounts of total, free, immobilized, and unfreezable water in heated muscles were evaluated. The unfreezable water was estimated by DSC. In the raw muscles immobilized water constituted 74-75%, free water 16.6-17.6% and unfreezable water 7-8% of the total water. Independent of time of ageing, PM muscle contained significantly more free water than ST muscle. During post-mortem ageing, changes in free, immobilized and unfreezable water in muscles were not significant. The level of free water was highest in boiled and least in fried meat, however the amount of immobilized water was highest in fried and lowest in boiled meat. The amount of unfreezable water in muscles heated after 12 days of post-mortem ageing decreased.

  17. Differentiated muscles are mandatory for gas-filling of the Drosophila airway system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwen; Cruz, Tina; Irion, Uwe; Moussian, Bernard

    2015-11-30

    At the end of development, organs acquire functionality, thereby ensuring autonomy of an organism when it separates from its mother or a protective egg. In insects, respiratory competence starts when the tracheal system fills with gas just before hatching of the juvenile animal. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of this process are not fully understood. Analyses of the phenotype of Drosophila embryos with malformed muscles revealed that they fail to gas-fill their tracheal system. Indeed, we show that major regulators of muscle formation like Lame duck and Blown fuse are important, while factors involved in the development of subsets of muscles including cardiac and visceral muscles are dispensable for this process, suggesting that somatic muscles (or parts of them) are essential to enable tracheal terminal differentiation. Based on our phenotypic data, we assume that somatic muscle defect severity correlates with the penetrance of the gas-filling phenotype. This argues that a limiting molecular or mechanical muscle-borne signal tunes tracheal differentiation. We think that in analogy to the function of smooth muscles in vertebrate lungs, a balance of physical forces between muscles and the elasticity of tracheal walls may be decisive for tracheal terminal differentiation in Drosophila. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Facilitating the Furrowed Brow: An Unobtrusive Test of the Facial Feedback Hypothesis Applied to Unpleasant Affect.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Randy J; Kasimatis, Margaret; Frey, Kurt

    1992-09-01

    We examined the hypothesis that muscle contractions in the face influence subjective emotional experience. Previously, researchers have been critical of experiments designed to test this facial feedback hypothesis, particularly in terms of methodological problems that may lead to demand characteristics. In an effort to surmount these methodological problems Strack, Martin, and Stepper (1988) developed an experimental procedure whereby subjects were induced to contract facial muscles involved in the production of an emotional pattern, without being asked to actually simulate an emotion. Specifically, subjects were required to hold a pen in their teeth, which unobtrusively creates a contraction of the zygomaticus major muscles, the muscles involved in the production of a human smile. This manipulation minimises the likelihood that subjects are able to interpret their zygomaticus contractions as representing a particular emotion, thereby preventing subjects from determining the purpose of the experiment. Strack et al. (1988) found support for the facial feedback hypothesis applied to pleasant affect, in that subjects in the pen-in-teeth condition rated humorous cartoons as being funnier than subjects in the control condition (in which zygomaticus contractions were inhibited). The present study represents an extension of this nonobtrusive methodology to an investigation of the facial feedback of unpleasant affect. Consistent with the Strack et al. procedure, we wanted to have subjects furrow their brow without actually instructing them to do so and without asking them to produce any emotional facial pattern at all. This was achieved by attaching two golf tees to the subject's brow region (just above the inside comer of each eye) and then instructing them to touch the tips of the golf tees together as part of a "divided-attention" experiment. Touching the tips of the golf tees together could only be achieved by a contraction of the corrugator supercilii muscles, the

  19. Weight, muscle and bone loss during space flight: another perspective.

    PubMed

    Stein, T P

    2013-09-01

    Space flight is a new experience for humans. Humans adapt if not perfectly, rather well to life without gravity. There is a reductive remodeling of the musculo-skeletal system. Protein is lost from muscles and calcium from bones with anti-gravity functions. The observed biochemical and physiological changes reflect this accommodative process. The two major direct effects of the muscle loss are weakness post-flight and the increased incidence of low back ache pre- and post-flight. The muscle protein losses are compromised by the inability to maintain energy balance inflight. Voluntary dietary intake is reduced during space flight by ~20 %. These adaptations to weightlessness leave astronauts ill-equipped for life with gravity. Exercise, the obvious counter-measure has been repeatedly tried and since the muscle and bone losses persist it is not unreasonable to assume that success has been limited at best. Nevertheless, more than 500 people have now flown in space for up to 1 year and have done remarkably well. This review addresses the question of whether enough is now known about these three problems (negative energy balance, muscle loss and bone loss) for to the risks to be considered either acceptable or correctible enough to meet the requirements for a Mars mission.

  20. Myotonia fluctuans. A third type of muscle sodium channel disease.

    PubMed

    Ricker, K; Moxley, R T; Heine, R; Lehmann-Horn, F

    1994-11-01

    To define a new type of dominant myotonic muscle disorder and to identify the gene lesion. Case series, clinical examination and electromyography, measurements of grip force and relaxation time, and DNA analysis to probe for mutation in the gene for the skeletal muscle sodium channel. Outpatient clinic and home. Three families studied; all together, 17 affected and nine unaffected individuals. The findings in these three families confirm the existence of myotonia fluctuans as we described it previously in another family. Myotonia (prolongation of relaxation time) developed 20 to 40 minutes after exercise. Potassium caused generalized myotonia. Cooling had no major effect on muscle function. Three families had a common mutation in exon 22 and one family had a mutation in exon 14 of the gene for the sodium channel alpha subunit. Myotonia fluctuans is a disorder of the muscle sodium channel. There are at present two other distinct clinical muscle disorders associated with mutations in the sodium channel: hyperkalemic periodic paralysis and paramyotonia congenita. The findings in the present report indicate that myotonia fluctuans belongs to a third type of sodium channel disorder. Further work is needed to understand the complex genotype-phenotype correlations in sodium channel disorders.

  1. Expression of an insulin-regulatable glucose carrier in muscle and fat endothelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilaró, Senen; Palacín, Manuel; Pilch, Paul F.; Testar, Xavier; Zorzano, Antonio

    1989-12-01

    INSULIN rapidly stimulates glucose use in the major target tissues, muscle and fat, by modulating a tissue-specific glucose transporter isoform1-6. Access of glucose to the target tissue is restricted by endothelial cells which line the walls of nonfenestrated capillaries of fat and muscle7. Thus, we examined whether the capillary endothelial cells are actively involved in the modulation of glucose availability by these tissues. We report here the abundant expression of the muscle/fat glucose transporter isoform in endothelial cells, using an immunocytochemical analysis with a monoclonal antibody specific for this isoform1. This expression is restricted to endothelial cells from the major insulin target tissues, and it is not detected in brain and liver where insulin does not activate glucose transport. The expression of the muscle/fat transporter isoform in endothelial cells is significantly greater than in the neighbouring muscle and fat cells. Following administration of insulin to animals in vivo, there occurs a rapid increase in the number of muscle/fat transporters present in the lumenal plasma membrane of the capillary endothelial cells. These results document that insulin promotes the translocation of the muscle/fat glucose transporter in endothelial cells. It is therefore likely that endothelial cells play an important role in the regulation of glucose use by the major insulin target tissues in normal and diseased states.

  2. The zebrafish dystrophic mutant softy maintains muscle fibre viability despite basement membrane rupture and muscle detachment

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, Arie S.; Busch-Nentwich, Elisabeth; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J.; Hall, Thomas E.; Berger, Joachim; Berger, Silke; Sonntag, Carmen; Sachs, Caroline; Geisler, Robert; Stemple, Derek L.; Currie, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The skeletal muscle basement membrane fulfils several crucial functions during development and in the mature myotome and defects in its composition underlie certain forms of muscular dystrophy. A major component of this extracellular structure is the laminin polymer, which assembles into a resilient meshwork that protects the sarcolemma during contraction. Here we describe a zebrafish mutant, softy, which displays severe embryonic muscle degeneration as a result of initial basement membrane failure. The softy phenotype is caused by a mutation in the lamb2 gene, identifying laminin β2 as an essential component of this basement membrane. Uniquely, softy homozygotes are able to recover and survive to adulthood despite the loss of myofibre adhesion. We identify the formation of ectopic, stable basement membrane attachments as a novel means by which detached fibres are able to maintain viability. This demonstration of a muscular dystrophy model possessing innate fibre viability following muscle detachment suggests basement membrane augmentation as a therapeutic strategy to inhibit myofibre loss. PMID:19736328

  3. Changes in shoulder muscle size and activity following treatment for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shamley, Delva R; Srinanaganathan, Ragavan; Weatherall, Rosamund; Oskrochi, Reza; Watson, Marion; Ostlere, Simon; Sugden, Elaine

    2007-11-01

    Morbidity of the shoulder after breast cancer is a well-known phenomenon. MRI studies have shown muscle morbidity in cervical cancer and prostate cancer. In breast cancer clinical observations and patient reports include muscle morbidity in a number of muscles acting at the shoulder. Several of these muscles lie in the field of surgery and radiotherapy. Timed interaction between muscles that stabilise the shoulder and those acting as prime movers is essential to achieve a smooth scapulohumeral rthythm during functional elevation of the arm. CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY: Seventy-four women treated for unilateral carcinoma of the breast were included in the study. All patients filled out the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI). EMG activity of four muscles was recorded during scaption on the affected and unaffected side. Muscle cross sectional area and signal intensity was determined from MRI scans. The association between EMG and covariates was determined using multiple linear regression techniques. Three of the 4 muscles on the affected side demonstrated significantly less EMG activity, particularly when lowering the arm. Upper trapezius demonstrated the greatest loss in activity. Decreased activity in both upper trapezius and rhomboid were significantly associated with an increase in SPADI score and increased time since surgery. Pectoralis major and minor were significantly smaller on the affected side. Muscles affected in the long term are the muscles associated with pain and disability yet are not in the direct field of surgery or radiotherapy. Primary muscle shortening and secondary loss of muscle activity may be producing a movement disorder similar to the 'Dropped Shoulder Syndrome'. Exercise programmes should aim not only for range of movement but also for posture correction and education of potential long-term effects.

  4. Excision and Redraping Skin and Orbicularis Oculi Muscle Separately during Transcutaneous Lower Eyelid Blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Haefliger, I O; Pimentel de Figueiredo, A R

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to report a transcutaneous lower eyelid blepharoplasty procedure where different amounts of skin and orbicularis oculi muscle are excised and where skin and muscle are redraped (tightened) separately. A retrospective non-consecutive small case-series of patients undergoing lower eyelid blepharoplasty is described. In a nutshell, during this procedure a skin flap was fashioned (caudal to the sub-ciliary pre-tarsal excess of skin to be excised), some pre-septal orbicularis oculi muscle fibers were excised (in regard of the skin flap), muscle and then skin were redraped, separately. In addition to these surgical steps conducted on each patient, when required, orbital fat prolapse was reduced, orbital retaining ligament was detached, and/or a canthopexie/plasty was performed. Assessment of surgical outcome was made by providing, for comparison, pictures taken before and after the procedure. No major intra- or postoperative complications were recorded and overall postoperative outcome was judged satisfactory by both surgeons and patients. In contrast to a conventional skin-muscle lower blepharoplasty approach where, in a block, pre-tarsal skin and muscle are excised and then pre-septal skin and muscle are redraped, the technique described in the present paper allows us to excise different amounts of skin and orbicularis muscle and to redrape them separately. Among several potential advantages, this approach preserves pre-tarsal orbicularis muscle function, allows us to apply more tension on the redraped muscle and less on the redraped skin, and avoids redraping of a relatively thick per-septal orbicularis oculi muscle over the tarsus (like it is in the case of a conventional skin-muscle technique). Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Molecular characterization of muscle-parasitizing didymozoid from a chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    PubMed

    Abe, Niichiro; Okamoto, Mitsuru

    2015-09-01

    Didymozoids found in the muscles of marine fish are almost always damaged because they are usually found after being sliced. Therefore, identifying muscle-parasitizing didymozoids is difficult because of the difficulty in collecting non-damaged worms and observing their organs as key points for morphological identification. Moreover, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids are not easily found because they parasitize at the trunk muscles. Therefore, muscle-parasitizing didymozoid classification has not progressed because there are few opportunities to detect them. Our recent report was the first to describe the usefulness of sequencing analysis for discrimination among muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Recently, we found a didymozoid in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. The present study genetically compares the present isolate with other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. The present isolate differs markedly from the previously unidentified didymozoid from an Atlantic mackerel S. scombrus by phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA. It also differs from other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from other host species based on phylogenetic analyses of 18S, 28S rDNAs, and coxI loci. These results suggest that sequencing analysis is useful for the discrimination of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Combining the present data with earlier data for sequencing analysis, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from seven marine fish species were classified as seven species. We proposed appellations for six distinct muscle-parasitizing didymozoids for future analysis: sweetlips fish type from Diagramma pictum and Plectorhinchus cinctus, red sea bream type from Pagrus major, flying fish type from Cypselurus heterurus, Atlantic mackerel type from Scomber scombrus, chub mackerel type from S. japonicus, and purple rockcod type from Epinephelus cyanopodus.

  6. ALDH2 restores exhaustive exercise-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qiuping; Zheng, Jianheng; Qiu, Jun

    Background: Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is highly expressed in heart and skeletal muscles, and is the major enzyme that metabolizes acetaldehyde and toxic aldehydes. The cardioprotective effects of ALDH2 during cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury have been recognized. However, less is known about the function of ALDH2 in skeletal muscle. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ALDH2 on exhaustive exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury. Methods: We created transgenic mice expressing ALDH2 in skeletal muscles. Male wild-type C57/BL6 (WT) and ALDH2 transgenic mice (ALDH2-Tg), 8-weeks old, were challenged with exhaustive exercise for 1 week to induce skeletal muscle injury. Animalsmore » were sacrificed 24 h post-exercise and muscle tissue was excised. Results: ALDH2-Tg mice displayed significantly increased treadmill exercise capacity compared to WT mice. Exhaustive exercise caused an increase in mRNA levels of the muscle atrophy markers, Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, and reduced mitochondrial biogenesis and fusion in WT skeletal muscles; these effects were attenuated in ALDH2-Tg mice. Exhaustive exercise also enhanced mitochondrial autophagy pathway activity, including increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and greater expression of Beclin1 and Bnip3; the effects of which were mitigated by ALDH2 overexpression. In addition, ALDH2-Tg reversed the increase of an oxidative stress biomarker (4-hydroxynonenal) and decreased levels of mitochondrial antioxidant proteins, including manganese superoxide dismutase and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, in skeletal muscle induced by exhaustive exercise. Conclusion: ALDH2 may reverse skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction due to exhaustive exercise by regulating mitochondria dynamic remodeling and enhancing the quality of mitochondria. - Highlights: • Skeletal muscle ALDH2 expression and activity declines during exhaustive exercise. • ALDH2 overexpression enhances physical performance and restores

  7. STAT3 Activation in Skeletal Muscle Links Muscle Wasting and the Acute Phase Response in Cancer Cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Kunzevitzky, Noelia; Guttridge, Denis C.; Khuri, Sawsan; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Zimmers, Teresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cachexia, or weight loss despite adequate nutrition, significantly impairs quality of life and response to therapy in cancer patients. In cancer patients, skeletal muscle wasting, weight loss and mortality are all positively associated with increased serum cytokines, particularly Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the presence of the acute phase response. Acute phase proteins, including fibrinogen and serum amyloid A (SAA) are synthesized by hepatocytes in response to IL-6 as part of the innate immune response. To gain insight into the relationships among these observations, we studied mice with moderate and severe Colon-26 (C26)-carcinoma cachexia. Methodology/Principal Findings Moderate and severe C26 cachexia was associated with high serum IL-6 and IL-6 family cytokines and highly similar patterns of skeletal muscle gene expression. The top canonical pathways up-regulated in both were the complement/coagulation cascade, proteasome, MAPK signaling, and the IL-6 and STAT3 pathways. Cachexia was associated with increased muscle pY705-STAT3 and increased STAT3 localization in myonuclei. STAT3 target genes, including SOCS3 mRNA and acute phase response proteins, were highly induced in cachectic muscle. IL-6 treatment and STAT3 activation both also induced fibrinogen in cultured C2C12 myotubes. Quantitation of muscle versus liver fibrinogen and SAA protein levels indicates that muscle contributes a large fraction of serum acute phase proteins in cancer. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that the STAT3 transcriptome is a major mechanism for wasting in cancer. Through IL-6/STAT3 activation, skeletal muscle is induced to synthesize acute phase proteins, thus establishing a molecular link between the observations of high IL-6, increased acute phase response proteins and muscle wasting in cancer. These results suggest a mechanism by which STAT3 might causally influence muscle wasting by altering the profile of genes expressed and translated in muscle such

  8. [Regeneration capacity of skeletal muscle].

    PubMed

    Wernig, A

    2003-07-01

    The organotypic stem cell of skeletal muscle has previously been known as satellite cell. They allow muscle fiber growth during ontogenesis, enable fiber hypertrophy and are responsible for the very efficient repair of muscle fibers. This efficient apparatus is to some degree counterbalanced by an enormous use of the satellite cell pool: fiber atrophy probably is accompanied by loss of myonuclei such that every reversal of atrophy is bound to use new myonuclei i.e. satellite cells. How often in life does this occur? Hard to say. Moreover, the potent repair capacity is challenged by an unexpected vulnerability of skeletal muscle fibers: Passive stretching of contracted muscles may cause multiple "microdamage," disruption of contractile elements or tiny areas of true necrosis (focal necrosis). How often does this happen? Well, for many of us at least once per year when we go up and down mountains during vacation time, followed by sour muscles. Others may decide to change his/her (locomotor) behaviour by severe onset of jogging; it may happen that they suffer kidney failure on Monday due to muscle microdamage and the transfer of myoproteins into the serum over weekend. Also 20 minutes of stepping up and down something like a chair will do: There is a remarkable increase in kreatin kinase and other muscle derived proteins which lasts for days and is bound to reflect some muscle damage. How about sportsmen and worker who repeatedly use their muscles in such a way? We don't have answers yet to most of these questions, but considerable amount of information has been collected over the last years both in animal and--less--in human. What is common in all cases of growth and repair is the proliferation of the satellite cells and their consequent incorporation and fusion with the parent fiber. This way focal damage is repaired often without visible reminders. We would run out of satellite cells were they not stem cells: After division one daughter remains a satellite cell

  9. The tymbal muscle of cicada has flight muscle-type sarcomeric architecture and protein expression.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The structural and biochemical features of the tymbal (sound-producing) muscle of cicadas were studied by X-ray diffraction and immunochemistry, and compared with those of flight muscles from the same species. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the tymbal muscle was very similar to that of the dorsal longitudinal flight muscle: In both muscles, the 2,0 equatorial reflection is much more intense than the 1,1, indicating that both muscles have a flight muscle-type myofilament lattice. In rigor, the first myosin/actin layer line reflection was finely lattice-sampled, indicating that the contractile proteins are arranged with a crystalline regularity as in asynchronous flight muscles. In contrast, the diffraction pattern from the tensor muscle, which modulates the sound by stressing the tymbal, did not show signs of such high regularity or flight muscle-type filament lattice. Electrophoretic patterns of myofibrillar proteins were also very similar in the tymbal muscle and flight muscles, but distinct from those from the tensor or leg muscles. The antibody raised against the flight muscle-specific troponin-I isoform reacted with an 80-kDa band from both tymbal and flight muscles, but with none of the bands from the tensor or leg muscles. The close similarities of the structural and biochemical profiles between the tymbal and the flight muscles suggest the possibility that a set of flight muscle-specific proteins is diverted to the tymbal muscle to meet its demand for fast, repetitive contractions.

  10. Skeletal muscle metabolism in hypokinetic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.

    1993-01-01

    This grant focused on the mechanisms of metabolic changes associated with unweighting atrophy and reduced growth of hind limb muscles of juvenile rats. Metabolic studies included a number of different areas. Amino acid metabolic studies placed particular emphasis on glutamine and branched-chain amino acid metabolism. These studies were an outgrowth of understanding stress effects and the role of glucocorticoids in these animals. Investigations on protein metabolism were largely concerned with selective loss of myofibrillar proteins and the role of muscle proteolysis. These investigations lead to finding important differences from denervation and atrophy and to define the roles of cytosolic versus lysosomal proteolysis in these atrophy models. A major outgrowth of these studies was demonstrating an ability to prevent atrophy of the unweighted muscle for at least 24 hours. A large amount of work concentrated on carbohydrate metabolism and its regulation by insulin and catecholamines. Measurements focused on glucose transport, glycogen metabolism, and glucose oxidation. The grant was used to develop an important new in situ approach for studying protein metabolism, glucose transport, and hormonal effects which involves intramuscular injection of various agents for up to 24 hours. Another important consequence of this project was the development and flight of Physiological-Anatomical Rodent Experiment-1 (PARE-1), which was launched aboard Space Shuttle Discovery in September 1991. Detailed descriptions of these studies can be found in the 30 peer-reviewed publications, 15 non-reviewed publications, 4 reviews and 33 abstracts (total 82 publications) which were or are scheduled to be published as a result of this project. A listing of these publications grouped by area (i.e. amino acid metabolism, protein metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and space flight studies) are included.

  11. Effects of tachykinins on uterine smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Patak, E N; Pennefather, J N; Story, M E

    2000-11-01

    1. Sensory nerves supplying the mammalian uterus have been shown to contain substance P (SP) and neurokinin (NK)A. This review presents some of the advances that have led to a greater understanding of the effects of tachykinins on uterine smooth muscle. 2. The cell-surface peptidase neprilysin (EC.3 24.11, endopeptidase 24.11, enkephalinase, CALLA, CD10) has been shown to play a major role in regulating the actions of tachykinins on both rat and human myometrium. Because this peptidase is known to be regulated by steroids and pregnancy, its effects may be of physiological relevance. 3. Tachykinins produce contractions of isolated myometrial preparations from non-pregnant rats and mice. The NK2 receptor mediates these effects in rat uterus, while the NK1 receptor may mediate these effects in the mouse uterus. 4. The effects of tachykinins have been examined on myometrial preparations obtained at Caesarean section from near-term pregnant women. In the presence of the peptidase inhibitors (thiorphan, captopril and bestatin), the mammalian tachykinins SP, NKA and NKB produced concentration-dependent uterine contractions. 5. The order of agonist potency NKA > SP = NKB suggested that NK2 receptors mediate uterine contractions in the human. This was confirmed using the stable analogues [Sar9,Met(O2)11]SP, [Lys5MeLeu9Nle10]NKA(4-10) and [N-MePhe7]NKB, which are NK1, NK2 and NK3 receptor selective, respectively. Only [Lys5MeLeu9Nle10]NKA(4-10) produced concentration-related contractions of human uterine smooth muscle. 6. The experimental findings described in the present review, taken together with results published previously in the literature, indicate that tachykinin peptides may play a physiological or pathophysiological role in regulating uterine smooth muscle activity. However, more extensive research will be required to confirm such a role for these peptides.

  12. Characterization of disuse skeletal muscle atrophy and the efficacy of a novel muscle atrophy countermeasure during spaceflight and simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Andrea Marie

    Humans are an integral part of the engineered systems that will enable return to the Moon and eventually travel to Mars. Major advancements in countermeasure development addressing deleterious effects of microgravity and reduced gravity on the musculoskeletal system need to be made to ensure mission safety and success. The primary objectives of this dissertation are to advance the knowledge and understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy, and support development of novel countermeasures for disuse atrophy to enable healthy long-duration human spaceflight. Models simulating microgravity and actual spaceflight were used to examine the musculoskeletal adaptations during periods of unloading. Myostatin inhibition, a novel anti-atrophy drug therapy, and exercise were examined as a means of preventing and recovering from disuse atrophy. A combination of assays was used to quantify adaptation responses to unloading and examine efficacy of the countermeasures. Body and muscle masses were collected to analyze systemic changes due to treatments. Hindlimb strength and individual muscle forces were measured to demonstrate functional adaptations to treatments. Muscle fiber morphology and myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression was examined to identify adaptations at the cellular level. Protein synthesis signals insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), Akt, and p70s6 kinase; and the degradation signals Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 were examined to identify adaptations at the molecular level that ultimately lead to muscle hypertrophy and atrophy. A time course study provided a thorough characterization of the adaptation of skeletal muscle during unloading in C57BL/6 mice, and baseline data for comparison to and evaluation of subsequent studies. Time points defining the on-set and endpoints of disuse muscle atrophy were identified to enable characterization of rapid vs. long-term responses of skeletal muscle to hindlimb suspension. Unloading-induced atrophy primarily resulted from increased protein

  13. Smooth muscle sphincteroplasty in colostomy.

    PubMed

    Kostov, Daniel V; Temelkov, Temelko D; Dragnev, Nedyalko A; Kobakov, Georgi L; Ivanov, Krasimir D

    2004-04-01

    The present work elaborated on Schmidt's idea of an effective smooth muscle sphincteroplasty. The aim of the study was to analyze the effects on the patients with a lower quadrant colostomy constructed after abdominoperineal extirpation of a modified smooth muscle sphincteroplasty combined with colon irrigations. Seventy-two rectal cancer patients (39 men and 33 women, median age, 54.5 years) with smooth muscle sphincteroplasty and 20 controls with conventional colostomy using colon irrigations (11 men and 9 women, median age, 63.2 years) were examined. A modified smooth muscle wrap of the colostomy with a free graft of a 4-cm-long colon segment without mucosa was applied. In this precolostomy segment a high intraluminal pressure was achieved. The functional capacity and anatomic integrity of the transplanted smooth muscle graft were examined manometrically, electromyographically, and histomorphologically. The functional activity of the colostomy was assessed by periodic recording of the number of "spontaneous" and "directed" defecations.RESULTS. In the patients with smooth muscle sphincteroplasty, the basal intraluminal pressure of the precolostomy segment two years after operation measured 29.7 mmHg. After dilatation of the transplant, these pressures reached up to 43 mmHg ( P < 0.001). The weekly "spontaneous" stools were 3 to 5 times less frequent than in the controls ( P < 0.001). The modified smooth muscle sphincteroplasty offers operative-technical opportunities for increasing intraluminal pressure in the precolostomy colon segment. Its combination with colonic irrigations facilitates control of the evacuatory rhythm and "spontaneous" stools in colostomy patients, thus improving their quality of life.

  14. Skeletal Muscle Metrics on Clinical 18F-FDG PET/CT Predict Health Outcomes in Patients with Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Brent; Boutin, Robert D.; Lenchik, Leon; Gedeon, David; Liu, Yu; Nittur, Vinay; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Li, Chin-Shang; Canter, Robert J.; Chaudhari, Abhijit J.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of measures of skeletal muscle determined from 18F-FDG PET/CT with health outcomes in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma. 14 patients (8 women and 6 men; mean age 66.5 years) with sarcoma had PET/CT examinations. On CTs of the abdomen and pelvis, skeletal muscle was segmented, and cross-sectional muscle area, muscle volume, and muscle attenuation were determined. Within the segmented muscle, intramuscular fat area, volume, and density were derived. On PET images, the standardized uptake value (SUV) of muscle was determined. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between the imaging measures and health outcomes including overall survival (OS), local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), distant cancer recurrence (DCR), and major surgical complications (MSC). The association between imaging metrics and pre-therapy levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine, hemoglobin, and albumin was determined. Decreased volumetric muscle CT attenuation was associated with increased DCR. Increased PET SUV of muscle was associated with decreased OS and LRFS. Lower muscle SUV was associated with lower serum hemoglobin and albumin. Muscle measurements obtained on routine 18F-FDG PET/CT are associated with outcomes and serum hemoglobin and albumin in patients with sarcoma. PMID:29756042

  15. Skeletal Muscle Metrics on Clinical 18F-FDG PET/CT Predict Health Outcomes in Patients with Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Foster, Brent; Boutin, Robert D; Lenchik, Leon; Gedeon, David; Liu, Yu; Nittur, Vinay; Badawi, Ramsey D; Li, Chin-Shang; Canter, Robert J; Chaudhari, Abhijit J

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of measures of skeletal muscle determined from 18 F-FDG PET/CT with health outcomes in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma. 14 patients (8 women and 6 men; mean age 66.5 years) with sarcoma had PET/CT examinations. On CTs of the abdomen and pelvis, skeletal muscle was segmented, and cross-sectional muscle area, muscle volume, and muscle attenuation were determined. Within the segmented muscle, intramuscular fat area, volume, and density were derived. On PET images, the standardized uptake value (SUV) of muscle was determined. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between the imaging measures and health outcomes including overall survival (OS), local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), distant cancer recurrence (DCR), and major surgical complications (MSC). The association between imaging metrics and pre-therapy levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine, hemoglobin, and albumin was determined. Decreased volumetric muscle CT attenuation was associated with increased DCR. Increased PET SUV of muscle was associated with decreased OS and LRFS. Lower muscle SUV was associated with lower serum hemoglobin and albumin. Muscle measurements obtained on routine 18 F-FDG PET/CT are associated with outcomes and serum hemoglobin and albumin in patients with sarcoma.

  16. Muscle activation patterns and motor anatomy of Anna's hummingbirds Calypte anna and zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Edward R; Keeney, Brooke K; Kung, Eric; Makan, Sirish; Wild, J Martin; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2013-01-01

    Flying animals exhibit profound transformations in anatomy, physiology, and neural architecture. Although much is known about adaptations in the avian skeleton and musculature, less is known about neuroanatomy and motor unit integration for bird flight. Hummingbirds are among the most maneuverable and specialized of vertebrate fliers, and two unusual neuromuscular features have been previously reported: (1) the pectoralis major has a unique distribution pattern of motor end plates (MEPs) compared with all other birds and (2) electromyograms (EMGs) from the hummingbird's pectoral muscles, the pectoralis major and the supracoracoideus, show activation bursts composed of one or a few spikes that appear to have a very consistent pattern. Here, we place these findings in a broader context by comparing the MEPs, EMGs, and organization of the spinal motor neuron pools of flight muscles of Anna's hummingbird Calypte anna, zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, and, for MEPs, several other species. The previously shown MEP pattern of the hummingbird pectoralis major is not shared with its closest taxonomic relative, the swift, and appears to be unique to hummingbirds. MEP arrangements in previously undocumented wing muscles show patterns that differ somewhat from other avian muscles. In the parallel-fibered strap muscles of the shoulder, MEP patterns appear to relate to muscle length, with the smallest muscles having fibers that span the entire muscle. MEP patterns in pennate distal wing muscles were the same regardless of size, with tightly clustered bands in the middle portion of the muscle, not evenly distributed bands over the muscle's entire length. Muscle activations were examined during slow forward flight in both species, during hovering in hummingbirds, and during slow ascents in zebra finches. The EMG bursts of a wing muscle, the pronator superficialis, were highly variable in peak number, size, and distribution across wingbeats for both species. In the pectoralis

  17. Laughing: a demanding exercise for trunk muscles.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Heiko; Rehmes, Ulrich; Kohle, Daniel; Puta, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Social, psychological, and physiological studies have provided evidence indicating that laughter imposes an increased demand on trunk muscles. It was the aim of this study to quantify the activation of trunk muscles during laughter yoga in comparison with crunch and back lifting exercises regarding the mean trunk muscle activity. Muscular activity during laughter yoga exercises was measured by surface electromyography of 5 trunk muscles. The activation level of internal oblique muscle during laughter yoga is higher compared to the traditional exercises. The multifidus, erector spinae, and rectus abdominis muscles were nearly half activated during laughter yoga, while the activation of the external oblique muscle was comparable with the crunch and back lifting exercises. Our results indicate that laughter yoga has a positive effect on trunk muscle activation. Thus, laughter seems to be a good activator of trunk muscles, but further research is required whether laughter yoga is a good exercise to improve neuromuscular recruitment patterns for spine stability.

  18. Striated Muscle Function, Regeneration, and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Shadrin, I.Y.; Khodabukus, A.; Bursac, N.

    2016-01-01

    As the only striated muscle tissues in the body, skeletal and cardiac muscle share numerous structural and functional characteristics, while exhibiting vastly different size and regenerative potential. Healthy skeletal muscle harbors a robust regenerative response that becomes inadequate after large muscle loss or in degenerative pathologies and aging. In contrast, the mammalian heart loses its regenerative capacity shortly after birth, leaving it susceptible to permanent damage by acute injury or chronic disease. In this review, we compare and contrast the physiology and regenerative potential of native skeletal and cardiac muscles, mechanisms underlying striated muscle dysfunction, and bioengineering strategies to treat muscle disorders. We focus on different sources for cellular therapy, biomaterials to augment the endogenous regenerative response, and progress in engineering and application of mature striated muscle tissues in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we discuss the challenges and perspectives in translating muscle bioengineering strategies to clinical practice. PMID:27271751

  19. The myosin converter domain modulates muscle performance.

    PubMed

    Swank, Douglas M; Knowles, Aileen F; Suggs, Jennifer A; Sarsoza, Floyd; Lee, Annie; Maughan, David W; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2002-04-01

    Myosin is the molecular motor that powers muscle contraction as a result of conformational changes during its mechanochemical cycle. We demonstrate that the converter, a compact structural domain that differs in sequence between Drosophila melanogaster myosin isoforms, dramatically influences the kinetic properties of myosin and muscle fibres. Transgenic replacement of the converter in the fast indirect flight muscle with the converter from an embryonic muscle slowed muscle kinetics, forcing a compensatory reduction in wing beat frequency to sustain flight. Conversely, replacing the embryonic converter with the flight muscle converter sped up muscle kinetics and increased maximum power twofold, compared to flight muscles expressing the embryonic myosin isoform. The substitutions also dramatically influenced in vitro actin sliding velocity, suggesting that the converter modulates a rate-limiting step preceding cross-bridge detachment. Our integrative analysis demonstrates that isoform-specific differences in the myosin converter allow different muscle types to meet their specific locomotion demands.

  20. Mechanical properties of asthmatic airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Chin, Leslie Y M; Bossé, Ynuk; Pascoe, Chris; Hackett, Tillie L; Seow, Chun Y; Paré, Peter D

    2012-07-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the major effector of excessive airway narrowing in asthma. Changes in some of the mechanical properties of ASM could contribute to excessive narrowing and have not been systematically studied in human ASM from nonasthmatic and asthmatic subjects. Human ASM strips (eight asthmatic and six nonasthmatic) were studied at in situ length and force was normalised to maximal force induced by electric field stimulation (EFS). Measurements included: passive and active force versus length before and after length adaptation, the force-velocity relationship, maximal shortening and force recovery after length oscillation. Force was converted to stress by dividing by cross-sectional area of muscle. The only functional differences were that the asthmatic tissue was stiffer at longer lengths (p<0.05) and oscillatory strain reduced isometric force in response to EFS by 19% as opposed to 36% in nonasthmatics (p<0.01). The mechanical properties of human ASM from asthmatic and nonasthmatic subjects are comparable except for increased passive stiffness and attenuated decline in force generation after an oscillatory perturbation. These data may relate to reduced bronchodilation induced by a deep inspiration in asthmatic subjects.

  1. Laser therapy of muscle injuries.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Munqith S; Al-Salihi, Anam Rasheed; Qasim, Amenah Wala'a

    2013-05-01

    Low-level lasers are used in general therapy and healing process due to their good photo-bio-stimulation effects. In this paper, the effects of diode laser and Nd:YAG laser on the healing process of practically managed skeletal muscle trauma has been successfully studied. Standard impact trauma was induced by using a specially designed mechanical device. The impacted muscle was left for 3 days for complete development of blunt trauma. After that it was irradiated by five laser sessions for 5 days. Two types of lasers were used; 785-nm diode laser and 1.064-nm Nd:YAG laser, both in continuous and pulsed modes. A special electronic circuit was designed and implemented to modulate the diode laser for this purpose. Tissue samples of crushed skeletal muscle have been dissected from the injured irradiated muscle then bio-chemically analyzed for the regeneration of contractile and collagenous proteins using Lowry assay for protein determination and Reddy and Enwemeka assay for hydroxyproline determination. The results showed that both lasers stimulate the regeneration capability of traumatized skeletal muscle. The diode laser in CW and pulsed modes showed better results than the Nd:YAG in accelerating the preservation of the normal tissue content of collagenous and contractile proteins beside controlling the regeneration of non-functional fibrous tissue. This study proved that the healing achieved by the laser treatment was faster than the control group by 15-20 days.

  2. The Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The skeletal muscle satellite cell was first described and named based on its anatomic location between the myofiber plasma and basement membranes. In 1961, two independent studies by Alexander Mauro and Bernard Katz provided the first electron microscopic descriptions of satellite cells in frog and rat muscles. These cells were soon detected in other vertebrates and acquired candidacy as the source of myogenic cells needed for myofiber growth and repair throughout life. Cultures of isolated myofibers and, subsequently, transplantation of single myofibers demonstrated that satellite cells were myogenic progenitors. More recently, satellite cells were redefined as myogenic stem cells given their ability to self-renew in addition to producing differentiated progeny. Identification of distinctively expressed molecular markers, in particular Pax7, has facilitated detection of satellite cells using light microscopy. Notwithstanding the remarkable progress made since the discovery of satellite cells, researchers have looked for alternative cells with myogenic capacity that can potentially be used for whole body cell-based therapy of skeletal muscle. Yet, new studies show that inducible ablation of satellite cells in adult muscle impairs myofiber regeneration. Thus, on the 50th anniversary since its discovery, the satellite cell’s indispensable role in muscle repair has been reaffirmed. PMID:22147605

  3. Timing of major transportation investments

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-08-01

    This report offers a broad overview of timing research as it applies to major : transportation investments. Specific emphasis is given to major public transit : investments. The report is designed to provide planners and decision-makers : with a bett...

  4. Major depression with psychotic features

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000933.htm Major depression with psychotic features To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Major depression with psychotic features is a mental disorder in ...

  5. Do You Have Major Depression?

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... following two questions will detect the possibility of major depression: Over the past two weeks, have you felt ...

  6. Succinylcholine activation of human horizontal eye muscles.

    PubMed

    Lennerstrand, Gunnar; Bolzani, Roberto; Tian, Suna; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Fusari, Maurizio; Campos, Emilio; Schiavi, Costantino

    2010-12-01

    Succinylcholine (Sch) can induce contracture in slow, multiply innervated muscle fibres of the extraocular muscles in animals of different species. Slow muscle fibres also exist in human eye muscle but their physiological properties have not been studied. Isometric tension development was recorded in the lateral and medial rectus muscles in 12 patients operated under general anaesthesia. A strain gauge probe was attached with 5-0 silk sutures to the muscle tendon. Recordings were made in 12 eye muscles with the tendon attached to the globe and in four muscles detached from the globe. Muscle activation was produced by i.v. injection of Sch at a dose of 0.2-0.3 mg/kg bodyweight.   A single injection of Sch induced slow contractures lasting for several minutes. In the muscles attached to the globe, mean maximal isometric tension was 12.2 g in the lateral rectus and 12.8 g in the medial rectus. Similar tension was shown in the muscles detached from the globe. The contracture of eye muscles in response to Sch showed characteristics typical of slow muscle fibre activation in amphibian and avian muscle and confirmed the participation of slow fibre systems in ocular motor control. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  7. Rat supraspinatus muscle atrophy after tendon detachment.

    PubMed

    Barton, Elisabeth R; Gimbel, Jonathan A; Williams, Gerald R; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2005-03-01

    Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common tendon disorders found in the healthy population. Tendon tears not only affect the biomechanical properties of the tendon, but can also lead to debilitation of the muscles attached to the damaged tendons. The changes that occur in the muscle after tendon detachment are not well understood. A rat rotator cuff model was utilized to determine the time course of changes that occur in the supraspinatus muscle after tendon detachment. It was hypothesized that the lack of load on the supraspinatus muscle would cause a significant decrease in muscle mass and a conversion of muscle fiber properties toward those of fast fiber types. Tendons were detached at the insertion on the humerus without repair. Muscle mass, morphology and fiber properties were measured at one, two, four, eight, and 16 weeks after detachment. Tendon detachment resulted in a rapid loss of muscle mass, an increase in the proportion of fast muscle fibers, and an increase in the fibrotic content of the muscle bed, concomitant with the appearance of adhesions of the tendon to surrounding surfaces. At 16 weeks post-detachment, muscle mass and the fiber properties in the deep muscle layers returned to normal levels. However, the fiber shifts observed in the superficial layers persisted throughout the experiment. These results suggest that load returned to the muscle via adhesions to surrounding surfaces, which may be sufficient to reverse changes in muscle mass.

  8. Postpartum pelvic floor muscle training and urinary incontinence: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hilde, Gunvor; Stær-Jensen, Jette; Siafarikas, Franziska; Ellström Engh, Marie; Bø, Kari

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate whether postpartum pelvic floor muscle training decrease prevalence of any urinary incontinence (UI) in primiparous women with and without UI at inclusion (mixed population) and further to perform stratified analyses on women with and without major levator ani muscle defects. A two-armed assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial including primiparous women 6 weeks after vaginal delivery was conducted. Participants were stratified on major levator ani muscle defects, verified by transperineal ultrasonography, and thereafter randomly allocated to training or control. All participants were taught to contract the pelvic floor muscles. The control participants received no further intervention, whereas training participants attended a weekly supervised pelvic floor muscle training class and performed daily home exercise for 16 weeks. Primary outcome was self-reported UI analyzed by relative risk. We included 175 women, 55 with major levator ani muscle defects and 120 without. Prevalence of UI at baseline was 39.1% in the training group (n=87) and 50% among those in the control group (n=88). Fifteen women (8.6%) were lost to follow-up. At 6 months after delivery (postintervention), 34.5% and 38.6% reported UI in the training and control groups, respectively. Relative risk analysis of UI gave a nonsignificant effect size of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-1.32). Results were similar for the stratum with and without major levator ani muscle defects, 0.89 (95% CI 0.51-1.56) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.53-1.52), respectively. Postpartum pelvic floor training did not decrease UI prevalence 6 months after delivery in primiparous women. Stratified analysis on women with and without major levator ani muscle defects showed similar nonsignificant results. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01069484. : I.

  9. Histopathologic and Myogenic Gene Expression Changes Associated with Wooden Breast in Broiler Breast Muscles.

    PubMed

    Velleman, Sandra G; Clark, Daniel L

    2015-09-01

    The wooden breast condition is a myopathy affecting the pectoralis major (p. major) muscle in fast-growing commercial broiler lines. Currently, wooden breast-affected birds are phenotypically detected by palpation of the breast area, with affected birds having a very hard p. major muscle that is of lower value. The objective of this study was to compare the wooden breast myopathy in two fast-growing broiler lines (Lines A and B) with incidence of wooden breast to a slower growing broiler Line C with no phenotypically observable wooden breast. One of the characteristics of the wooden breast condition is fibrosis of the p. major muscle. Morphologic assessment of Lines A and B showed significant fibrosis in both lines, but the collagen distribution and arrangement of the collagen fibrils was different. In Line A, the collagen fibrils were tightly packed, whereas in Line B the collagen fibrils were diffuse. This difference in collagen organization may be due to the expression of the extracellular matrix proteoglycan decorin. Decorin is a regulator of collagen crosslinking and is expressed at significantly higher levels in Line A wooden breast-affected p. major muscle, which would lead to tightly packed collagen fibers due to high levels of collagen crosslinking. Furthermore, expression of the muscle-specific transcriptional regulatory factors for proliferation and differentiation of muscle cells leading to the regeneration of muscle in response to muscle damage was significantly elevated in Line A, and only the factor for differentiation, myogenin, was increased in Line B. The results from this study provide initial evidence that the etiology of the wooden breast myopathy may vary between fast-growing commercial broiler lines.

  10. Structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle provides inspiration for design of new artificial muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yingxin; Zhang, Chi

    2015-03-01

    A variety of actuator technologies have been developed to mimic biological skeletal muscle that generates force in a controlled manner. Force generation process of skeletal muscle involves complicated biophysical and biochemical mechanisms; therefore, it is impossible to replace biological muscle. In biological skeletal muscle tissue, the force generation of a muscle depends not only on the force generation capacity of the muscle fiber, but also on many other important factors, including muscle fiber type, motor unit recruitment, architecture, structure and morphology of skeletal muscle, all of which have significant impact on the force generation of the whole muscle or force transmission from muscle fibers to the tendon. Such factors have often been overlooked, but can be incorporated in artificial muscle design, especially with the discovery of new smart materials and the development of innovative fabrication and manufacturing technologies. A better understanding of the physiology and structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle will therefore benefit the artificial muscle design. In this paper, factors that affect muscle force generation are reviewed. Mathematical models used to model the structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle are reviewed and discussed. We hope the review will provide inspiration for the design of a new generation of artificial muscle by incorporating the structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle into the design of artificial muscle.

  11. Achieving Optimal Post-Exercise Muscle Protein Remodeling in Physically Active Adults through Whole Food Consumption

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet, Stephan; Beals, Joseph W.; Martinez, Isabel G.; Skinner, Sarah K.; Burd, Nicholas A.

    2018-01-01

    Dietary protein ingestion is critical to maintaining the quality and quantity of skeletal muscle mass throughout adult life. The performance of acute exercise enhances muscle protein remodeling by stimulating protein synthesis rates for several hours after each bout, which can be optimized by consuming protein during the post-exercise recovery period. To date, the majority of the evidence regarding protein intake to optimize post-exercise muscle protein synthesis rates is limited to isolated protein sources. However, it is more common to ingest whole food sources of protein within a normal eating pattern. Emerging evidence demonstrates a promising role for the ingestion of whole foods as an effective nutritional strategy to support muscle protein remodeling and recovery after exercise. This review aims to evaluate the efficacy of the ingestion of nutrient-rich and protein-dense whole foods to support post-exercise muscle protein remodeling and recovery with pertinence towards physically active people. PMID:29462924

  12. Hypogravity-induced atrophy of rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Ellis, S.; Slocum, G. R.; Satyanarayana, T.; Bain, J. L.; Sedlak, F. R.

    1987-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of humans to hypogravity causes weakening of their skeletal muscles. This problem was studied in rats exposed to hypogravity for 7 days aboard Spacelab 3. Hindlimb muscles were harvested 12-16 hours postflight for histochemical, biochemical, and ultrastructural analyses. The majority of the soleus and extensor digitorum longus fibers exhibited simple cell shrinkage. However, approximately 1% of the fibers in flight soleus muscles appeared necrotic. Flight muscle fibers showed increased glycogen, lower subsarcolemmal staining for mitochondrial enzymes, and fewer subsarcolemmal mitochondria. During atrophy, myofibrils were eroded by multiple focal losses of myofilaments; lysosomal autophagy was not evident. Tripeptidylaminopeptidase and calcium-activated protease activities of flight soleus fibers were significantly increased, implying a role in myofibril breakdown. Simple fiber atrophy appears to account for muscle weakening during spaceflight, but fiber necrosis is also a contributing factor.

  13. Weaving History through the Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  14. Associations of passive muscle stiffness, muscle stretch tolerance, and muscle slack angle with range of motion: individual and sex differences.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Naokazu; Hirata, Kosuke; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri; Yasuda, Osamu; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2018-05-29

    Joint range of motion (ROM) is an important parameter for athletic performance and muscular injury risk. Nonetheless, a complete description of muscular factors influencing ROM among individuals and between men and women is lacking. We examined whether passive muscle stiffness (evaluated by angle-specific muscle shear modulus), tolerance to muscle stretch (evaluated by muscle shear modulus at end-ROM), and muscle slack angle of the triceps surae are associated with the individual variability and sex difference in dorsiflexion ROM, using ultrasound shear wave elastography. For men, ROM was negatively correlated to passive muscle stiffness of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius in a tensioned state and positively to tolerance to muscle stretch in the medial gastrocnemius. For women, ROM was only positively correlated to tolerance to muscle stretch in all muscles but not correlated to passive muscle stiffness. Muscle slack angle was not correlated to ROM in men and women. Significant sex differences were observed only for dorsiflexion ROM and passive muscle stiffness in a tensioned state. These findings suggest that muscular factors associated with ROM are different between men and women. Furthermore, the sex difference in dorsiflexion ROM might be attributed partly to that in passive muscle stiffness of plantar flexors.

  15. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non–STEM Majors?

    PubMed Central

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students—including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences—if any exist—between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non–STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non–STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non–STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non–STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non–STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse—with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills—than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. PMID:28798210

  16. Muscle redox signalling pathways in exercise. Role of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Mason, Shaun A; Morrison, Dale; McConell, Glenn K; Wadley, Glenn D

    2016-09-01

    Recent research highlights the importance of redox signalling pathway activation by contraction-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in normal exercise-related cellular and molecular adaptations in skeletal muscle. In this review, we discuss some potentially important redox signalling pathways in skeletal muscle that are involved in acute and chronic responses to contraction and exercise. Specifically, we discuss redox signalling implicated in skeletal muscle contraction force, mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant enzyme induction, glucose uptake and muscle hypertrophy. Furthermore, we review evidence investigating the impact of major exogenous antioxidants on these acute and chronic responses to exercise. Redox signalling pathways involved in adaptive responses in skeletal muscle to exercise are not clearly elucidated at present, and further research is required to better define important signalling pathways involved. Evidence of beneficial or detrimental effects of specific antioxidant compounds on exercise adaptations in muscle is similarly limited, particularly in human subjects. Future research is required to not only investigate effects of specific antioxidant compounds on skeletal muscle exercise adaptations, but also to better establish mechanisms of action of specific antioxidants in vivo. Although we feel it remains somewhat premature to make clear recommendations in relation to application of specific antioxidant compounds in different exercise settings, a bulk of evidence suggests that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is ergogenic through its effects on maintenance of muscle force production during sustained fatiguing events. Nevertheless, a current lack of evidence from studies using performance tests representative of athletic competition and a potential for adverse effects with high doses (>70mg/kg body mass) warrants caution in its use for performance enhancement. In addition, evidence implicates high dose vitamin C (1g/day) and E

  17. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cartee, Gregory D.; Hepple, Russell T.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Zierath, Juleen R.

    2016-01-01

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics, and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes “healthy aging” by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle. PMID:27304505

  18. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Damage.

    PubMed

    Evans, W J

    1987-01-01

    In brief: Delayed-onset muscle soreness is most likely caused by structural damage in skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise, in which muscles produce force while lengthening, as in running downhill. This damage may take as long as 12 weeks to repair. Therefore, athletes should allow plenty of time for recovery after events that cause extreme muscle soreness. Because prostaglandin E2 may be important in muscle repair, prostaglandin blockers, such as aspirin, may be useless or even detrimental in the treatment of delayed-onset muscle soreness. Eccentric exercise training may help prevent soreness.

  19. Torsional Carbon Nanotube Artificial Muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroughi, Javad; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Fang, Shaoli; Mirfakhrai, Tissaphern; Madden, John D. W.; Shin, Min Kyoon; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H.

    2011-10-01

    Rotary motors of conventional design can be rather complex and are therefore difficult to miniaturize; previous carbon nanotube artificial muscles provide contraction and bending, but not rotation. We show that an electrolyte-filled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn, much thinner than a human hair, functions as a torsional artificial muscle in a simple three-electrode electrochemical system, providing a reversible 15,000° rotation and 590 revolutions per minute. A hydrostatic actuation mechanism, as seen in muscular hydrostats in nature, explains the simultaneous occurrence of lengthwise contraction and torsional rotation during the yarn volume increase caused by electrochemical double-layer charge injection. The use of a torsional yarn muscle as a mixer for a fluidic chip is demonstrated.

  20. Titles change the esthetic appreciations of paintings

    PubMed Central

    Gerger, Gernot; Leder, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Esthetic experiences of artworks are influenced by contextualizing information such as titles. However, how titles contribute to positive esthetic experiences is still an open issue. Considering that fluency, as well as effortful elaborate processing, potentially influence esthetic experiences, we tested how three different title types—semantically matching (fluent), semantically non-matching (non-fluent), and an “untitled” condition (control)—affected experiences of abstract, semi-abstract, and representational art. While participants viewed title/artwork combinations we assessed facial electromygraphic (fEMG) recordings over M. corrugator supercilii and M. zygomaticus major muscle to capture subtle changes in emotional and cognitive processing, and asked for subjective liking and interest. Matching titles, but also the more effortful untitled condition, produced higher liking compared to non-fluently processed, non-matching titles especially in abstract art. These results were reflected in fEMG with stronger M. corrugator activations in the non-matching condition followed by the untitled condition. This implies high cognitive effort as well as negative emotions. Only in the matching condition, M. zygomaticus was more strongly activated indicating positive emotions due to fluency. Interest, however, was hardly affected. These results show that high levels of dis-fluency and cognitive effort reduce liking. However, fluency as well as moderate levels of effort contribute to more positive esthetic experiences. PMID:26379527

  1. Titles change the esthetic appreciations of paintings.

    PubMed

    Gerger, Gernot; Leder, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Esthetic experiences of artworks are influenced by contextualizing information such as titles. However, how titles contribute to positive esthetic experiences is still an open issue. Considering that fluency, as well as effortful elaborate processing, potentially influence esthetic experiences, we tested how three different title types-semantically matching (fluent), semantically non-matching (non-fluent), and an "untitled" condition (control)-affected experiences of abstract, semi-abstract, and representational art. While participants viewed title/artwork combinations we assessed facial electromygraphic (fEMG) recordings over M. corrugator supercilii and M. zygomaticus major muscle to capture subtle changes in emotional and cognitive processing, and asked for subjective liking and interest. Matching titles, but also the more effortful untitled condition, produced higher liking compared to non-fluently processed, non-matching titles especially in abstract art. These results were reflected in fEMG with stronger M. corrugator activations in the non-matching condition followed by the untitled condition. This implies high cognitive effort as well as negative emotions. Only in the matching condition, M. zygomaticus was more strongly activated indicating positive emotions due to fluency. Interest, however, was hardly affected. These results show that high levels of dis-fluency and cognitive effort reduce liking. However, fluency as well as moderate levels of effort contribute to more positive esthetic experiences.

  2. SYNTHETIC STRANDS OF CARDIAC MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Purdy, Joyce E.; Lieberman, Melvyn; Roggeveen, Anne E.; Kirk, R. Gary

    1972-01-01

    Spontaneously active bundles of cardiac muscle (synthetic strands) were prepared from isolated cells of 11–13-day old embryonic chick hearts which were disaggregated with trypsin. Linear orientation of the cells was obtained by plating them on agar-coated culture dishes in which either grooves were cut in the agar film or a thin line of palladium was deposited over the agar. The influence of cell-to-cell and cell-to-substrate interactions was observed with time lapse cinematography and the formation of the synthetic strand was shown to involve both random and guided cell movements, enlargement of aggregates by accretion and coalescence, and the compact linear arrangement of cells along paths of preferential adhesion. Electron microscope investigations of these strands showed that a dispersed population of heart cells organized into an inner core of muscle cells and an outer sheath of fibroblast-like cells. The muscle cells contained well-developed, but widely spaced myofibrils, a developing sarcoplasmic reticulum associated in part with the myofibrils and in part with the sarcolemma, an abundance of nonmembrane bound ribosomes and glycogen, and a prominent Golgi complex. Numerous specialized contacts were observed between the muscle cells in the strand, e.g., fasciae adherentes, desmosomes, and nexuses. A distinct type of muscle cell characterized by its pale appearance was regularly observed in the strand and was noted to be similar to Purkinje cells described in the adult avian conduction system and in developing chick myocardium. The present findings were compared with other observations of the developing myocardium, in situ, and it was concluded that, by a number or criteria, the muscle cells of the strand were differentiating normally and suitably organized for electrophysiological studies. PMID:4656702

  3. Characteristics of locomotion, muscle strength, and muscle tissue in regenerating rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Akira; Fuchioka, Satoshi; Hiraoka, Koichi; Masuhara, Mitsuhiko; Kami, Katsuya

    2010-05-01

    Although numerous studies have aimed to elucidate the mechanisms used to repair the structure and function of injured skeletal muscles, it remains unclear how and when movement recovers following damage. We performed a temporal analysis to characterize the changes in movement, muscle function, and muscle structure after muscle injury induced by the drop-mass technique. At each time-point, movement recovery was determined by ankle kinematic analysis of locomotion, and functional recovery was represented by isometric force. As a histological analysis, the cross-sectional area of myotubes was measured to examine structural regeneration. The dorsiflexion angle of the ankle, as assessed by kinematic analysis of locomotion, increased after injury and then returned to control levels by day 14 post-injury. The isometric force returned to normal levels by day 21 post-injury. However, the size of the myotubes did not reach normal levels, even at day 21 post-injury. These results indicate that recovery of locomotion occurs prior to recovery of isometric force and that functional recovery occurs earlier than structural regeneration. Thus, it is suggested that recovery of the movement and function of injured skeletal muscles might be insufficient as markers for estimating the degree of neuromuscular system reconstitution.

  4. Muscle assembly: a titanic achievement?

    PubMed

    Gregorio, C C; Granzier, H; Sorimachi, H; Labeit, S

    1999-02-01

    The formation of perfectly aligned myofibrils in striated muscle represents a dramatic example of supramolecular assembly in eukaryotic cells. Recently, considerable progress has been made in deciphering the roles that titin, the third most abundant protein in muscle, has in this process. An increasing number of sarcomeric proteins (ligands) are being identified that bind to specific titin domains. Titin may serve as a molecular blueprint for sarcomere assembly and turnover by specifying the precise position of its ligands within each half-sarcomere in addition to functioning as a molecular spring that maintains the structural integrity of the contracting myofibrils.

  5. Muscle-Tendon-Enthesis Unit.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Anthony S; Huang, Brady K; Pathria, Mini N

    2018-07-01

    Injuries to the muscle-tendon-enthesis unit are common and a significant source of pain and loss of function. This article focuses on the important anatomical and biomechanical considerations for each component of the muscle-tendon-enthesis unit. We review normal and pathologic conditions affecting this unit, illustrating the imaging appearance of common disorders on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. Knowledge of the anatomy and biomechanics of these structures is crucial for the radiologist to make accurate diagnoses and provide clinically relevant assessments. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Repositioning forelimb superficialis muscles: tendon attachment and muscle activity enable active relocation of functional myofibers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Alice H; Riordan, Timothy J; Wang, Lingyan; Eyal, Shai; Zelzer, Elazar; Brigande, John V; Schweitzer, Ronen

    2013-09-16

    The muscles that govern hand motion are composed of extrinsic muscles that reside within the forearm and intrinsic muscles that reside within the hand. We find that the extrinsic muscles of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) first differentiate as intrinsic muscles within the hand and then relocate as myofibers to their final position in the arm. This remarkable translocation of differentiated myofibers across a joint is dependent on muscle contraction and muscle-tendon attachment. Interestingly, the intrinsic flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles of the foot are identical to the FDS in tendon pattern and delayed developmental timing but undergo limited muscle translocation, providing strong support for evolutionary homology between the FDS and FDB muscles. We propose that the intrinsic FDB pattern represents the original tetrapod limb and that translocation of the muscles to form the FDS is a mammalian evolutionary addition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship of Skeletal Muscle Development and Growth to Breast Muscle Myopathies: A Review.

    PubMed

    Velleman, Sandra G

    2015-12-01

    Selection in meat-type birds has focused on growth rate, muscling, and feed conversion. These strategies have made substantial improvements but have affected muscle structure, repair mechanisms, and meat quality, especially in the breast muscle. The increase in muscle fiber diameters has reduced available connective tissue spacing, reduced blood supply, and altered muscle metabolism in the breast muscle. These changes have increased muscle fiber degeneration and necrosis but have limited muscle repair mechanisms mediated by the adult myoblast (satellite cell) population of cells, likely resulting in the onset of myopathies. This review focuses on muscle growth mechanisms and how changes in the cellular development of the breast muscle may be associated with breast muscle myopathies occurring in meat-type birds.

  8. Physical Rehabilitation Improves Muscle Function Following Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-19

    synergistic effect of treadmill running on stem -cell transplantation to heal injured skeletal muscle. Tissue Eng Part A 2010, 16(3):839–849. 20. Brutsaert...U:::-’ 0:: 0 Uninjured Injured Figure 7 c E 14 w cu12 • SED * (/) Cll < 10 ~ ~ 8 c 6 Cll Cl 4 z ..!!! ::> 0 2 0::: u 0 Uninjured Injured

  9. Capturing Physiology of Emotion along Facial Muscles: A Method of Distinguishing Feigned from Involuntary Expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Masood Mehmood; Ward, Robert D.; Ingleby, Michael

    The ability to distinguish feigned from involuntary expressions of emotions could help in the investigation and treatment of neuropsychiatric and affective disorders and in the detection of malingering. This work investigates differences in emotion-specific patterns of thermal variations along the major facial muscles. Using experimental data extracted from 156 images, we attempted to classify patterns of emotion-specific thermal variations into neutral, and voluntary and involuntary expressions of positive and negative emotive states. Initial results suggest (i) each facial muscle exhibits a unique thermal response to various emotive states; (ii) the pattern of thermal variances along the facial muscles may assist in classifying voluntary and involuntary facial expressions; and (iii) facial skin temperature measurements along the major facial muscles may be used in automated emotion assessment.

  10. Dystrophin restoration therapy improves both the reduced excitability and the force drop induced by lengthening contractions in dystrophic mdx skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Roy, Pauline; Rau, Fredérique; Ochala, Julien; Messéant, Julien; Fraysse, Bodvael; Lainé, Jeanne; Agbulut, Onnik; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Furling, Denis; Ferry, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    The greater susceptibility to contraction-induced skeletal muscle injury (fragility) is an important dystrophic feature and tool for testing preclinic dystrophin-based therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, how these therapies reduce the muscle fragility is not clear. To address this question, we first determined the event(s) of the excitation-contraction cycle which is/are altered following lengthening (eccentric) contractions in the mdx muscle. We found that the immediate force drop following lengthening contractions, a widely used measure of muscle fragility, was associated with reduced muscle excitability. Moreover, the force drop can be mimicked by an experimental reduction in muscle excitation of uninjured muscle. Furthermore, the force drop was not related to major neuromuscular transmission failure, excitation-contraction uncoupling, and myofibrillar impairment. Secondly, and importantly, the re-expression of functional truncated dystrophin in the muscle of mdx mice using an exon skipping strategy partially prevented the reductions in both force drop and muscle excitability following lengthening contractions. We demonstrated for the first time that (i) the increased susceptibility to contraction-induced muscle injury in mdx mice is mainly attributable to reduced muscle excitability; (ii) dystrophin-based therapy improves fragility of the dystrophic skeletal muscle by preventing reduction in muscle excitability.

  11. Neural effects of muscle stretching on the spinal reflexes in multiple lower-limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Masugi, Yohei; Obata, Hiroki; Inoue, Daisuke; Kawashima, Noritaka; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2017-01-01

    While previous studies have shown that muscle stretching suppresses monosynaptic spinal reflex excitability in stretched muscles, its effects on non-stretched muscles is still largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of muscle stretching on monosynaptic spinal reflex in non-stretched muscles. Ten healthy male subjects participated in this study. Muscle stretching of the right triceps surae muscle was performed using a motor torque device for 1 minute. Three different dorsiflexion torques (at approximately 5, 10, and 15 Nm) were applied during muscle stretching. Spinal reflexes evoked by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation were recorded in both the lower-limb muscles before, during, and at 0 and 5 min following muscle stretching. The amplitudes of the spinal reflexes in both the stretched and non-stretched muscles in the right (ipsilateral) leg were smaller during stretching compared to before, and at 0 and 5 min after stretching. Furthermore, the degree of reduction in the amplitude of the spinal reflexes in the right (ipsilateral) leg muscles increased significantly as the dorsiflexion torque (i.e., stretching of the right triceps surae muscles) increased. In contrast, reduction in the amplitude of the spinal reflexes with increasing dorsiflexion torque was not seen in the left (contralateral) leg muscles. Our results clearly indicate that muscle stretching has inhibitory effects on monosynaptic spinal reflexes, not only in stretched muscles, but also in non-stretched muscles of the ipsilateral leg.

  12. Neural effects of muscle stretching on the spinal reflexes in multiple lower-limb muscles

    PubMed Central

    Obata, Hiroki; Inoue, Daisuke; Kawashima, Noritaka; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2017-01-01

    While previous studies have shown that muscle stretching suppresses monosynaptic spinal reflex excitability in stretched muscles, its effects on non-stretched muscles is still largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of muscle stretching on monosynaptic spinal reflex in non-stretched muscles. Ten healthy male subjects participated in this study. Muscle stretching of the right triceps surae muscle was performed using a motor torque device for 1 minute. Three different dorsiflexion torques (at approximately 5, 10, and 15 Nm) were applied during muscle stretching. Spinal reflexes evoked by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation were recorded in both the lower-limb muscles before, during, and at 0 and 5 min following muscle stretching. The amplitudes of the spinal reflexes in both the stretched and non-stretched muscles in the right (ipsilateral) leg were smaller during stretching compared to before, and at 0 and 5 min after stretching. Furthermore, the degree of reduction in the amplitude of the spinal reflexes in the right (ipsilateral) leg muscles increased significantly as the dorsiflexion torque (i.e., stretching of the right triceps surae muscles) increased. In contrast, reduction in the amplitude of the spinal reflexes with increasing dorsiflexion torque was not seen in the left (contralateral) leg muscles. Our results clearly indicate that muscle stretching has inhibitory effects on monosynaptic spinal reflexes, not only in stretched muscles, but also in non-stretched muscles of the ipsilateral leg. PMID:28662201

  13. Changes in muscle spindle firing in response to length changes of neighboring muscles

    PubMed Central

    Smilde, Hiltsje A.; Vincent, Jake A.; Baan, Guus C.; Nardelli, Paul; Lodder, Johannes C.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Cope, Tim C.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle force can be transmitted to the skeleton, not only via its tendons of origin and insertion but also through connective tissues linking the muscle belly to surrounding structures. Through such epimuscular myofascial connections, length changes of a muscle may cause length changes within an adjacent muscle and hence, affect muscle spindles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of epimuscular myofascial forces on feedback from muscle spindles in triceps surae muscles of the rat. We hypothesized that within an intact muscle compartment, muscle spindles not only signal length changes of the muscle in which they are located but can also sense length changes that occur as a result of changing the length of synergistic muscles. Action potentials from single afferents were measured intra-axonally in response to ramp-hold release (RHR) stretches of an agonistic muscle at different lengths of its synergist, as well as in response to synergist RHRs. A decrease in force threshold was found for both soleus (SO) and lateral gastrocnemius afferents, along with an increase in length threshold for SO afferents. In addition, muscle spindle firing could be evoked by RHRs of the synergistic muscle. We conclude that muscle spindles not only signal length changes of the muscle in which they are located but also local length changes that occur as a result of changing the length and relative position of synergistic muscles. PMID:27075540

  14. Vascular delay improves latissimus dorsi muscle perfusion and muscle function for use in cardiomyoplasty.

    PubMed

    Carroll, S M; Heilman, S J; Stremel, R W; Tobin, G R; Barker, J H

    1997-04-01

    Ischemia of the distal portion of the latissimus dorsi muscle occurs in muscle transfer for cardiomyoplasty and reduces distal muscle contractility and thus the mechanical effectiveness of cardiomyoplasty. We hypothesized that muscle function would be improved by a vascular delay procedure that increases distal muscle perfusion of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The latissimus dorsi muscles of 10 adult mongrel dogs were subjected to a vascular delay procedure on one side and a sham procedure on the other. Following 10 days of vascular delay, muscle perfusion was measured with a laser-Doppler perfusion imager before and after elevation of the muscles as flaps based only on their thoracodorsal neurovascular pedicles. The muscles were wrapped and sutured around silicone chambers (simulating cardiomyoplasty), a stimulating electrode was placed around each thoracodorsal nerve, and the muscles were stimulated to contract in both rhythmic and tetanic fashion. Circumferential (distal and middle latissimus dorsi muscle function) force generation and fatigue rates were measured independently. Circumferential muscle force, circumferential and longitudinal fatigue rate, and distal, middle, and overall perfusion were significantly (p < 0.05) improved in delayed muscle compared with nondelayed muscle. We found that a vascular delay procedure and a 10-day delay adaptation period significantly improve latissimus dorsi muscle flap perfusion and function, particularly in the distal and middle portions of the muscle. Delay should be considered as a means of improving the clinical outcome in cardiomyoplasty.

  15. Finger muscle control in children with dystonia.

    PubMed

    Young, Scott J; van Doornik, Johan; Sanger, Terence D

    2011-06-01

    Childhood dystonia is a disorder that involves inappropriate muscle activation during attempts at voluntary movement. Few studies have investigated the muscle activity associated with dystonia in children, and none have done so in the hands. In this study, we measured surface electromyographic activity in four intrinsic hand muscles while participants attempted to perform an isometric tracking task using one of the muscles. Children with dystonia had greater tracking error with the task-related muscle and greater overflow to non-task muscles. Both tracking error and overflow correlated with the Barry-Albright Dystonia scale of the respective upper limb. Overflow also decreased when participants received visual feedback of non-task muscle activity. We conclude that two of the motor deficits in childhood dystonia--motor overflow and difficulties in actively controlling muscles--can be seen in the surface electromyographic activity of individual muscles during an isometric task. As expected from results in adults, overflow is an important feature of childhood dystonia. However, overflow may be at least partially dependent on an individual's level of awareness of their muscle activity. Most importantly, poor single-muscle tracking shows that children with dystonia have deficits of individual muscle control in addition to overflow or co-contraction. These results provide the first quantitative measures of the muscle activity associated with hand dystonia in children, and they suggest possible directions for control of dystonic symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  16. MST1, a key player, in enhancing fast skeletal muscle atrophy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle undergoes rapid atrophy upon denervation and the underlying mechanisms are complicated. FOXO3a has been implicated as a major mediator of muscle atrophy, but how its subcellular location and activity is controlled during the pathogenesis of muscle atrophy remains largely unknown. MST1 (Mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1) is identified as a central component of the Hippo signaling pathway. MST1 has been shown to mediate phosphorylation of FOXO3a at Ser207. Whether this MST1-FOXO signaling cascade exerts any functional consequence on cellular homeostasis remains to be investigated. Result We identified that MST1 kinase was expressed widely in skeletal muscles and was dramatically up-regulated in fast- but not slow-dominant skeletal muscles immediately following denervation. The results of our histological and biochemical studies demonstrated that deletion of MST1 significantly attenuated denervation-induced skeletal muscle wasting and decreased expression of Atrogin-1 and LC3 genes in fast-dominant skeletal muscles from three- to five-month-old adult mice. Further studies indicated that MST1, but not MST2, remarkably increased FOXO3a phosphorylation level at Ser207 and promoted its nuclear translocation in atrophic fast-dominant muscles. Conclusions We have established that MST1 kinase plays an important role in regulating denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. During the early stage of muscle atrophy, the up-regulated MST1 kinase promoted progression of neurogenic atrophy in fast-dominant skeletal muscles through activation of FOXO3a transcription factors. PMID:23374633

  17. In vivo behavior of the human soleus muscle with increasing walking and running speeds.

    PubMed

    Lai, Adrian; Lichtwark, Glen A; Schache, Anthony G; Lin, Yi-Chung; Brown, Nicholas A T; Pandy, Marcus G

    2015-05-15

    The interaction between the muscle fascicle and tendon components of the human soleus (SO) muscle influences the capacity of the muscle to generate force and mechanical work during walking and running. In the present study, ultrasound-based measurements of in vivo SO muscle fascicle behavior were combined with an inverse dynamics analysis to investigate the interaction between the muscle fascicle and tendon components over a broad range of steady-state walking and running speeds: slow-paced walking (0.7 m/s) through to moderate-paced running (5.0 m/s). Irrespective of a change in locomotion mode (i.e., walking vs. running) or an increase in steady-state speed, SO muscle fascicles were found to exhibit minimal shortening compared with the muscle-tendon unit (MTU) throughout stance. During walking and running, the muscle fascicles contributed only 35 and 20% of the overall MTU length change and shortening velocity, respectively. Greater levels of muscle activity resulted in increasingly shorter SO muscle fascicles as locomotion speed increased, both of which facilitated greater tendon stretch and recoil. Thus the elastic tendon contributed the majority of the MTU length change during walking and running. When transitioning from walking to running near the preferred transition speed (2.0 m/s), greater, more economical ankle torque development is likely explained by the SO muscle fascicles shortening more slowly and operating on a more favorable portion (i.e., closer to the plateau) of the force-length curve. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate improves plantaris muscle recovery after disuse in aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Alway, Stephen E.; Bennett, Brian T.; Wilson, Joseph C.; Edens, Neile K.; Pereira, Suzette L.

    2014-01-01

    Aging exacerbates muscle loss and slows the recovery of muscle mass and function after disuse. In this study we investigated the potential that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), an abundant catechin in green tea, would reduce signaling for apoptosis and promote skeletal muscle recovery in the fast plantaris muscle and the slow soleus muscle after hindlimb unloading (HLS) in senescent animals. Fischer 344 × Brown Norway inbred rats (age 34 mo.) received either EGCg (50 mg/kg body weight), or water daily by gavage. One group of animals received HLS for 14 days and a second group of rats received 14 days of HLS, then the HLS was removed and they recovered from this forced disuse for 2 weeks. Animals that received EGCg over the HLS followed by 14 days of recovery, had a 14% greater plantaris muscle weight (p <0.05) as compared to the animals treated with the vehicle over this same period. Plantaris fiber area was greater after recovery in EGCg (2715.2 ± 113.8 μm2) vs. vehicle treated animals (1953.0 ± 41.9 μm2). In addition, activation of myogenic progenitor cells was improved with EGCg over vehicle treatment (7.5% vs. 6.2%) in the recovery animals. Compared to vehicle treatment, the apoptotic index was lower (0.24% vs. 0.52%), and the abundance of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax (−22%), and FADD (−77%) were lower in EGCg treated plantaris muscles after recovery. While EGCg did not prevent unloading-induced atrophy, it improved muscle recovery after the atrophic stimulus in fast plantaris muscles. However, this effect was muscle specific because EGCg had no major impact in reversing HLS-induced atrophy in the slow soleus muscle of old rats. PMID:24316035

  19. Identification of human skeletal muscle miRNA related to strength by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Cameron J; D'Souza, Randall F; Schierding, William; Zeng, Nina; Ramzan, Farha; O'Sullivan, Justin M; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2018-06-01

    The loss of muscle size, strength, and quality with aging is a major determinant of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The regulatory pathways that impact the muscle phenotype include the translational regulation maintained by microRNAs (miRNA). Yet the miRNAs that are expressed in human skeletal muscle and relationship to muscle size, strength, and quality are unknown. Using next-generation sequencing, we selected the 50 most abundantly expressed miRNAs and then analyzed them in vastus lateralis muscle, obtained by biopsy from middle-aged males ( n = 48; 50.0 ± 4.3 yr). Isokinetic strength testing and midthigh computed tomography was undertaken for muscle phenotype analysis. Muscle attenuation was measured by computerized tomography and is inversely proportional to myofiber lipid content. miR-486-5p accounted for 21% of total miR sequence reads, with miR-10b-5p, miR-133a-3p, and miR-22-3p accounting for a further 15, 12, and 10%, respectively. Isokinetic knee extension strength and muscle cross-sectional area were positively correlated with miR-100-5p, miR-99b-5p, and miR-191-5p expression. Muscle attenuation was negatively correlated to let-7f-5p, miR-30d-5p, and miR-125b-5p expression. In silico analysis implicates miRNAs related to strength and muscle size in the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin, while miRNAs related to muscle attenuation may have potential roles regulating the transforming growth factor-β/SMAD3 pathway.

  20. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate improves plantaris muscle recovery after disuse in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Alway, Stephen E; Bennett, Brian T; Wilson, Joseph C; Edens, Neile K; Pereira, Suzette L

    2014-02-01

    Aging exacerbates muscle loss and slows the recovery of muscle mass and function after disuse. In this study we investigated the potential that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), an abundant catechin in green tea, would reduce signaling for apoptosis and promote skeletal muscle recovery in the fast plantaris muscle and the slow soleus muscle after hindlimb suspension (HLS) in senescent animals. Fischer 344 × Brown Norway inbred rats (age 34 months) received either EGCg (50 mg/kg body weight), or water daily by gavage. One group of animals received HLS for 14 days and a second group of rats received 14 days of HLS, then the HLS was removed and they recovered from this forced disuse for 2 weeks. Animals that received EGCg over the HLS followed by 14 days of recovery, had a 14% greater plantaris muscle weight (p<0.05) as compared to the animals treated with the vehicle over this same period. Plantaris fiber area was greater after recovery in EGCg (2715.2±113.8 μm(2)) vs. vehicle treated animals (1953.0±41.9 μm(2)). In addition, activation of myogenic progenitor cells was improved with EGCg over vehicle treat