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Sample records for zygosaccharomyces bailii spoilage

  1. A differential medium for the enumeration of the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii in wine.

    PubMed

    Schuller, D; Côrte-Real, M; Leão, C

    2000-11-01

    A collection of yeasts, isolated mostly from spoiled wines, was used in order to develop a differential medium for Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The 118 selected strains of 21 species differed in their origin and resistance to preservatives and belonged to the genera Pichia, Torulaspora, Dekkera, Debaryomyces, Saccharomycodes, Issatchenkia, Kluyveromyces, Kloeckera, Lodderomyces, Schizosaccharomyces, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces. The design of the culture medium was based on the different ability of the various yeast species to grow in a mineral medium with glucose and formic acid (mixed-substrate medium) as the only carbon and energy sources and supplemented with an acid-base indicator. By manipulating the concentration of the acid and the sugar it was possible to select conditions where only Z. bailii strains gave rise to alkalinization, associated with a color change of the medium (positive response). The final composition of the mixed medium was adjusted as a compromise between the percentage of recovery and selectivity for Z. bailii. This was accomplished by the use of pure or mixed cultures of the yeast strains and applying the membrane filtration methodology. The microbiological analysis of two samples of contaminated Vinho Verde showed that the new medium can be considered as a differential medium to distinguish Z. bailii from other contaminating yeasts, having potential application in the microbiological control of wines and probably other beverages and foods.

  2. Raman Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Identification and Strain Discrimination of the Wine Spoilage Yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and Brettanomyces bruxellensis

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Mark A.; Thornton, Roy J.

    2013-01-01

    The yeasts Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Dekkera bruxellensis (anamorph, Brettanomyces bruxellensis), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the major spoilage agents of finished wine. A novel method using Raman spectroscopy in combination with a chemometric classification tool has been developed for the identification of these yeast species and for strain discrimination of these yeasts. Raman spectra were collected for six strains of each of the yeasts Z. bailii, B. bruxellensis, and S. cerevisiae. The yeasts were classified with high sensitivity at the species level: 93.8% for Z. bailii, 92.3% for B. bruxellensis, and 98.6% for S. cerevisiae. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that it is possible to discriminate between strains of these species. These yeasts were classified at the strain level with an overall accuracy of 81.8%. PMID:23913433

  3. Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics for identification and strain discrimination of the wine spoilage yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and Brettanomyces bruxellensis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Susan B; Thornton, Mark A; Thornton, Roy J

    2013-10-01

    The yeasts Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Dekkera bruxellensis (anamorph, Brettanomyces bruxellensis), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the major spoilage agents of finished wine. A novel method using Raman spectroscopy in combination with a chemometric classification tool has been developed for the identification of these yeast species and for strain discrimination of these yeasts. Raman spectra were collected for six strains of each of the yeasts Z. bailii, B. bruxellensis, and S. cerevisiae. The yeasts were classified with high sensitivity at the species level: 93.8% for Z. bailii, 92.3% for B. bruxellensis, and 98.6% for S. cerevisiae. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that it is possible to discriminate between strains of these species. These yeasts were classified at the strain level with an overall accuracy of 81.8%.

  4. Naturally occurring antifungal agents against Zygosaccharomyces bailii and their synergism.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Kubo, Isao

    2005-06-29

    Polygodial was found to exhibit a fungicidal activity against a food spoilage yeast, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, with the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 50 microg/mL (0.17 mM). The time-kill curve study showed that polygodial was fungicidal at any growth stage. The primary action of polygodial comes from its ability to disrupt the native membrane-associated function of integral proteins as nonionic surface active agents (surfactants) followed by a decrease in plasma membrane fluidity. The fungicidal activity of polygodial was increased 128-fold in combination with a sublethal amount (equivalent of 1/2 MFC) of anethole and vice versa relative to the fungicidal activity of anethole. The fungicidal activity of sorbic acid was enhanced 512-fold in combination with 1/2 MFC of polygodial. Conversely, the fungicidal activity of polygodial was enhanced 128-fold in combination with 1/2 MFC of sorbic acid.

  5. Genome sequence of the highly weak-acid-tolerant Zygosaccharomyces bailii IST302, amenable to genetic manipulations and physiological studies.

    PubMed

    Palma, Margarida; Münsterkötter, Martin; Peça, João; Güldener, Ulrich; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2017-06-01

    Zygosaccharomyces bailii is one of the most problematic spoilage yeast species found in the food and beverage industry particularly in acidic products, due to its exceptional resistance to weak acid stress. This article describes the annotation of the genome sequence of Z. bailii IST302, a strain recently proven to be amenable to genetic manipulations and physiological studies. The work was based on the annotated genomes of strain ISA1307, an interspecies hybrid between Z. bailii and a closely related species, and the Z. bailii reference strain CLIB 213T. The resulting genome sequence of Z. bailii IST302 is distributed through 105 scaffolds, comprising a total of 5142 genes and a size of 10.8 Mb. Contrasting with CLIB 213T, strain IST302 does not form cell aggregates, allowing its manipulation in the laboratory for genetic and physiological studies. Comparative cell cycle analysis with the haploid and diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains BY4741 and BY4743, respectively, suggests that Z. bailii IST302 is haploid. This is an additional trait that makes this strain attractive for the functional analysis of non-essential genes envisaging the elucidation of mechanisms underlying its high tolerance to weak acid food preservatives, or the investigation and exploitation of the potential of this resilient yeast species as cell factory. © FEMS 2017.

  6. Advances in the control of wine spoilage by Zygosaccharomyces and Dekkera/Brettanomyces.

    PubMed

    Zuehlke, J M; Petrova, B; Edwards, C G

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics of yeast spoilage, as well as the available control technologies, is vital to producing consistent, high-quality wine. Zygosaccharomyces bailii contamination may result in refermentation and CO2 production in sweet wines or grape juice concentrate, whereas Brettanomyces bruxellensis spoilage often contributes off-odors and flavors to red wines. Early detection of these yeasts by selective/differential media or genetic methods is important to minimize potential spoilage. More established methods of microbial control include sulfur dioxide, dimethyl dicarbonate, and filtration. Current research is focused on the use of chitosan, pulsed electric fields, low electric current, and ultrasonics as means to protect wine quality.

  7. Adaptive Response and Tolerance to Acetic Acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii: A Physiological Genomics Perspective.

    PubMed

    Palma, Margarida; Guerreiro, Joana F; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Acetic acid is an important microbial growth inhibitor in the food industry; it is used as a preservative in foods and beverages and is produced during normal yeast metabolism in biotechnological processes. Acetic acid is also a major inhibitory compound present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates affecting the use of this promising carbon source for sustainable bioprocesses. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae response and adaptation to acetic acid have been studied for years, only recently they have been examined in more detail in Zygosaccharomyces bailii . However, due to its remarkable tolerance to acetic acid and other weak acids this yeast species is a major threat in the spoilage of acidic foods and beverages and considered as an interesting alternative cell factory in Biotechnology. This review paper emphasizes genome-wide strategies that are providing global insights into the molecular targets, signaling pathways and mechanisms behind S. cerevisiae and Z. bailii tolerance to acetic acid, and extends this information to other weak acids whenever relevant. Such comprehensive perspective and the knowledge gathered in these two yeast species allowed the identification of candidate molecular targets, either for the design of effective strategies to overcome yeast spoilage in acidic foods and beverages, or for the rational genome engineering to construct more robust industrial strains. Examples of successful applications are provided.

  8. Adaptive Response and Tolerance to Acetic Acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii: A Physiological Genomics Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Margarida; Guerreiro, Joana F.; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Acetic acid is an important microbial growth inhibitor in the food industry; it is used as a preservative in foods and beverages and is produced during normal yeast metabolism in biotechnological processes. Acetic acid is also a major inhibitory compound present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates affecting the use of this promising carbon source for sustainable bioprocesses. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae response and adaptation to acetic acid have been studied for years, only recently they have been examined in more detail in Zygosaccharomyces bailii. However, due to its remarkable tolerance to acetic acid and other weak acids this yeast species is a major threat in the spoilage of acidic foods and beverages and considered as an interesting alternative cell factory in Biotechnology. This review paper emphasizes genome-wide strategies that are providing global insights into the molecular targets, signaling pathways and mechanisms behind S. cerevisiae and Z. bailii tolerance to acetic acid, and extends this information to other weak acids whenever relevant. Such comprehensive perspective and the knowledge gathered in these two yeast species allowed the identification of candidate molecular targets, either for the design of effective strategies to overcome yeast spoilage in acidic foods and beverages, or for the rational genome engineering to construct more robust industrial strains. Examples of successful applications are provided. PMID:29515554

  9. Assessing physio-macromolecular effects of lactic acid on Zygosaccharomyces bailii cells during microaerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kuanyshev, Nurzhan; Ami, Diletta; Signori, Lorenzo; Porro, Danilo; Morrissey, John P; Branduardi, Paola

    2016-08-01

    The ability of Zygosaccharomyces bailii to grow at low pH and in the presence of considerable amounts of weak organic acids, at lethal condition for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, increased the interest in the biotechnological potential of the yeast. To understand the mechanism of tolerance and growth effect of weak acids on Z. bailii, we evaluated the physiological and macromolecular changes of the yeast exposed to sub lethal concentrations of lactic acid. Lactic acid represents one of the important commodity chemical which can be produced by microbial fermentation. We assessed physiological effect of lactic acid by bioreactor fermentation using synthetic media at low pH in the presence of lactic acid. Samples collected from bioreactors were stained with propidium iodide (PI) which revealed that, despite lactic acid negatively influence the growth rate, the number of PI positive cells is similar to that of the control. Moreover, we have performed Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) microspectroscopy analysis on intact cells of the same samples. This technique has been never applied before to study Z. bailii under this condition. The analyses revealed lactic acid induced macromolecular changes in the overall cellular protein secondary structures, and alterations of cell wall and membrane physico-chemical properties. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Zygosaccharomyces bailii Is a Potential Producer of Various Flavor Compounds in Chinese Maotai-Flavor Liquor Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zhi, Yan; Wu, Qun; Du, Rubing; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Zygosaccharomyces bailii is a common yeast in various food fermentations. Understanding the metabolic properties and genetic mechanisms of Z. bailii is important for its industrial applications. Fermentation characteristics of Z. bailii MT15 from Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor fermentation were studied. Z. bailii MT15 produced various flavor compounds, including 19 alcohols, six acids, three esters, three ketones, and two aldehydes. Moreover, production of acids and aldehydes were increased by 110 and 41%, respectively, at 37°C (the maximum temperature in liquor fermentation) compared with that at 30°C, indicating its excellent flavor productivity. Z. bailii MT15 is a diploid with genome size of 20.19 Mb. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that 12 genes related to amino acid transport were significantly up-regulated (2.41- to 5.11-fold) at 37°C. Moreover, genes ARO8, ARO9, and ALDH4 involved in amino acid metabolism also showed higher expression levels (>1.71-fold) at 37°C. Increased substrate supply and a vigorous metabolism might be beneficial for the increased production of acids and aldehydes at 37°C. This work revealed the potential contribution of Z. bailii to various flavor compounds in food fermentation, and produced insights into the metabolic mechanisms of Z. bailii in flavor production. PMID:29312273

  11. Lipidomic Profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii Reveals Critical Changes in Lipid Composition in Response to Acetic Acid Stress

    PubMed Central

    Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L−1, while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L−1 acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large

  12. Evaluation of Zygosaccharomyces bailii BCV 08 as a co-starter in wine fermentation for the improvement of ethyl esters production.

    PubMed

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Schneider, Rosana de Cassia de Souza; Camargo Mendes, Sandra Denise; Welke, Juliane Elisa; Zini, Cláudia Alcaraz; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Valente, Patrícia

    2015-04-01

    Zygosaccharomyces bailii BCV 08, a yeast isolated from red wine barrels in Brazil, was evaluated as co-starter in fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Z. bailii BCV 08 was preliminarily shown to produce high levels of esters, and the production was optimized in bench and bioreactor scales using grape must. White wine vinifications were conducted with mixed cultures containing different proportions of Z. bailii BCV 08 and an enological strain of S. cerevisiae. In all trials that contained Z. bailii BCV 08, the production of ethyl esters was enhanced in comparison to the vinification control. Our results clearly show the potential of Z. bailii BCV 08 as a mixed starter with S. cerevisiae in order to increase the aromatic complexity of wine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. Antifungal properties of peptidomimetics with an arginine-[β-(2,5,7-tri-tert-butylindol-3-yl)alanine]-arginine motif against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Camilla Eggert; Larsen, Camilla Josephine; Franzyk, Henrik; Regenberg, Birgitte

    2015-05-01

    Due to increased occurrence of infections and food spoilage caused by yeast, there is an unmet need for new antifungal agents. The arginine-β-(2,5,7-tri-tert-butylindol-3-yl) alanine-arginine (R-Tbt-R) motif was previously proved useful in the design of an antifungal tripeptide. Here, an array of peptidomimetics based on this motif was investigated for antifungal and hemolytic activity. The five most promising modified tetrapeptide analogues ( 6: and 9-12: contain an additional C-terminal hydrophobic residue, and these were found to exhibit antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MIC 6 and 12 μg mL(-1)) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (MIC 6-25 μg mL(-1)). Four compounds ( 6: and 9-11: , had limited hemolytic activity (<10% hemolysis at 8 × MIC). Determination of their killing kinetics revealed that compound 9: displayed fungicidal effect. Testing against cells from an S. cerevisiae deletion mutant library indicated that interaction with yeast-specific fungal sphingolipids, most likely constitutes a crucial step in the mode of action. Interestingly, a lack of activity of peptidomimetics 6: and 9-11: towards Candida spp. was shown to be due to degradation or sequestering by the yeast. Due to their ultrashort nature, antifungal activity and low toxicity, the four compounds may have potential as leads for novel preservatives. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The importance of expressing antimicrobial agents on water basis in growth/no growth interface models: a case study for Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Dang, T D T; Vermeulen, A; Mertens, L; Geeraerd, A H; Van Impe, J F; Devlieghere, F

    2011-01-31

    In a previous study on Zygosaccharomyces bailii, three growth/no growth models have been developed, predicting growth probability of the yeast at different conditions typical for acidified foods (Dang, T.D.T., Mertens, L., Vermeulen, A., Geeraerd, A.H., Van Impe, J.F., Debevere, J., Devlieghere, F., 2010. Modeling the growth/no growth boundary of Z. bailii in acidic conditions: A contribution to the alternative method to preserve foods without using chemical preservatives. International Journal of Food Microbiology 137, 1-12). In these broth-based models, the variables were pH, water activity and acetic acid, with acetic acid concentration expressed in volume % on the total culture medium (i.e., broth). To continue the previous study, validation experiments were performed for 15 selected combinations of intrinsic factors to assess the performance of the model at 22°C (60days) in a real food product (ketchup). Although the majority of experimental results were consistent, some remarkable deviations between prediction and validation were observed, e.g., Z. bailii growth occurred in conditions where almost no growth had been predicted. A thorough investigation revealed that the difference between two ways of expressing acetic acid concentration (i.e., on broth basis and on water basis) is rather significant, particularly for media containing high amounts of dry matter. Consequently, the use of broth-based concentrations in the models was not appropriate. Three models with acetic acid concentration expressed on water basis were established and it was observed that predictions by these models well matched the validation results; therefore a "systematic error" in broth-based models was recognized. In practice, quantities of antimicrobial agents are often calculated based on the water content of food products. Hence, to assure reliable predictions and facilitate the application of models (developed from lab media with high dry matter contents), it is important to express

  15. Molecular monitoring of spoilage yeasts during the production of candied fruit nougats to determine food contamination sources.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Patricia; Fernández-Espinar, M Teresa; Querol, Amparo

    2005-06-15

    In the present work, we have analysed the yeast microbiota present in a manufacturing plant of candied fruits and nougats. Four yeasts species (Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Sporobolomyces roseus, and Debaryomyces hansenii) and a filamentous fungi (Nectria mauriiticola) were identified according to restriction analysis of 5.8S-ITS rDNA. These identifications were subsequently confirmed by sequencing the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. Z. rouxii and Z. bailii were isolated at high frequency along the whole manufacturing process. Since food alteration by Z. bailii and Z. rouxii is the cause of important economic losses for the food industry, there is a need for differentiating yeasts at the strain level as an essential part of quality control programs in this industry. For this purpose, we have tested the performance of three molecular techniques (RFLP mtDNA, RAPD-PCR, and microsatellite with (GAC)5 and (GTG)5 primers) to differentiate strains belonging to these two Zygosaccharomyces species. Those techniques with the best discriminatory power were applied to differentiate Zygosaccharomyces species isolates. The results of this analysis indicate that one strain of Z. bailii and two strains of Z. rouxii were involved in the spoilage of candied fruits. Moreover, the Z. bailii strain was also present in the spoiled nougat, hence being responsible of this alteration.

  16. Early detection of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii--spawned spoilage in apple juice by electronic nose combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huxuan; Hu, Zhongqiu; Long, Fangyu; Guo, Chunfeng; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2016-01-18

    Spoilage spawned by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii can cause sensory defect in apple juice, which could hardly be perceived in the early stage and therefore would lead to the serious economic loss. Thus, it is essential to detect the contamination in early stage to avoid costly waste of products or recalls. In this work the performance of an electronic nose (e-nose) coupled with chemometric analysis was evaluated for diagnosis of the contamination in apple juice, using test panel evaluation as reference. The feasibility of using e-nose responses to predict the spoilage level of apple juice was also evaluated. Coupled with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), detection of the contamination was achieved after 12h, corresponding to the cell concentration of less than 2.0 log 10 CFU/mL, the level at which the test panelists could not yet identify the contamination, indicating that the signals of e-nose could be utilized as early indicators for the onset of contamination. Loading analysis indicated that sensors 2, 6, 7 and 8 were the most important in the detection of Z. rouxii-contaminated apple juice. Moreover, Z. rouxii counts in unknown samples could be well predicted by the established models using partial least squares (PLS) algorithm with high correlation coefficient (R) of 0.98 (Z. rouxii strain ATCC 2623 and ATCC 8383) and 0.97 (Z. rouxii strain B-WHX-12-53). Based on these results, e-nose appears to be promising for rapid analysis of the odor in apple juice during processing or on the shelf to realize the early detection of potential contamination caused by Z. rouxii strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of pH and sugar concentration in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii growth and time for spoilage in concentrated grape juice at isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Rojo, M C; Arroyo López, F N; Lerena, M C; Mercado, L; Torres, A; Combina, M

    2014-04-01

    The effect of pH (1.7-3.2) and sugar concentration (64-68 °Brix) on the growth of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii MC9 using response surface methodology was studied. Experiments were carried out in concentrated grape juice inoculated with Z. rouxii at isothermal conditions (23 °C) for 60 days. pH was the variable with the highest effect on growth parameters (potential maximum growth rate and lag phase duration), although the effect of sugar concentration were also significant. In a second experiment, the time for spoilage by this microorganism in concentrated grape juice was evaluated at isothermal (23 °C) and non-isothermal conditions, in an effort to reproduce standard storage and overseas shipping temperature conditions, respectively. Results show that pH was again the environmental factor with the highest impact on delaying the spoilage of the product. Thereby, a pH value below 2.0 was enough to increase the shelf life of the product for more than 60 days in both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The information obtained in the present work could be used by producers and buyers to predict the growth and time for spoilage of Z. rouxii in concentrated grape juice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The occurrence of spoilage yeasts in cream-filled bakery products.

    PubMed

    Osimani, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Taccari, Manuela; Cardinali, Federica; Pasquini, Marina; Aquilanti, Lucia; Clementi, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    Filling creams can provide an adequate substrate for spoilage yeasts because some yeasts can tolerate the high osmotic stress in these products. To discover the source of spoilage of a cream-filled baked product, end products, raw materials, indoor air and work surfaces were subjected to microbiological and molecular analyses. The efficacy of disinfectants against spoilage yeasts was also assessed. The analyses on end products revealed the presence of the closest relatives to Zygosaccharomyces bailii with counts ranging from 1.40 to 4.72 log cfu g -1 . No spoilage yeasts were found in the indoor air and work surfaces. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, carried out directly on filling creams collected from unopened cans, showed the presence of bands ascribed to the closest relatives to Z. bailii sensu lato, although with counts < 1 log cfu g -1 . Susceptibility testing of yeast isolates to disinfectants showed a significantly lower effect of 10% alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride. Different responses of isolates to the tested disinfectants were seen. To guarantee the quality of end products, reliable and sensitive methods must be used. Moreover, hygiene and the application of good manufacturing practices represent the most efficient way for the prevention and minimization of cross-contamination. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effect of Ethanol, Sulfur Dioxide and Glucose on the Growth of Wine Spoilage Yeasts Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Mahesh; Oro, Inês; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effect of three factors, sulfur dioxide, ethanol and glucose, on the growth of wine spoilage yeast species, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Seventeen central composite rotatable design (CCRD) trials were designed for each test yeast using realistic concentrations of the factors (variables) in premium red wine. Polynomial regression equations were fitted to experimental data points, and the growth inhibitory conditions of these three variables were determined. The overall results showed Sa. ludwigii as the most resistant species growing under high ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations, i.e., 15% (v/v)/20 mg L-1, 14% (v/v)/32 mg L-1 and 12.5% (v/v)/40 mg L-1, whereas other yeasts did not survive under the same levels of ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations. The inhibitory effect of ethanol was primarily observed during longer incubation periods, compared with sulfur dioxide, which showed an immediate effect. In some CCRD trials, Sa. ludwigii and S. cerevisiae showed growth recovery after a short death period under the exposure of 20–32 mg L-1 sulfur dioxide in the presence of 11% (v/v) or more ethanol. However, Sc. pombe and Z. bailii did not show such growth recovery under similar conditions. Up to 10 g L-1 of glucose did not prevent cell death under the sulfur dioxide or ethanol stress. This observation demonstrates that the sugar levels commonly used in wine to sweeten the mouthfeel do not increase wine susceptibility to spoilage yeasts, contrary to the anecdotal evidence. PMID:26107389

  20. Evaluation of fingerprinting techniques to assess genotype variation among Zygosaccharomyces strains.

    PubMed

    Dakal, Tikam Chand; Solieri, Lisa; Giudici, Paolo

    2018-06-01

    Molecular typing techniques are key tools in surveillance of food spoilage yeasts, in investigations on intra-species population diversity, and in tracing selected starters during fermentation. Unlike previous works on strain typing of Zygosaccharomyces spoilage species, here Zygosaccharomyces mellis and the Zygosaccharoymces rouxii complex yeasts, which include Z. rouxii, Zygosaccharomyces sapae, and a mosaic lineage (ML) of putatively hybrids, were evaluated by three typing methods for intra- and inter-species resolution. Overall these yeasts are relevant for food fermentation and spoilage, but are quite difficult to discriminate at strain and species level as they evolved by reticulation. A pool of 76 strains from different sources were typed by M13 and (GTG) 5 MSP-PCR fingerprinting and PCR-RFLP of ribosomal intergenic spacer region (IGS). We demonstrated that M13 overcame (GTG) 5 fingerprinting to group Z. sapae, Z. rouxii, Z. mellis and the ML isolates in congruent distinct clusters. Even if (GTG) 5 primer yielded a number of DNA fingerprints comparable with those obtained by M13 primer, it failed to discriminate Z. sapae, Z. mellis and Z. rouxii at species level. Clustering of IGS RFLP patterns obtained with three endonucleases produced groups congruent with species assignment and highlighted intra-species diversity similar to that observed by M13 fingerprinting. However, IGS PCR amplification failed for 14 ML and 6 Z. mellis strains under the experimental conditions tested here, indicating that this marker could be less easy to use in fast typing protocol. Finally, our results posit that the genetic diversity within Z. sapae and Z. mellis could be shaped by isolation source. The information generated in this study would facilitate the monitoring of these yeasts during food processing and storage, and provides preliminary evidences about Z. sapae and Z. mellis intra-species diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Incidence of osmophilic yeasts and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii during the production of concentrate grape juices.

    PubMed

    Rojo, M C; Torres Palazzolo, C; Cuello, R; González, M; Guevara, F; Ponsone, M L; Mercado, L A; Martínez, C; Combina, M

    2017-06-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is the main spoilage yeast of grape juice concentrates. Detection and identification of Z. rouxii during the production of grape juice concentrate is critical to prevent spoilage in the final product. In this work, three grape juice concentrate processing plants were assessed by identifying osmophilic yeasts in juices and surfaces during different stages of a complete production line. Subsequently, molecular typing of Z. rouxii isolates was done to determine the strain distribution of this spoilage yeast. Osmotolerant yeast species, other than Z. rouxii, were mainly recovered from processing plant environments. Z. rouxii was only isolated from surface samples with grape juice remains. Z. rouxii was largely isolated from grape juice samples with some degree of concentration. Storage of grape juice pre-concentrate and concentrate allowed an increase in the Z. rouxii population. A widely distributed dominant molecular Z. rouxii pattern was found in samples from all three processing plants, suggesting resident microbes inside the plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Differentiation of four Aspergillus species and one Zygosaccharomyces with two electronic tongues based on different measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Söderström, C; Rudnitskaya, A; Legin, A; Krantz-Rülcker, C

    2005-09-29

    Two electronic tongues based on different measurement techniques were applied to the discrimination of four molds and one yeast. Chosen microorganisms were different species of Aspergillus and yeast specie Zygosaccharomyces bailii, which are known as food contaminants. The electronic tongue developed in Linköping University was based on voltammetry. Four working electrodes made of noble metals were used in a standard three-electrode configuration in this case. The St. Petersburg electronic tongue consisted of 27 potentiometric chemical sensors with enhanced cross-sensitivity. Sensors with chalcogenide glass and plasticized PVC membranes were used. Two sets of samples were measured using both electronic tongues. Firstly, broths were measured in which either one of the molds or the yeast grew until late logarithmic phase or border of the stationary phase. Broths inoculated by either one of molds or the yeast was measured at five different times during microorganism growth. Data were evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least square regression (PLS) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). It was found that both measurement techniques could differentiate between fungi species. Merged data from both electronic tongues improved differentiation of the samples in selected cases.

  3. Meat spoilage during distribution.

    PubMed

    Nychas, George-John E; Skandamis, Panos N; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2008-01-01

    Meat spoilage during distribution can be considered as an ecological phenomenon that encompasses the changes of the available substrata (e.g., low molecular compounds), during the prevailing of a particular microbial association, the so-called specific spoilage organisms (SSO). In fact, spoilage of meat depends on an even smaller fraction of SSO, called ephemeral spoilage organisms (ESO). These ESO are the consequence of factors that dynamically persist or imposed during, e.g., processing, transportation and storage in the market. Meanwhile spoilage is a subjective judgment by the consumer, which may be influenced by cultural and economic considerations and background as well as by the sensory acuity of the individual and the intensity of the change. Indeed, when spoilage progresses, most consumers would agree that gross discoloration, strong off-odors, and the development of slime would constitute the main qualitative criteria for meat rejection. On the other hand, meat industry needs rapid analytical methods or tools for quantification of these indicators to determine the type of processing needed for their raw material and to predict remaining shelf life of their products. The need of an objective evaluation of meat spoilage is of great importance. The use of metabolomics as a potential tool for the evaluation of meat spoilage can be of great importance. The microbial association of meat should be monitored in parallel with the estimation of changes occurring in the production and/or assimilation of certain compounds would allow us to evaluate spoilage found or produced during the storage of meat under different temperatures as well as packaging conditions.

  4. Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis, a new ascosporogenous yeast from 'Kombucha tea'.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, C P; Robnett, C J; Basehoar-Powers, E

    2001-07-01

    A new ascosporogenous yeast, Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis sp. n. (type strain NRRL YB-4811, CBS 8849), is described; it was isolated from Kombucha tea, a popular fermented tea-based beverage. The four known strains of the new species have identical nucleotide sequences in domain D1/D2 of 26S rDNA. Phylogenetic analysis of D1/D2 and 18S rDNA sequences places Z. kombuchaensis near Zygosaccharomyces lentus. The two species are indistinguishable on standard physiological tests used for yeast identification, but can be recognized from differences in restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns obtained by digestion of 18S-ITS1 amplicons with the restriction enzymes DdeI and MboI.

  5. Effects of dielectric barrier discharge plasma on the inactivation of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and quality of apple juice.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qisen; Liu, Xiufang; Li, Junguang; Liu, Shengnan; Zhang, Hua; Bai, Yanhong

    2018-07-15

    This work aimed to evaluate the effects of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma on inactivation of spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (Z. rouxii), in apple juice. Results showed that DBD plasma treatment at 90 W for 140 s resulted in about 5-log reduction of Z. rouxii in apple juice. The levels of extracellular nucleic acids and proteins as well as contents of H 2 O 2 and NO 2 - in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) medium increased significantly after DBD plasma treatment at 90 W for 40-200 s. The increases in membrane permeability and generation of reactive species would likely contribute to DBD plasma-mediated inactivation of Z. rouxii. DBD plasma caused significant changes in pH, titratable acidity, and certain color parameters of apple juice, but had no effect on the contents of total soluble solids, reducing sugar, and total phenolics. This study provides key implications for the application of DBD plasma in fruit juice processing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  7. Inactivation of food spoilage microorganisms by hydrodynamic cavitation to achieve pasteurization and sterilization of fluid foods.

    PubMed

    Milly, P J; Toledo, R T; Harrison, M A; Armstead, D

    2007-11-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation is the formation of gas bubbles in a fluid due to pressure fluctuations induced by mechanical means. Various high-acid (pH < [corrected]/= 4.6) fluid foods were processed in a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor to determine if commercial sterility can be achieved at reduced processing temperatures. Sporicidal properties of the process were also tested on a low-acid (pH > [corrected] 4.6) fluid food. Fluid foods were pumped under pressure into a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor and subjected to 2 rotor speeds and flow rates to achieve 2 designated exit temperatures. Thermal inactivation kinetics were used to determine heat-induced lethality for all organisms. Calcium-fortified apple juice processed at 3000 and 3600 rpm rotor speeds on the reactor went through a transient temperature change from 20 to 65.6 or 76.7 degrees C and the total process lethality exceeded 5-log reduction of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sakei cells, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii cells and ascospores. Tomato juice inoculated with Bacillus coagulans spores and processed at 3000 and 3600 rpm rotor speeds endured a transient temperature from 37.8 to 93.3 or 104.4 degrees C with viable CFU reductions of 0.88 and 3.10 log cycles, respectively. Skim milk inoculated with Clostridium sporogenes putrefactive anaerobe 3679 spores and processed at 3000 or 3600 rpm rotor speeds endured a transient temperature from 48.9 to 104.4 or 115.6 degrees C with CFU reductions of 0.69 and 2.84 log cycles, respectively. Utilizing hydrodynamic cavitation to obtain minimally processed pasteurized low-acid and commercially sterilized high-acid fluid foods is possible with appropriate process considerations for different products.

  8. Fungal Spoilage in Food Processing.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Abigail B; Worobo, Randy W

    2018-06-01

    Food processing, packaging, and formulation strategies are often specifically designed to inhibit or control microbial growth to prevent spoilage. Some of the most restrictive strategies rely solely or on combinations of pH reduction, preservatives, water activity limitation, control of oxygen tension, thermal processing, and hermetic packaging. In concert, these strategies are used to inactivate potential spoilage microorganisms or inhibit their growth. However, for select microbes that can overcome these controls, the lack of competition from additional background microbiota helps facilitate their propagation.

  9. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  10. Interactions between Zygosaccharomyces mellis and Wallemia sebi in diluted molasses.

    PubMed

    Vindeløv, J; Arneborg, N

    2001-01-22

    The yeast Zygosaccharomyces mellis and the mould Wallemia sebi were isolated from the same sample of crystalline sugar. Interactions between these fungi were investigated using a diluted molasses medium (water activity 0.89, pH 6.0) as a model system for the syrup film covering the surface of moist crystalline sugar. Single and mixed cultures of Z. mellis and W. sebi were incubated at 25 degrees C for 400 h. Our results show that the growth of Z. mellis in single culture was limited by available glucose and fructose, and that W sebi was able to invert sucrose to glucose and fructose in both single and mixed culture. Furthermore, the presence of W. sebi in the mixed culture increased the maximum specific growth rate of Z. mellis from 0.074 to 0.19 h(-1) and the growth yield of Z. mellis from 7.3 x 10(6) to 5.4 x 10(7) cfu/ml. These results indicate that the ability of W. sebi to invert sucrose may stimulate the growth of Z. mellis. Finally, the presence of Z. mellis inhibited the ability of W. sebi to invert sucrose: W. sebi was able to invert 1.0 g sucrose/l per h in single culture but only 0.6 g sucrose/l per h in mixed culture. As predicted by Raoults law, this corresponded to a reduction in the water activity of the growth medium from 0.890 to 0.850 in single culture, and to 0.865 in mixed culture.

  11. Microbiological Spoilage of Dairy Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledenbach, Loralyn H.; Marshall, Robert T.

    The wide array of available dairy foods challenges the microbiologist, engineer, and technologist to find the best ways to prevent the entry of microorganisms, destroy those that do get in along with their enzymes, and prevent the growth and activities of those that escape processing treatments. Troublesome spoilage microorganisms include aerobic psychrotrophic Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, molds, heterofermentative lactobacilli, and spore-forming bacteria. Psychrotrophic bacteria can produce large amounts of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, and the extent of recontamination of pasteurized fluid milk products with these bacteria is a major determinant of their shelf life. Fungal spoilage of dairy foods is manifested by the presence of a wide variety of metabolic by-products, causing off-odors and flavors, in addition to visible changes in color or texture.

  12. Zygosaccharomyces favi sp. nov., an obligate osmophilic yeast species from bee bread and honey.

    PubMed

    Čadež, Neža; Fülöp, László; Dlauchy, Dénes; Péter, Gábor

    2015-03-01

    Five yeast strains representing a hitherto undescribed yeast species were isolated from bee bread and honey in Hungary. They are obligate osmophilic, i.e. they are unable to grow in/on high water activity culture media. Following isogamous conjugation, they form 1-4 spheroid or subspheroid ascospores in persistent asci. The analysis of the sequences of their large subunit rRNA gene D1/D2 domain placed the new species in the Zygosaccharomyces clade. In terms of pairwise sequence similarity, Zygosaccharomyces gambellarensis is the most closely related species. Comparisons of D1/D2, internal transcribed spacer and translation elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) gene sequences of the five strains with that of the type strain of Z. gambellarensis revealed that they represent a new yeast species. The name Zygosaccharomyces favi sp. nov. (type strain: NCAIM Y.01994(T) = CBS 13653(T) = NRRL Y-63719(T) = ZIM 2551(T)) is proposed for this new yeast species, which based on phenotype can be distinguished from related Zygosaccharomyces species by its obligate osmophilic nature. Some intragenomic sequence variability, mainly indels, was detected among the ITS copies of the strains of the new species.

  13. Solving Microbial Spoilage Problems in Processed Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavero, Rocelle

    This chapter surveys common microbial food spoilage processes. The chapter is organized by food products and includes sections addressing spoilage in meat, poultry, fish; dairy products (milk, butter, cheese); beverage products; bakery products; canned foods; fruit and confectionery products; and emulsions. It addresses the isolation and identification of spoilage organisms and provides several case studies as examples. It introduces various organisms responsible for spoilage including Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria, Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, yeasts, molds, and fungal contaminants. Throughout the chapter, attention is given to when, where, and how spoilage organisms enter the food processing chain. Troubleshooting techniques are suggested. The effect (or lack of effect) of heating, dehydration, pH change, cooling, and sealing on various organisms is explained throughout. The chapter contains four tables that connect specific organisms to various spoilage manifestations in a variety of food products.

  14. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products.

    PubMed

    Gram, L; Huss, H H

    1996-11-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram-positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish is well understood, much less is known about spoilage of lightly preserved fish products. It is concluded that the spoilage is probably caused by lactic acid bacteria, certain psychotrophic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Photobacterium phosphoreum. However, more work is needed in this area.

  15. Microbiological Spoilage of Canned Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evancho, George M.; Tortorelli, Suzanne; Scott, Virginia N.

    Nicolas Appert (1749-1841) developed the first commercial process that kept foods from spoiling in response to an offer from the French government for a method of preserving food for use by the army and navy. Appert, a confectioner and chef, began to experiment in his workshop in Massy, near Paris, but since little was known about bacteriology and the causes of spoilage (Louis Pasteur had yet to formulate the germ theory), much of his work involved trial and error. In 1810, after years of experimenting, he was awarded the prize of 12,000 francs for his method of preservation, which involved cooking foods in sealed jars at high temperatures. He described his method of preserving food in a book published in 1811, "L'Art De Conserver, Pendant Plusiers Annes, Toutes les Substances Animales et Végétales," which translated means "The Art of Preserving All Kinds of Animal and Vegetable Substances for Several Years." He later built a bottling factory and began to produce preserved foods for the people of France and is credited with being the "Father of Canning."

  16. Undergraduate Laboratory Exercises Specific to Food Spoilage Microbiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Abigail B.; Worobo, Randy W.; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Food spoilage has an enormous economic impact, and microbial food spoilage plays a significant role in food waste and loss; subsequently, an equally significant portion of undergraduate food microbiology instruction should be dedicated to spoilage microbiology. Here, we describe a set of undergraduate microbiology laboratory exercises that focus…

  17. Spoilage bacteria of fresh broiler chicken carcasses.

    PubMed

    Russell, S M; Fletcher, D L; Cox, N A

    1995-12-01

    Studies were conducted to identify the bacteria responsible for spoilage of fresh broiler chicken carcasses and to characterize the off-odors these bacteria produce. Broiler carcasses were collected from processing plants in the northeast Georgia area, the southeastern U.S., Arkansas, California, and North Carolina. The carcasses were allowed to spoil under controlled conditions at 3 C and spoilage bacteria were isolated. Each spoilage bacterium was separately inoculated into a sterile chicken skin medium, incubated at 25 C for 48 h, and subjectively evaluated for odor. The bacteria isolated from spoiled carcasses that consistently produced off-odors in the chicken skin medium, regardless of the geographical location from which the chickens were obtained, were Shewanella putrefaciens A, B, and D, Pseudomonas fluorescens A, B, and D, and Pseudomonas fragi. These bacteria produced off-odors that resembled "sulfur", "dishrag", "ammonia", "wet dog", "skunk", "dirty socks", "rancid fish", "unspecified bad odor", or a sweet smell resembling "canned corn". Odors produced by the spoilage bacteria were varied; however, odors most associated with spoiled poultry, such as "dishraggy" odors, were produced by the bacteria that were most consistently isolated, such as S. putrefaciens and the pseudomonads.

  18. Bacteriology of Spoilage of Fish Muscle1

    PubMed Central

    Lerke, Peter; Adams, Ralph; Farber, Lionel

    1965-01-01

    A total of 807 bacterial isolates from fresh and spoiling fillets of English sole (Parophrys vetulus) stored at 5 C were classified as to genus and tested for various biochemical activities, including the ability to spoil sterile muscle press juice at 5 C. Production of off-odor, volatile reducing substances, and trimethylamine was used to estimate spoilage. It was found that (i) spoilers could be distinguished from nonspoilers on the basis of the juice spoilage test, (ii) differentiation between spoilers and nonspoilers could not be achieved by means of the usual biochemical tests, (iii) no micrococci, flavobacteria, and “coryneforms” were spoilers, (iv) certain specific subgroups of the genus Pseudomonas consisted exclusively of spoilers whereas others were inactive, (v) the genus Achromobacter likewise consisted of spoilers and nonspoilers, and (vi) “coliforms” could produce spoilage. It was concluded that a method is now available to determine directly and unequivocally the role played in spoilage by various bacterial groups and that it is no longer necessary to rely on indirect evidence. PMID:14339271

  19. Xanthine oxidase biosensor for monitoring meat spoilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanegas, D. C.; Gomes, C.; McLamore, E. S.

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we have designed an electrochemical biosensor for real-time detection of specific biomarkers of bacterial metabolism related to meat spoilage (hypoxanthine and xanthine). The selective biosensor was developed by assembling a `sandwich' of nanomaterials and enzymes on a platinum-iridium electrode (1.6 mm tip diameter). The materials deposited on the sensor tip include amorphous platinum nanoclusters (i.e. Pt black), reduced graphene oxide, nanoceria, and xanthine oxidase. Xanthine oxidase was encapsulated in laponite hydrogel and used for the biorecognition of hypoxanthine and xanthine (two molecules involved in the rotting of meat by spoilage microorganisms). The developed biosensor demonstrated good electrochemical performance toward xanthine with sensitivity of 2.14 +/- 1.48 μA/mM, response time of 5.2 +/- 1.5 sec, lower detection limit of 150 +/- 39 nM, and retained at least 88% of its activity after 7 days of continuous use.

  20. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  1. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kanta; Konings, Wil N

    2003-12-31

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Megasphaera cerevisiae. They can spoil beer by turbidity, acidity and the production of unfavorable smell such as diacetyl or hydrogen sulfide. For the microbiological control, many advanced biotechnological techniques such as immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been applied in place of the conventional and time-consuming method of incubation on culture media. Subsequently, a method is needed to determine whether the detected bacterium is capable of growing in beer or not. In lactic acid bacteria, hop resistance is crucial for their ability to grow in beer. Hop compounds, mainly iso-alpha-acids in beer, have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. They act as ionophores which dissipate the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane and reduce the proton motive force (pmf). Consequently, the pmf-dependent nutrient uptake is hampered, resulting in cell death. The hop-resistance mechanisms in lactic acid bacteria have been investigated. HorA was found to excrete hop compounds in an ATP-dependent manner from the cell membrane to outer medium. Additionally, increased proton pumping by the membrane bound H(+)-ATPase contributes to hop resistance. To energize such ATP-dependent transporters hop-resistant cells contain larger ATP pools than hop-sensitive cells. Furthermore, a pmf-dependent hop transporter was recently presented. Understanding the hop-resistance mechanisms has enabled the development of rapid methods to discriminate beer spoilage strains from nonspoilers. The horA-PCR method has been applied for bacterial control in breweries. Also, a discrimination method was developed based on ATP pool measurement in lactobacillus cells. However

  2. Growth dynamics of specific spoilage organisms and associated spoilage biomarkers in chicken breast stored aerobically

    This study was performed to identify and quantify selected volatile spoilage biomarkers in a headspace over chicken breast using solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detectors (GC-MS/FID). The chicken breast samples were aerobically s...

  3. Preventing spoilage of poultry meat: focus on spoilage microorganisms and their control

    The shelf-life of fresh poultry meat is determined by the level of contamination of processed meat by spoilage microorganisms, storage temperature and storage atmosphere. This chapter looks at the various ways by which to extend the shelf-life of poultry meat: vacuum and modified atmosphere packagin...

  4. Transcriptional Response to Lactic Acid Stress in the Hybrid Yeast Zygosaccharomyces parabailii

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lactic acid has a wide range of applications starting from its undissociated form, and its production using cell factories requires stress-tolerant microbial hosts. The interspecies hybrid yeast Zygosaccharomyces parabailii has great potential to be exploited as a novel host for lactic acid production, due to high organic acid tolerance at low pH and a fermentative metabolism with a high growth rate. Here we used mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to analyze Z. parabailii's transcriptional response to lactic acid added exogenously, and we explore the biological mechanisms involved in tolerance. Z. parabailii contains two homeologous copies of most genes. Under lactic acid stress, the two genes in each homeolog pair tend to diverge in expression to a significantly greater extent than under control conditions, indicating that stress tolerance is facilitated by interactions between the two gene sets in the hybrid. Lactic acid induces downregulation of genes related to cell wall and plasma membrane functions, possibly altering the rate of diffusion of lactic acid into cells. Genes related to iron transport and redox processes were upregulated, suggesting an important role for respiratory functions and oxidative stress defense. We found differences in the expression profiles of genes putatively regulated by Haa1 and Aft1/Aft2, previously described as lactic acid responsive in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, formate dehydrogenase (FDH) genes form a lactic acid-responsive gene family that has been specifically amplified in Z. parabailii in comparison to other closely related species. Our study provides a useful starting point for the engineering of Z. parabailii as a host for lactic acid production. IMPORTANCE Hybrid yeasts are important in biotechnology because of their tolerance to harsh industrial conditions. The molecular mechanisms of tolerance can be studied by analyzing differential gene expression under conditions of interest and relating gene expression

  5. Transcriptional Response to Lactic Acid Stress in the Hybrid Yeast Zygosaccharomyces parabailii.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Merino, Raúl A; Kuanyshev, Nurzhan; Byrne, Kevin P; Varela, Javier A; Morrissey, John P; Porro, Danilo; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Branduardi, Paola

    2018-03-01

    Lactic acid has a wide range of applications starting from its undissociated form, and its production using cell factories requires stress-tolerant microbial hosts. The interspecies hybrid yeast Zygosaccharomyces parabailii has great potential to be exploited as a novel host for lactic acid production, due to high organic acid tolerance at low pH and a fermentative metabolism with a high growth rate. Here we used mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to analyze Z. parabailii 's transcriptional response to lactic acid added exogenously, and we explore the biological mechanisms involved in tolerance. Z. parabailii contains two homeologous copies of most genes. Under lactic acid stress, the two genes in each homeolog pair tend to diverge in expression to a significantly greater extent than under control conditions, indicating that stress tolerance is facilitated by interactions between the two gene sets in the hybrid. Lactic acid induces downregulation of genes related to cell wall and plasma membrane functions, possibly altering the rate of diffusion of lactic acid into cells. Genes related to iron transport and redox processes were upregulated, suggesting an important role for respiratory functions and oxidative stress defense. We found differences in the expression profiles of genes putatively regulated by Haa1 and Aft1/Aft2, previously described as lactic acid responsive in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Furthermore, formate dehydrogenase ( FDH ) genes form a lactic acid-responsive gene family that has been specifically amplified in Z. parabailii in comparison to other closely related species. Our study provides a useful starting point for the engineering of Z. parabailii as a host for lactic acid production. IMPORTANCE Hybrid yeasts are important in biotechnology because of their tolerance to harsh industrial conditions. The molecular mechanisms of tolerance can be studied by analyzing differential gene expression under conditions of interest and relating gene expression patterns

  6. Contrasting Patterns of rDNA Homogenization within the Zygosaccharomyces rouxii Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Chand Dakal, Tikam; Giudici, Paolo; Solieri, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Arrays of repetitive ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences are generally expected to evolve as a coherent family, where repeats within such a family are more similar to each other than to orthologs in related species. The continuous homogenization of repeats within individual genomes is a recombination process termed concerted evolution. Here, we investigated the extent and the direction of concerted evolution in 43 yeast strains of the Zygosaccharomyces rouxii species complex (Z. rouxii, Z. sapae, Z. mellis), by analyzing two portions of the 35S rDNA cistron, namely the D1/D2 domains at the 5’ end of the 26S rRNA gene and the segment including the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 2 (ITS regions). We demonstrate that intra-genomic rDNA sequence variation is unusually frequent in this clade and that rDNA arrays in single genomes consist of an intermixing of Z. rouxii, Z. sapae and Z. mellis-like sequences, putatively evolved by reticulate evolutionary events that involved repeated hybridization between lineages. The levels and distribution of sequence polymorphisms vary across rDNA repeats in different individuals, reflecting four patterns of rDNA evolution: I) rDNA repeats that are homogeneous within a genome but are chimeras derived from two parental lineages via recombination: Z. rouxii in the ITS region and Z. sapae in the D1/D2 region; II) intra-genomic rDNA repeats that retain polymorphisms only in ITS regions; III) rDNA repeats that vary only in their D1/D2 domains; IV) heterogeneous rDNA arrays that have both polymorphic ITS and D1/D2 regions. We argue that an ongoing process of homogenization following allodiplodization or incomplete lineage sorting gave rise to divergent evolutionary trajectories in different strains, depending upon temporal, structural and functional constraints. We discuss the consequences of these findings for Zygosaccharomyces species delineation and, more in general, for yeast barcoding. PMID:27501051

  7. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B₁ by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guanghui; Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Ma, Yunxiao; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-20

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste-one kind of traditional Chinese food-to detoxify aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii , and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii ) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB₁ through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB₁ in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB₁. Additionally, m / s statistics demonstrated that AFB₁ may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB₁, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB₁.

  8. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guanghui; Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Ma, Yunxiao; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste—one kind of traditional Chinese food—to detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii, and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB1 through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB1 in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB1. Additionally, m/s statistics demonstrated that AFB1 may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB1, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB1. PMID:28117705

  9. Outlining a future for non-Saccharomyces yeasts: selection of putative spoilage wine strains to be used in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for grape juice fermentation.

    PubMed

    Domizio, Paola; Romani, Cristina; Lencioni, Livio; Comitini, Francesca; Gobbi, Mirko; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Ciani, Maurizio

    2011-06-30

    The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts that are generally considered as spoilage yeasts, in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for grape must fermentation was here evaluated. Analysis of the main oenological characteristics of pure cultures of 55 yeasts belonging to the genera Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Saccharomycodes and Zygosaccharomyces revealed wide biodiversity within each genus. Moreover, many of these non-Saccharomyces strains had interesting oenological properties in terms of fermentation purity, and ethanol and secondary metabolite production. The use of four non-Saccharomyces yeasts (one per genus) in mixed cultures with a commercial S. cerevisiae strain at different S. cerevisiae/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratios was investigated. This revealed that most of the compounds normally produced at high concentrations by pure cultures of non-Saccharomyces, and which are considered detrimental to wine quality, do not reach threshold taste levels in these mixed fermentations. On the other hand, the analytical profiles of the wines produced by these mixed cultures indicated that depending on the yeast species and the S. cerevisiae/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratio, these non-Saccharomyces yeasts can be used to increase production of polysaccharides and to modulate the final concentrations of acetic acid and volatile compounds, such as ethyl acetate, phenyl-ethyl acetate, 2-phenyl ethanol, and 2-methyl 1-butanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbiological Spoilage of Spices, Nuts, Cocoa, and Coffee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkas, Joan M.; Battista, Karen; Morille-Hinds, Theodora

    Spices, nuts, cocoa, and coffee are raw materials that may be used alone or as ingredients in the manufacture of processed food products. The control of microbiological spoilage of these raw materials at the ingredient stage will enable the food processor to better assure the production of high-quality foods with an acceptable shelf life. While this chapter is limited to four materials, many of the spoilage control procedures recommended can also be applied to other raw materials of a similar nature.

  11. Characterization of the bacterial spoilage flora in marinated pork products.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, B C; Heir, E; Langsrud, S

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the microbiota in marinated, vacuum-packed pork and to characterize isolated bacteria with regard to their spoilage potential. Laboratory marinated pork meat and commercial products from three Norwegian producers were examined. Lactic acid bacteria dominated in all products at the expiration date. The flora in marinated products was similar only for products from the same plant. Strains of Lactobacillus algidus, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, Carnobacterium divergens, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Leuconostoc carnosum and Leuconostoc sp. were isolated and tested for their spoilage potential. Samples inoculated with Lact. algidus or Leuc. mesenteroides were rated as most unpleasant by randomly selected people. A sensory panel scored samples with Lact. algidus highest for sour and intense odour. Lactobacillus algidus was found in products from two out of three production plants. Culture-independent DNA isolation confirmed that cultivation on Blood agar at 20 degrees C yielded a representative picture of the total flora in marinated flintsteak. Lactobacillus algidus may be an important, but underestimated, spoilage organism that needs to be focused on more when spoilage of vacuum-packed meat is considered. Routine microbial testing may have to be revised in order to detect spoilage LAB that are unable to grow under currently used conditions.

  12. Antibody biosensors for spoilage yeast detection based on impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tubía, I; Paredes, J; Pérez-Lorenzo, E; Arana, S

    2018-04-15

    Brettanomyces is a yeast species responsible for wine and cider spoilage, producing volatile phenols that result in off-odors and loss of fruity sensorial qualities. Current commercial detection methods for these spoilage species are liable to frequent false positives, long culture times and fungal contamination. In this work, an interdigitated (IDE) biosensor was created to detect Brettanomyces using immunological reactions and impedance spectroscopy analysis. To promote efficient antibody immobilization on the electrodes' surface and to decrease non-specific adsorption, a Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) was developed. An impedance spectroscopy analysis, over four yeast strains, confirmed our device's increased efficacy. Compared to label-free sensors, antibody biosensors showed a higher relative impedance. The results also suggested that these biosensors could be a promising method to monitor some spoilage yeasts, offering an efficient alternative to the laborious and expensive traditional methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid measurement of meat spoilage using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Binlin; Dahlberg, Kevin; Gao, Xin; Smith, Jason; Bailin, Jacob

    2017-02-01

    Food spoilage is mainly caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria. In this study, we measure the autofluorescence in meat samples longitudinally over a week in an attempt to develop a method to rapidly detect meat spoilage using fluorescence spectroscopy. Meat food is a biological tissue, which contains intrinsic fluorophores, such as tryptophan, collagen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) etc. As meat spoils, it undergoes various morphological and chemical changes. The concentrations of the native fluorophores present in a sample may change. In particular, the changes in NADH and FAD are associated with microbial metabolism, which is the most important process of the bacteria in food spoilage. Such changes may be revealed by fluorescence spectroscopy and used to indicate the status of meat spoilage. Therefore, such native fluorophores may be unique, reliable and nonsubjective indicators for detection of spoiled meat. The results of the study show that the relative concentrations of all above fluorophores change as the meat samples kept in room temperature ( 19° C) spoil. The changes become more rapidly after about two days. For the meat samples kept in a freezer ( -12° C), the changes are much less or even unnoticeable over a-week-long storage.

  14. Controlling Blown Pack Spoilage Using Anti-Microbial Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Rachael; Tyuftin, Andrey A.; Kerry, Joe P.; Whyte, Paul; Bolton, Declan

    2017-01-01

    Active (anti-microbial) packaging was prepared using three different formulations; Auranta FV; Inbac-MDA and sodium octanoate at two concentrations (2.5 and 3.5 times their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, the lowest concentration that will inhibit the visible growth of the organisms) against Clostridium estertheticum, DSMZ 8809). Inoculated beef samples were packaged using the active packaging and monitored for 100 days storage at 2 °C for blown pack spoilage. The time to the onset of blown pack spoilage was significantly (p < 0.01) increased using Auranta FV and sodium octanoate (caprylic acid sodium salt) at both concentrations. Moreover, sodium octanoate packs had significantly (p < 0.01) delayed blown pack spoilage as compared to Auranta FV. It was therefore concluded that Auranta FV or sodium octanoate, incorporated into the packaging materials used for vacuum packaged beef, would inhibit blown pack spoilage and in the case of the latter, well beyond the 42 days storage period currently required for beef primals. PMID:28805679

  15. Controlling Blown Pack Spoilage Using Anti-Microbial Packaging.

    PubMed

    Reid, Rachael; Bolton, Declan; Tiuftin, Andrey A; Kerry, Joe P; Fanning, Séamus; Whyte, Paul

    2017-08-12

    Active (anti-microbial) packaging was prepared using three different formulations; Auranta FV; Inbac-MDA and sodium octanoate at two concentrations (2.5 and 3.5 times their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, the lowest concentration that will inhibit the visible growth of the organisms) against Clostridium estertheticum , DSMZ 8809). Inoculated beef samples were packaged using the active packaging and monitored for 100 days storage at 2 °C for blown pack spoilage. The time to the onset of blown pack spoilage was significantly ( p < 0.01) increased using Auranta FV and sodium octanoate (caprylic acid sodium salt) at both concentrations. Moreover, sodium octanoate packs had significantly ( p < 0.01) delayed blown pack spoilage as compared to Auranta FV. It was therefore concluded that Auranta FV or sodium octanoate, incorporated into the packaging materials used for vacuum packaged beef, would inhibit blown pack spoilage and in the case of the latter, well beyond the 42 days storage period currently required for beef primals.

  16. Metabolic strategies of beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria in beer.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; von Kamp, Kristina; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-04

    Beer contains only limited amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrates and amino acids. Beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have to come up with metabolic strategies in order to deal with selective nutrient content, high energy demand of hop tolerance mechanisms and a low pH. The metabolism of 26 LAB strains of 6 species and varying spoilage potentialwas investigated in order to define and compare their metabolic capabilities using multivariate statistics and outline possible metabolic strategies. Metabolic capabilities of beer spoilage LAB regarding carbohydrate and amino acids did not correlate with spoilage potential, but with fermentation type (heterofermentative/homofermentative) and species. A shift to mixed acid fermentation by homofermentative (hof) Pediococcus claussenii and Lactobacillus backii was observed as a specific feature of their growth in beer. For heterofermentative (hef) LAB a mostly versatile carbohydrate metabolism could be demonstrated, supplementing the known relevance of organic acids for their growth in beer. For hef LAB a distinct amino acid metabolism, resulting in biogenic amine production, was observed, presumably contributing to energy supply and pH homeostasis.

  17. Characteristics of spoilage-associated secondary cucumber fermentation

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological util...

  18. Spoilage of chicken skin at 2 degrees C: electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C J; McMeekin, T A

    1981-01-01

    Microscopic techniques were used in conjunction with normal microbiological procedures to examine the development of the spoilage microflora on the skin of chicken carcasses held at 2 degrees C. Pigmented and nonpigmented psychrotrophic pseudomonads were the major spoilage bacteria isolated at all stages of storage examined. The spoilage microflora grow within a liquid film covering the skin surface, as well as in feather follicle shafts. Penetration and disruption of skin tissue were not observed even after onset of organoleptic spoilage. Bacteria were not attached to the skin by extracellular bridging substances. These data suggest a nonspecific histological-microbiological relationship between he spoilage association and the skin substrate. Images PMID:7195190

  19. Characterization of Osmotolerant Yeasts and Yeast-Like Molds from Apple Orchards and Apple Juice Processing Plants in China and Investigation of Their Spoilage Potential.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huxuan; Hu, Zhongqiu; Long, Fangyu; Niu, Chen; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2015-08-01

    Yeasts and yeast-like fungal isolates were recovered from apple orchards and apple juice processing plants located in the Shaanxi province of China. The strains were evaluated for osmotolerance by growing them in 50% (w/v) glucose. Of the strains tested, 66 were positive for osmotolerance and were subsequently identified by 26S or 5.8S-ITS ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. Physiological tests and RAPD-PCR analysis were performed to reveal the polymorphism of isolates belonging to the same species. Further, the spoilage potential of the 66 isolates was determining by evaluating their growth in 50% to 70% (w/v) glucose and measuring gas generation in 50% (w/v) glucose. Thirteen osmotolerant isolates representing 9 species were obtained from 10 apple orchards and 53 target isolates representing 19 species were recovered from 2 apple juice processing plants. In total, members of 14 genera and 23 species of osmotolerant isolates including yeast-like molds were recovered from all sources. The commonly recovered osmotolerant isolates belonged to Kluyveromyces marxianus, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Candida tropicalis, and Pichia kudriavzevii. The polymorphism of isolates belonging to the same species was limited to 1 to 3 biotypes. The majority of species were capable of growing within a range of glucose concentration, similar to sugar concentrations found in apple juice products with a lag phase from 96 to 192 h. Overall, Z. rouxii was particularly the most tolerant to high glucose concentration with the shortest lag phase of 48 h in 70% (w/v) glucose and the fastest gas generation rate in 50% (w/v) glucose. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Modeling the efficacy of triplet antimicrobial combinations: yeast suppression by lauric arginate, cinnamic acid, and sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate as a case study.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yumei; Normand, Mark D; Weiss, Jochen; Peleg, Micha

    2010-03-01

    The growth of four spoilage yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, and Brettanomyces naardenensis, was inhibited with three-agent (triplet) combinations of lauric arginate, cinnamic acid, and sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate. The inhibition efficacy was determined by monitoring the optical density of yeast cultures grown in microtiter plates for 7 days. The relationship between the optical density and the sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate concentrations followed a single-term exponential decay model. The critical effective concentration was defined as the concentration at which the optical density was 0.05, which became an efficacy criterion for the mixtures. Critical concentrations of sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate as a function of the lauric arginate and cinnamic acid concentrations were then fitted with an empirical model that mapped three-agent combinations of equal efficacy. The contours of this function are presented in tabulated form and as two- and three-dimensional plots. Triplet combinations were highly effective against all four spoilage yeasts at three practical pH levels, especially at pH 3.0. The triplet combinations were particularly effective for inhibiting growth of Z. bailii, and combinations containing potassium sorbate had synergistic activities. The equal efficacy concentration model also allowed tabulation of the cost of the various combinations of agents and identification of those most economically feasible.

  1. Characterization and control of Mucor circinelloides spoilage in yogurt.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Abigail B; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2016-07-02

    Consumer confidence in the food industry is severely affected by large-scale spoilage incidents. However, relatively little research exists on spoilage potential of members of the fungal subphylum Mucormycotina (e.g. Mucor), which includes dimorphic spoilage organisms that can switch between a yeast-like and hyphal phase depending on environmental conditions. The presence of Mucor circinelloides in yogurt may not cause spoilage, but growth and subsequent changes in quality (e.g. container bloating) can cause spoilage if not controlled. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on M. circinelloides of pasteurization regimen, natamycin concentrations, and storage temperature in yogurt production, as measured by fungal proliferation and carbon dioxide production. A strain of M. circinelloides isolated from commercially spoiled yogurt showed greater yogurt-spoilage potential than clinical isolates and other industrial strains. D-values and z-values were determined for the spoilage isolate in milk as an evaluation of the fungus' ability to survive pasteurization. Natamycin was added to yogurt at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20ppm (μg/ml) to determine its ability to inhibit M. circinelloides over the course of month-long challenge studies at 4°C, 15°C, and 25°C. Survivors were recovered on acidified PDA and carbon dioxide levels were recorded. The D-values at 54°C, 56°C, and 58°C for hyphae/sporangiospores were (in min) 38.31±0.02, 10.17±0.28, and 1.94±0.53, respectively, which yielded a z-value of 3.09°C. The D-values at 51°C, 53°C, and 55°C for yeast-like cells were (in min) 14.25±0.12, 6.87±1.19, and 2.44±0.35, respectively, which yielded a z-value of 0.34°C. These results indicated that M. circinelloides would not survive fluid milk pasteurization if contamination occurred prior to thermal treatment. CO2 production was only observed when M. circinelloides was incubated under low-oxygen conditions, and occurred only at temperatures above 4

  2. Predicting and preventing mold spoilage of food products.

    PubMed

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2013-03-01

    This article is a review of how to quantify mold spoilage and consequently shelf life of a food product. Mold spoilage results from having a product contaminated with fungal spores that germinate and form a visible mycelium before the end of the shelf life. The spoilage can be then expressed as the combination of the probability of having a product contaminated and the probability of mold growth (germination and proliferation) up to a visible mycelium before the end of the shelf life. For products packed before being distributed to the retailers, the probability of having a product contaminated is a function of factors strictly linked to the factory design, process, and environment. The in-factory fungal contamination of a product might be controlled by good manufacturing hygiene practices and reduced by particular processing practices such as an adequate air-renewal system. To determine the probability of mold growth, both germination and mycelium proliferation can be mathematically described by primary models. When mold contamination on the product is scarce, the spores are spread on the product and more than a few spores are unlikely to be found at the same spot. In such a case, models applicable for a single spore should be used. Secondary models can be used to describe the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on either the germination or proliferation of molds. Several polynomial models and gamma-type models quantifying the effect of water activity and temperature on mold growth are available. To a lesser extent, the effect of pH, ethanol, heat treatment, addition of preservatives, and modified atmospheres on mold growth also have been quantified. However, mold species variability has not yet been properly addressed, and only a few secondary models have been validated for food products. Once the probability of having mold spoilage is calculated for various shelf lives and product formulations, the model can be implemented as part of a risk management

  3. Identification of beer spoilage microorganisms using the MALDI Biotyper platform.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Michelle Elizabeth; Weiland, Florian; Meneses, Jon; Sterenberg, Nick; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Beer spoilage microorganisms present a major risk for the brewing industry and can lead to cost-intensive recall of contaminated products and damage to brand reputation. The applicability of molecular profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with Biotyper software was investigated for the identification of beer spoilage microorganisms from routine brewery quality control samples. Reference mass spectrum profiles for three of the most common bacterial beer spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus lindneri, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), four commercially available brewing yeast strains (top- and bottom-fermenting) and Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis wild yeast were established, incorporated into the Biotyper reference library and validated by successful identification after inoculation into beer. Each bacterial species could be accurately identified and distinguished from one another and from over 5600 other microorganisms present in the Biotyper database. In addition, wild yeast contaminations were rapidly detected and distinguished from top- and bottom-fermenting brewing strains. The applicability and integration of mass spectrometry profiling using the Biotyper platform into existing brewery quality assurance practices within industry were assessed by analysing routine microbiology control samples from a local brewery, where contaminating microorganisms could be reliably identified. Brewery-isolated microorganisms not present in the Biotyper database were further analysed for identification using LC-MS/MS methods. This renders the Biotyper platform a promising candidate for biological quality control testing within the brewing industry as a more rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective technology that can be tailored for the detection of brewery-specific spoilage organisms from the local environment.

  4. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels.

    PubMed

    Hao, W; Wang, H L; Ning, T T; Yang, F Y; Xu, C C

    2015-06-01

    The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML), 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML), and 500 g/kg (high moisture level, HML), and both non-fermented and 56-d-fermented TMR were subjected to air exposure to determine aerobic stability. Aerobic deterioration resulted in high losses of nutritional components and largely reduced dry matter digestibility. Non-fermented TMR deteriorated during 48 h of air exposure and the HML treatment was more aerobically unstable. On dry matter (DM) basis, yeast populations significantly increased from 10(7) to 10(10) cfu/g during air exposure, and Candida ethanolica was the predominant species during deterioration in non-fermented TMR. Fermented TMR exhibited considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Spoilage was only observed in the HML treatment and its yeast population increased dramatically to 10(9) cfu/g DM when air exposure progressed to 30 d. Zygosaccharomyces bailii was the sole yeast species isolated when spoilage occurred. These results confirmed that non-fermented and fermented TMR with a HML are more prone to spoilage, and fermented TMR has considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Yeasts can trigger aerobic deterioration in both non-fermented and fermented TMR. C. ethanolica may be involved in the spoilage of non-fermented TMR and the vigorous growth of Z. bailii can initiate aerobic deterioration in fermented TMR.

  5. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels

    PubMed Central

    Hao, W.; Wang, H. L.; Ning, T. T.; Yang, F. Y.; Xu, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML), 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML), and 500 g/kg (high moisture level, HML), and both non-fermented and 56-d-fermented TMR were subjected to air exposure to determine aerobic stability. Aerobic deterioration resulted in high losses of nutritional components and largely reduced dry matter digestibility. Non-fermented TMR deteriorated during 48 h of air exposure and the HML treatment was more aerobically unstable. On dry matter (DM) basis, yeast populations significantly increased from 107 to 1010 cfu/g during air exposure, and Candida ethanolica was the predominant species during deterioration in non-fermented TMR. Fermented TMR exhibited considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Spoilage was only observed in the HML treatment and its yeast population increased dramatically to 109 cfu/g DM when air exposure progressed to 30 d. Zygosaccharomyces bailii was the sole yeast species isolated when spoilage occurred. These results confirmed that non-fermented and fermented TMR with a HML are more prone to spoilage, and fermented TMR has considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Yeasts can trigger aerobic deterioration in both non-fermented and fermented TMR. C. ethanolica may be involved in the spoilage of non-fermented TMR and the vigorous growth of Z. bailii can initiate aerobic deterioration in fermented TMR. PMID:25925059

  6. Effect of sodium chloride and cadmium on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6% NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory effect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

  7. A hydrophobic filter confers the cation selectivity of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii plasma-membrane Na+/H+ antiporter.

    PubMed

    Kinclova-Zimmermannova, Olga; Falson, Pierre; Cmunt, Denis; Sychrova, Hana

    2015-04-24

    Na(+)/H(+) antiporters may recognize all alkali-metal cations as substrates but may transport them selectively. Plasma-membrane Zygosaccharomyces rouxii Sod2-22 antiporter exports Na(+) and Li(+), but not K(+). The molecular basis of this selectivity is unknown. We combined protein structure modeling, site-directed mutagenesis, phenotype analysis and cation efflux measurements to localize and characterize the cation selectivity region. A three-dimensional model of the ZrSod2-22 transmembrane domain was generated based on the X-ray structure of the Escherichia coli NhaA antiporter and primary sequence alignments with homologous yeast antiporters. The model suggested a close proximity of Thr141, Ala179 and Val375 from transmembrane segments 4, 5 and 11, respectively, forming a hydrophobic hole in the putative cation pathway's core. A series of mutagenesis experiments verified the model and showed that structural modifications of the hole resulted in altered cation selectivity and transport activity. The triple ZrSod2-22 mutant T141S-A179T-V375I gained K(+) transport capacity. The point mutation A179T restricted the antiporter substrate specificity to Li(+) and reduced its transport activity, while serine at this position preserved the native cation selectivity. The negative effect of the A179T mutation can be eliminated by introducing a second mutation, T141S or T141A, in the preceding transmembrane domain. Our experimental results confirm that the three residues found through modeling play a central role in the determination of cation selectivity and transport activity in Z. rouxii Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and that the cation selectivity can be modulated by repositioning a single local methyl group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of spoilage markers in modified atmosphere packaged iceberg lettuce.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Angelos-Gerasimos; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Riahi Drif, Yasmine; Vanderroost, Mike; Boon, Nico; Ragaert, Peter; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devlieghere, Frank

    2018-04-22

    Fresh cut iceberg lettuce spoilage was studied considering the microbial and biochemical activity, the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and consumer acceptability. Lettuce was packaged under three different packaging conditions and stored at 4 °C for 10 days: anaerobic packaging (ANAER), equilibrium modified atmosphere packaging with 3% O 2 (EMAP) and perforated packages (AIR). Results indicated a clear distinction between packaging conditions. EMAP and AIR resulted in a short shelf life (≤5.6 days) which was limited due to browning, leading to consumer rejection as assessed via the Weibull hazard analysis method, while no off-odors were detected. Culture- independent 16 s rRNA gene amplicon sequencing revealed Pseudomonas spp. as the dominating species. In contrast, under ANAER conditions, lactic acid bacteria dominated with genera of Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus spp. proliferating, while also oligotypes of Pseudomonas spp. were found. Spoilage under ANAER occurred after 6.6 days and it was related to strong fermentative-like off-odors that were present by the end of storage. As revealed by selective ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), these odors were associated with several VOCs such as: ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2,3-butanediol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, hexanal, acetic acid, ethyl acetate and dimethyl sulfide. Panelists rejected the iceberg lettuce due to the formation of off-odors while the overall appearance remained good throughout the study. Hence a sensor based technology incorporated in the packaging, detecting VOCs and in particular ethanol as dominant compound, could serve as a spoilage indicator for ANAER packed lettuce, which proved to have the longest shelf life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Diversity of spoilage fungi associated with various French dairy products.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Lucille; Valence, Florence; Pawtowski, Audrey; Auhustsinava-Galerne, Lizaveta; Frotté, Nicolas; Baroncelli, Riccardo; Deniel, Franck; Coton, Emmanuel; Mounier, Jérôme

    2017-01-16

    Yeasts and molds are responsible for dairy product spoilage, resulting in significant food waste and economic losses. Yet, few studies have investigated the diversity of spoilage fungi encountered in dairy products. In the present study, 175 isolates corresponding to 105 from various spoiled dairy products and 70 originating from dairy production environments, were identified using sequencing of the ITS region, the partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and/or EFα genes, and the D1-D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene for filamentous fungi and yeasts, respectively. Among the 41 species found in spoiled products, Penicillium commune and Penicillium bialowiezense were the most common filamentous fungi, representing around 10% each of total isolates while Meyerozyma guilliermondii and Trichosporon asahii were the most common yeasts (4.8% each of total isolates). Several species (e.g. Penicillium antarcticum, Penicillium salamii and Cladosporium phyllophilum) were identified for the first time in dairy products or their environment. In addition, numerous species were identified in both spoiled products and their corresponding dairy production environment suggesting that the latter acts as a primary source of contamination. Secondly, the resistance to chemical preservatives (sodium benzoate, calcium propionate, potassium sorbate and natamycin) of 10 fungal isolates representative of the observed biodiversity was also evaluated. Independently of the fungal species, natamycin had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (expressed in gram of preservative/l), followed by potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate and calcium propionate. In the tested conditions, Cladosporium halotolerans and Didymella pinodella were the most sensitive fungi while Yarrowia lipolytica and Candida parapsilosis were the most resistant towards the tested preservatives. This study provides interesting information on the occurrence of fungal contaminants in dairy products and environments that may help developing

  10. Effect of salt-tolerant yeast of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii on the production of biogenic amines during soy sauce fermentation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei; Hou, Li-Hua; Guo, Hong-Lian; Wang, Chun-Ling; Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Liu, Jin-Fu; Cao, Xiao-Hong

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to enhance and improve the quality and safety of soy sauce. In the present work, the change of biogenic amines, such as histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, spermidine, was examined by the treatment of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, and the influence of salt-tolerant yeast on biogenic amines was analysed during the whole fermentation process. The results showed that the content of biogenic amines was elevated after yeast treatment and the content of biogenic amines was influenced by using yeast. The dominating biogenic amine in soy sauce was tyramine. At the end of fermentation, the concentrations of biogenic amines produced by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis in the soy mash were 122.71 mg kg(-1) and 69.96 mg kg(-1) . The changes of biogenic amines in high-salt liquid soy mash during fermentation process indicated that a variety of biogenic amines were increased in the fermentation ageing period, which may be due to amino acid decarboxylation to form biogenic amines by yeast decarboxylase. The fermentation period of soy sauce should be longer than 5 months because biogenic amines began to decline after this time period. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Characterization of cucumber fermentation spoilage bacteria by enrichment culture and 16S rDNA cloning.

    PubMed

    Breidt, Fred; Medina, Eduardo; Wafa, Doria; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys; Franco, Wendy; Huang, Hsin-Yu; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Kim, Jae Ho

    2013-03-01

    Commercial cucumber fermentations are typically carried out in 40000 L fermentation tanks. A secondary fermentation can occur after sugars are consumed that results in the formation of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, concomitantly with the loss of lactic acid and an increase in pH. Spoilage fermentations can result in significant economic loss for industrial producers. The microbiota that result in spoilage remain incompletely defined. Previous studies have implicated yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteriaceae, and Clostridia as having a role in spoilage fermentations. We report that Propionibacterium and Pectinatus isolates from cucumber fermentation spoilage converted lactic acid to propionic acid, increasing pH. The analysis of 16S rDNA cloning libraries confirmed and expanded the knowledge gained from previous studies using classical microbiological methods. Our data show that Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria supersede Gram-positive Fermincutes species after the pH rises from around 3.2 to pH 5, and propionic and butyric acids are produced. Characterization of the spoilage microbiota is an important first step in efforts to prevent cucumber fermentation spoilage. An understanding of the microorganisms that cause commercial cucumber fermentation spoilage may aid in developing methods to prevent the spoilage from occurring. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Metabolic footprinting of Lactobacillus buchneri strain LA1147 during anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers

    Lactobacillus buchneri has recently been associated with anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers due to its ability to metabolize lactic acid into acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. However, we have limited knowledge of other chemical components in fermented cucumber that may be related to spoilage ...

  13. Characterization by volatile compounds of microbial deep spoilage in Iberian dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Martín, Alberto; Benito, María J; Aranda, Emilio; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Córdoba, Juan J; Córdoba, María G

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, volatile compounds of spoiled dry-cured Iberian ham with deep spoilage or "bone taint" were analyzed and correlated with level of spoilage and the microorganisms detected. Volatile compounds extracted by a solid phase micro-extraction technique were assayed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The spoiled hams were evaluated sensorially, and the correlations among volatile compounds, spoilage level, and microbial counts were studied. The spoiled hams had higher concentrations of hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters, pyrazines, sulfur compounds, and other minor volatile compounds than unspoiled hams. The sensorial analysis showed that the spoilage level of hams correlated with several volatile compounds, most of them associated with Gram-positive catalase positive cocci and Enterobacteriaceae counts. Cyclic compounds such as cyclohexanone, some ethers, and pyrazines should be considered as indicators to monitor incipient microbial deep spoilage in the elaboration of this meat product.

  14. Spoilage potential of brettanomyces bruxellensis strains isolated from Italian wines.

    PubMed

    Guzzon, Raffaele; Larcher, Roberto; Guarcello, Rosa; Francesca, Nicola; Settanni, Luca; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2018-03-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis is an important wine spoilage agent. In this study a population of Brettanomyces strains isolated from Italian wines was thoroughly investigated to evaluate adaptability to wine conditions and spoilage potential. The presumptive isolates of Brettanomyces were identified at species level with 26S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCR, and subsequently subjected to analysis of intra-species variability through the study of intron splice sites (ISS-PCR). Although, some strains were tracked in wines from different regions, extensive genetic biodiversity was observed within the B. bruxellensis population investigated. All strains were evaluated for their growth ability in the presence of ethanol, high sugar content, low pH, different temperatures and sulphur dioxide, using optical density and flow cytometry measurement. The ability of yeasts to produce ethyl phenols in red wines with different chemical compositions was evaluated by means of high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The results highlighted wide variability in B. bruxellensis in response to wine limiting factors and in terms of the accumulation of ethyl phenols. As regards this last aspect, the differences found among strains were closely related to chemical composition of wine and strain resistance to environmental stress factors, making a priori evaluation of risk of wine alteration quite difficult. These results suggest that strategies for the control of Brettanomyces should be tailored on the basis of strain distribution and wine characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Sea salts as a potential source of food spoilage fungi.

    PubMed

    Biango-Daniels, Megan N; Hodge, Kathie T

    2018-02-01

    Production of sea salt begins with evaporation of sea water in shallow pools called salterns, and ends with the harvest and packing of salts. This process provides many opportunities for fungal contamination. This study aimed to determine whether finished salts contain viable fungi that have the potential to cause spoilage when sea salt is used as a food ingredient by isolating fungi on a medium that simulated salted food with a lowered water activity (0.95 a w ). The viable filamentous fungi from seven commercial salts were quantified and identified by DNA sequencing, and the fungal communities in different salts were compared. Every sea salt tested contained viable fungi, in concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 1.71 colony-forming units per gram of salt. In total, 85 fungi were isolated representing seven genera. One or more species of the most abundant genera, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Penicillium was found in every salt. Many species found in this study have been previously isolated from low water activity environments, including salterns and foods. We conclude that sea salts contain many fungi that have potential to cause food spoilage as well as some that may be mycotoxigenic. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Potassium supply and homeostasis in the osmotolerant non-conventional yeasts Zygosaccharomyces rouxii differ from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Stříbný, Jiří; Kinclová-Zimmermannová, Olga; Sychrová, Hana

    2012-12-01

    Three different transport systems exist to accumulate a sufficient amount of potassium cations in yeasts. The most common of these are Trk-type transporters, which are used by all yeast species. Though most yeast species employ two different types of transporters, we only identified one gene encoding a potassium uptake system (Trk-type) in the genome of the highly osmotolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, and our results showed that ZrTrk1 is its major (and probably only) specific potassium uptake system. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the product of the ZrTRK1 gene is localized to the plasma membrane and its presence efficiently complements the phenotypes of S. cerevisiae trk1∆ trk2∆ cells. Deletion of the ZrTRK1 gene resulted in Z. rouxii cells being almost incapable of growth at low K(+) concentrations and it changed some cell physiological parameters in a way that differs from S. cerevisiae. In contrast to S. cerevisiae, Z. rouxii cells without the TRK1 gene contained less potassium than the control cells and their plasma membrane was significantly hyperpolarized compared with those of the parental strain when grown in the presence of 100 mM KCl. On the other hand, subsequent potassium starvation led to a substantial depolarization which is again different from S. cerevisiae. Plasma-membrane hyperpolarization did not prevent the efflux of potassium from Z. rouxii trk1Δ cells during potassium starvation, and the activity of ZrPma1 is less affected by the absence of ZrTRK1 than in S. cerevisiae. The use of a newly constructed Z. rouxii-specific plasmid for the expression of pHluorin showed that the intracellular pH of the Z. rouxii wild type and the trk1∆ mutant is not significantly different. Together with the fact that Z. rouxii cells contain a significantly lower amount of intracellular potassium than identically grown S. cerevisiae cells, our results suggest that this highly osmotolerant yeast species maintain its intracellular pH and

  17. CHANGES IN SPOILAGE PATTERN OF CHICKEN MEAT AS A RESULT OF IRRADIATION

    SciT

    Ingram, M.; Thornley, M.J.

    1959-10-01

    The microflora of radiation-pasteurized chicken meat is described in detail. With anaerobic minced meat kept at 5 deg C, doses of 0.25 Mrad delayed spoilage for several weeks. The ultimate spoilage flora consisted of microbacteria and faecal streptococci. The enrichment of the latter raises misgivings about this type of process. With whole eviscerated chickens. stored at 1 to 3 deg C in loose film bags, doses up to 0.8 Mrad increased the storage life roughly from 10 to 50 days. The spoilage microflora was somewhat different in different experiments, and corresponding differences were observed in the off- odors which heraldedmore » spoilage. In all cases, however, the principal organisms were bacteria of types common on chilled meat. It is concluded that there are no special bacteriological indications against radiation pasteurized meats, provided they are packed in air and kept at chill temperatures. (auth)« less

  18. Viability of common wine spoilage organisms after exposure to high power ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hua; Schmid, Frank; Grbin, Paul R; Jiranek, Vladimir

    2012-05-01

    Microbial spoilage of wine can lead to significant economic loss. At present sulfur dioxide is the main additive to juice/must/wine to prevent and control microbial spoilage. As an alternative, or complement to SO(2), high power ultrasonics (HPU) may be used to control microbes. Several wine spoilage yeasts and bacteria were treated with HPU in saline (0.9% w/v NaCl), juice and red wine to assess their susceptibility to HPU. Significant killing was seen across several yeasts and bacteria commonly associated with winemaking and wine spoilage. In general the viability of yeast was more affected than that of bacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spoilage microbiota associated to the storage of raw meat in different conditions.

    PubMed

    Doulgeraki, Agapi I; Ercolini, Danilo; Villani, Francesco; Nychas, George-John E

    2012-07-02

    The spoilage of raw meat is mainly due to undesired microbial development in meat during storage. The type of bacteria and their loads depend on the initial meat contamination and on the specific storage conditions that can influence the development of different spoilage-related microbial populations thus affecting the type and rate of the spoilage process. This review focuses on the composition of raw meat spoilage microbiota and the influence of storage conditions such as temperature, packaging atmosphere and use of different preservatives on the bacterial diversity developing in raw meat. In addition, the most recent tools used for the detection and identification of meat microbiota are also reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevention of Yeast Spoilage in Feed and Food by the Yeast Mycocin HMK

    PubMed Central

    Lowes, K. F.; Shearman, C. A.; Payne, J.; MacKenzie, D.; Archer, D. B.; Merry, R. J.; Gasson, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    The yeast Williopsis mrakii produces a mycocin or yeast killer toxin designated HMK; this toxin exhibits high thermal stability, high pH stability, and a broad spectrum of activity against other yeasts. We describe construction of a synthetic gene for mycocin HMK and heterologous expression of this toxin in Aspergillus niger. Mycocin HMK was fused to a glucoamylase protein carrier, which resulted in secretion of biologically active mycocin into the culture media. A partial purification protocol was developed, and a comparison with native W. mrakii mycocin showed that the heterologously expressed mycocin had similar physiological properties and an almost identical spectrum of biological activity against a number of yeasts isolated from silage and yoghurt. Two food and feed production systems prone to yeast spoilage were used as models to assess the ability of mycocin HMK to act as a biocontrol agent. The onset of aerobic spoilage in mature maize silage was delayed by application of A. niger mycocin HMK on opening because the toxin inhibited growth of the indigenous spoilage yeasts. This helped maintain both higher lactic acid levels and a lower pH. In yoghurt spiked with dairy spoilage yeasts, A. niger mycocin HMK was active at all of the storage temperatures tested at which yeast growth occurred, and there was no resurgence of resistant yeasts. The higher the yeast growth rate, the more effective the killing action of the mycocin. Thus, mycocin HMK has potential applications in controlling both silage spoilage and yoghurt spoilage caused by yeasts. PMID:10698773

  1. Exploring lot-to-lot variation in spoilage bacterial communities on commercial modified atmosphere packaged beef.

    PubMed

    Säde, Elina; Penttinen, Katri; Björkroth, Johanna; Hultman, Jenni

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the factors influencing meat bacterial communities is important as these communities are largely responsible for meat spoilage. The composition and structure of a bacterial community on a high-O 2 modified-atmosphere packaged beef product were examined after packaging, on the use-by date and two days after, to determine whether the communities at each stage were similar to those in samples taken from different production lots. Furthermore, we examined whether the taxa associated with product spoilage were distributed across production lots. Results from 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing showed that while the early samples harbored distinct bacterial communities, after 8-12 days storage at 6 °C the communities were similar to those in samples from different lots, comprising mainly of common meat spoilage bacteria Carnobacterium spp., Brochothrix spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus spp. Interestingly, abundant operational taxonomic units associated with product spoilage were shared between the production lots, suggesting that the bacteria enable to spoil the product were constant contaminants in the production chain. A characteristic succession pattern and the distribution of common spoilage bacteria between lots suggest that both the packaging type and the initial community structure influenced the development of the spoilage bacterial community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Contamination of salmon fillets and processing plants with spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Møretrø, Trond; Moen, Birgitte; Heir, Even; Hansen, Anlaug Å; Langsrud, Solveig

    2016-11-21

    The processing environment of salmon processing plants represents a potential major source of bacteria causing spoilage of fresh salmon. In this study, we have identified major contamination routes of important spoilage associated species within the genera Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Photobacterium in pre-rigor processing of salmon. Bacterial counts and culture-independent 16S rRNA gene analysis on salmon fillet from seven processing plants showed higher levels of Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella spp. in industrially processed fillets compared to salmon processed under strict hygienic conditions. Higher levels of Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella spp. were found on fillets produced early on the production day compared to later processed fillets. The levels of Photobacterium spp. were not dependent on the processing method or time of processing. In follow-up studies of two plants, bacterial isolates (n=2101) from the in-plant processing environments (sanitized equipment/machines and seawater) and from salmon collected at different sites in the production were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Pseudomonas spp. dominated in equipment/machines after sanitation with 72 and 91% of samples from the two plants being Pseudomonas-positive. The phylogenetic analyses, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, showed 48 unique sequence profiles of Pseudomonas of which two were dominant. Only six profiles were found on both machines and in fillets in both plants. Shewanella spp. were found on machines after sanitation in the slaughter department while Photobacterium spp. were not detected after sanitation in any parts of the plants. Shewanella spp. and Photobacterium spp. were found on salmon in the slaughter departments. Shewanella was frequently present in seawater tanks used for bleeding/short term storage. In conclusion, this study provides new knowledge on the processing environment as a source of contamination of salmon fillets with Pseudomonas spp. and

  3. Reducing Salt in Raw Pork Sausages Increases Spoilage and Correlates with Reduced Bacterial Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Fougy, Lysiane; Desmonts, Marie-Hélène; Coeuret, Gwendoline; Fassel, Christine; Hamon, Erwann; Hézard, Bernard; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Raw sausages are perishable foodstuffs; reducing their salt content raises questions about a possible increased spoilage of these products. In this study, we evaluated the influence of salt reduction (from 2.0% to 1.5% [wt/wt]), in combination with two types of packaging (modified atmosphere [50% mix of CO2-N2] and vacuum packaging), on the onset of spoilage and on the diversity of spoilage-associated bacteria. After 21 days of storage at 8°C, spoilage was easily observed, characterized by noticeable graying of the products and the production of gas and off-odors defined as rancid, sulfurous, or sour. At least one of these types of spoilage occurred in each sample, and the global spoilage intensity was more pronounced in samples stored under modified atmosphere than under vacuum packaging and in samples with the lower salt content. Metagenetic 16S rRNA pyrosequencing revealed that vacuum-packaged samples contained a higher total bacterial richness (n = 69 operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) than samples under the other packaging condition (n = 46 OTUs). The core community was composed of 6 OTUs (Lactobacillus sakei, Lactococcus piscium, Carnobacterium divergens, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Serratia proteamaculans, and Brochothrix thermosphacta), whereas 13 OTUs taxonomically assigned to the Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Leuconostocaceae families comprised a less-abundant subpopulation. This subdominant community was significantly more abundant when 2.0% salt and vacuum packaging were used, and this correlated with a lower degree of spoilage. Our results demonstrate that salt reduction, particularly when it is combined with CO2-enriched packaging, promotes faster spoilage of raw sausages by lowering the overall bacterial diversity (both richness and evenness). IMPORTANCE Our study takes place in the context of raw meat product manufacturing and is linked to a requirement for salt reduction. Health guidelines are calling for a reduction in

  4. Reducing Salt in Raw Pork Sausages Increases Spoilage and Correlates with Reduced Bacterial Diversity.

    PubMed

    Fougy, Lysiane; Desmonts, Marie-Hélène; Coeuret, Gwendoline; Fassel, Christine; Hamon, Erwann; Hézard, Bernard; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine; Chaillou, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    Raw sausages are perishable foodstuffs; reducing their salt content raises questions about a possible increased spoilage of these products. In this study, we evaluated the influence of salt reduction (from 2.0% to 1.5% [wt/wt]), in combination with two types of packaging (modified atmosphere [50% mix of CO2-N2] and vacuum packaging), on the onset of spoilage and on the diversity of spoilage-associated bacteria. After 21 days of storage at 8°C, spoilage was easily observed, characterized by noticeable graying of the products and the production of gas and off-odors defined as rancid, sulfurous, or sour. At least one of these types of spoilage occurred in each sample, and the global spoilage intensity was more pronounced in samples stored under modified atmosphere than under vacuum packaging and in samples with the lower salt content. Metagenetic 16S rRNA pyrosequencing revealed that vacuum-packaged samples contained a higher total bacterial richness (n = 69 operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) than samples under the other packaging condition (n = 46 OTUs). The core community was composed of 6 OTUs (Lactobacillus sakei, Lactococcus piscium, Carnobacterium divergens, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Serratia proteamaculans, and Brochothrix thermosphacta), whereas 13 OTUs taxonomically assigned to the Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Leuconostocaceae families comprised a less-abundant subpopulation. This subdominant community was significantly more abundant when 2.0% salt and vacuum packaging were used, and this correlated with a lower degree of spoilage. Our results demonstrate that salt reduction, particularly when it is combined with CO2-enriched packaging, promotes faster spoilage of raw sausages by lowering the overall bacterial diversity (both richness and evenness). Our study takes place in the context of raw meat product manufacturing and is linked to a requirement for salt reduction. Health guidelines are calling for a reduction in dietary salt intake

  5. Inactivation of the Radiation-Resistant Spoilage Bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, D. E.; Anderson, A. W.; Elliker, P. R.

    1963-01-01

    A simplified technique permitting the pipetting of raw puréed meats for quantitative bacteriological study is described for use in determining survival of these non-sporing bacteria, which are exceptionally resistant to radiation. Survival curves, using gamma radiation as the sterilizing agent, were determined in raw beef with four strains of Micrococcus radiodurans. Survival curves of the R1 strain in other meat substrates showed that survival was significantly greater in raw beef and raw chicken than in raw fish or in cooked beef. Resistance was lowest in the buffer. Cells grown in broth (an artificial growth medium) and resuspended in beef did not differ in resistance from cells that had been grown and irradiated in beef. Survival rate was statistically independent of the initial cell concentration, even though there appeared to be a correlation between lower death rate and lower initial cell concentrations. The initial viable count of this culture of the domesticated R1 strain in beef was reduced by a factor of about 10-5 by 3.0 megarad, and 4.0 megarad reduced the initial count by a factor of more than 10-9. Data suggest that M. radiodurans R1 is more resistant to radiation than spore-forming spoilage bacteria for which inactivation rates have been published. PMID:14063780

  6. Microbiological, chemical and sensory spoilage analysis of raw Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stored under modified atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Kuuliala, L; Al Hage, Y; Ioannidis, A-G; Sader, M; Kerckhof, F-M; Vanderroost, M; Boon, N; De Baets, B; De Meulenaer, B; Ragaert, P; Devlieghere, F

    2018-04-01

    During fish spoilage, microbial metabolism leads to the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), characteristic off-odors and eventual consumer rejection. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the development of intelligent packaging technologies by identifying and quantifying VOCs that indicate spoilage of raw Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) under atmospheres (%v/v CO 2 /O 2 /N 2 ) 60/40/0, 60/5/35 and air. Spoilage was examined by microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses over storage time at 4 or 8 °C. Selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) was used for quantifying selected VOCs and amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used for the characterization of the cod microbiota. OTUs classified within the Photobacterium genus increased in relative abundance over time under all storage conditions, suggesting that Photobacterium contributed to spoilage and VOC production. The onset of exponential VOC concentration increase and sensory rejection occurred at high total plate counts (7-7.5 log). Monitoring of early spoilage thus calls for sensitivity for low VOC concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on spoilage capability and VBNC state formation and recovery of Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Peters, Brian M; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the capability of L. plantarum strain BM-LP14723 to enter into and recover from the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state and to cause beer spoilage. VBNC state was induced by incubating in beer with subculturing or low temperature treatment. Culturable, total, and viable cells numbers were assessed by MRS agar plate counting, acridine orange direct counting, and Live/Dead BacLight bacterial viability kit, respectively. Organic acids concentrations were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. VBNC L. plantarum cells were detected after 189 ± 1.9 days low temperature treatment or 29 ± 0.7 subcultures in beer. The VBNC L. plantarum retained spoilage capability. Addition of catalase is an effective method for the recovery of the VBNC L. plantarum cells. L. plantarum strain BM-LP14723 is capable of entering into and recovery from the VBNC state and maintained spoilage capability. The current study presented that beer-spoilage L. plantarum can hide both in breweries and during transporting and marketing process and thus lead to beer-spoilage incidents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a food spoilage indicator for monitoring freshness of skinless chicken breast.

    PubMed

    Rukchon, Chompoonoot; Nopwinyuwong, Atchareeya; Trevanich, Sudsai; Jinkarn, Tunyarut; Suppakul, Panuwat

    2014-12-01

    A colorimetric mixed-pH dye-based indicator with potential for the development of intelligent packaging, as a "chemical barcode" for real-time monitoring of skinless chicken breast spoilage, is described. Also investigated was the relationship between the numbers of microorganisms and the amount of volatile compounds. This on-package indicator contains two groups of pH-sensitive dyes, one of which is a mixture of bromothymol blue and methyl red, while the other is a mixture of bromothymol blue, bromocresol green and phenol red. Carbon dioxide (CO2) was used as a spoilage metabolite because the degree of spoilage was related to the amount of increased CO2, and which was more than the level of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) during the storage period. Characteristics of the two groups of indicator solutions were studied, as well as their response to CO2. A kinetic approach was used to correlate the response of the indicator label to the changes in skinless chicken breast spoilage. Color changes, in terms of total color difference of a mixed-pH dye-based indicator, correlated well with CO2 levels of skinless chicken breast. Trials on skinless chicken breast samples have verified that the indicator response correlates with microbial growth patterns, thus enabling real-time monitoring of spoilage either at various constant temperatures or with temperature fluctuation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of lactoferricin B in controlling ready-to-eat vegetable spoilage caused by Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Federico, Baruzzi; Pinto, Loris; Quintieri, Laura; Carito, Antonia; Calabrese, Nicola; Caputo, Leonardo

    2015-12-23

    The microbial content of plant tissues has been reported to cause the spoilage of ca. 30% of chlorine-disinfected fresh vegetables during cold storage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides in controlling microbial vegetable spoilage under cold storage conditions. A total of 48 bacterial isolates were collected from ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables and identified as belonging to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aeromonas media, Pseudomonas cichorii, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas jessenii, Pseudomonas koreensis, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas simiae and Pseudomonas viridiflava species. Reddish or brownish pigmentation was found when Pseudomonas strains were inoculated in wounds on leaves of Iceberg and Trocadero lettuce and escarole chicory throughout cold storage. Bovine lactoferrin (BLF) and its hydrolysates (LFHs) produced by pepsin, papain and rennin, were assayed in vitro against four Pseudomonas spp. strains selected for their heavy spoiling ability. As the pepsin-LFH showed the strongest antimicrobial effect, subsequent experiments were carried out using the peptide lactoferricin B (LfcinB), well known to be responsible for its antimicrobial activity. LfcinB significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) spoilage by a mean of 36% caused by three out of four inoculated spoiler pseudomonads on RTE lettuce leaves after six days of cold storage. The reduction in the extent of spoilage was unrelated to viable cell density in the inoculated wounds. This is the first paper providing direct evidence regarding the application of an antimicrobial peptide to control microbial spoilage affecting RTE leafy vegetables during cold storage.

  10. Introduction to the Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, William H.

    Though direct evidence of ancient food-handling practices is difficult to obtain and examine, it seems safe to assume that over the span of several million years, prehistoric humans struggled to maintain an adequate food supply. Their daily food needed to be hunted or harvested and consumed before it spoiled and became unfit to eat. Freshly killed animals, for example, could not have been kept for very long periods of time. Moreover, many early humans were nomadic, continually searching for food. We can imagine that, with an unreliable food supply, their lives must have often been literally "feast or famine." Yet, our ancestors gradually learned by accident, or by trial and error, simple techniques that could extend the storage time of their food (Block, 1991). Their brain capacity was similar to that of modern humans; therefore, some of them were likely early scientists and technologists. They would have learned that primitive cereal grains, nuts and berries, etc. could be stored in covered vessels to keep them dry and safer from mold spoilage. Animal products could be kept in cool places or dried and smoked over a fire, as the controlled use of fire by humans is thought to have begun about 400,000 years ago. Quite likely, naturally desiccated or fermented foods were also noticed and produced routinely to provide a more stable supply of edible food. Along with the development of agricultural practices for crop and animal production, the "simple" food-handling practices developed during the relatively countless millennia of prehistory paved the way for human civilizations.

  11. Metabolism of lactic acid in fermented cucumbers by Lactobacillus buchneri and related species, potential spoilage organisms in reduced salt fermentations

    Recent evidence suggests that Lactobacillus buchneri may play an important role in spoilage-associated secondary fermentation of cucumbers. Lactic acid degradation during fermented cucumber spoilage is influenced by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, pH, and presence of oxygen. Objectives were to...

  12. Molecular comparisons for identification of food spoilage yeasts and prediction of species that may develop in different food products

    Spoilage of foods and beverages by yeasts is often characterized by objectionable odors, appearance, taste, texture or build-up of gas in packaging containers, resulting in loss of the product. Seldom is human health compromised by products spoiled by yeasts even though some spoilage is caused by sp...

  13. South Brazilian wines: culturable yeasts associated to bottled wines produced in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Castrillón, Mauricio; Mendes, Sandra Denise Camargo; Valente, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the presence and role of yeasts in bottled wines helps to know and control the organoleptic quality of the final product. The South Region of Brazil is an important wine producer, and the state of "Rio Grande do Sul" (RS) accounts for 90% of Brazilian wines. The state of "Santa Catarina" (SC) started the production in 1975, and is currently the fifth Brazilian producer. As there is little information about yeasts present in Brazilian wines, our main objective was to assess the composition of culturable yeasts associated to bottled wines produced in RS and SC, South of Brazil. We sampled 20 RS and 29 SC bottled wines produced between 2003 and 2011, and we isolated culturable yeasts in non-selective agar plates. We identified all isolates by sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of LSU rDNA or ITS1-5.8 S-ITS2 region, and comparison with type strain sequences deposited in GenBank database. Six yeast species were shared in the final product in both regions. We obtained two spoilage yeast profiles: RS with Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Pichia membranifaciens (Dekkera bruxellensis was found only in specific table wines); and SC with Dekkera bruxellensis and Pichia manshurica. Knowledge concerning the different spoilage profiles is important for winemaking practices in both regions.

  14. Characterization of cucumber fermentation spoilage bacteria by enrichment culture and 16S rDNA cloning

    Commercial cucumber fermentations are typically carried out in 40000 L fermentation tanks. A secondary fermentation can occur after sugars are consumed that results in the formation of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, concomitantly with the loss of lactic acid and an increase in pH. Spoilage fe...

  15. Spoilage of sous vide cooked salmon (Salmo salar) stored under refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Díaz, P; Garrido, M D; Bañón, S

    2011-02-01

    The spoilage of Sous Vide 'SV' cooked salmon stored under refrigeration was studied. Samples were packaged under vacuum in polyamide-polypropylene pouches, cooked at an oven temperature/time of 80 (°)C/45 min, quickly chilled at 3 (°)C and stored at 2 (°)C for 0, 5 or 10 weeks for catering use. Microbial (aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae), physical-chemical (pH, water activity, TBARS, acidity, L*a*b* color, texture profile analysis and shear force) and sensory (appearance, odor, flavor, texture and overall quality) parameters were determined. SV processing prevented the growth of aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae. There were no relevant changes in pH, water activity, TBARS, CIELab color associated with cooked salmon spoilage. Instrumental texture data were contradictory. Slight decrease in lactic acid levels was found. In contrast, the SV cooked salmon suffered considerable sensory deterioration during its refrigerated storage, consisting of severe losses of cooked salmon odor and flavor, slight rancidity, discoloration associated with white precipitation, and moderates softness, and loss of chewiness and juiciness. No acidification, putrefaction or relevant rancidity was detected. The sensory spoilage preceded microbiological and physical-chemical spoilage, suggesting that microbiological quality alone may overestimate the shelf life of SV cooked salmon.

  16. Diversity and Control of Spoilage Fungi in Dairy Products: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Valence, Florence; Mounier, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Fungi are common contaminants of dairy products, which provide a favorable niche for their growth. They are responsible for visible or non-visible defects, such as off-odor and -flavor, and lead to significant food waste and losses as well as important economic losses. Control of fungal spoilage is a major concern for industrials and scientists that are looking for efficient solutions to prevent and/or limit fungal spoilage in dairy products. Several traditional methods also called traditional hurdle technologies are implemented and combined to prevent and control such contaminations. Prevention methods include good manufacturing and hygiene practices, air filtration, and decontamination systems, while control methods include inactivation treatments, temperature control, and modified atmosphere packaging. However, despite technology advances in existing preservation methods, fungal spoilage is still an issue for dairy manufacturers and in recent years, new (bio) preservation technologies are being developed such as the use of bioprotective cultures. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the diversity of spoilage fungi in dairy products and the traditional and (potentially) new hurdle technologies to control their occurrence in dairy foods. PMID:28788096

  17. Photocatalytic disinfection of spoilage bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and Macrococcus caseolyticus by nano-TiO2

    Photocatalytic disinfection of spoilage bacteria gram-negative (G-) P. fluorescens and gram-positive (G+) M. caseolyticus by nano-TiO2 under different experimental conditions and the disinfection mechanism were investigated. The experimental conditions included the initial bacterial populations, nan...

  18. Colony formation by sublethally heat-injured Zygosaccharomyces rouxii as affected by solutes in the recovery medium and procedure for sterilizing medium.

    PubMed Central

    Golden, D A; Beuchat, L R

    1990-01-01

    Recovery and colony formation by healthy and sublethally heat-injured cells of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii as influenced by the procedure for sterilizing recovery media (YM agar [YMA], wort agar, cornmeal agar, and oatmeal agar) were investigated. Media were supplemented with various concentrations of glucose, sucrose, glycerol, or sorbitol and sterilized by autoclaving (110 degrees C, 15 min) and by repeated treatment with steam (100 degrees C). An increase in sensitivity was observed when heat-injured cells were plated on glucose-supplemented YMA at an aw of 0.880 compared with aws of 0.933 and 0.998. Colonies which developed from unheated and heated cells on YMA at aws of 0.998 and 0.933 generally exceeded 0.5 mm in diameter within 3.5 to 4 days of incubation at 25 degrees C, whereas colonies formed on YMA at an aw of 0.880 typically did not exceed 0.5 mm in diameter until after 5.5 to 6.5 days of incubation. The number of colonies exceeding 0.5 mm in diameter which were formed by heat-injured cells on YMA at an aw of 0.880 was 2 to 3 logs less than the total number of colonies detected, i.e., on YMA at an aw of 0.933 and using no limits of exclusion based on colony diameter. A substantial portion of cells which survived heat treatment were sublethally injured as evidenced by increased sensitivity to a suboptimum aw (0.880). In no instance was recovery of Z. rouxii significantly affected by medium sterilization procedure when glucose or sorbitol was used as the aw-suppressing solute.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2403251

  19. Colony formation by sublethally heat-injured Zygosaccharomyces rouxii as affected by solutes in the recovery medium and procedure for sterilizing medium.

    PubMed

    Golden, D A; Beuchat, L R

    1990-08-01

    Recovery and colony formation by healthy and sublethally heat-injured cells of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii as influenced by the procedure for sterilizing recovery media (YM agar [YMA], wort agar, cornmeal agar, and oatmeal agar) were investigated. Media were supplemented with various concentrations of glucose, sucrose, glycerol, or sorbitol and sterilized by autoclaving (110 degrees C, 15 min) and by repeated treatment with steam (100 degrees C). An increase in sensitivity was observed when heat-injured cells were plated on glucose-supplemented YMA at an aw of 0.880 compared with aws of 0.933 and 0.998. Colonies which developed from unheated and heated cells on YMA at aws of 0.998 and 0.933 generally exceeded 0.5 mm in diameter within 3.5 to 4 days of incubation at 25 degrees C, whereas colonies formed on YMA at an aw of 0.880 typically did not exceed 0.5 mm in diameter until after 5.5 to 6.5 days of incubation. The number of colonies exceeding 0.5 mm in diameter which were formed by heat-injured cells on YMA at an aw of 0.880 was 2 to 3 logs less than the total number of colonies detected, i.e., on YMA at an aw of 0.933 and using no limits of exclusion based on colony diameter. A substantial portion of cells which survived heat treatment were sublethally injured as evidenced by increased sensitivity to a suboptimum aw (0.880). In no instance was recovery of Z. rouxii significantly affected by medium sterilization procedure when glucose or sorbitol was used as the aw-suppressing solute.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Formation of 4-Hydroxy-2,5-Dimethyl-3[2H]-Furanone by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii: Identification of an Intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Tobias; Brühlmann, Fredi; Schwab, Wilfried

    2003-01-01

    The formation of the important flavor compound 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3[2H]-furanone (HDMF; Furaneol) from d-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate by the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was studied with regard to the identification of intermediates present in the culture medium. Addition of o-phenylenediamine, a trapping reagent for α-dicarbonyls, to the culture medium and subsequent analysis by high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detection revealed the formation of three quinoxaline derivatives derived from d-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate under the applied growth conditions (30°C; pH 4 to 5). Isolation and characterization of these compounds by tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy led to the identification of phosphoric acid mono-(2,3,4-trihydroxy-4-quinoxaline-2-yl-butyl) ester (Q1), phosphoric acid mono-[2,3-dihydroxy-3-(3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-yl)-propyl] ester (Q2), and phosphoric acid mono-[2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-yl)-propyl] ester (Q3). Q1 and Q2 were formed independently of Z. rouxii cells, whereas Q3 was detected only in incubation systems containing the yeast. Identification of Q2 demonstrated for the first time the chemical formation of 1-deoxy-2,3-hexodiulose-6-phosphate in the culture medium, a generally expected but never identified intermediate in the formation pathway of HDMF. Since HDMF was detected only in the presence of Z. rouxii cells, additional enzymatic steps were presumed. Incubation of periplasmic and cytosolic protein extracts obtained from yeast cells with d-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate led to the formation of HDMF, implying the presence of the required enzymes in both extracts. PMID:12839760

  1. PCR detection of psychrophilic Clostridium spp. causing 'blown pack' spoilage of vacuum-packed chilled meats.

    PubMed

    Broda, D M; Boerema, J A; Bell, R G

    2003-01-01

    To develop a practical molecular procedure that directly, without isolation, and specifically detects the presence of clostridia which cause 'blown pack' spoilage of vacuum-packed meat. Primer sets and PCR amplification procedures were developed that detect the presence of 16S rDNA gene and/or 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer fragments of 'blown pack' causing clostridia in meat. The specificity of the developed procedures was evaluated with DNA obtained from close phylogenetic neighbours of 'blown pack' causing clostridia, food clostridia and common meat spoilage microorganisms. The sensitivity of detection was assessed in non-enriched and low-temperature-enriched beef mince inoculated with serially diluted pure cultures of Clostridium estertheticum DSMZ 8809T and Cl. gasigenes DB1AT. The efficacy of detection procedures was evaluated for naturally contaminated vacuum-packed meat samples. Three primer sets, 16SE, 16SDB and EISR, produced amplicons of the expected size with DNA templates from target clostridia, but failed to yield PCR products with DNAs from any other microorganisms tested. With 16SE and 16SDB primers, minimum levels of detection were 104 CFU g(-1) for non-enriched, and 102 CFU g(-1) for enriched meat samples. Based on the established specificity of these primers, as well as DNA sequencing of amplicons, Cl. gasigenes was confirmed as the causative agent of 'blown pack' spoilage in two packs, and Cl. estertheticum as the causative agent in the third. The developed method can be used for rapid detection of 'blown pack' causing clostridia in commercial blown packs, or following low temperature enrichment, for detection of these microorganisms in meat containing as few as 100 clostridial cells per gram. The paper reports practical procedures that can be used for rapid confirmation of the causative agents of clostridial 'blown pack' spoilage in commercial spoiled packs, or for detection of psychrophilic clostridia in epidemiological trace back of

  2. Analysis of Growth Inhibition and Metabolism of Hydroxycinnamic Acids by Brewing and Spoilage Strains of Brettanomyces Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, Michael; Harris, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Brettanomyces yeasts are well-known as spoilage organisms in both the wine and beer industries, but also contribute important desirable characters to certain beer styles. These properties are mediated in large part by Brettanomyces’ metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) present in beverage raw materials. Here we compare growth inhibition by, and metabolism of, HCAs among commercial brewing strains and spoilage strains of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus. These properties vary widely among the different strains tested and between the HCAs analyzed. Brewing strains showed more efficient metabolism of ferulic acid over p-coumaric acid, a trait not shared among the spoilage strains. PMID:28231223

  3. Analysis of Growth Inhibition and Metabolism of Hydroxycinnamic Acids by Brewing and Spoilage Strains of Brettanomyces Yeast.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Michael; Harris, Chad

    2015-10-15

    Brettanomyces yeasts are well-known as spoilage organisms in both the wine and beer industries, but also contribute important desirable characters to certain beer styles. These properties are mediated in large part by Brettanomyces ' metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) present in beverage raw materials. Here we compare growth inhibition by, and metabolism of, HCAs among commercial brewing strains and spoilage strains of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus . These properties vary widely among the different strains tested and between the HCAs analyzed. Brewing strains showed more efficient metabolism of ferulic acid over p -coumaric acid, a trait not shared among the spoilage strains.

  4. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage.

    PubMed

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Franco, Wendy; Perez-Diaz, Ilenys; McFeeters, Roger F

    2012-07-01

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial instability. Objectives of this study were to determine the combined effects of NaCl and pH on fermented cucumber spoilage and to determine the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) spoilage isolates to initiate lactic acid degradation in fermented cucumbers. Cucumbers fermented with 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% NaCl were blended into slurries (FCS) and adjusted to pH 3.2, 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 prior to centrifugation, sterile-filtration, and inoculation with spoilage organisms. Organic acids and pH were measured initially and after 3 wk, 2, 6, 12, and 18 mo anaerobic incubation at 25 °C. Anaerobic lactic acid degradation occurred in FCS at pH 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 regardless of NaCl concentration. At pH 3.2, reduced NaCl concentrations resulted in increased susceptibility to spoilage, indicating that the pH limit for lactic acid utilization in reduced NaCl fermented cucumbers is 3.2 or lower. Over 18 mo incubation, only cucumbers fermented with 6% NaCl to pH 3.2 prevented anaerobic lactic acid degradation by spoilage bacteria. Among several LAB species isolated from fermented cucumber spoilage, Lactobacillus buchneri was unique in its ability to metabolize lactic acid in FCS with concurrent increases in acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. Therefore, L. buchneri may be one of multiple organisms that contribute to development of fermented cucumber spoilage. Microbial spoilage of fermented cucumbers during bulk storage causes economic losses for producers. Current knowledge is insufficient to predict or control these losses. This study demonstrated that in the absence of oxygen, cucumbers fermented with 6% sodium chloride to pH 3.2 were not subject to spoilage. However, lactic acid was degraded

  5. Draft genome sequence and annotation of Lactobacillus acetotolerans BM-LA14527, a beer-spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Peters, Brian M; Li, Bing; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2016-09-01

    Lactobacillus acetotolerans is a hard-to-culture beer-spoilage bacterium capable of entering into the viable putative nonculturable (VPNC) state. As part of an initial strategy to investigate the phenotypic behavior of L. acetotolerans, draft genome sequencing was performed. Results demonstrated a total of 1824 predicted annotated genes, with several potential VPNC- and beer-spoilage-associated genes identified. Importantly, this is the first genome sequence of L. acetotolerans as beer-spoilage bacteria and it may aid in further analysis of L. acetotolerans and other beer-spoilage bacteria, with direct implications for food safety control in the beer brewing industry. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Broth and agar hop-gradient plates used to evaluate the beer-spoilage potential of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolates.

    PubMed

    Haakensen, M; Schubert, A; Ziola, B

    2009-03-15

    Identification of the beer-spoilage Lactobacillus and Pediococcus bacteria has largely taken two approaches; identification of spoilage-associated genes or identification of specific species of bacteria regardless of ability to grow in beer. The problem with these two approaches is that they are either overly inclusive (i.e., detect all bacteria of a given species regardless of spoilage potential) or overly selective (i.e., rely upon individual, putative spoilage-associated genes). Our goal was to design a method to assess the ability of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus to spoil beer that is independent of speciation or genetic background. In searching for a method by which to differentiate between beer-spoilage bacteria and bacteria that cannot grow in beer, we explored the ability of lactobacilli and pediococci isolates to grow in the presence of varying concentrations of hop-compounds and ethanol in broth medium versus on agar medium. The best method for differentiating between bacteria that can grow in beer and bacteria that do not pose a threat as beer-spoilage organisms was found to be a hop-gradient agar plate containing ethanol. This hop-gradient agar plate technique provides a rapid and simple solution to the dilemma of assessing the ability of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolates to grow in beer, and provides new insights into the different strategies used by these bacteria to survive under the stringent conditions of beer.

  7. Development of microbial spoilage and lipid and protein oxidation in rabbit meat.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, K; Sazili, A Q; Aghwan, Z A; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Abu Bakar, F; Sarah, S A

    2015-10-01

    This experiment aimed to determine microbial spoilage and lipid and protein oxidation during aerobic refrigerated (4°C) storage of rabbit meat. Forty male New Zealand white rabbits were slaughtered according to the Halal slaughter procedure. The hind limbs were used for microbial analysis while the Longissimus lumborum m. was used for determination of lipid and protein oxidation. Bacterial counts generally increased with aging time and the limit for fresh meat (10(8)cfu/g) was reached at d 7 postmortem. Significant differences in malondialdehyde content were observed after 3d of storage. The thiol concentration significantly decreased with increase in aging time. The band intensities of myosin heavy chain and troponin T significantly reduced with increased refrigerated storage while actin remained relatively stable. This study thus proposes protein oxidation as a potential deteriorative change in refrigerated rabbit meat along with microbial spoilage and lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone as a secondary metabolite from D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate metabolism by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

    PubMed

    Dahlen, T; Hauck, T; Wein, M; Schwab, W

    2001-01-01

    2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF) is an important aroma compound found in many fruits such as strawberries and pineapples and it is also produced by the soy-sauce-fermenting yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii after the addition of d-fructose-1,6-diphosphate to yeast-peptone-dextrose nutrient media. Dilute DMHF solutions exhibit a strawberry-like flavor while DMHF concentrates have a caramel-like aroma. In media containing D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate as the sole carbon source, growth of Z. rouxii and formation of DMHF were not observed. Although Z. rouxii cells grew in media with D-glucose as the sole carbon source, DMHF was only produced when media were supplemented with D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate. The DMHF concentration always correlated with the yeast cell count and D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate concentration. Addition of CaCl2 (up to 50 g.l(-1)) led to a higher DMHF concentration. Addition of Na2SO3 reduced the growth of Z. rouxii and inhibited DMHF formation. The amount of DMHF formed by Z. rouxii was not significantly affected by the addition of KH2PO4. DMHF concentrations of 5 and 10 g.l(-1) partially and completely inhibited the growth of Z. rouxii cells, respectively. Only the singly labeled furanone was formed after the addition of 1-13C-D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate to the medium. However, unlabeled DMHF was formed in the presence of (13)C(6)-D-glucose. Therefore, the carbons of the furanone originate exclusively from exogenously supplied D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate as no exchange with the internal pool of D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate occurs. This implies that DMHF is a secondary metabolite of Z. rouxii formed from D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate. We assume that at least the first step of the metabolism of D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate takes place in the cell wall or membrane of the yeast.

  9. A standard bacterial isolate set for research on contemporary dairy spoilage.

    PubMed

    Trmčić, A; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2015-08-01

    Food spoilage is an ongoing issue that could be dealt with more efficiently if some standardization and unification was introduced in this field of research. For example, research and development efforts to understand and reduce food spoilage can greatly be enhanced through availability and use of standardized isolate sets. To address this critical issue, we have assembled a standard isolate set of dairy spoilers and other selected nonpathogenic organisms frequently associated with dairy products. This publicly available bacterial set consists of (1) 35 gram-positive isolates including 9 Bacillus and 15 Paenibacillus isolates and (2) 16 gram-negative isolates including 4 Pseudomonas and 8 coliform isolates. The set includes isolates obtained from samples of pasteurized milk (n=43), pasteurized chocolate milk (n=1), raw milk (n=1), cheese (n=2), as well as isolates obtained from samples obtained from dairy-powder production (n=4). Analysis of growth characteristics in skim milk broth identified 16 gram-positive and 13 gram-negative isolates as psychrotolerant. Additional phenotypic characterization of isolates included testing for activity of β-galactosidase and lipolytic and proteolytic enzymes. All groups of isolates included in the isolate set exhibited diversity in growth and enzyme activity. Source data for all isolates in this isolate set are publicly available in the FoodMicrobeTracker database (http://www.foodmicrobetracker.com), which allows for continuous updating of information and advancement of knowledge on dairy-spoilage representatives included in this isolate set. This isolate set along with publicly available isolate data provide a unique resource that will help advance knowledge of dairy-spoilage organisms as well as aid industry in development and validation of new control strategies. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterisation of the spoilage bacterial microbiota in oyster gills during storage at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huibin; Liu, Zhiyu; Wang, Meiying; Chen, Shaojun; Chen, Tuanwei

    2013-12-01

    The spoilage bacterial community in oyster gill was investigated during storage at 4, 10 and 20 °C. Aerobic plate counts and pH values were determined. Total bacterial DNA was extracted from oyster gill and bulk cells of plate count media. The major bacterial species during fresh or different temperatures storage were determined by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The initial aerobic plate count in oyster gill reached 6.70 log CFU g(-1). PCR-DGGE fingerprinting analysis of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region revealed that most of the strains in fresh oyster gill belonged to the genera Lactococcus and Enterobacter. The major spoilage bacteria at a storage temperature of 20 °C were Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, an uncultured bacterium, Cytophaga fermentans, Lactococcus lactis, Pseudoalteromonas sp., Enterococcus mundtii, Clostridium difficile and an uncultured Fusobacteria; those at 10 °C were Lactococcus spp., Lactobacillus curvatus, Weissella confusa and C. difficile; those at 4 °C were Lactococcus, Weissella, Enterobacter and Aeromonas. The other minor species were L. curvatus, Pseudomonas sp. and E. mundtii. Lactococcus spp. was the most common main spoilage bacteria in oyster gill during chilled storage. PCR-DGGE revealed the complexity of the bacterial microbiota and the major bacteria species in oyster gill for fresh and storage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Spoilage and shelf-life extension of fresh fish and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Ashie, I N; Smith, J P; Simpson, B K

    1996-01-01

    Fresh fish and shellfish are highly perishable products due to their biological composition. Under normal refrigerated storage conditions, the shelf life of these products is limited by enzymatic and microbiological spoilage. However, with increasing consumer demands for fresh products with extended shelf life and increasing energy costs associated with freezing and frozen storage, the fish-processing industry is actively seeking alternative methods of shelf life preservation and marketability of fresh, refrigerated fish and at the same time economizing on energy costs. Additional methods that could fulfill these objectives include chemical decontamination, low-dose irradiation, ultra-high pressure, and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). This review focuses on the biochemical and microbiological composition of fresh fish/shellfish, the spoilage patterns in these products, factors influencing spoilage, and the combination treatments that can be used in conjunction with refrigeration to extend the shelf life and keeping quality of fresh fish/shellfish. The safety concerns of minimally processed/MAP fish, specifically with respect to the growth of Clostridium botulinum type E, is also addressed.

  12. TdKT, a new killer toxin produced by Torulaspora delbrueckii effective against wine spoilage yeasts.

    PubMed

    Villalba, María Leticia; Susana Sáez, Julieta; Del Monaco, Silvana; Lopes, Christian Ariel; Sangorrín, Marcela Paula

    2016-01-18

    Microbiological spoilage is a major concern throughout the wine industry, and control tools are limited. This paper addresses the identification and partial characterization of a new killer toxin from Torulaspora delbrueckii with potential biocontrol activity of Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Pichia guilliermondii, Pichia manshurica and Pichia membranifaciens wine spoilage. A panel of 18 different wine strains of T. delbrueckii killer yeasts was analysed, and the strain T. delbrueckii NPCC 1033 (TdKT producer) showed a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of all different spoilage yeasts evaluated. The TdKT toxin was then subjected to a partial biochemical characterization. Its estimated molecular weight was N30 kDa and it showed glucanase and chitinase enzymatic activities. The killer activity was stable between pH 4.2 and 4.8 and inactivated at temperature above 40 °C. Pustulan and chitin — but not other cell wall polysaccharides — prevented sensitive yeast cells from being killed by TdKT, suggesting that those may be the first toxin targets in the cell wall. TdKT provoked an increase in necrosis cell death after 3 h treatment and apoptotic cell death after 24 h showing time dependence in its mechanisms of action. Killer toxin extracts were active at oenological conditions, confirming their potential use as a biocontrol tool in winemaking.

  13. Hyperspectral scattering profiles for prediction of the microbial spoilage of beef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yankun; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Jianhu; Hang, Hui

    2009-05-01

    Spoilage in beef is the result of decomposition and the formation of metabolites caused by the growth and enzymatic activity of microorganisms. There is still no technology for the rapid, accurate and non-destructive detection of bacterially spoiled or contaminated beef. In this study, hyperspectral imaging technique was exploited to measure biochemical changes within the fresh beef. Fresh beef rump steaks were purchased from a commercial plant, and left to spoil in refrigerator at 8°C. Every 12 hours, hyperspectral scattering profiles over the spectral region between 400 nm and 1100 nm were collected directly from the sample surface in reflection pattern in order to develop an optimal model for prediction of the beef spoilage, in parallel the total viable count (TVC) per gram of beef were obtained by classical microbiological plating methods. The spectral scattering profiles at individual wavelengths were fitted accurately by a two-parameter Lorentzian distribution function. TVC prediction models were developed, using multi-linear regression, on relating individual Lorentzian parameters and their combinations at different wavelengths to log10(TVC) value. The best predictions were obtained with r2= 0.96 and SEP = 0.23 for log10(TVC). The research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging technique is a valid tool for real-time and non-destructive detection of bacterial spoilage in beef.

  14. Spoilage of foods monitored by native fluorescence spectroscopy with selective excitation wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Yang; Wang, Wubao; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-03-01

    The modern food processing and storage environments require the real-time monitoring and rapid microbiological testing. Optical spectroscopy with selective excitation wavelengths can be the basis of a novel, rapid, reagent less, noncontact and non-destructive technique for monitoring the food spoilage. The native fluorescence spectra of muscle foods stored at 2-4°C (in refrigerator) and 20-24°C (in room temperature) were measured as a function of time with a selective excitation wavelength of 340nm. The contributions of the principal molecular components to the native fluorescence spectra of meat were measured spectra of each fluorophore: collagen, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and flavin. The responsible components were extracted using a method namely Multivariate Curve Resolution with Alternating Least-Squares (MCR-ALS). The native fluorescence combined with MCR-ALS can be used directly on the surface of meat to produce biochemically interpretable "fingerprints", which reflects the microbial spoilage of foods involved with the metabolic processes. The results show that with time elapse, the emission from NADH in meat stored at 24°C increases much faster than that at 4°C. This is because multiplying of microorganisms and catabolism are accompanied by the generation of NADH. This study presents changes of relative content of NADH may be used as criterion for detection of spoilage degree of meat using native fluorescence spectroscopy.

  15. Evaluation of the spoilage potential of bacteria isolated from chilled chicken in vitro and in situ.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Yu; Wang, Hu-Hu; Han, Yi-Wei; Xing, Tong; Ye, Ke-Ping; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhou, Guang-Hong

    2017-05-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in the spoilage of chilled chicken. In this study, a total of 53 isolates, belonging to 7 species of 3 genera, were isolated using a selective medium based on the capacity to spoil chicken juice. Four isolates, namely Aeromonas salmonicida 35, Pseudomonas fluorescens H5, Pseudomonas fragi H8 and Serratia liquefaciens 17, were further characterized to assess their proteolytic activities in vitro using meat protein extracts and to evaluate their spoilage potential in situ. The in vitro studies showed that A. salmonicida 35 displayed the strongest proteolytic activity against both sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins. However, the major spoilage isolate in situ was P. fragi H8, which exhibited a fast growth rate, slime formation and increased pH and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) on chicken breast fillets. The relative amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from the microorganisms, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and several sulfur compounds, increased during storage. In sum, this study demonstrated the characteristics of 4 potential spoilage bacteria on chilled yellow-feather chicken and provides a simple and convenient method to assess spoilage bacteria during quality management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of plasmids in Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 hop tolerance and beer spoilage.

    PubMed

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Baecker, Nina; Pittet, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2015-02-01

    Specific isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can grow in the harsh beer environment, thus posing a threat to brew quality and the economic success of breweries worldwide. Plasmid-localized genes, such as horA, horC, and hitA, have been suggested to confer hop tolerance, a trait required for LAB survival in beer. The presence and expression of these genes among LAB, however, do not universally correlate with the ability to grow in beer. Genome sequencing of the virulent beer spoilage organism Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 revealed the presence of eight plasmids, with plasmids 1, 2, and 3 containing horA, horC, and hitA, respectively. To investigate the roles that these and the other five plasmids play in L. brevis BSO 464 growth in beer, plasmid curing with novobiocin was used to derive 10 plasmid variants. Multiplex PCRs were utilized to determine the presence or absence of each plasmid, and how plasmid loss affected hop tolerance and growth in degassed (noncarbonated) beer was assessed. Loss of three of the eight plasmids was found to affect hop tolerance and growth in beer. Loss of plasmid 2 (horC and 28 other genes) had the most dramatic effect, with loss of plasmid 4 (120 genes) and plasmid 8 (47 genes) having significant, but smaller, impacts. These results support the contention that genes on mobile genetic elements are essential for bacterial growth in beer and that beer spoilage ability is not dependent solely on the three previously described hop tolerance genes or on the chromosome of a beer spoilage LAB isolate.

  17. Role of Plasmids in Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 Hop Tolerance and Beer Spoilage

    PubMed Central

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Baecker, Nina; Pittet, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Specific isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can grow in the harsh beer environment, thus posing a threat to brew quality and the economic success of breweries worldwide. Plasmid-localized genes, such as horA, horC, and hitA, have been suggested to confer hop tolerance, a trait required for LAB survival in beer. The presence and expression of these genes among LAB, however, do not universally correlate with the ability to grow in beer. Genome sequencing of the virulent beer spoilage organism Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 revealed the presence of eight plasmids, with plasmids 1, 2, and 3 containing horA, horC, and hitA, respectively. To investigate the roles that these and the other five plasmids play in L. brevis BSO 464 growth in beer, plasmid curing with novobiocin was used to derive 10 plasmid variants. Multiplex PCRs were utilized to determine the presence or absence of each plasmid, and how plasmid loss affected hop tolerance and growth in degassed (noncarbonated) beer was assessed. Loss of three of the eight plasmids was found to affect hop tolerance and growth in beer. Loss of plasmid 2 (horC and 28 other genes) had the most dramatic effect, with loss of plasmid 4 (120 genes) and plasmid 8 (47 genes) having significant, but smaller, impacts. These results support the contention that genes on mobile genetic elements are essential for bacterial growth in beer and that beer spoilage ability is not dependent solely on the three previously described hop tolerance genes or on the chromosome of a beer spoilage LAB isolate. PMID:25501474

  18. High pressure inactivation of Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, and spoilage microbiota on poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Betti, Mirko; Gänzle, Michael G

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the high pressure inactivation of Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, and poultry meat spoilage organisms. All treatments were performed in aseptically prepared minced poultry meat. Treatment of 19 strains of C. jejuni at 300 MPa and 30°C revealed a large variation of pressure resistance. The recovery of pressure-induced sublethally injured C. jejuni depended on the availability of iron. The addition of iron content to enumeration media was required for resuscitation of sublethally injured cells. Survival of C. jejuni during storage of refrigerated poultry meat was analyzed in fresh and pressuretreated poultry meat, and in the presence or absence of spoilage microbiota. The presence of spoilage microbiota did not significantly influence the survival of C. jejuni. Pressure treatment at 400 MPa and 40°C reduced cell counts of Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium divergens, C. jejuni, and Pseudomonas fluorescens to levels below the detection limit. Cell counts of E. coli AW1.7, however, were reduced by only 3.5 log (CFU/g) and remained stable during subsequent refrigerated storage. The resistance to treatment at 600 MPa and 40°C of E. coli AW1.7 was compared with Salmonella enterica, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and nonpathogenic E. coli strains, and Staphylococcus spp. Cell counts of all organisms except E. coli AW 1.7 were reduced by more than 6 log CFU/g. Cell counts of E. coli AW1.7 were reduced by 4.5 log CFU/g only. Moreover, the ability of E. coli AW1.7 to resist pressure was comparable to the pressure-resistant mutant E. coli LMM1030. Our results indicate that preservation of fresh meat requires a combination of high pressure with high temperature (40 to 60°C) or other antimicrobial hurdles.

  19. Candida davenportii sp. nov., a potential soft-drinks spoilage yeast isolated from a wasp.

    PubMed

    Stratford, M; Bond, C J; James, S A; Roberts, N; Steels, H

    2002-07-01

    During a survey of yeast ecology in a soft-drinks production facility, a dead wasp was removed from the sampling tap of an external sugar-syrup storage tank. A yeast isolated from the dead wasp was found to be similar, although not identical, in its physiological characteristics to Candida lactis-condensi and Candida stellata. Sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 variable domain revealed that this isolate was most closely related to C stellata, but differed sufficiently in its D1/D2 sequence to indicate that it belonged to a separate species. The yeast species has been named Candida davenportii sp. nov.; the type strain is NCYC 3013T (= CBS 9069T). C davenportii sp. nov. was osmotolerant, moderately preservative-resistant and able to grow in very acidic conditions, i.e. pH 14. This yeast grew well in fruit-containing soft drinks, cola-type beverages and a synthetic soft drink and is therefore a potential cause of spoilage of soft drinks and other sugary food products. Other related yeast species in the same taxonomic clade as C davenportii sp. nov. are also osmotolerant, growing in < 50% (w/v) sugar. Many of these species are associated with insects, specifically bees, bumblebees and leafcutter bees, and many have been reported as the causative agent of spoilage of sugary foods, such as condensed milk, fruit juices and concentrates. It is proposed that C davenportii sp. nov. and other closely related yeasts are primarily associated with Aculeates (bees and wasps). In turn, bees and wasps are attracted by sugary residues in foods such as fruit juices and concentrates, forming the source of infection of these yeasts and thus instigating spoilage.

  20. Behaviour of co-inoculated pathogenic and spoilage bacteria on poultry following several decontamination treatments.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Hernando, Alicia; Capita, Rosa; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    The potential of chemical decontaminants to cause harmful effects on human health is among the causes of the rejection of antimicrobial treatments for removing surface contamination from poultry carcasses in the European Union. This study was undertaken to determine whether decontaminants might give a competitive advantage to pathogenic bacteria on poultry and involve a potential risk to consumer. A total of 144 chicken legs were co-inoculated with similar concentrations of pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis or Escherichia coli) and spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta or Pseudomonas fluorescens). Samples were dipped for 15min in solutions (w/v) of trisodium phosphate (12%; TSP), acidified sodium chlorite (1200ppm; ASC), citric acid (2%; CA), peroxyacids (220ppm; PA) or chlorine dioxide (50ppm; CD), or were left untreated (control). Microbiological analyses were carried out on day 0 and every 24h until day 7 of storage (at 10±1°C). The modified Gompertz equation was used as the primary model to fit observed data. TSP, ASC and CA were effective in extending the lag phase (L, ranging from 1.47±1.34days to 4.06±1.16days) and in decreasing the concentration of bacteria during the stationary phase (D, ranging from 2.46±0.51 log(10) cfu/cm(2) to 8.64±0.53 log(10) cfu/cm(2)), relative to the control samples (L values ranging from 0.59±0.38days and 2.52±2.28days, and D values ranging from 6.32±0.89 log(10) cfu/cm(2) to 9.39±0.39 log(10) cfu/cm(2), respectively). Both on untreated and on most decontaminated samples the overgrowth of spoilage bacteria among the species tested was observed throughout storage, suggesting that spoilage would occur prior to any noteworthy increase in the levels of pathogenic microorganisms. However, L. monocytogenes counts similar to, or higher than, those for spoilage bacteria were observed on samples treated with TSP, ASC or CA, suggesting that these

  1. Development and application of Geobacillus stearothermophilus growth model for predicting spoilage of evaporated milk.

    PubMed

    Kakagianni, Myrsini; Gougouli, Maria; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2016-08-01

    The presence of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores in evaporated milk constitutes an important quality problem for the milk industry. This study was undertaken to provide an approach in modelling the effect of temperature on G. stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 growth and in predicting spoilage of evaporated milk. The growth of G. stearothermophilus was monitored in tryptone soy broth at isothermal conditions (35-67 °C). The data derived were used to model the effect of temperature on G. stearothermophilus growth with a cardinal type model. The cardinal values of the model for the maximum specific growth rate were Tmin = 33.76 °C, Tmax = 68.14 °C, Topt = 61.82 °C and μopt = 2.068/h. The growth of G. stearothermophilus was assessed in evaporated milk at Topt in order to adjust the model to milk. The efficiency of the model in predicting G. stearothermophilus growth at non-isothermal conditions was evaluated by comparing predictions with observed growth under dynamic conditions and the results showed a good performance of the model. The model was further used to predict the time-to-spoilage (tts) of evaporated milk. The spoilage of this product caused by acid coagulation when the pH approached a level around 5.2, eight generations after G. stearothermophilus reached the maximum population density (Nmax). Based on the above, the tts was predicted from the growth model as the sum of the time required for the microorganism to multiply from the initial to the maximum level ( [Formula: see text] ), plus the time required after the [Formula: see text] to complete eight generations. The observed tts was very close to the predicted one indicating that the model is able to describe satisfactorily the growth of G. stearothermophilus and to provide realistic predictions for evaporated milk spoilage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The use of chitooligosaccharide in beer brewing for protection against beer-spoilage bacteria and its influence on beer performance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue; Yu, Zhimin; Wang, Ting; Guo, Xuan; Luan, Jing; Sun, Yumei; Li, Xianzhen

    2016-04-01

    To identify a biological preservative that can protect beer from microbial contamination, which often results in the production of turbidity and off-flavor. The antimicrobial activity of a chitooligosaccharide against beer-spoilage bacteria and its effect on the fermentation performance of brewer's yeast was studied. Chitooligosaccharide with an average 2 kDa molecular weight was the best at inhibiting all tested beer-spoilage bacteria. The application of chitooligosaccharide in the brewing process did not influence the fermentation of brewer's yeast. The change in beer performance induced by the contamination of Lactobacillus brevis could be effectively controlled by application of chitooligosaccharide in the beer brewing process. The experimental data suggested that chitooligosaccharide should be an excellent preservative to inhibit beer-spoilage bacteria in the brewing process and in the end product.

  3. The viable but nonculturable state induction and genomic analyses of Lactobacillus casei BM-LC14617, a beer-spoilage bacterium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Peters, Brian M; Li, Bing; Chen, Lequn; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state and genomic features of a beer-spoilage strain, Lactobacillus caseiBM-LC14617. Induction on the VBNC state of L. casei strain BM-LC14617 was conducted by both low-temperature storage and continuous passage in beer, and formation of VBNC state was detected after 196 ± 3.3 days and 32 ± 1.6 subcultures, respectively. Resuscitation of VBNC cells was successfully induced by addition of catalase, and culturable, VBNC, and resuscitated cells shared similar beer-spoilage capability. Whole genome sequencing was performed, and out of a total of 3,964 predicted genes, several potential VBNC and beer-spoilage-associated genes were identified. L. casei is capable of entering into and resuscitating from the VBNC state and possesses beer-spoilage capability. The genomic characterization yield insightful elucidation of VBNC state for L. casei. This study represents the first evidence on VBNC state induction of L. casei and beer-spoilage capability of VBNC and resuscitated cells. Also, this is the first genomic characterization of L. casei as a beer-spoilage bacterium. The current study may aid in further study on L. casei and other beer-spoilage bacteria, and guide the prevention and control of beer spoilage. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Fabrication, stability and efficacy of dual-component antimicrobial nanoemulsions: essential oil (thyme oil) and cationic surfactant (lauric arginate).

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuhua; McLandsborough, Lynne; McClements, David Julian

    2015-04-01

    The influence of a cationic surfactant (lauric arginate, LAE) on the physical properties and antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil nanoemulsions was investigated. Nanoemulsions prepared from pure thyme oil were highly unstable due to Ostwald ripening, but they could be stabilized by adding a ripening inhibitor (corn oil) to the oil phase prior to homogenisation. The loading capacity and antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil nanoemulsions were significantly increased by adding LAE. In the absence of LAE, at least 60 wt% corn oil had to be added to the lipid phase to inhibit Ostwald ripening; but in the presence of 0.1 wt% LAE, only 30 wt% corn oil was needed. LAE addition substantially increased the antimicrobial efficacy of the thyme oil nanoemulsions: 200 μg/ml thyme oil was needed to inhibit growth of a spoilage yeast (Zygosaccharomyces bailii) if LAE was added, whereas ⩾ 400 μg/ml was needed in the absence of LAE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation products in bread-making to prevent Bacillus subtilis ropy spoilage.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Francesca; De Bellis, Palmira; Lonigro, Stella L; Visconti, Angelo; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2008-03-20

    Four fermentation products (FPs) of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum ITM21B were screened for their anti-Bacillus activity in vitro and in bread-making trials. Results of the storage tests performed with loaves prepared with an FP or calcium propionate demonstrated that after 3 days at 30 degrees C, gross spoilage was evident in only the control loaves, which contained Bacillus subtilis at numbers of about 10(9) cfu/g. The highest inhibitory activity was shown by DM-FP obtained by growing L. plantarum in a defined medium (DM). Significantly, this medium contained an amino acceptor of the aminoacid transamination, namely alpha-ketoglutaric acid, and an aminoacid pool. With loaves prepared using the DM-acid mixture which simulated the DM-FP composition, the same reduction of ropy spoilage as with DM-FP was obtained after 3 days, while the efficacy of the mixture decreased after 7 days. This result suggests the potential involvement of some unknown metabolites in the inhibitory activity of DM-FP. In baked products made with flour based media (M1-FP, M2-FP, M3-FP), no ropy symptoms were noticeable after 3 days storage although a considerable Bacillus count was detected. DM-FP was as effective as calcium propionate (0.3% w/w, based on flour mass) in prolonging the Bacillus free-shelf life of yeast-leavened bread for 7 days.

  6. Optimising the inactivation of grape juice spoilage organisms by pulse electric fields.

    PubMed

    Marsellés-Fontanet, A Robert; Puig, Anna; Olmos, Paola; Mínguez-Sanz, Santiago; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2009-04-15

    The effect of some pulsed electric field (PEF) processing parameters (electric field strength, pulse frequency and treatment time), on a mixture of microorganisms (Kloeckera apiculata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus hilgardii and Gluconobacter oxydans) typically present in grape juice and wine were evaluated. An experimental design based on response surface methodology (RSM) was used and results were also compared with those of a factorially designed experiment. The relationship between the levels of inactivation of microorganisms and the energy applied to the grape juice was analysed. Yeast and bacteria were inactivated by the PEF treatments, with reductions that ranged from 2.24 to 3.94 log units. All PEF parameters affected microbial inactivation. Optimal inactivation of the mixture of spoilage microorganisms was predicted by the RSM models at 35.0 kV cm(-1) with 303 Hz pulse width for 1 ms. Inactivation was greater for yeasts than for bacteria, as was predicted by the RSM. The maximum efficacy of the PEF treatment for inactivation of microorganisms in grape juice was observed around 1500 MJ L(-1) for all the microorganisms investigated. The RSM could be used in the fruit juice industry to optimise the inactivation of spoilage microorganisms by PEF.

  7. Controlling Brochothrix thermosphacta as a spoilage risk using in-package atmospheric cold plasma.

    PubMed

    Patange, Apurva; Boehm, Daniela; Bueno-Ferrer, Carmen; Cullen, P J; Bourke, Paula

    2017-09-01

    Brochothrix thermosphacta is the predominant spoilage microorganism in meat and its control in processing environments is important to maintain meat product quality. Atmospheric cold plasma is of interest for control of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in foods. This study ascertained the potential of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (DBD-ACP) for control of B. thermosphacta, taking microbial and food environment factors into consideration, and investigated the shelf-life of lamb chop after in-package plasma treatment in modified atmosphere. Community profiling was used to assess the treatment effects on the lamb microflora. ACP treatment (80 kV) for 30s inactivated B. thermosphacta populations below detection levels in PBS, while 5 min treatment achieved a 2 Log cycle reduction using a complex meat model medium and attached cells. The antimicrobial efficacy of plasma was reduced but still apparent on lamb chop surface-inoculated with high concentrations of B. thermosphacta. Lamb chop treated under modified atmosphere exhibited reduced microbial growth over the product shelf-life and community profiling showed no evident changes to the microbial populations after the treatment. The overall results indicated potential of ACP to enhance microbial control leading to meat storage life extension through adjusting the modality of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk assessment of fungal spoilage: A case study of Aspergillus niger on yogurt.

    PubMed

    Gougouli, Maria; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2017-08-01

    A quantitative risk assessment model of yogurt spoilage by Aspergillus niger was developed based on a stochastic modeling approach for mycelium growth by taking into account the important sources of variability such as time-temperature conditions during the different stages of chill chain and individual spore behavior. Input parameters were fitted to the appropriate distributions and A. niger colony's diameter at each stage of the chill chain was estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. By combining the output of the growth model with the fungus prevalence, that can be estimated by the industry using challenge tests, the risk of spoilage translated to number of yogurt cups in which a visible mycelium of A. niger is being formed at the time of consumption was assessed. The risk assessment output showed that for a batch of 100,000 cups in which the percentage of contaminated cups with A. niger was 1% the predicted numbers (median (5 th , 95 th percentiles)) of the cups with a visible mycelium at consumption time were 8 (5, 14). For higher percentages of 3, 5 and 10 the predicted numbers (median (5 th , 95 th percentiles)) of the spoiled cups at consumption time were estimated to be 24 (16, 35), 39 (29, 52) and 80 (64, 94), respectively. The developed model can lead to a more effective risk-based quality management of yogurt and support the decision making in yogurt production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of a potentially novel 'blown pack' spoilage bacterium isolated from bovine hide.

    PubMed

    Moschonas, G; Bolton, D J

    2013-03-01

    To characterize a psychrotrophic bacterium, designated TC1, previously isolated from a cattle hide in Ireland, and to investigate the ability of this strain to cause 'blown pack' spoilage (BPS) of vacuum-packaged beef primals. TC1 was characterized using a combination of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic analyses and was assessed for its ability to spoil vacuum-packaged beef at refrigerated temperatures. TC1 was Gram-positive and formed elliptical subterminal endospores. The strain was able to grow between 0 and 33 °C, with optimal growth between 23 and 24 °C. TC1 could be differentiated from its phylogenetically closest neighbour (Clostridium lituseburense DSM 797(T)) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and cellular fatty acid composition. TC1 spoiled (BPS) beef within 42 days when inoculated in cold-stored (1 °C) vacuum-packed beef. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characterization indicated that TC1 may represent a potentially novel, cold-tolerant, gas-producing bacterium of considerable economic significance to the beef industry. This study reports and characterizes an emerging BPS bacterium, which should be considered in future activities designed to minimize the psychrophilic and psychrotrophic spoilage of vacuum-packaged beef. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Characterisation and detection of spoilage mould responsible for black spot in dry-cured fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; Rodríguez, Alicia; Cordero, Mirian; Bernáldez, Victoria; Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Córdoba, Juan J

    2015-02-01

    Moulds responsible for black spot spoilage of dry-cured fermented sausages were characterised. For this purpose, samples were taken from those dry-cured fermented sausages which showed black spot alteration. Most of the mould strains were first tentatively identified as Penicillium spp. due to their morphological characteristics in different culture conditions, with one strain as Cladosporium sp. The Cladosporium strain was the only one which provoked blackening in culture media. This strain was further characterised by sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA and β-tubulin genes. This mould strain was able to reproduce black spot formation in dry-cured fermented sausage 'salchichón' throughout the ripening process. In addition, a specific and sensitive real-time PCR method was also developed to detect Cladosporium oxysporum responsible for the black spot formation in sausages. This method could be of great interest for the meat industry to detect samples contaminated with this mould before spoilage of product avoiding economic losses for this sector.

  11. American Lobsters (Homarus Americanus) not Surviving During Air Transport: Evaluation of Microbial Spoilage

    PubMed Central

    Tirloni, Erica; Stella, Simone; Gennari, Mario; Colombo, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Eighteen American lobsters (Homarus americanus), dead during air transport, were analysed in order to evaluate the microbial population of meat, gills and gut: no specific studies have ever been conducted so far on the microbiological quality of American lobsters’ meats in terms of spoilage microbiota. The meat samples showed very limited total viable counts, in almost all the cases below the level of 6 Log CFU/g, while higher loads were found, as expected, in gut and gills, the most probable source of contamination. These data could justify the possibility to commercialise these not-surviving subjects, without quality concerns for the consumers. Most of the isolates resulted to be clustered with type strains of Pseudoalteromonas spp. (43.1%) and Photobacterium spp. (24.1%), and in particular to species related to the natural marine environment. The distribution of the genera showed a marked inhomogeneity among the samples. The majority of the isolates identified resulted to possess proteolytic (69.3%) and lipolytic ability (75.5%), suggesting their potential spoilage ability. The maintanance of good hygienical practices, especially during the production of ready-to-eat lobsters-based products, and a proper storage could limit the possible replication of these microorganisms. PMID:27800442

  12. Antagonistic intestinal microflora produces antimicrobial substance inhibitory to Pseudomonas species and other spoilage organisms.

    PubMed

    Hatew, Bayissa; Delessa, Tenagne; Zakin, Vered; Gollop, Natan

    2011-10-01

    Chicken intestine harbors a vast number of bacterial strains. In the present study, antimicrobial substance produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy chicken was detected, characterized, and purified. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, the bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum vN. The antimicrobial substance produced by this bacterium was designated vN-1 and exhibited a broad-spectrum of activity against many important pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Erwinia amylovova. vN-1 was determined to be thermostable, insensitive to pH values ranging from 2.0 to 8.0, resistant to various organic solvents and to enzymatic inactivation. The inhibition kinetics displayed a bactericidal mode of action. This study revealed an antimicrobial substance with low molecular mass of less than 1 kDa as determined by ultrafiltration and having features not previously reported for LAB isolated from chicken intestines. The detection of this antimicrobial substance addresses an important aspect of biotechnological control agents of spoilage caused by Pseudomonas spp. and promises the possibility for preservation of refrigerated poultry meat. Practical Application:  The newly characterized antimicrobial substance and designated as vN-1 may have the potential to be used in food preservation. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Mapping microbial ecosystems and spoilage-gene flow in breweries highlights patterns of contamination and resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Ziola, Barry; Mills, David A

    2015-01-01

    Distinct microbial ecosystems have evolved to meet the challenges of indoor environments, shaping the microbial communities that interact most with modern human activities. Microbial transmission in food-processing facilities has an enormous impact on the qualities and healthfulness of foods, beneficially or detrimentally interacting with food products. To explore modes of microbial transmission and spoilage-gene frequency in a commercial food-production scenario, we profiled hop-resistance gene frequencies and bacterial and fungal communities in a brewery. We employed a Bayesian approach for predicting routes of contamination, revealing critical control points for microbial management. Physically mapping microbial populations over time illustrates patterns of dispersal and identifies potential contaminant reservoirs within this environment. Habitual exposure to beer is associated with increased abundance of spoilage genes, predicting greater contamination risk. Elucidating the genetic landscapes of indoor environments poses important practical implications for food-production systems and these concepts are translatable to other built environments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04634.001 PMID:25756611

  14. The Occurrence of Beer Spoilage Lactic Acid Bacteria in Craft Beer Production.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Cristiana; Osimani, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Taccari, Manuela; Aquilanti, Lucia; Clementi, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Beer is one of the world's most ancient and widely consumed fermented alcoholic beverages produced with water, malted cereal grains (generally barley and wheat), hops, and yeast. Beer is considered an unfavorable substrate of growth for many microorganisms, however, there are a limited number of bacteria and yeasts, which are capable of growth and may spoil beer especially if it is not pasteurized or sterile-filtered as craft beer. The aim of this research study was to track beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inside a brewery and during the craft beer production process. To that end, indoor air and work surface samples, collected in the brewery under study, together with commercial active dry yeasts, exhausted yeasts, yeast pellet (obtained after mature beer centrifugation), and spoiled beers were analyzed through culture-dependent methods and PCR-DGGE in order to identify the contaminant LAB species and the source of contamination. Lactobacillus brevis was detected in a spoiled beer and in a commercial active dry yeast. Other LAB species and bacteria ascribed to Staphylococcus sp., Enterobaceriaceae, and Acetobacter sp. were found in the brewery. In conclusion, the PCR-DGGE technique coupled with the culture-dependent method was found to be a useful tool for identifying the beer spoilage bacteria and the source of contamination. The analyses carried out on raw materials, by-products, final products, and the brewery were useful for implementing a sanitization plan to be adopted in the production plant. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Quantifying the spoilage and shelf-life of yoghurt with fruits.

    PubMed

    Mataragas, M; Dimitriou, V; Skandamis, P N; Drosinos, E H

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a predictive model to quantify the spoilage of yoghurt with fruits. Product samples were stored at various temperatures (5-20 °C). Samples were subjected to microbiological (total viable counts, lactic acid bacteria-LAB, yeasts and moulds) and physico-chemical analysis (pH, titratable acidity and sugars). LAB was the dominant micro-flora. Yeasts population increased at all temperatures but a delay was observed during the first days of storage. Titratable acidity and pH remained almost constant at low temperatures (5 and 10 °C). However, at higher temperatures (>10 °C), an increase in titratable acidity and reduction in pH was observed. Sugar concentration (fructose, lactose and glucose) decreased during storage. A mathematical model was developed for shelf-life determination of the product. It was successfully validated at a temperature (17 °C) not used during model development. The results showed that shelf-life of this product could not be established based only on microbiological data and use of other parameters such as sensory or/and physico-chemical analysis is required. Shelf-life determination by spoilage tests is time-consuming and the need for new rapid techniques has been raised. The developed model could help dairy industries to establish shelf-life predictions on yoghurt with fruits stored under constant temperature conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A paper-based Colorimetric Indicator Label using Natural Dye for Monitoring Shrimp Spoilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Listyarini, A.; Sholihah, W.; Imawan, C.

    2018-05-01

    Shrimp is a type of perishable food. This study developed a simple indicator label using colorimetric method for monitoring shrimp freshness. This indicator label was made from natural dye extract of Ruellia simplex flowers which immobilized on cellulose paper by dip coating method. The indicator labels were used for examining freshness of shrimp. In this experiment, shrimp were stored in sealed bottles that have been labeled using the indicator and stored at 13 °C, 25 °C, and 40 °C for a certain range of time. Color changes of the indicator labels were observed using digital photography after shrimp storage for 0 h, 2 h, 17 h and 24 h. The color changes that occur were quantified and analyzed using the ImageJ program. The color of the indicator label when detecting the fresh shrimp was pink and after the shrimp spoilage began, the color of the label changed to purple and then became yellow when the shrimp is badly spoilage. The color change rates of label indicator increases as the shrimp storage temperature increased. These results indicate that this label indicator can be used as an indicator of the freshness of shrimps and it is not toxic and safe for food.

  17. Optimized dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles and antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espitia, Paula Judith Perez; Soares, Nilda de Fátima Ferreira; Teófilo, Reinaldo F.; Vitor, Débora M.; Coimbra, Jane Sélia dos Reis; de Andrade, Nélio José; de Sousa, Frederico B.; Sinisterra, Rubén D.; Medeiros, Eber Antonio Alves

    2013-01-01

    Single primary nanoparticles of zinc oxide (nanoZnO) tend to form particle collectives, resulting in loss of antimicrobial activity. This work studied the effects of probe sonication conditions: power, time, and the presence of a dispersing agent (Na4P2O7), on the size of nanoZnO particles. NanoZnO dispersion was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and characterized by the zeta potential (ZP) technique. NanoZnO antimicrobial activity was investigated at different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 % w/w) against four foodborne pathogens and four spoilage microorganisms. The presence of the dispersing agent had a significant effect on the size of dispersed nanoZnO. Minimum size after sonication was 238 nm. An optimal dispersion condition was achieved at 200 W for 45 min of sonication in the presence of the dispersing agent. ZP analysis indicated that the ZnO nanoparticle surface charge was altered by the addition of the dispersing agent and changes in pH. At tested concentrations and optimal dispersion, nanoZnO had no antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Listeria monocytogenes. However, it did have antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger. Based on the exhibited antimicrobial activity of optimized nanoZnO against some foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, nanoZnO is a promising antimicrobial for food preservation with potential application for incorporation in polymers intended as food-contact surfaces.

  18. Lactic acid bacteria with potential to eliminate fungal spoilage in foods.

    PubMed

    Rouse, S; Harnett, D; Vaughan, A; van Sinderen, D

    2008-03-01

    To investigate antifungal activity produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from malted cereals and to determine if such LAB have the capacity to prevent fungal growth in a particular food model system. The effect of pH, temperature and carbon source on production of antifungal activity by four LAB was determined. Pediococcus pentosaceus was used to conduct a trial to determine if it is feasible to eliminate Penicillium expansum, the mould responsible for apple rot, using an apple model. Penicillium expansum was incapable of growth during the trial on apple-based agar plates inoculated with the antifungal-producing culture, whereas the mould did grow on apple plates inoculated with an LAB possessing no antifungal activity. Partial characterization of the antifungal compounds indicates that their activity is likely to be because of production of antifungal peptides. The trial conducted showed that the antifungal culture has the ability to prevent growth of the mould involved in apple spoilage, using apples as a model. The ability of an LAB to prevent growth of Pen. expansum using the apple model suggests that these antifungal LAB have potential applications in the food industry to prevent fungal spoilage of food.

  19. American Lobsters (Homarus Americanus) not Surviving During Air Transport: Evaluation of Microbial Spoilage.

    PubMed

    Tirloni, Erica; Stella, Simone; Gennari, Mario; Colombo, Fabio; Bernardi, Cristian

    2016-04-19

    Eighteen American lobsters ( Homarus americanus ), dead during air transport, were analysed in order to evaluate the microbial population of meat, gills and gut: no specific studies have ever been conducted so far on the microbiological quality of American lobsters' meats in terms of spoilage microbiota. The meat samples showed very limited total viable counts, in almost all the cases below the level of 6 Log CFU/g, while higher loads were found, as expected, in gut and gills, the most probable source of contamination. These data could justify the possibility to commercialise these not-surviving subjects, without quality concerns for the consumers. Most of the isolates resulted to be clustered with type strains of Pseudoalteromonas spp. (43.1%) and Photobacterium spp. (24.1%), and in particular to species related to the natural marine environment. The distribution of the genera showed a marked inhomogeneity among the samples. The majority of the isolates identified resulted to possess proteolytic (69.3%) and lipolytic ability (75.5%), suggesting their potential spoilage ability. The maintanance of good hygienical practices, especially during the production of ready-to-eat lobsters-based products, and a proper storage could limit the possible replication of these microorganisms.

  20. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

  1. Biogenic amines in fish: roles in intoxication, spoilage, and nitrosamine formation--a review.

    PubMed

    Al Bulushi, Ismail; Poole, Susan; Deeth, Hilton C; Dykes, Gary A

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic amines are non-volatile amines formed by decarboxylation of amino acids. Although many biogenic amines have been found in fish, only histamine, cadaverine, and putrescine have been found to be significant in fish safety and quality determination. Despite a widely reported association between histamine and scombroid food poisoning, histamine alone appears to be insufficient to cause food toxicity. Putrescine and cadaverine have been suggested to potentiate histamine toxicity. With respect to spoilage on the other hand, only cadaverine has been found to be a useful index of the initial stage of fish decomposition. The relationship between biogenic amines, sensory evaluation, and trimethylamine during spoilage are influenced by bacterial composition and free amino acid content. A mesophilic bacterial count of log 6-7 cfu/g has been found to be associated with 5 mg histamine/100 g fish, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) maximum allowable histamine level. In vitro studies have shown the involvement of cadaverine and putrescine in the formation of nitrosamines, nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), and nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), respectively. In addition, impure salt, high temperature, and low pH enhance nitrosamine formation, whereas pure sodium chloride inhibits their formation. Understanding the relationships between biogenic amines and their involvement in the formation of nitrosamines could explain the mechanism of scombroid poisoning and assure the safety of many fish products.

  2. Spoilage Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Have you ever tucked away a piece of fruit for later and returned to find it past its prime? Or found some leftovers that had outlived their welcome in the refrigerator? Whether it's fresh or processed, all food eventually spoils. Methods such as freezing, canning, and the use of preservatives lengthen the lifespan of foods, and we--and the modern…

  3. Characterization of the spoilage potential of pure and mixed cultures of bacterial species isolated from tropical yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares).

    PubMed

    Silbande, A; Cornet, J; Cardinal, M; Chevalier, F; Rochefort, K; Smith-Ravin, J; Adenet, S; Leroi, F

    2018-02-01

    The spoilage potential of 28 bacterial strains isolated from spoiled raw yellowfin tuna was evaluated. Bacterial species were inoculated in irradiated tuna matrix. Chemical changes, bacterial growth and sensory quality were monitored during aerobic storage at 8°C. Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia hermanii had no spoiling effect. Brochothrix thermosphacta and Carnobacterium divergens/maltaromaticum developed moderate unpleasant odours. Hafnia paralvei and Serratia spp. released strong off-odours (pyrrolidine, sulphur/cabbage). No bacterial group (except H. paralvei) combined with Pseudomonas spp. deteriorated the sensory quality of tuna. When C. divergens/maltaromaticum was associated with H. paralvei or B. thermosphacta, the odour is close to the naturally contaminated tuna stored on the same conditions. The pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and trimethylamine (TMA) were not correlated with the spoilage. The bacterial species had a different impact on the sensory quality of the fish. The bacterial interactions lead to an enhancement or an inhibition of the spoilage potential and the bacterial growth. The specific spoilage organism (SSO) appears to be an association of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with Enterobacteriaceae or B. thermosphacta. Pseudomonas, often dominant at the sensory rejection time, is not a good quality indicator. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Formation of biogenic amines and growth of spoilage-related microorganisms in pork stored under different packaging conditions applying PCA.

    PubMed

    Li, Miaoyun; Tian, Lu; Zhao, Gaiming; Zhang, Qiuhui; Gao, Xiaoping; Huang, Xianqing; Sun, Lingxia

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the evolution of biogenic amines and spoilage-related microorganisms of chilled pork stored at 5 °C under various atmospheric conditions. The experimental packaging systems were pallet packaging, vacuum packaging (VP) and modified atmosphere packaging methods (MAP, 40%O2+40%CO2+20%N2), respectively. The results showed that about 74.26% of the variability could be explained by two first principal components analyzed by PCA in the pallet packaging, while in the vacuum and modified atmosphere packagings were about 85.21% and 79.14%, respectively. PC1 differentiated the indicators from packaging conditions. All the five microbial indicators and partial biogenic amines, gathering together, had high values at the positive side of PC1. Putrescine and cadaverine could reflect the spoilage evolution of fresh pork except for those in the pallet. Therefore, putrescine and cadaverine could be used as the spoilage indicators of chilled pork, of which the contents might reflect the spoilage degree. © 2013.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis on the formation of the viable putative non-culturable state of beer-spoilage Lactobacillus acetotolerans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junyan; Deng, Yang; Peters, Brian M.; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Chen, Lequn; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common beer-spoilage bacteria regardless of beer type, and thus pose significant problems for the brewery industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanisms involved in the ability of the hard-to-culture beer-spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus acetotolerans to enter into the viable putative non-culturable (VPNC) state. A genome-wide transcriptional analysis of beer-spoilage L. acetotolerans strains BM-LA14526, BM-LA14527, and BM-LA14528 under normal, mid-term and VPNC states were performed using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and further bioinformatics analyses. GO function, COG category, and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were conducted to investigate functional and related metabolic pathways of the differentially expressed genes. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis indicated that heightened stress response and reduction in genes associated with transport, metabolic process, and enzyme activity might play important roles in the formation of the VPNC state. This is the first transcriptomic analysis on the formation of the VPNC state of beer spoilage L. acetotolerans. PMID:27819317

  6. Transcriptomic analysis on the formation of the viable putative non-culturable state of beer-spoilage Lactobacillus acetotolerans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junyan; Deng, Yang; Peters, Brian M; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Chen, Lequn; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2016-11-07

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common beer-spoilage bacteria regardless of beer type, and thus pose significant problems for the brewery industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanisms involved in the ability of the hard-to-culture beer-spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus acetotolerans to enter into the viable putative non-culturable (VPNC) state. A genome-wide transcriptional analysis of beer-spoilage L. acetotolerans strains BM-LA14526, BM-LA14527, and BM-LA14528 under normal, mid-term and VPNC states were performed using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and further bioinformatics analyses. GO function, COG category, and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were conducted to investigate functional and related metabolic pathways of the differentially expressed genes. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis indicated that heightened stress response and reduction in genes associated with transport, metabolic process, and enzyme activity might play important roles in the formation of the VPNC state. This is the first transcriptomic analysis on the formation of the VPNC state of beer spoilage L. acetotolerans.

  7. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial ins...

  8. Complete genome sequences of two strains of the meat spoilage bacterium Brochothrix thermosphacta isolated from ground chicken

    Brochothrix thermosphacta is an important meat spoilage bacterium. Here we report the genome sequences of two strains of B. thermosphacta isolated from ground chicken. The genome sequences were determined using long-read PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT©) technology and are the first complete ...

  9. Tilapia fish microbial spoilage monitored by a single optical gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Semeano, Ana T S; Maffei, Daniele F; Palma, Susana; Li, Rosamaria W C; Franco, Bernadette D G M; Roque, Ana C A; Gruber, Jonas

    2018-07-01

    As consumption of fish and fish-based foods increases, non-destructive monitoring of fish freshness also becomes more prominent. Fish products are very perishable and prone to microbiological growth, not always easily detected by organoleptic evaluation. The analysis of the headspace of fish specimens through gas sensing is an interesting approach to monitor fish freshness. Here we report a gas sensing method for monitoring Tilapia fish spoilage based on the application of a single gas sensitive gel material coupled to an optical electronic nose. The optical signals of the sensor and the extent of bacterial growth were followed over time, and results indicated good correlation between the two determinations, which suggests the potential application of this simple and low cost system for Tilapia fish freshness monitoring.

  10. Lactobacillus plantarum 29 inhibits Penicillium spp. involved in the spoilage of black truffles (Tuber aestivum).

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Elena; Reale, Anna; Tremonte, Patrizio; Maiuro, Lucia; Succi, Mariantonietta; Tipaldi, Luca; Di Renzo, Tiziana; Pannella, Gianfranco; Coppola, Raffaele

    2013-08-01

    The effect of an antifungal culture of Lactobacillus plantarum to be used in the storage at refrigeration temperature of fresh black truffles was examined. The strain was selected among 29 lactobacilli isolated from foods and evaluated for their viability and acidification activity at 4 °C, as well as for their inhibitory activity against 11 Penicillium strains isolated from truffles stored at refrigeration temperature. Lb. plantarum 29 showed the ability to hold not only the growth of Penicillium isolated from truffles, but also that of P. digitatum DSM 2750, a green mold involved in the spoilage of truffles. The antifungal activity was observed in vitro and in situ, and the sensory characteristics of truffles were preserved during the cold storage. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Use of a MS-electronic nose for prediction of early fungal spoilage of bakery products.

    PubMed

    Marín, S; Vinaixa, M; Brezmes, J; Llobet, E; Vilanova, X; Correig, X; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V

    2007-02-28

    A MS-based electronic nose was used to detect fungal spoilage (measured as ergosterol concentration) in samples of bakery products. Bakery products were inoculated with different Eurotium, Aspergillus and Penicillium species, incubated in sealed vials and their headspace sampled after 2, 4 and 7 days. Once the headspace was sampled, ergosterol content was determined in each sample. Different electronic nose signals were recorded depending on incubation time. Both the e-nose signals and ergosterol levels were used to build models for prediction of ergosterol content using e-nose measurements. Accuracy on prediction of those models was between 87 and 96%, except for samples inoculated with Penicillium corylophilum where the best predictions only reached 46%.

  12. Toxigenic genes, spoilage potential, and antimicrobial resistance of Bacillus cereus group strains from ice cream.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Seza; Eyi, Ayla; Küçüksarı, Rümeysa

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus spp. can be recovered from almost every environment. It is also found readily in foods, where it may cause food spoilage and/or food poisoning due to its toxigenic and pathogenic nature, and extracellular enzymes. In this study, 29 Bacillus cereus group strains from ice cream were examined for the presence of following virulence genes hblC, nheA, cytK and ces genes, and tested for a range of the extracellular enzymes, and antimicrobial susceptibility. The strains were found to produce extracellular enzymes: proteolytic and lipolytic activity, gelatin hydrolysis and lecithinase production (100%), DNase production (93.1%) and amylase activity (93.1%). Of 29 strains examined, 24 (82.8%) showed hemolytic activity on blood agar. Beta-lactamase enzyme was only produced by 20.7% of B. cereus group. Among 29 B. cereus group from ice cream, nheA was the most common virulence gene detected in 44.8% of the strains, followed by hblC gene with 17.2%. Four (13.8%) of the 29 strains were positive for both hblC gene and nheA gene. Contrarily, cytK and ces genes were not detected in any of the strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility of ice cream isolates was tested to 14 different antimicrobial agents using the disc diffusion method. We detected resistance to penicillin and ampicillin with the same rate of 89.7%. Thirty-one percent of the strains were multiresistant to three or more antibiotics. This study emphasizes that the presence of natural isolates of Bacillus spp. harboring one or more enterotoxin genes, producing extracellular enzymes which may cause spoilage and acquiring antibiotic resistance might hold crucial importance in the food safety and quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Survival of Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms on Cardboard and Plastic Packaging Materials

    PubMed Central

    Siroli, Lorenzo; Patrignani, Francesca; Serrazanetti, Diana I.; Chiavari, Cristiana; Benevelli, Marzia; Grazia, Luigi; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of corrugated and plastic materials with pathogenic and spoiling microorganisms frequently associated to fresh produce. The effect of the two packaging materials on the survival during the storage of microorganisms belonging to the species Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Aspergillus flavus was studied through traditional plate counting and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained showed that cardboard materials, if correctly stored, reduced the potential of packaging to cross-contaminate food due to a faster viability loss by spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms compared to the plastic ones. In fact, the cell loads of the pathogenic species considered decreased over time independently on the inoculation level and packaging material used. However, the superficial viability losses were significantly faster in cardboard compared to plastic materials. The same behavior was observed for the spoilage microorganisms considered. The SEM microphotographs indicate that the reduction of superficial contamination on cardboard surfaces was due to the entrapping of the microbial cells within the fibers and the pores of this material. In addition, SEM data showed that the entrapped cells were subjected to more or less rapid lyses, depending on the species, due to the absence of water and nutrients, with the exception of molds. The latter spoilers were able to proliferate inside the cardboard fibers only when the absorption of water was not prevented during the storage. In conclusion, the findings of this work showed the reduction of cross-contamination potential of corrugated compared to plastic packaging materials used in fruit and vegetable sector. However, the findings outlined the importance of hygiene and low humidity during cardboard storage to prevent the mold growth on packaging. PMID:29312271

  14. Development of a novel colorimetric sensor based on alginate beads for monitoring rainbow trout spoilage.

    PubMed

    Majdinasab, Marjan; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hashem; Sepidname, Marziyeh; Negahdarifar, Manizheh; Li, Peiwu

    2018-05-01

    Alginate is a non-toxic, renewable, and linear copolymer obtained from the brown algae Laminaria digitata that can be easily shaped into beads. Its good gel forming properties have made it useful for entrapping food and pharmaceutical ingredients. In this study, alginate beads were used in a novel application as a colorimetric sensor in food intelligent packaging. Colorimetric sensor was developed through entrapping red cabbage extract as a pH indicator in alginate beads. The pH indicator beads were used in rainbow trout packaging for monitoring fillets spoilage. Color change of beads during fish storage was measured using the CIELab method. The alginate bead colorimetric sensor is validated by measuring total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) levels and microbial populations in fish samples. Moreover, peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated during storage. Results indicated that increasing the bacterial population during storage and production of proteolytic enzymes resulted in protein degradation, accumulation of volatile amine compounds, increase in the pH and finally color change of alginate beads. The values of TVB-N, pH, PV and TBARS increased with time of storage. The results of TVB-N and microbial growth were in accordance with color change of beads and CIELab data. Therefore, the proposed system enjoys a high sensitivity to pH variations and is capable of monitoring the spoilage of fish or other protein-rich products through its wide range of color changes. The alginate beads containing the red cabbage extract can, thus, be used as a low-cost colorimetric sensor for intelligent packaging applications.

  15. Effect of poultry decontaminants concentration on growth kinetics for pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    del Río, Elena; González de Caso, Beatriz; Prieto, Miguel; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Capita, Rosa

    2008-10-01

    Various chemical compounds are currently under review for final approval as poultry decontaminants in the European Union (EU). Concentration is among the factors considered by the EU authorities in the evaluation of these treatments. The aim of this research was to compare the growth parameters for pathogenic and spoilage bacteria in presence of high and low concentrations of poultry decontaminants to assess whether such treatments could involve a potential sanitary risk for consumers. Growth curves for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Brochothrix thermosphacta were obtained at different levels of trisodium phosphate (TSP; 1.74%; 0.58%), acidified sodium chlorite (ASC; 210 ppm; 70 ppm) and citric acid (CA; 0.27%; 0.09%). The modified Gompertz equation was used as primary model to fit observed data. ASC and TSP were the most effective compounds in increasing lag phase (L) and reducing maximum growth rate (mu) in Gram-negative bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria were more influenced by CA. At high TSP levels, mu for Salmonella decreased. Low TSP levels increased mu for Salmonella and Listeria relative to control samples. In presence of 0.27% CA, Brochothrix showed the highest L and the lowest mu among strains tested. These results suggest that low TSP and high CA concentrations could favour the outgrowth of pathogenic bacteria (e.g. Salmonella) relative to spoilage bacteria, rending these treatments potentially dangerous for consumers. The findings of this study may be useful to the EU authorities and meat processors in their efforts to select adequate treatments for control of bacteria on poultry.

  16. Characterization of the "viable but nonculturable" (VBNC) state in the wine spoilage yeast Brettanomyces.

    PubMed

    Serpaggi, Virginie; Remize, Fabienne; Recorbet, Ghislaine; Gaudot-Dumas, Eliane; Sequeira-Le Grand, Anabelle; Alexandre, Hervé

    2012-06-01

    Although the viable but not culturable (VBNC) state has been studied in detail in bacteria, it has been suggested that maintenance of viability with loss of culturability also exists in eukaryotic cells, such as in the wine spoilage yeast Brettanomyces. To provide conclusive evidence for the existence of a VBNC state in this yeast, we investigated its capacity to become viable and nonculturable after sulfite stress, and its ability to recover culturability after stressor removal. Sulfite addition induced loss of culturability but maintenance of viability. Increasing the medium pH to decrease the concentration of toxic SO(2) allowed yeast cells to become culturable again, thus demonstrating the occurrence of a VBNC state in Brettanomyces upon SO(2) exposure. Relative to culturable Brettanomyces, VBNC yeast cells were found to display a 22% decrease in size on the basis of laser granulometry. Assays for 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-ethylphenol, volatile phenols produced by Brettanomyces, indicated that spoilage compound production could persist in VBNC cells. These morphological and physiological changes in VBNC Brettanomyces were coupled to extensive protein pattern modifications, as inferred by comparative two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analyses. Upon identification of 53 proteins out of the 168 spots whose abundance was significantly modified in treated cells relative to control, we propose that the SO(2)-induced VBNC state in Brettanomyces is characterized by a reduced glycolytic flux coupled to changes in redox homeostatis/protein turnover-related processes. This study points out the existence of common mechanisms between yeast and bacteria upon entry to the VBNC state. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth inhibition of foodborne pathogens and food spoilage organisms by select raw honeys.

    PubMed

    Mundo, Melissa A; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I; Worobo, Randy W

    2004-12-01

    Twenty-seven honey samples from different floral sources and geographical locations were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of seven food spoilage organisms (Alcaligenes faecalis, Aspergillus niger, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Geotrichum candidum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Penicillium expansum, Pseudomonas fluorescens) and five foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica Ser. Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus) using an overlay inhibition assay. They were also tested for specific activity against S. aureus 9144 and B. stearothermophilus using the equivalent percent phenol test--a well diffusion assay corresponding to a dilute phenol standard curve. Honey inhibited bacterial growth due to high sugar concentration (reduced water activity), hydrogen peroxide generation, and proteinaceous compounds present in the honey. Some antibacterial activity was due to other unidentified components. The ability of honey to inhibit the growth of microorganisms varies widely, and could not be attributed to a specific floral source or demographic region produced in this study. Antibacterially active samples in this study included Montana buckwheat, tarweed, manuka, melaleuca, and saw palmetto. Furthermore, the bacteria were not uniformly affected by honey. Varying sensitivities to the antimicrobial properties were observed with four strains of S. aureus thus emphasizing the variability in the antibacterial effect of honey samples. Mold growth was not inhibited by any of the honeys tested. B. stearothermophilus, a heat-resistant spoilage bacteria, was shown to be highly sensitive to honey in both the overlay and well diffusion assays; other sensitive bacteria included A. faecalis and L. acidophilus. Non-peroxide antibacterial activity was observed in both assays; the highest instance was observed in the specific activity assay against B. stearothermophilus. Further research could indicate whether

  18. Origin and ecological selection of core and food-specific bacterial communities associated with meat and seafood spoilage

    PubMed Central

    Chaillou, Stéphane; Chaulot-Talmon, Aurélie; Caekebeke, Hélène; Cardinal, Mireille; Christieans, Souad; Denis, Catherine; Hélène Desmonts, Marie; Dousset, Xavier; Feurer, Carole; Hamon, Erwann; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; La Carbona, Stéphanie; Leroi, Françoise; Leroy, Sabine; Lorre, Sylvie; Macé, Sabrina; Pilet, Marie-France; Prévost, Hervé; Rivollier, Marina; Roux, Dephine; Talon, Régine; Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    The microbial spoilage of meat and seafood products with short shelf lives is responsible for a significant amount of food waste. Food spoilage is a very heterogeneous process, involving the growth of various, poorly characterized bacterial communities. In this study, we conducted 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing on 160 samples of fresh and spoiled foods to comparatively explore the bacterial communities associated with four meat products and four seafood products that are among the most consumed food items in Europe. We show that fresh products are contaminated in part by a microbiota similar to that found on the skin and in the gut of animals. However, this animal-derived microbiota was less prevalent and less abundant than a core microbiota, psychrotrophic in nature, mainly originated from the environment (water reservoirs). We clearly show that this core community found on meat and seafood products is the main reservoir of spoilage bacteria. We also show that storage conditions exert strong selective pressure on the initial microbiota: alpha diversity in fresh samples was 189±58 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but dropped to 27±12 OTUs in spoiled samples. The OTU assemblage associated with spoilage was shaped by low storage temperatures, packaging and the nutritional value of the food matrix itself. These factors presumably act in tandem without any hierarchical pattern. Most notably, we were also able to identify putative new clades of dominant, previously undescribed bacteria occurring on spoiled seafood, a finding that emphasizes the importance of using culture-independent methods when studying food microbiota. PMID:25333463

  19. Analyzing the relation between the microbial diversity of DaQu and the turbidity spoilage of traditional Chinese vinegar.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Li, Sha; Cheng, Lili; Luo, Lixin

    2014-07-01

    Vinegar is a traditional fermented condiment, and the microbial diversity of DaQu makes the quality of vinegar products. Recently, turbidity spoilage of vinegar sharply tampered with the quality of vinegar. In this study, the relation between the microbial diversity of DaQu and turbidity spoilage of vinegar was analyzed by plating technique, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The 16S rRNA sequencing and DGGE analysis indicated that Bacillus (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and Bacillus thuringiensis) and Lactobacillus (including Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Lactobacillus pobuzihii) species were the dominant contaminants in vinegar products. Meanwhile, DGGE analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in DaQu belonged to genera Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Weissella, Saccharopolyspora, Enterobacter, and Pantoea. However, only two yeast species (Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera) and seven mold species including Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus candidus, Rhizopus microspores, Eurotium herbariorum, Absidia corymbifera, and Eupenicillium javanicum were detected in the DaQu. The population level of fungi was below 5 log CFU/g in DaQu. The chemical and physical properties of vinegar and sediments were also determined. On the basis of a combined microbial diversity-chemical analysis, we demonstrated that turbidity spoilage of vinegar was a result of cooperation among the low population level and abundance of fungal species in DaQu, the suitable climate conditions, and the contaminants in vinegar. This is the first report to analyze the relation between the microbial diversity of DaQu and turbidity spoilage of vinegar.

  20. First study on the formation and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable state and beer spoilage capability of Lactobacillus lindneri.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Peters, Brian M; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the spoilage capability of Lactobacillus lindneri during the induction and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. L. lindneri strain was identified by sequencing the PCR product (amplifying 16S rRNA gene) using ABI Prism 377 DNA Sequencer. During the VBNC state induction by low temperature storage and beer adaption, total, culturable, and viable cells were assessed by acridine orange direct counting, plate counting, and Live/Dead BacLight bacterial viability kit, respectively. Organic acids and diacetyl concentration were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and head dpace gas chromatography, respectively. VBNC state of L. lindneri was successfully induced by both beer adaption and low temperature storage, and glycerol frozen stock was the optimal way to maintain the VBNC state. Addition of catalase was found to be an effective method for the resuscitation of VBNC L. lindneri cells. Furthermore, spoilage capability remained similar during the induction and resuscitation of VBNC L. lindneri. This is the first report of induction by low temperature storage and resuscitation of VBNC L. lindneri strain, as well as the first identification of spoilage capability of VBNC and resuscitated L. lindneri cells. This study indicated that the potential colonization of L. lindneri strain in brewery environment, formation and resuscitation of VBNC state, as well as maintenance in beer spoilage capability, may be an important risk factor for brewery environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An investigation of the effect of rapid slurry chilling on blown pack spoilage of vacuum-packaged beef primals.

    PubMed

    Reid, R; Fanning, S; Whyte, P; Kerry, J; Bolton, D

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if rapid slurry chilling would retard or prevent blown pack spoilage (BPS) of vacuum-packaged beef primals. Beef primals were inoculated with Clostridium estertheticum subspp. estertheticum (DSMZ 8809), C. estertheticum subspp. laramenise (DSMZ 14864) and C. gasigenes (DSMZ 12272), and vacuum-packaged with and without heat shrinkage (90°C for 3 s). These packs were then subjected to immediate chilling in an ice slurry or using conventional blast chilling systems and stored at 2°C for up to 100 days. The onset and progress of BPS was monitored using the following scale; 0-no gas bubbles in drip; 1-gas bubbles in drip; 2-loss of vacuum; 3-'blown'; 4-presence of sufficient gas inside the packs to produce pack distension and 5-tightly stretched, 'overblown' packs/packs leaking. Rapid slurry chilling (as compared to conventional chilling) did not significantly affect (P > 0.05) the time to the onset or progress of BPS. It was therefore concluded that rapid chilling of vacuum-packaged beef primals, using an ice slurry system, may not be used as a control intervention to prevent or retard blown pack spoilage. This study adds to our growing understanding of blown pack spoilage of vacuum-packaged beef primals and suggests that rapid chilling of vacuum-packaged beef primals is not a control option for the beef industry. The results suggest that neither eliminating the heat shrinkage step nor rapid chilling of vacuum-packaged beef retard the time to blown pack spoilage. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Origin and ecological selection of core and food-specific bacterial communities associated with meat and seafood spoilage.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, Stéphane; Chaulot-Talmon, Aurélie; Caekebeke, Hélène; Cardinal, Mireille; Christieans, Souad; Denis, Catherine; Desmonts, Marie Hélène; Dousset, Xavier; Feurer, Carole; Hamon, Erwann; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; La Carbona, Stéphanie; Leroi, Françoise; Leroy, Sabine; Lorre, Sylvie; Macé, Sabrina; Pilet, Marie-France; Prévost, Hervé; Rivollier, Marina; Roux, Dephine; Talon, Régine; Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2015-05-01

    The microbial spoilage of meat and seafood products with short shelf lives is responsible for a significant amount of food waste. Food spoilage is a very heterogeneous process, involving the growth of various, poorly characterized bacterial communities. In this study, we conducted 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing on 160 samples of fresh and spoiled foods to comparatively explore the bacterial communities associated with four meat products and four seafood products that are among the most consumed food items in Europe. We show that fresh products are contaminated in part by a microbiota similar to that found on the skin and in the gut of animals. However, this animal-derived microbiota was less prevalent and less abundant than a core microbiota, psychrotrophic in nature, mainly originated from the environment (water reservoirs). We clearly show that this core community found on meat and seafood products is the main reservoir of spoilage bacteria. We also show that storage conditions exert strong selective pressure on the initial microbiota: alpha diversity in fresh samples was 189±58 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but dropped to 27±12 OTUs in spoiled samples. The OTU assemblage associated with spoilage was shaped by low storage temperatures, packaging and the nutritional value of the food matrix itself. These factors presumably act in tandem without any hierarchical pattern. Most notably, we were also able to identify putative new clades of dominant, previously undescribed bacteria occurring on spoiled seafood, a finding that emphasizes the importance of using culture-independent methods when studying food microbiota.

  3. The Biodiversity of the Microbiota Producing Heat-Resistant Enzymes Responsible for Spoilage in Processed Bovine Milk and Dairy Products.

    PubMed

    Machado, Solimar G; Baglinière, François; Marchand, Sophie; Van Coillie, Els; Vanetti, Maria C D; De Block, Jan; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Raw bovine milk is highly nutritious as well as pH-neutral, providing the ideal conditions for microbial growth. The microbiota of raw milk is diverse and originates from several sources of contamination including the external udder surface, milking equipment, air, water, feed, grass, feces, and soil. Many bacterial and fungal species can be found in raw milk. The autochthonous microbiota of raw milk immediately after milking generally comprises lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus , Lactobacillus , Streptococcus , and Leuconostoc species, which are technologically important for the dairy industry, although they do occasionally cause spoilage of dairy products. Differences in milking practices and storage conditions on each continent, country and region result in variable microbial population structures in raw milk. Raw milk is usually stored at cold temperatures, e.g., about 4°C before processing to reduce the growth of most bacteria. However, psychrotrophic bacteria can proliferate and contribute to spoilage of ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated and sterilized milk and other dairy products with a long shelf life due to their ability to produce extracellular heat resistant enzymes such as peptidases and lipases. Worldwide, species of Pseudomonas , with the ability to produce these spoilage enzymes, are the most common contaminants isolated from cold raw milk although other genera such as Serratia are also reported as important milk spoilers, while for others more research is needed on the heat resistance of the spoilage enzymes produced. The residual activity of extracellular enzymes after high heat treatment may lead to technological problems (off flavors, physico-chemical instability) during the shelf life of milk and dairy products. This review covers the contamination patterns of cold raw milk in several parts of the world, the growth potential of psychrotrophic bacteria, their ability to produce extracellular heat-resistant enzymes and the consequences

  4. The Biodiversity of the Microbiota Producing Heat-Resistant Enzymes Responsible for Spoilage in Processed Bovine Milk and Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Solimar G.; Baglinière, François; Marchand, Sophie; Van Coillie, Els; Vanetti, Maria C. D.; De Block, Jan; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Raw bovine milk is highly nutritious as well as pH-neutral, providing the ideal conditions for microbial growth. The microbiota of raw milk is diverse and originates from several sources of contamination including the external udder surface, milking equipment, air, water, feed, grass, feces, and soil. Many bacterial and fungal species can be found in raw milk. The autochthonous microbiota of raw milk immediately after milking generally comprises lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Leuconostoc species, which are technologically important for the dairy industry, although they do occasionally cause spoilage of dairy products. Differences in milking practices and storage conditions on each continent, country and region result in variable microbial population structures in raw milk. Raw milk is usually stored at cold temperatures, e.g., about 4°C before processing to reduce the growth of most bacteria. However, psychrotrophic bacteria can proliferate and contribute to spoilage of ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated and sterilized milk and other dairy products with a long shelf life due to their ability to produce extracellular heat resistant enzymes such as peptidases and lipases. Worldwide, species of Pseudomonas, with the ability to produce these spoilage enzymes, are the most common contaminants isolated from cold raw milk although other genera such as Serratia are also reported as important milk spoilers, while for others more research is needed on the heat resistance of the spoilage enzymes produced. The residual activity of extracellular enzymes after high heat treatment may lead to technological problems (off flavors, physico-chemical instability) during the shelf life of milk and dairy products. This review covers the contamination patterns of cold raw milk in several parts of the world, the growth potential of psychrotrophic bacteria, their ability to produce extracellular heat-resistant enzymes and the consequences for

  5. Lipidomics as an important key for the identification of beer-spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Řezanka, T; Matoulková, D; Benada, O; Sigler, K

    2015-06-01

    Electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was used for characterizing intact plasmalogen phospholipid molecules in beer-spoilage bacteria. Identification of intact plasmalogens was carried out using collision-induced dissociation and the presence of suitable marker molecular species, both qualitative and quantitative, was determined in samples containing the anaerobic bacteria Megasphaera and Pectinatus. Using selected ion monitoring (SIM), this method had a limit of detection at 1 pg for the standard, i.e. 1-(1Z-octadecenyl)-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine and be linear in the range of four orders of magnitude from 2 pg to 20 ng. This technique was applied to intact plasmalogen extracts from the samples of contaminated and uncontaminated beer without derivatization and resulted in the identification of contamination of beer by Megasphaera and Pectinatus bacteria. The limit of detection was about 830 cells of anaerobic bacteria, i.e. bacteria containing natural cyclopropane plasmalogenes (c-p-19:0/15:0), which is the majority plasmalogen located in both Megasphaera and Pectinatus. The SIM ESI-MS method has been shown to be useful for the analysis of low concentration of plasmalogens in all biological samples, which were contaminated with anaerobic bacteria, e.g. juice, not only in beer. Significance and impact of the study: Electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) using collision-induced dissociation was used to characterize intact plasmalogen phospholipid molecules in beer-spoilage anaerobic bacteria Megasphaera and Pectinatus. Using selected ion monitoring (SIM), this method has a detection limit of 1 pg for the standard 1-(1Z-octadecenyl)-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine and is linear within four orders of magnitude (2 pg to 20 ng). The limit of detection was about 830 cells of bacteria containing natural cyclopropane plasmalogen (c-p-19:0/15:0). SIM ESI-MS method is useful for analyzing low

  6. Spoilage and safety characteristics of ground beef packaged in traditional and modified atmosphere packages.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J C; Alvarado, M; Stephens, T P; Kellermeier, J D; Tittor, A W; Miller, M F; Brashears, M M

    2008-02-01

    Two separate studies, one with pathogen-inoculated product and one with noninoculated product, were conducted to determine the safety and spoilage characteristics of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and traditional packaging of ground beef patties. Ground beef patties were allotted to five packaging treatments (i) control (foam tray with film overwrap; traditional), (ii) high-oxygen MAP (80% 02, 20% CO2), (iii) high-oxygen MAP with added rosemary extract, (iv) low-oxygen carbon monoxide MAP (0.4% CO, 30% CO2, 69.6% N2), and (v) low-oxygen carbon monoxide MAP with added rosemary extract. Beef patties were evaluated for changes over time (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days) during lighted display. Results indicated low-oxygen carbon monoxide gas flush had a stabilizing effect on meat color after the formation of carboxymyoglobin and was effective for preventing the development of surface discoloration. Consumers indicated that beef patties packaged in atmospheres containing carbon monoxide were more likely to smell fresh at 7, 14, and 21 days of display, but the majority would probably not consume these products after 14 days of display because of their odor. MAP suppressed the growth of psychrophilic aerobic bacteria when compared with control packages. Generally, control packages had significantly higher total aerobic bacteria and Lactobacillus counts than did modified atmosphere packages. In the inoculated ground beef (approximately 10(5) CFU/g) in MAP, Escherichia coli O157 populations ranged from 4.51 to 4.73 log CFU/g with no differences among the various packages, but the total E. coli O157:H7 in the ground beef in the control packages was significantly higher at 5.61 log CFU/g after 21 days of storage. On days 14 and 21, the total Salmonella in the ground beef in control packages was at 5.29 and 5.27 log CFU/g, respectively, which was significantly higher than counts in the modified atmosphere packages (3.99 to 4.31 log CFU/g on day 14 and 3.76 to 4.02 log CFU

  7. Effects of a spoilage yeast from silage on in vitro ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Santos, M C; Lock, A L; Mechor, G D; Kung, L

    2015-04-01

    Feeding silages with high concentrations of yeasts from aerobic spoilage is often implicated as a cause of poor animal performance on dairies. Our objective was to determine if a commonly found spoilage yeast, isolated from silage, had the potential to alter in vitro ruminal fermentations. A single colony of Issatchenkia orientalis, isolated from high-moisture corn, was grown in selective medium. The yeast culture was purified and added to in vitro culture tubes containing a total mixed ration (43% concentrate, 43% corn silage, 11% alfalfa haylage, and 3% alfalfa hay on a dry matter basis), buffer, and ruminal fluid to achieve added theoretical final concentrations of 0 (CTR), 4.40 (low yeast; LY), 6.40 (medium yeast; MY), and 8.40 (high yeast; HY) log10 cfu of yeast/mL of in vitro fluid. Seven separate tubes were prepared for each treatment and each time point and incubated for 12 and 24h at 39 °C. At the end of the incubation period, samples were analyzed for pH, yeast number, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and fatty acids (FA). We found that total viable yeast counts decreased for all treatments in in vitro incubations but were still relatively high (5.3 log10 cfu of yeasts/mL) for HY after 24h of incubation. Addition of HY resulted in a lower pH and higher concentration of total VFA in culture fluid compared with other treatments. Moreover, additions of MY and HY decreased in vitro NDF digestibility compared with CTR, and the effect was greatest for HY. Overall, the biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated FA was not altered by addition of I. orientalis and decreased over time with an increase in the accumulation of saturated FA, especially palmitic and stearic acids. We conclude that addition of I. orientalis, especially at high levels, has the potential to reduce in vitro NDF digestion and alter other aspects of ruminal fermentations. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  8. Susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates to antimicrobial compounds in relation to hop-resistance and beer-spoilage.

    PubMed

    Haakensen, Monique; Vickers, David M; Ziola, Barry

    2009-09-07

    Though important in the context of food microbiology and as potential pathogens in immuno-compromised humans, bacterial isolates belonging to the genus Pediococcus are best known for their association with contamination of ethanol fermentation processes (beer, wine, or fuel ethanol). Use of antimicrobial compounds (e.g., hop-compounds, Penicillin) by some industries to combat Pediococcus contaminants is long-standing, yet knowledge about the resistance of pediococci to antimicrobial agents is minimal. Here we examined Pediococcus isolates to determine whether antibiotic resistance is associated with resistance to hops, presence of genes known to correlate with beer spoilage, or with ability to grow in beer. Lactic acid bacteria susceptibility test broth medium (LSM) used in combination with commercially available GPN3F antimicrobial susceptibility plates was an effective method for assessing antimicrobial susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates. We report the finding of Vancomycin-susceptible Pediococcus isolates from four species. Interestingly, we found that hop-resistant, beer-spoilage, and beer-spoilage gene-harbouring isolates had a tendency to be more susceptible, rather than more resistant, to antimicrobial compounds. Our findings indicate that the mechanisms involved in conferring hop-resistance or ability to spoil beer by Pediococcus isolates are not associated with resistance to antibiotics commonly used for treatment of human infections. Also, Vancomycin-resistance was found to be isolate-specific and not intrinsic to the genus as previously believed.

  9. Identification and growth dynamics of meat spoilage microorganisms in modified atmosphere packaged poultry meat by MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Höll, Linda; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-12-01

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is widely used in food industry to extend the microbiological shelf-life of meat. Typically, poultry meat has been packaged in a CO2/N2 atmosphere (with residual low O2). Recently, some producers use high O2 MAP for poultry meat to empirically reach comparable shelf lifes. In this work, we compared spoilage microbiota of skinless chicken breast in high (80% O2, 20% CO2) and low O2 MAP (65% N2 and 35% CO2). Two batches of meat were incubated in each atmosphere for 14 days at 4 °C and 10 °C. Atmospheric composition of each pack and colony forming units (25 °C, 48 h, BHI agar) of poultry samples were determined at seven timepoints. Identification of spoilage organisms was carried out by MALDI-TOF MS. Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were the main organisms found after eight days at 4 °C and 10 °C in high O2 MAP. In low O2 MAP, the main spoilage microbiota was represented by species Hafnia alvei at 10 °C, and genera Carnobacterium sp., Serratia sp., and Yersinia sp. at 4 °C. High O2 MAP is suggested as preferential gas because were less detrimental and pathogens like Yersinia were not observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Predictive model for the growth of spoilage bacteria on modified atmosphere packaged Atlantic salmon produced in Australia.

    PubMed

    Powell, S M; Ratkowsky, D A; Tamplin, M L

    2015-05-01

    Most existing models for the spoilage of modified atmosphere packed Atlantic salmon are based on the growth of the spoilage organism Photobacterium phosphoreum. However, there is evidence that this organism is not the specific spoilage organism on salmon produced and packaged in Australia. We developed a predictive model for the growth of bacteria in Australian-produced Atlantic salmon stored under modified atmosphere conditions (30-98% carbon dioxide in nitrogen) at refrigeration temperatures (0-10 °C). As expected, both higher levels of carbon dioxide and lower temperatures decreased the observed growth rates of the total population. A Bělehrádek-type model for growth rate fitted the data best with an acceptably low root mean square error. At low temperatures (∼0 °C) the growth rates in this study were similar to those predicted by other models but at higher temperatures (∼10 °C) the growth rates were significantly lower in the current study. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A microbial spoilage profile of half shell Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata).

    PubMed

    Madigan, Thomas L; Bott, Nathan J; Torok, Valeria A; Percy, Nigel J; Carragher, John F; de Barros Lopes, Miguel A; Kiermeier, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to assess bacterial spoilage of half shell Pacific and Sydney rock oysters during storage using microbial culture and 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Odour and pH of oyster meats were also investigated. Estimation of microbiological counts by microbial culture highlighted growth of psychrotrophic bacteria. During storage, odour scores (a score describing deterioration of fresh odours where a score of 1 is fresh and 4 is completely spoiled) increased from 1.0 to 3.0 for Pacific oysters and from 1.3 to 3.4 for Sydney rock oysters. pH results obtained for both species fluctuated during storage (range 6.28-6.73) with an overall increase at end of storage. Pyrosequencing revealed that the majority of bacteria at Day 0 represented taxa from amongst the Proteobacteria, Tenericutes and Spirochaetes that have not been cultured and systematically described. During storage, Proteobacteria became abundant with Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio found to be dominant in both oyster species at Day 7. Analysis of the pyrosequencing data showed significant differences in bacterial profiles between oyster species and storage time (both P = 0.001). As oysters spoiled, bacterial profiles between oyster species became more similar indicating a common spoilage profile. Data presented here provides detailed insight into the changing bacterial profile of shucked oysters during storage and has identified two genera, Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio, as being important in spoilage of shucked oysters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chitosan inactivates spoilage yeasts but enhances survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Kiskó, G; Sharp, R; Roller, S

    2005-01-01

    To develop new measures for controlling both spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms in unpasteurized apple juice using chitosan. Micro-organisms were isolated and identified from apple juice treated or untreated with chitosan using enrichment, selective media, microscopy, substrate assimilation patterns and ribosomal DNA profiling. Chitosan (0.05-0.1%) delayed spoilage by yeasts at 25 degrees C for up to 12 days but the effect was species specific: Kloeckera apiculata and Metschnikowia pulcherrima were inactivated but Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia spp. multiplied slowly. In challenge experiments at 25 degrees C, total yeast counts were 3-5 log CFU ml(-1) lower in chitosan-treated juices than in the controls for 4 days but the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was extended from 1 to 2 days; at 4 degrees C, chitosan reduced the yeast counts by 2-3 log CFU ml(-1) for up to 10 days but survival of the pathogen was prolonged from 3 to 5 days. The survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was unaffected by chitosan at either temperature. The addition of chitosan to apple juice delayed spoilage by yeasts but enhanced the survival of E. coli O157:H7. The results suggest that the use of chitosan in the treatment of fruit juices may potentially lead to an increased risk of food poisoning from E. coli O157:H7.

  13. Microbial spoilage, instability risk of antacid suspension in the presence of commonly used preservative system.

    PubMed

    Khan, Jamshaid Ali; Khan, Imran Ullah; Iqbal, Zafar; Nasir, Fazli; Muhammad, Salar; Hannan, Peer Abdul; Ullah, Irfan

    2015-09-01

    Manifestation of microbial spoilage of any product by bacteria and to assess the effectiveness of the anti-microbial preservatives (parabens) used for the prevention and stability purpose. The aim of the present work is to study the effectiveness of preservatives used in the antacid suspensions and to analyze the effect of microbial growth on the quality of respective antacid suspensions. Samples of various antacid suspensions were randomly collected from local market and Government hospital pharmacies. Three different antacid formulations were prepared in the laboratory. All the formulations were preliminarily evaluated on the basis of organoleptic characteristics, pH, viscosity and assay. Efficacy of the preservative system in suspension formulation was determined by inoculating the samples in its final container, with specific strains of bacteria i.e. Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, taking samples from the inoculated preparation at specified intervals of time i.e. 0 time, 07 days, 14 days and 28 days, growing it on nutrient agar medium and colony forming units (CFUs) were scored by plate count. At the same time the samples were also subjected to qualitative and quantitative testing. The decrease in CFU and alteration in assay, pH and viscosity was observed in all the formulations except formulation M2 and F3 that showed stability throughout the study period.

  14. Use of ion chromatography for monitoring microbial spoilage in the fruit juice industry.

    PubMed

    Trifirò, A; Saccani, G; Gherardi, S; Vicini, E; Spotti, E; Previdi, M P; Ndagijimana, M; Cavalli, S; Reschiotto, C

    1997-05-16

    Fruit juices and purees are defined as fermentable, but unfermented, products obtained by mechanical processing of fresh fruits. The presence of undesired metabolites derived from microbial growth can arise from the use of unsuitable fruit or from defects in the production line or subsequent contamination. This involves a loss in the overall quality that cannot be resolved by thermal treatment following the start of fermentation. With these considerations, together with microbiological control, the analysis of different metabolites, which can be considered as microbial growth markers, such as alcohols (i.e. ethanol, etc.), acids (i.e. acetic, fumaric, lactic, etc.) is fundamental in order to achieve a better evaluation of product quality. Enzymatic determination and other single-component analytical techniques are often used for the determination of these metabolites. When the microbial spoilage is not well known, this results in a long and cumbersome procedure. A versatile technique that is capable of determining many metabolites in one analysis could be helpful in improving routine quality control. For this purpose, an ion chromatographic technique, such as ion exclusion, for separation, and diode array spectrophotometry and conductivity, for detection, were evaluated. Both different industrial samples and inoculated samples were analyzed.

  15. Composition and antimicrobial properties of Sardinian Juniperus essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Sofia; Barra, Andrea; Pisano, Barbara; Cabizza, Maddalena; Pirisi, Filippo Maria; Palmas, Francesca

    2003-07-01

    In this work, the chemical compositions and antimicrobial properties of Juniperus essential oils and of their main components were determined. Five berry essential oils obtained from different species of Juniperus growing wild in Sardinia were analyzed. The components of the essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the oils and their components against food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms were determined by a broth microdilution method. The GC-MS analysis showed a certain variability in the concentrations of the main constituents of the oils. Alpha-pinene was largely predominant in the oils of the species J. phoenicea subsp. turbinata and J. oxycedrus. Alpha-pinene and myrcene constituted the bulk (67.56%) of the essential oil of J. communis. Significant quantitative differences were observed for myrcene, delta-3-carene, and D-germacrene. The results of the antimicrobial assay show that the oils of J. communis and J. oxycedrus failed to inhibit any of the microorganisms at the highest concentrations tested (MLC > or = 900 microg/ml), while the oils extracted from J. turbinata specimens were active against fungi, particularly against a strain of Aspergillus flavus (an aflatoxin B1 producer). Of the single compounds tested, delta-3-carene was found to possess the broadest spectrum of activity and appeared to contribute significantly to the antifungal activity observed for J. turbinata oils. This activity may be helpful in the prevention of aflatoxin contamination for many foods.

  16. PCR detection of thermophilic spore-forming bacteria involved in canned food spoilage.

    PubMed

    Prevost, S; Andre, S; Remize, F

    2010-12-01

    Thermophilic bacteria that form highly heat-resistant spores constitute an important group of spoilage bacteria of low-acid canned food. A PCR assay was developed in order to rapidly trace these bacteria. Three PCR primer pairs were designed from rRNA gene sequences. These primers were evaluated for the specificity and the sensitivity of detection. Two primer pairs allowed detection at the species level of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Moorella thermoacetica/thermoautrophica. The other pair allowed group-specific detection of anaerobic thermophilic bacteria of the genera Thermoanaerobacterium, Thermoanaerobacter, Caldanerobium and Caldanaerobacter. After a single enrichment step, these PCR assays allowed the detection of 28 thermophiles from 34 cans of spoiled low-acid food. In addition, 13 ingredients were screened for the presence of these bacteria. This PCR assay serves as a detection method for strains able to spoil low-acid canned food treated at 55°C. It will lead to better reactivity in the canning industry. Raw materials and ingredients might be qualified not only for quantitative spore contamination, but also for qualitative contamination by highly heat-resistant spores.

  17. Bioactive packaging using antioxidant extracts for the prevention of microbial food-spoilage.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Diana; Gullón, Beatriz; Gullón, Patricia; Gomes, Ana; Tavaria, Freni

    2016-07-13

    Bioactive food packaging is an innovative approach for the prevention of the growth of food-spoilage microorganisms. Four active extracts from agroindustrial subproducts (Eucalyptus wood, almond shells, corn cobs and grape pomace) with demonstrated antioxidant activity have been investigated for bestowing antimicrobial activity to bioactive packaging. To carry out this evaluation, the antioxidant extracts were tested against five food pathogenic bacteria, namely, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. The results obtained showed that all the tested extracts inhibited the growth of all five pathogenic bacteria. From the analysis of the minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), the Eucalyptus wood extract was the most active, being necessary only 2% (v/v) to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, whereas almond shells extract were less active requiring 4% (w/v) to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the extract from corn cobs was bactericidal against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 4% (w/v). After checking their antimicrobial activity, the antioxidant extracts have been incorporated into sodium alginate films and the maintenance of their antimicrobial properties was confirmed. This work showed that the antioxidant extracts from agroindustrial byproducts exhibited antimicrobial activity and were suitable for incorporation into edible films that could be used in bioactive packaging systems.

  18. Prevention of fungal spoilage in food products using natural compounds: A review.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Susana; Fuentes, Ana; Talens, Pau; Barat, Jose Manuel

    2017-04-10

    The kingdom Fungi is the most important group of microorganism contaminating food commodities, and chemical additives are commonly used in the food industry to prevent fungal spoilage. However, the increasing consumer concern about synthetic additives has led to their substitution by natural compounds in foods. The current review provides an overview of using natural agents isolated from different sources (plants, animals, and microorganisms) as promising antifungal compounds, including information about their mechanism of action and their use in foods to preserve and prolong shelf life. Compounds derived from plants, chitosan, lactoferrin, and biocontrol agents (lactic acid bacteria, antagonistic yeast, and their metabolites) are able to control the decay caused by fungi in a wide variety of foods. Several strategies are employed to reduce the drawbacks of some antifungal agents, like their incorporation into oil-in-water emulsions and nanoemulsions, edible films and active packaging, and their combination with other natural preservatives. These strategies facilitate the addition of volatile agents into food products and, improve their antifungal effectiveness. Moreover, biological agents have been investigated as one of the most promising options in the control of postharvest decay. Numerous mechanisms of action have been elucidated and different approaches have been studied to enhance their antifungal effectiveness.

  19. Significance of heme-based respiration in meat spoilage caused by Leuconostoc gasicomitatum.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Elina; Johansson, Per; Kostiainen, Olli; Nieminen, Timo; Schmidt, Georg; Somervuo, Panu; Mohsina, Marzia; Vanninen, Paula; Auvinen, Petri; Björkroth, Johanna

    2013-02-01

    Leuconostoc gasicomitatum is a psychrotrophic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) which causes spoilage in cold-stored modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP) meat products. In addition to the fermentative metabolism, L. gasicomitatum is able to respire when exogenous heme and oxygen are available. In this study, we investigated the respiration effects on growth rate, biomass, gene expression, and volatile organic compound (VOC) production in laboratory media and pork loin. The meat samples were evaluated by a sensory panel every second or third day for 29 days. We observed that functional respiration increased the growth (rate and yield) of L. gasicomitatum in laboratory media with added heme and in situ meat with endogenous heme. Respiration increased enormously (up to 2,600-fold) the accumulation of acetoin and diacetyl, which are buttery off-odor compounds in meat. Our transcriptome analyses showed that the gene expression patterns were quite similar, irrespective of whether respiration was turned off by excluding heme from the medium or mutating the cydB gene, which is essential in the respiratory chain. The respiration-based growth of L. gasicomitatum in meat was obtained in terms of population development and subsequent development of sensory characteristics. Respiration is thus a key factor explaining why L. gasicomitatum is so well adapted in high-oxygen packed meat.

  20. Coexistence of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Potential Spoilage Microbiota in a Dairy Processing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Stellato, Giuseppina; De Filippis, Francesca; La Storia, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    Microbial contamination in food processing plants can play a fundamental role in food quality and safety. In this study, the microbiota in a dairy plant was studied by both 16S rRNA- and 26S rRNA-based culture-independent high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Environmental samples from surfaces and tools were studied along with the different types of cheese produced in the same plant. The microbiota of environmental swabs was very complex, including more than 200 operational taxonomic units with extremely variable relative abundances (0.01 to 99%) depending on the species and sample. A core microbiota shared by 70% of the samples indicated a coexistence of lactic acid bacteria with a remarkable level of Streptococcus thermophilus and possible spoilage-associated bacteria, including Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Psychrobacter, with a relative abundance above 50%. The most abundant yeasts were Kluyveromyces marxianus, Yamadazyma triangularis, Trichosporon faecale, and Debaryomyces hansenii. Beta-diversity analyses showed a clear separation of environmental and cheese samples based on both yeast and bacterial community structure. In addition, predicted metagenomes also indicated differential distribution of metabolic pathways between the two categories of samples. Cooccurrence and coexclusion pattern analyses indicated that the occurrence of potential spoilers was excluded by lactic acid bacteria. In addition, their persistence in the environment can be helpful to counter the development of potential spoilers that may contaminate the cheeses, with possible negative effects on their microbiological quality. PMID:26341209

  1. Assessment of system reliability for a stochastic-flow distribution network with the spoilage property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Huang, Cheng-Fu; Yeh, Cheng-Ta

    2016-04-01

    In supply chain management, satisfying customer demand is the most concerned for the manager. However, the goods may rot or be spoilt during delivery owing to natural disasters, inclement weather, traffic accidents, collisions, and so on, such that the intact goods may not meet market demand. This paper concentrates on a stochastic-flow distribution network (SFDN), in which a node denotes a supplier, a transfer station, or a market, while a route denotes a carrier providing the delivery service for a pair of nodes. The available capacity of the carrier is stochastic because the capacity may be partially reserved by other customers. The addressed problem is to evaluate the system reliability, the probability that the SFDN can satisfy the market demand with the spoilage rate under the budget constraint from multiple suppliers to the customer. An algorithm is developed in terms of minimal paths to evaluate the system reliability along with a numerical example to illustrate the solution procedure. A practical case of fruit distribution is presented accordingly to emphasise the management implication of the system reliability.

  2. Investigations on the Antifungal Effect of Nerol against Aspergillus flavus Causing Food Spoilage

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jun; Zeng, Xiaobin; Zeng, Hong; Feng, Zhaozhong; Miao, Xiangmin; Peng, Xue

    2013-01-01

    The antifungal efficacy of nerol (NEL) has been proved against Aspergillus flavus by using in vitro and in vivo tests. The mycelial growth of A. flavus was completely inhibited at concentrations of 0.8 μL/mL and 0.1 μL/mL NEL in the air at contact and vapor conditions, respectively. The NEL also had an evident inhibitory effect on spore germination in A. flavus along with NEL concentration as well as time-dependent kinetic inhibition. The NEL presented noticeable inhibition on dry mycelium weight and synthesis of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by A. flavus, totally restraining AFB1 production at 0.6 μL/mL. In real food system, the efficacy of the NEL on resistance to decay development in cherry tomatoes was investigated in vivo by exposing inoculated and control fruit groups to NEL vapor at different concentration. NEL vapors at 0.1 μL/mL air concentration significantly reduced artificially contaminated A. flavus and a broad spectrum of fungal microbiota. Results obtained from presented study showed that the NEL had a great antifungal activity and could be considered as a benefit and safe tool to control food spoilage. PMID:24453813

  3. Mechanism of Action of Electrospun Chitosan-Based Nanofibers against Meat Spoilage and Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Arkoun, Mounia; Daigle, France; Heuzey, Marie-Claude; Ajji, Abdellah

    2017-04-06

    This study investigates the antibacterial mechanism of action of electrospun chitosan-based nanofibers (CNFs), against Escherichia coli , Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria innocua , bacteria frequently involved in food contamination and spoilage. CNFs were prepared by electrospinning of chitosan and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) blends. The in vitro antibacterial activity of CNFs was evaluated and the susceptibility/resistance of the selected bacteria toward CNFs was examined. Strain susceptibility was evaluated in terms of bacterial type, cell surface hydrophobicity, and charge density, as well as pathogenicity. The efficiency of CNFs on the preservation and shelf life extension of fresh red meat was also assessed. Our results demonstrate that the antibacterial action of CNFs depends on the protonation of their amino groups, regardless of bacterial type and their mechanism of action was bactericidal rather than bacteriostatic. Results also indicate that bacterial susceptibility was not Gram-dependent but strain-dependent, with non-virulent bacteria showing higher susceptibility at a reduction rate of 99.9%. The susceptibility order was: E. coli > L. innocua > S. aureus > S. Typhimurium. Finally, an extension of one week of the shelf life of fresh meat was successfully achieved. These results are promising and of great utility for the potential use of CNFs as bioactive food packaging materials in the food industry, and more specifically in meat quality preservation.

  4. Potential spoilage yeasts in winery environments: Characterization and proteomic analysis of Trigonopsis cantarellii.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Cauré; Pinto, Luís; Ribeiro, Miguel; Tenorio, Carmen; Igrejas, Gilberto; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

    2015-10-01

    Wine microbiota is complex and includes a wide diversity of yeast species. Few of them are able to survive under the restrictive conditions of dry red wines. In our study we detected and identified seven yeast species of the order Saccharomycetales that can be considered potential spoilers of wines due to physiological traits such as acidogenic metabolism and off-odor generation: Arthroascus schoenii, Candida ishiwadae, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Pichia holstii, Pichia manshurica, Trigonopsis cantarellii, and Trigonopsis variabilis. Based on the prevalence of T. cantarellii isolates in the wine samples of our study, we further characterized this species, determined molecular and phenotypic features, and performed a proteomic analysis to identify differentially expressed proteins at mid-exponential growth phase in the presence of ethanol in the culture broth. This yeast species is shown to be able to grow in the presence of ethanol by expressing heat shock proteins (Hsp70, Hsp71) and a DNA damage-related protein (Rad24), and to be able to confer spoilage characteristics on wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of glucose oxidation products in chilled fresh beef undergoing spoilage.

    PubMed Central

    Farber, J M; Idziak, E S

    1982-01-01

    The fate of nutrients during storage of longissimus dorsi muscle at 4 degrees C was examined. Glucose concentrations in meat were shown to decrease concomitantly with an approximately fourfold increase in the activity of glucose dehydrogenase. Gluconate concentrations in meat were determined by an enzyme assay and shown to increase from 2.1 to 40.6 microgram/g upon storage of the meat from day 0 to day 6. At day 12, gluconate concentrations had decreased to 5.8 microgram/g. Dark firm dry meat, which contains little or no glucose, did not exhibit the same rise and fall in gluconate concentration. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis confirmed the presence of 2-ketogluconate in 6- and 12-day-old longissimus dorsi muscle that had been stored at 4 degrees C. Gluconate concentrations in irradiated sterile meat inoculated with Pseudomonas fluorescens increased from 4.2 to 77.8 microgram/g during the first 6 days of storage at 4 degrees C. Therefore, glucose in meat stored at 4 degrees C appeared to be converted to gluconate, 2-ketogluconate, or both extracellularly by one of the main meat spoilage organisms, most likely the pseudomonads. PMID:7137997

  6. Brettanomyces yeasts--From spoilage organisms to valuable contributors to industrial fermentations.

    PubMed

    Steensels, Jan; Daenen, Luk; Malcorps, Philippe; Derdelinckx, Guy; Verachtert, Hubert; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-08-03

    Ever since the introduction of controlled fermentation processes, alcoholic fermentations and Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter cultures proved to be a match made in heaven. The ability of S. cerevisiae to produce and withstand high ethanol concentrations, its pleasant flavour profile and the absence of health-threatening toxin production are only a few of the features that make it the ideal alcoholic fermentation organism. However, in certain conditions or for certain specific fermentation processes, the physiological boundaries of this species limit its applicability. Therefore, there is currently a strong interest in non-Saccharomyces (or non-conventional) yeasts with peculiar features able to replace or accompany S. cerevisiae in specific industrial fermentations. Brettanomyces (teleomorph: Dekkera), with Brettanomyces bruxellensis as the most commonly encountered representative, is such a yeast. Whilst currently mainly considered a spoilage organism responsible for off-flavour production in wine, cider or dairy products, an increasing number of authors report that in some cases, these yeasts can add beneficial (or at least interesting) aromas that increase the flavour complexity of fermented beverages, such as specialty beers. Moreover, its intriguing physiology, with its exceptional stress tolerance and peculiar carbon- and nitrogen metabolism, holds great potential for the production of bioethanol in continuous fermentors. This review summarizes the most notable metabolic features of Brettanomyces, briefly highlights recent insights in its genetic and genomic characteristics and discusses its applications in industrial fermentation processes, such as the production of beer, wine and bioethanol. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Combination of different antifungal agents in oil-in-water emulsions to control strawberry jam spoilage.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Susana; Fuentes, Ana; Talens, Pau; Barat, Jose Manuel

    2018-01-15

    The combination of antifungal agents (cinnamon bark oil, zinc gluconate and trans-ferulic acid) in oil-in-water emulsions to control the fungal spoilage of strawberry jams, minimising essential oil's sensory impact, was evaluated in this work. The in vitro assays of free antifungal agents were performed against five fungal strains; meanwhile, the emulsions assays were conducted against Aspergillus niger given its strong resistance and its relevance in strawberry products. The emulsion formulated with 0.08mg/g of essential oil was able to inhibit mould growth after the incubation period. The incorporation of zinc gluconate or trans-ferulic acid, independently of the concentration used, allowed to reduce a 25% the amount of essential oil needed to inhibit the microbial growth. The combination of antifungal agents in the emulsions has demonstrated to be an effective alternative to reduce the amount of essential oil employed, maintaining the hygienic quality and sensory profile of the strawberry jam. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in identification of wine spoilage].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xian-De; Dong, Da-Ming; Zheng, Wen-Gang; Jiao, Lei-Zi; Lang, Yun

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, fresh and spoiled wine samples from three wines produced by different companies were studied u- sing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We analyzed the physicochemical property change in the process of spoil- age, and then, gave out the attribution of some main FTIR absorption peaks. A novel determination method was explored based on the comparisons of some absorbance ratios at different wavebands although the absorbance ratios in this method were relative. Through the compare of the wine spectra before and after spoiled, the authors found that they were informative at the bands of 3,020~2,790, 1,760~1,620 and 1,550~800 cm(-1). In order to find the relation between these informative spectral bands and the wine deterioration and achieve the discriminant analysis, chemometrics methods were introduced. Principal compounds analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used for classifying different-quality wines. And partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to identify spoiled wines and good wines. Results showed that FTIR technique combined with chemometrics methods could effectively distinguish spoiled wines from fresh samples. The effect of classification at the wave band of 1 550-800 cm(-1) was the best. The recognition rate of SIMCA and PLSDA were respectively 94% and 100%. This study demonstrates that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is an effective tool for monitoring red wine's spoilage and provides theoretical support for developing early-warning equipments.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants against several foodborne and spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nuno; Alves, Sofia; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Amaral, Joana S; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from a variety of aromatic plants, often used in the Portuguese gastronomy was studied in vitro by the agar diffusion method. The essential oils of thyme, oregano, rosemary, verbena, basil, peppermint, pennyroyal and mint were tested against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative strains (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). For most essential oils examined, S. aureus, was the most susceptible bacteria, while P. aeruginosa showed, in general, least susceptibility. Among the eight essential oils evaluated, thyme, oregano and pennyroyal oils showed the greatest antimicrobial activity, followed by rosemary, peppermint and verbena, while basil and mint showed the weakest antimicrobial activity. Most of the essential oils considered in this study exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. Thyme oil showed a promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, thus revealing its potential as a natural preservative in food products against several causal agents of foodborne diseases and food spoilage. In general, the results demonstrate that, besides flavoring the food, the use of aromatic herbs in gastronomy can also contribute to a bacteriostatic effect against pathogens.

  10. Antimicrobial effect of emulsion-encapsulated isoeugenol against biofilms of food pathogens and spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Krogsgård Nielsen, Christina; Kjems, Jørgen; Mygind, Tina; Snabe, Torben; Schwarz, Karin; Serfert, Yvonne; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2017-02-02

    Food-related biofilms can cause food-borne illnesses and spoilage, both of which are problems on a global level. Essential oils are compounds derived from plant material that have a potential to be used in natural food preservation in the future since they are natural antimicrobials. Bacterial biofilms are particularly resilient towards biocides, and preservatives that effectively eradicate biofilms are therefore needed. In this study, we test the antibacterial properties of emulsion-encapsulated and unencapsulated isoeugenol against biofilms of Lis. monocytogenes, S. aureus, P. fluorescens and Leu. mesenteroides in tryptic soy broth and carrot juice. We show that emulsion encapsulation enhances the antimicrobial properties of isoeugenol against biofilms in media but not in carrot juice. Some of the isoeugenol emulsions were coated with chitosan, and treatment of biofilms with these emulsions disrupted the biofilm structure. Furthermore, we show that addition of the surfactant Tween 80, which is commonly used to disperse oils in food, hampers the antibacterial properties of isoeugenol. This finding highlights that common food additives, such as surfactants, may have an adverse effect on the antibacterial activity of preservatives. Isoeugenol is a promising candidate as a future food preservative because it works almost equally well against planktonic bacteria and biofilms. Emulsion encapsulation has potential benefits for the efficacy of isoeugenol, but the effect of encapsulation depends on the properties of food matrix in which isoeugenol is to be applied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Binary combination of epsilon-poly-L-lysine and isoeugenol affect progression of spoilage microbiota in fresh turkey meat, and delay onset of spoilage in Pseudomonas putida challenged meat.

    PubMed

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Meyer, Rikke L; Peng, Min; Hibberd, Ashley A; Fischer, Jana; Sigmundsson, Arnar; Mygind, Tina

    2015-12-23

    Proliferation of microbial population on fresh poultry meat over time elicits spoilage when reaching unacceptable levels, during which process slime production, microorganism colony formation, negative organoleptic impact and meat structure change are observed. Spoilage organisms in raw meat, especially Gram-negative bacteria can be difficult to combat due to their cell wall composition. In this study, the natural antimicrobial agents ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) and isoeugenol were tested individually and in combinations for their activities against a selection of Gram-negative strains in vitro. All combinations resulted in additive interactions between ε-PL and isoeugenol towards the bacteria tested. The killing efficiency of different ratios of the two antimicrobial agents was further evaluated in vitro against Pseudomonas putida. Subsequently, the most efficient ratio was applied to a raw turkey meat model system which was incubated for 96 h at spoilage temperature. Half of the samples were challenged with P. putida, and the bacterial load and microbial community composition was followed over time. CFU counts revealed that the antimicrobial blend was able to lower the amount of viable Pseudomonas spp. by one log compared to untreated samples of challenged turkey meat, while the single compounds had no effect on the population. However, the compounds had no effect on Pseudomonas spp. CFU in unchallenged meat. Next-generation sequencing offered culture-independent insight into population diversity and changes in microbial composition of the meat during spoilage and in response to antimicrobial treatment. Spoilage of unchallenged turkey meat resulted in decreasing species diversity over time, regardless of whether the samples received antimicrobial treatment. The microbiota composition of untreated unchallenged meat progressed from a Pseudomonas spp. to a Pseudomonas spp., Photobacterium spp., and Brochothrix thermosphacta dominated food matrix on the expense of low

  12. A prototype sensor system for the early detection of microbially linked spoilage in stored wheat grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lacy Costello, B. P. J.; Ewen, R. J.; Gunson, H.; Ratcliffe, N. M.; Sivanand, P. S.; Spencer-Phillips, P. T. N.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors based on composites of metal oxides were fabricated and tested extensively under high-humidity and high-flow conditions with exposure to vapours reported to increase in the headspace of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) colonized by fungi. The sensors that exhibited high sensitivity to target vapours combined with high stability were selected for inclusion into a four-sensor array prototype system. A sampling protocol aligned to parallel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and human olfactory assessment studies was established for use with the sensor system. The sensor system was utilized to assess irradiated wheat samples that had been conditioned to 25% moisture content and inoculated with pathogens known to cause spoilage of grain in storage. These included the fungi Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium vulpinum, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus and the actinomycete, Streptomyces griseus. The sensor system successfully tracked the progress of the infections from a very early stage and the results were compared with human olfactory assessment panels run concurrently. A series of dilution studies were undertaken using previously infected grain mixed with sound grain, to improve the sensitivity and maximize the differentiation of the sensor system. An optimum set of conditions including incubation temperature, incubation time, sampling time, and flow rate were ascertained utilizing this method. The sensor system differentiated samples of sound grain from samples of sound grain with 1% (w/w) fungus infected grain added. Following laboratory trials, the prototype sensor system was evaluated in a commercial wheat grain intake facility. Thresholds calculated from laboratory tests were used to differentiate between sound and infected samples (classified by intake laboratory technicians) collected routinely from trucks delivering grain for use in food manufacture. All samples identified as having

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae variety diastaticus friend or foe?-spoilage potential and brewing ability of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae variety diastaticus yeast isolates by genetic, phenotypic and physiological characterization.

    PubMed

    Meier-Dörnberg, Tim; Kory, Oliver Ingo; Jacob, Fritz; Michel, Maximilian; Hutzler, Mathias

    2018-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae variety diastaticus is generally considered to be an obligatory spoilage microorganism and spoilage yeast in beer and beer-mixed beverages. Their super-attenuating ability causes increased carbon dioxide concentrations, beer gushing and potential bottle explosion along with changes in flavor, sedimentation and increased turbidity. This research shows clear differences in the super-attenuating properties of S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus yeast strains and their potential for industrial brewing applications. Nineteen unknown spoilage yeast cultures were obtained as isolates and characterized using a broad spectrum of genetic and phenotypic methods. Results indicated that all isolates represent genetically different S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus strains except for strain TUM PI BA 124. Yeast strains were screened for their super-attenuating ability and sporulation. Even if the STA1 gene responsible for super-attenuation by encoding for the enzyme glucoamylase could be verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction, no correlation to the spoilage potential could be demonstrated. Seven strains were further characterized focusing on brewing and sensory properties according to the yeast characterization platform developed by Meier-Dörnberg. Yeast strain TUM 3-H-2 cannot metabolize dextrin and soluble starch and showed no spoilage potential or super-attenuating ability even when the strain belongs to the species S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus. Overall, the beer produced with S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus has a dry and winey body with noticeable phenolic off-flavors desirable in German wheat beers.

  14. Reduction in Listeria monocytogenes and spoilage bacteria on smoked catfish using X-ray treatments.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, B S M; Coker, R; Su, Y-C

    2012-06-01

    To determine the efficacy of X-ray processes in inactivating L. monocytogenes levels in smoked catfish during storage at 5°C and to determine the effects of X-ray doses on controlling the growth of spoilage bacteria on smoked catfish during storage at 5°C for up to 5 weeks. Smoked catfish fillets inoculated with L. monocytogenes were treated with 0.0-2.0 kGy X-ray and stored at 5°C for 5 weeks. The negative controls (uninoculated/untreated) and uninoculated samples treated with the lowest (0.1 kGy) and highest (2.0 kGy) doses were stored at 5°C and tested for psychrotrophs count during the 5 weeks of storage. The initial L. monocytogenes population on smoked catfish was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced to undetectable level by a treatment of 1.0 kGy or higher. The initial psychrotrophs count on smoked catfish was significantly reduced from 4.7 CFU g(-1) to below the detectable level by a treatment with 2.0 kGy. Smoked catfish treated with 2.0 kGy X-ray had no detectable L. monocytogenes throughout 35 days of storage at 5°C. A treatment with 2.0 kGy X-ray also kept the levels of psychrotrophs in the smoked catfish within the acceptable level until 35 days. The results of this investigation indicate that X-ray at 2.0 kGy can eliminate L. monocytogenes and extend the shelf life of smoked catfish stored at refrigeration temperature. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Controlling Vibrio vulnificus and spoilage bacteria in fresh shucked oysters using natural antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, B S M

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of grape seed extract (GE), citric acid (CA) and lactic acid (LA) on the inactivation of Vibrio vulnificus and inherent microflora in fresh shucked oysters. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of GE, CA or LA against V. vulnificus was determined. Furthermore, the shucked oysters were artificially inoculated with V. vulnificus. The inoculated shucked oysters (25 g) were then dipped in 250 ml GE, CA or LA solutions for 10 min. The population of V. vulnificus in shucked oysters was determined. The effects of the treatments with GE, CA or LA solutions on the inherent microbiota in fresh shucked oysters during storage at 5°C for 20 days were also studied. The MICs of GE, CA or LA against V. vulnificus were 10.0, 5.0 or 1.0 mg ml(-1), respectively. The concentrations of 500, 300 or 150 mg ml(-1) GE, CA or LA solutions were needed to reduce the population of V. vulnificus to below the detection level (1.0 log g(-1)). Treatment with 500, 300, 150 mg ml(-1) GE, CA or LA significantly reduced the initial inherent microbiota in fresh shucked oysters, and inherent levels were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the control sample throughout refrigerated storage for 20 days. Oysters filter large volume of seawater during their feeding activities that concentrate bacteria such as Vibrio vulnificus in their body. The presence of V. vulnificus in oysters has a serious impact on public health and international trade. There is increasing concern over the use of chemical preservatives. Furthermore, the food industry is looking for new natural preservation methods. This study indicated that lactic acid and citric acid wash solutions could offer an inexpensive, natural and strong approach to control V. vulnificus and spoilage bacteria in fresh shucked for the oyster industry. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Efficacies of soy sauce and wine base marinades for controlling spoilage of raw beef.

    PubMed

    Kargiotou, C; Katsanidis, E; Rhoades, J; Kontominas, M; Koutsoumanis, K

    2011-02-01

    Fresh beef slices were marinated by immersion in marinades based on soy sauce without (SB) or with lactic acid (SBLA) or red wine base without (WB) or with 0.5% v/v oregano essential oil (WBO). For control samples (immersed in saline), a mean increase of 0.9log CFU/cm(2) in total viable counts (TVCs) occurred during the 24h treatment. During marination with WB and SB, mean TVC decreased by 0.7 and 0.3log CFU/cm(2), respectively. The mean decrease in TVC for samples marinated in WBO or SBLA was 1.2log CFU/cm(2). Subsequent storage of beef resulted in a rapid increase of TVC in control samples, to ≥9.5log CFU/cm(2) after 8 days at 5°C or 3 days at 15°C. Significant (P<0.05) microbial growth occurred in marinated samples stored at 5°C. During storage at 15°C TVC increased in only WB samples but the final numbers of 5.9log CFU/cm(2) were significantly lower (P<0.05) than the numbers in the control. Results similar to those for TVC were observed for Pseudomonas spp. All marinades also gave meat with significant lower TBARS values than the controls. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the toughness of the marinated samples compared to the control, except for SBLA samples which had significantly higher (P<0.05) shear force values. Marination with soy sauce or red wine marinades can evidently control microbial spoilage and oxidation of meat. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic diversity of thermoduric spoilage microorganisms of milk from Brazilian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Júnior, J C; Tamanini, R; de Oliveira, A L M; Alfieri, A A; Beloti, V

    2018-05-16

    When correctly pasteurized, packaged, and stored, milk with low total bacterial counts (TBC) has a longer shelf life. Therefore, microorganisms that resist heat treatments are especially important in the deterioration of pasteurized milk and in its shelf life. The aim of this work was to quantify the thermoduric microorganisms after the pasteurization of refrigerated raw milk samples with low TBC and to identify the diversity of these isolates with proteolytic or lipolytic potential by RFLP analysis. Twenty samples of raw milk were collected in bulk milk tanks shortly after milking in different Brazilian dairy farms and pasteurized. The mean thermoduric count was 3.2 (±4.7) × 10 2 cfu/mL (2.1% of the TBC). Of the 310 colonies obtained, 44.2% showed milk spoilage potential, 32.6% were proteolytic and lipolytic simultaneously, 31% were exclusively proteolytic, and 48 (36.4%) were only lipolytic. Regarding the diversity, 8 genera were observed (Bacillus, Brachybacterium, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Kocuria, Paenibacillus, and Macrococcus); there was a predominance of endospore-forming bacteria (50%), and Bacillus licheniformis was the most common (34.1%) species. Considering the RFLP types, it was observed that the possible clonal populations make up the microbiota of different milk samples, but the same milk samples contain microorganisms of a single species with different RFLP types. Thus, even in milk with a high microbiological quality, it is necessary to control the potential milk-deteriorating thermoduric microorganisms to avoid the risk of compromising the shelf life and technological potential of pasteurized milk. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacterial and fungal core microbiomes associated with small grain silages during ensiling and aerobic spoilage.

    PubMed

    Duniere, Lysiane; Xu, Shanwei; Long, Jin; Elekwachi, Chijioke; Wang, Yuxi; Turkington, Kelly; Forster, Robert; McAllister, Tim A

    2017-03-03

    Describing the microbial populations present in small grain silage and understanding their changes during ensiling is of interest for improving the nutrient value of these important forage crops. Barley, oat and triticale forages as well as an intercropped mixture of the 3 crops were harvested and ensiled in mini silos for a period of 90 days, followed by 14 days of aerobic exposure. Changes in fermentation characteristics and nutritive value were assessed in terminal silages and bacterial and fungal communities during ensiling and aerobic exposure were described using 16S and 18S rDNA sequencing, respectively. All small grain silages exhibited chemical traits that were associated with well ensiled forages, such as low pH value (4.09 ± 0.28) and high levels of lactic acid (59.8 ± 14.59 mg/g DM). The number of microbial core genome operational taxonomic units (OTUs) decreased with time of ensiling. Taxonomic bacterial community profiles were dominated by the Lactobacillales after fermentation, with a notable increase in Bacillales as a result of aerobic exposure. Diversity of the fungal core microbiome was shown to also be reduced during ensiling. Operational taxonomic units assigned to filamentous fungi were found in the core microbiome at ensiling and after aerobic exposure, whereas the Saccharomycetales were the dominate yeast population after 90 days of ensiling and aerobic exposure. Bacterial and fungal orders typically associated with silage spoilage were identified in the core microbiome after aerobic exposure. Next Generation Sequencing was successfully used to describe bacterial communities and the first record of fungal communities throughout the process of ensiling and utilization. Adequately describing the microbial ecology of silages could lead to improved ensiling practices and the selection of silage inoculants that act synergistically with the natural forage microbiome.

  19. Thermotolerance of meat spoilage lactic acid bacteria and their inactivation in vacuum-packaged vienna sausages.

    PubMed

    Franz, C M; von Holy, A

    1996-02-01

    Heat resistance of three meat spoilage lactic acid bacteria was determined in vitro. D-values at 57, 60 and 63 degrees C were 52.9, 39.3 and 32.5 s for Lactobacillus sake, 34.9, 31.3 and 20.2 s for Leuconostoc mesenteroides and 22.5, 15.6 and 14.4 s for Lactobacillus curvatus, respectively. The three lactic acid bacteria were heat sensitive, as one log reductions in numbers were achieved at 57 degrees C in less than 60 s. Z-values could not be accurately determined as D-values did not change by a factor of 10 over the temperature range studied. In-package pasteurization processes were calculated using the highest in vitro D-value and applied to vacuum-packaged vienna sausages. Microbiological shelf life (time for lactic acid bacteria count to reach 5 x 10(6) CFU/g) increased from 7 days for non-pasteurized samples to 67, 99 and 119 days for samples of the three pasteurization treatments at 8 degrees C storage. Enterobacteriaceae were detected at levels of log 4.0 CFU/g in non-pasteurized samples, but were reduced to < log 1.0 CFU/g in pasteurized samples. The incidence of listeriae in non-pasteurized samples was low as only one Listeria innocua strain was isolated. No Listeria spp. were isolated from pasteurized samples. Numbers of Clostridium isolates increased from one in non-pasteurized samples to 25 in pasteurized samples. Increasing incidences of clostridia, and the presence of C. perfringens in pasteurized samples indicated that in-package pasteurization could compromise product safety.

  20. Evidence for a role of biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the spoilage of fresh aerobically stored chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Glen E; Bentley, Jessica A; Dykes, Gary A

    2011-08-01

    Fresh chicken meat is a fat-rich environment and we therefore hypothesised that production of biosurfactants to increase bioavailability of fats may represent one way in which spoilage bacteria might enhance the availability of nutrients. Numbers of Pseudomonas were determined on a total of 20 fresh and 20 spoiled chicken thighs with skin. A total of 400 randomly isolated Pseudomonas colonies from fresh (200) and spoiled (200) chicken were screened for the presence of biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant producing strains represented 5% and 72% of the Pseudomonas spp. isolates from fresh (mean count 2.3 log(10) cfu g(-1)) and spoiled (mean count 7.4 log(10) cfu g(-1)) chicken skin, respectively. Partially-purified biosurfactants derived from a subgroup of four Pseudomonasfluorescens strains obtained through the screening process were subsequently used to investigate the role that the addition of these compounds plays in the spoilage of aerobically stored chicken. Emulsification potential of the four selected biosurfactants was measured against a range of hydrocarbons and oils. All four biosurfactants displayed a greater ability to emulsify rendered chicken fat than hydrocarbons (paraffin liquid, toluene and hexane) and oils (canola, olive, sunflower and vegetable). Storage trials (4 °C) of chicken meat treated with the four selected biosurfactants revealed a significantly greater (P < 0.05) total aerobic count in biosurfactant treated samples, as compared to untreated samples on each day (0, 1, 2, 3) of storage. For biosurfactant treated samples the greatest increase in total aerobic count (1.3-1.7 log(10) cfu g(-1)) occurred following one day of incubation. These results indicate that biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas spp. may play an important role in the spoilage of aerobically stored chicken meat by making nutrients more freely available and providing strains producing them with a competitive advantage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. Identification and Quantification of Volatile Chemical Spoilage Indexes Associated with Bacterial Growth Dynamics in Aerobically Stored Chicken.

    PubMed

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Ukuku, Dike O; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) of raw chicken breast stored aerobically at 4, 10, and 21 °C were identified and quantified using solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The growth dynamics of total viable count (TVC), psychrotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Brochothrix thermosphacta and H2 S producing bacteria were characterized based on maximum growth rates (μmax ), maximal microbial concentration (Nmax ) and at the moment of microbial shelf life (Svalues ), calculated from Gompertz-fitted growth curves. Pseudomonas spp. was predominant species, while B. thermosphacta was characterized by the highest μmax . The microbiological and sensory shelf lives were estimated based on TVC, Pseudomonas spp., and B. thermosphacta counts and sensory evaluation, respectively. Among 27 VOCs identified by GC-MS in spoiled chicken samples, ethanol (EtOH), 1-butanol-3-methyl (1But-3M), and acetic acid (C2 ) achieved the highest Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.66, 0.61, and 0.59, respectively, with TVC, regardless of storage temperature. Partial least squares (PLS) regression revealed that the synthesis of 1But-3M and C2 was most likely induced by the metabolic activity of B. thermosphacta and LAB, while EtOH was attributed to Pseudomonas spp. The increase in concentration of selected volatile spoilage markers (EtOH, 1But-3M, and C2 ) in the headspace over spoiled chicken breast was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) with TVC growth. These findings highlight the possibility of analyzing the combination of 3 selected spoilage markers: EtOH, 1But-3M, and C2 as rapid evaluation for poultry quality testing using SPME-GC-MS. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Rapid and quantitative detection of the microbial spoilage of meat by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Ellis, David I; Broadhurst, David; Kell, Douglas B; Rowland, Jem J; Goodacre, Royston

    2002-06-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a rapid, noninvasive technique with considerable potential for application in the food and related industries. We show here that this technique can be used directly on the surface of food to produce biochemically interpretable "fingerprints." Spoilage in meat is the result of decomposition and the formation of metabolites caused by the growth and enzymatic activity of microorganisms. FT-IR was exploited to measure biochemical changes within the meat substrate, enhancing and accelerating the detection of microbial spoilage. Chicken breasts were purchased from a national retailer, comminuted for 10 s, and left to spoil at room temperature for 24 h. Every hour, FT-IR measurements were taken directly from the meat surface using attenuated total reflectance, and the total viable counts were obtained by classical plating methods. Quantitative interpretation of FT-IR spectra was possible using partial least-squares regression and allowed accurate estimates of bacterial loads to be calculated directly from the meat surface in 60 s. Genetic programming was used to derive rules showing that at levels of 10(7) bacteria.g(-1) the main biochemical indicator of spoilage was the onset of proteolysis. Thus, using FT-IR we were able to acquire a metabolic snapshot and quantify, noninvasively, the microbial loads of food samples accurately and rapidly in 60 s, directly from the sample surface. We believe this approach will aid in the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point process for the assessment of the microbiological safety of food at the production, processing, manufacturing, packaging, and storage levels.

  3. Evaluation of damage induced by Kwkt and Pikt zymocins against Brettanomyces/Dekkera spoilage yeast, as compared to sulphur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Oro, L; Ciani, M; Bizzaro, D; Comitini, F

    2016-07-01

    Over the last few decades, the use of zymocins as biological tools to counteract contamination by spoilage yeast in beverages and food has been widely studied. This study examined the damage induced by the Kwkt and Pikt, two zymocins produced by Kluyeromyces wickerhamii and Wickerhanomyces anomalus, respectively, with antimicrobial activity against Brettanomyces/Dekkera wine-spoilage yeast. The physiological and biochemical characterization of both of these proteins revealed that only Pikt showed a strict relationship between β-glucosidase activity and killer activity. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum fungicidal concentrations of Kwkt and Pikt showed inhibitory activities against Brettanomyces/Dekkera yeast. Cytofluorimetric evaluation of cell death was based on both cell membrane permeability and cell metabolism, using fluorescence techniques under increasing zymocin levels over different incubation times. The antimicrobial actions of Kwkt and Pikt were also compared with the mode of action of sulphur dioxide. In this last case, the induction of the viable but noncultivable (VBNC) state was confirmed, with the consequent recovery of Brettanomyces yeast after medium replacement. In contrast, Kwkt and Pikt caused irreversible death of these yeast, without recovery of sensitive cells. Kwkt and Pikt could be proposed as fungistatic or fungicide biocontrol agents in winemaking to control the colonization and development of Brettanomyces/Dekkera yeasts. These data support the potential use of zymocins to reduce wine contamination as an alternative to sulphur dioxide that act on sensitive cells. Differently from sulphur dioxide, that could induce a reversible VBNC state, Kwkt and Pikt determine the irreversible damage on sensitive yeasts, ensuring the complete control of spoilage Brettanomyces yeast. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. 671-nm microsystem diode laser based on portable Raman sensor device for in-situ identification of meat spoilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowoidnich, Kay; Schmidt, Heinar; Schwägele, Fredi; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2011-05-01

    Based on a miniaturized optical bench with attached 671 nm microsystem diode laser we present a portable Raman system for the rapid in-situ characterization of meat spoilage. It consists of a handheld sensor head (dimensions: 210 x 240 x 60 mm3) for Raman signal excitation and collection including the Raman optical bench, a laser driver, and a battery pack. The backscattered Raman radiation from the sample is analyzed by means of a custom-designed miniature spectrometer (dimensions: 200 x 190 x 70 mm3) with a resolution of 8 cm-1 which is fiber-optically coupled to the sensor head. A netbook is used to control the detector and for data recording. Selected cuts from pork (musculus longissimus dorsi and ham) stored refrigerated at 5 °C were investigated in timedependent measurement series up to three weeks to assess the suitability of the system for the rapid detection of meat spoilage. Using a laser power of 100 mW at the sample meat spectra can be obtained with typical integration times of 5 - 10 seconds. The complex spectra were analyzed by the multivariate statistical tool PCA (principal components analysis) to determine the spectral changes occurring during the storage period. Additionally, the Raman data were correlated with reference analyses performed in parallel. In that way, a distinction between fresh and spoiled meat can be found in the time slot of 7 - 8 days after slaughter. The applicability of the system for the rapid spoilage detection of meat and other food products will be discussed.

  5. Antifungal effectiveness of potassium sorbate incorporated in edible coatings against spoilage molds of apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Mehyar, Ghadeer F; Al-Qadiri, Hamzah M; Abu-Blan, Hifzi A; Swanson, Barry G

    2011-04-01

    Predominant spoilage molds of fresh apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes stored at 4 °C were isolated and examined for resistance to potassium sorbate (PS) incorporated in polysaccharide edible coatings. The isolated molds were Penicillium expansum, Cladosporium herbarum, and Aspergillus niger from apples. P. oxalicum and C. cucumerinum were isolated from cucumbers and P. expansium and C. fulvum from tomatoes. Guar gum edible coating incorporated with PS was the most effective mold inhibitor, significantly (P<0.05) reducing the isolated spoilage molds for 20, 15, and 20 d of storage at 4 °C on apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes, respectively. PS incorporated into pea starch edible coating was less effective and selectively inhibited the isolated mold species, causing significant (P<0.05) reduction in mold on apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes counts for 20, 10 to 15, and 15 to 20 d of storage at 4 °C, respectively. The isolated mold species exhibited different resistances to PS incorporated in the edible coatings. The greatest inhibition (2.9 log CFU/g) was obtained with C. herbarum on apples and the smallest (1.1 log CFU/g) was with P. oxalicum on cucumbers and the other isolated mold species exhibited intermediate resistance. The coatings tested, in general, inhibited molds more effectively on apples than on tomatoes and cucumbers. Addition of PS to pea starch and guar gum, edible coatings improved the antifungal activity of PS against isolated spoilage molds on apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes. PS inhibition was most effective against C. herbarum on apples and least effective against P. oxalicum on cucumbers.

  6. Identification of beer-spoilage bacteria using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wieme, Anneleen D; Spitaels, Freek; Aerts, Maarten; De Bruyne, Katrien; Van Landschoot, Anita; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-08-18

    Applicability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identification of beer-spoilage bacteria was examined. To achieve this, an extensive identification database was constructed comprising more than 4200 mass spectra, including biological and technical replicates derived from 273 acetic acid bacteria (AAB) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), covering a total of 52 species, grown on at least three growth media. Sequence analysis of protein coding genes was used to verify aberrant MALDI-TOF MS identification results and confirmed the earlier misidentification of 34 AAB and LAB strains. In total, 348 isolates were collected from culture media inoculated with 14 spoiled beer and brewery samples. Peak-based numerical analysis of MALDI-TOF MS spectra allowed a straightforward species identification of 327 (94.0%) isolates. The remaining isolates clustered separately and were assigned through sequence analysis of protein coding genes either to species not known as beer-spoilage bacteria, and thus not present in the database, or to novel AAB species. An alternative, classifier-based approach for the identification of spoilage bacteria was evaluated by combining the identification results obtained through peak-based cluster analysis and sequence analysis of protein coding genes as a standard. In total, 263 out of 348 isolates (75.6%) were correctly identified at species level and 24 isolates (6.9%) were misidentified. In addition, the identification results of 50 isolates (14.4%) were considered unreliable, and 11 isolates (3.2%) could not be identified. The present study demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS is well-suited for the rapid, high-throughput and accurate identification of bacteria isolated from spoiled beer and brewery samples, which makes the technique appropriate for routine microbial quality control in the brewing industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sources of psychrophilic and psychrotolerant clostridia causing spoilage of vacuum-packed chilled meats, as determined by PCR amplification procedure.

    PubMed

    Broda, D M; Boerema, J A; Brightwell, G

    2009-07-01

    To determine possible preslaughter and processing sources of psychrophilic and psychrotolerant clostridia causing spoilage of vacuum-packed chilled meats. Molecular methods based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of specific 16S rDNA fragments were used to detect the presence of Clostridium gasigenes, Clostridium estertheticum, Clostridium algidicarnis and Clostridium putrefaciens in a total of 357 samples collected from ten slaughter stock supply farms, slaughter stock, two lamb-processing plants, their environments, dressed carcasses and final vacuum-packed meat stored at -0.5 degrees C for 5(1/2) weeks. Clostridium gasigenes, C. estertheticum and C. algidicarnis/C. putrefaciens were commonly detected in farm, faeces, fleece and processing environmental samples collected at the slaughter floor operations prior to fleece removal, but all these micro-organisms were detected in only 4 out of 26 cooling floor and chiller environmental samples. One out of 42 boning room environmental samples tested positive for the presence of C. gasigenes and C. estertheticum, but 25 out of 42 of these samples were positive for C. algidicarnis/C. putrefaciens. Nearly all of the 31 faecal samples tested positive for the presence of C. gasigenes and C. estertheticum; however, only two of these samples were positive for C. algidicarnis and/or C. putrefaciens. Clostridial species that were subject to this investigation were frequently detected on chilled dressed carcasses. The major qualitative and quantitative differences between the results of PCR detection obtained with the primers specific for 'blown pack' -causing clostridia (C. gasigenes and C. estertheticum) and those obtained with primers specific for C. algidicarnis and C. putrefaciens suggest that the control of meat spoilage caused by different groups of meat clostridia is best approached individually for each group. This paper provides information significant for controlling meat spoilage-causing clostridia

  8. Use of the selective agar medium CREAD for monitoring the level of airborne spoilage moulds in cheese production.

    PubMed

    Kure, Cathrine Finne; Borch, Elisabeth; Karlsson, Ingela; Homleid, Jens Petter; Langsrud, Solveig

    2008-02-29

    It was investigated if a selective medium for common cheese spoiling moulds (CREAD) could give more relevant information than a general mould medium in hygienic air-sampling in cheese factories. A total of 126 air-samples were taken in six Nordic cheese factories using the general mould medium DG18 and CREAD. The level and genera of air-borne mould was determined. Identification to species-level was performed for a selection of samples. In five cheese factories the mycobiota was dominated by Penicillium spp. and in one cheese factory by Cladosporium spp. The concentration of air-borne moulds varied between the cheese factories ranging from 1 to 270 cfu/m3 on DG18 with a median value of 17. The number of mould colonies was in general lower at CREAD. Identification indicated that CREAD supported growth of common spoilage moulds for cheese, such as Penicillium palitans and P. commune. The mycobiota on DG18 also consisted of moulds not commonly associated with spoilage of cheese, such as Cladosporium spp., P. brevicompactum and P. chrysogenum. Contamination of cheese with mould is periodically a problem in production of semi-hard cheese and the level of air-borne mould is therefore routinely monitored in cheese factories. A clear correlation between the total number of moulds in air and mould growth on products is not always found. The conclusion from the investigation is that it is recommended to use a selective medium for cheese spoilage moulds, such as CREAD in hygienic monitoring.

  9. Microbiological changes, shelf life and identification of initial and spoilage microbiota of sea bream fillets stored under various conditions using 16S rRNA gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Parlapani, Foteini F; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar; Boziaris, Ioannis S

    2015-09-01

    Sea bream fillets are one of the most important value-added products of the seafood market. Fresh seafood spoils mainly owing to bacterial action. In this study an exploration of initial and spoilage microbiota of sea bream fillets stored under air and commercial modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 0 and 5 °C was conducted by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of isolates grown on plates. Sensory evaluation and enumeration of total viable counts and spoilage microorganisms were also conducted to determine shelf life and bacterial growth respectively. Different temperatures and atmospheres affected growth and synthesis of spoilage microbiota as well as shelf life. Shelf life under air at 0 and 5 °C was 14 and 5 days respectively, while under MAP it was 20 and 8 days respectively. Initial microbiota were dominated by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Psychrobacter and Macrococcus caseolyticus. Different temperatures and atmospheres affected the synthesis of spoilage microbiota. At the end of shelf life, different phylotypes of Pseudomonas closely related to Pseudomonas fragi were found to dominate in most cases, while Pseudomonas veronii dominated in fillets under MAP at 0 °C. Furthermore, in fillets under MAP at 5 °C, new dominant species such as Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Carnobacterium divergens and Vagococcus fluvialis were revealed. Different temperature and atmospheric conditions affected bacterial growth, shelf life and the synthesis of spoilage microbiota. Molecular identification revealed species and strains of microorganisms that have not been reported before for sea bream fillets stored under various conditions, thus providing valuable information regarding microbiological spoilage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Psychrotrophic Clostridium spp. associated with 'blown pack' spoilage of chilled vacuum-packed red meats and dog rolls in gas-impermeable plastic casings.

    PubMed

    Broda, D M; DeLacy, K M; Bell, R G; Braggins, T J; Cook, R L

    1996-04-01

    'Blown pack' spoilage of vacuum-packed chilled beef, lamb and venison, and of a cooked meat product, chilled dog rolls packed in an oxygen-impermeable plastic casing, was characterised by sensory, chemical and microbiological analysis. Investigation of the probable causative agents led to the isolation of eight strains of psychrotrophic clostridia. Three strains have been provisionally identified as C. difficile, C. beijerinckii and C. lituseburense; the other five remain unidentified. In inoculation studies only one isolate produced significant amount of gas on meat, causing pack 'blowing'. It is, therefore, possible that 'blown pack' spoilage involves a synergism with one or more other organisms.

  11. Heat inactivation of wine spoilage yeast Dekkera bruxellensis by hot water treatment.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, V; Vigentini, I; Parisi, N; Picozzi, C; Compagno, C; Foschino, R

    2015-08-01

    Cell suspensions of four Dekkera bruxellensis strains (CBS 2499, CBS 2797, CBS 4459 and CBS 4601) were subjected to heat treatment in deionized water at four different temperatures (55·0, 57·5, 60·0 and 62·5°C) to investigate their thermal resistance. The decimal reduction times at a specific temperature were calculated from the resulting inactivation curves: the D-values at 55·0°C ranged from 63 to 79·4 s, at 57·5°C from 39·6 to 46·1 s, at 60·0°C from 19·5 to 20·7 s, at 62·5°C from 10·2 to 13·7 s. The z-values were between 9·2 and 10·2°C, confirming that heat resistance is a strain-dependent character. A protocol for the sanitization of 225 l casks by immersion in hot water was set up and applied to contaminated 3-year-old barrels. The heat penetration through the staves was evaluated for each investigated temperature by positioning a thermal probe at 8 mm deep. A treatment at 60°C for an exposure time of 19 min allowed to eliminate the yeast populations up to a log count reduction of 8. Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis is the main yeast involved in red wine spoilage that occurs during ageing in barrel, generating considerable economic losses. Current sanitization protocols, performed using different chemicals, are ineffective due to the porous nature of the wood. The thermal inactivation of D. bruxellensis cells by hot water treatment proves to be efficacious and easy to perform, provided that the holding time at the killing temperature takes into account the filling time of the vessel and the time for the heat penetration into the wood structure. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Formation of Guaiacol by Spoilage Bacteria from Vanillic Acid, a Product of Rice Koji Cultivation, in Japanese Sake Brewing.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshihiko; Konno, Mahito; Shimura, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Seiei; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Hashizume, Katsumi

    2016-06-08

    The formation of guaiacol, a potent phenolic off-odor compound in the Japanese sake brewing process, was investigated. Eight rice koji samples were analyzed, and one contained guaiacol and 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG) at extraordinarily high levels: 374 and 2433 μg/kg dry mass koji, respectively. All samples contained ferulic and vanillic acids at concentrations of mg/kg dry mass koji. Guaiacol forming microorganisms were isolated from four rice koji samples. They were identified as Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens/subtilis, and Staphylococcus gallinarum using 16S rRNA gene sequence. These spoilage bacteria convert vanillic acid to guaiacol and ferulic acid to 4-VG. However, they convert very little ferulic acid or 4-VG to guaiacol. Nine strains of koji fungi tested produced vanillic acid at the mg/kg dry mass koji level after cultivation. These results indicated that spoilage bacteria form guaiacol from vanillic acid, which is a product of koji cultivation in the sake brewing process.

  13. Evaluation of five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon for controlling food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi.

    PubMed

    Nguefack, J; Leth, V; Amvam Zollo, P H; Mathur, S B

    2004-08-01

    Five essential oils (EO) extracted from Cymbopogon citratus, Monodora myristica, Ocimum gratissimum, Thymus vulgaris and Zingiber officinale were investigated for their inhibitory effect against three food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi, Fusarium moniliforme, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. Five strains of each fungus were tested. The agar dilution technique was used to determine the inhibitory effect of each EO on the radial growth of the fungus, and a dose response was recorded. The EO from O. gratissimum, T. vulgaris and C. citratus were the most effective and prevented conidial germination and the growth of all three fungi on corn meal agar at 800, 1000 and 1200 ppm, respectively. Moderate activity was observed for the EO from Z. officinale between 800 and 2500 ppm, while the EO from M. myristica was less inhibitory. These effects against food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi indicated the possible ability of each essential oil as a food preservative. A comparative test on the preservative ability of the EO from O. gratissimum and potassium sorbate against A. flavus at pH 3.0 and 4.5 showed that the EO remained stable at both pH, whereas the efficacy of potassium sorbate was reduced at higher pH. We concluded that the EO from O. gratissimum is a potential food preservative with a pH dependent superiority against potassium sorbate, and these are novel scientific information.

  14. High pressure treatment changes spoilage characteristics and shelf life of Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) during refrigerated storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Rong; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Qi

    2017-04-01

    The effects of high pressure (HP) treatment on spoilage characteristic and shelf life extension of Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) during refrigerated storage were studied. Results showed that HP treatment of 275 MPa for 3 min or 300 MPa for 2 min could achieve 100% full release of oyster adductor muscle, pressures higher than 350 MPa caused excessive release as the shells of oysters were broken, thus use of higher pressures should be cautious in oyster processing industry because of its adverse impact on the appearance of shells. HP treatment (300 MPa, 2 min) was proper for the shucking of Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) in China. This treatment caused no organoleptic disadvantage. Moreover, HP treatment resulted in obvious differences in biochemical spoilage indicators (pH, TVB-N and TBARS) changes and volatile compounds profile determined by electronic nose during storage. HP treatment (300 MPa, 2 min) also led to a reduction of aerobic bacterial count (APC) by 1.27 log cycles. Furthermore, the APC values of oysters treated by HP were always lower than those of the control samples during storage. Based on the organoleptic, biochemical and microbiological indicators, shelf life of 6-8 d for control and 12 d for HP-treated oysters could be expected. HP treatment showed great potential in oyster processing and preservation.

  15. Modified atmosphere packaging for prevention of mold spoilage of bakery products with different pH and water activity levels.

    PubMed

    Guynot, M E; Marín, S; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

    2003-10-01

    A sponge cake analog was used to study the influence of pH, water activity (aw), and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on the growth of seven fungal species commonly causing bakery product spoilage (Eurotium amstelodami, Eurotium herbariorum, Eurotium repens, Eurotium rubrum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium corylophilum). A full factorial design was used. Water activity, CO2, and their interaction were the main factors significantly affecting fungal growth. Water activity at levels of 0.80 to 0.90 had a significant influence on fungal growth and determined the concentration of CO2 needed to prevent cake analog spoilage. At an aw level of 0.85, lag phases increased twofold when the level of CO2 in the headspace increased from 0 to 70%. In general, no fungal growth was observed for up to 28 days of incubation at 25 degrees C when samples were packaged with 100% CO2, regardless of the aw level. Partial least squares projection to latent structures regression was used to build a polynomial model to predict sponge cake shelf life on the basis of the lag phases of all seven species tested. The model developed explained quite well (R2 = 79%) the growth of almost all species, which responded similarly to changes in tested factors. The results of this study emphasize the importance of combining several hurdles, such as modified atmosphere packaging, aw, and pH, that have synergistic or additive effects on the inhibition of mold growth.

  16. Evaluation of natural antimicrobials on typical meat spoilage bacteria in vitro and in vacuum-packed pork meat.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Bjørn Christian; Langsrud, Solveig

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of natural antimicrobials on the growth of typical spoilage bacteria from marinated pork. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of thymol, cinnamaldehyde, allyl isothiocyanate, citric acid, ascorbic acid, a rosemary extract, and a grapefruit seed extract against Lactobacillus algidus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Leuconostoc carnosum, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Carnobacterium divergens, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and Serratia proteamaculans were determined in a microplate assay. Combinations of antimicrobials were tested and several combinations showed synergistic effects in inhibiting bacterial growth. Single and combined antimicrobials were added to vacuum-packed pork meat to evaluate preserving effects. Antimicrobial concentrations of up to 10 times the MIC values showed no effect on total bacterial growth in vacuum packed pork meaning that although most antimicrobials inhibited the growth of spoilage bacteria in vitro, results from the microplate assay could not be transferred to the meat system. Most natural antimicrobials possess strong odor and flavor that limit their use as a food preservative. In conclusion, this study showed that the use of natural antimicrobials in meat products is limited and that bacterial quality and shelf life was not enhanced under the chosen conditions.

  17. Characterization of the Biodiversity of the Spoilage Microbiota in Chicken Meat Using Next Generation Sequencing and Culture Dependent Approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Soo; Kwon, Mirae; Heo, Sunhak; Kim, Min Gon; Kim, Geun-Bae

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the psychrotrophic bacteria isolated from chicken meat to characterize their microbial composition during refrigerated storage. The bacterial community was identified by the Illumina MiSeq method based on bacterial DNA extracted from spoiled chicken meat. Molecular identification of the isolated psychrotrophic bacteria was carried out using 16S rDNA sequencing and their putrefactive potential was investigated by the growth at low temperature as well as their proteolytic activities in chicken meat. From the Illumina sequencing, a total of 187,671 reads were obtained from 12 chicken samples. Regardless of the type of chicken meat (i.e., whole meat and chicken breast) and storage temperatures (4°C and 10°C), Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis and Pseudomonas congelans were the most prominent bacterial species. Serratia spp. and Acinetobacter spp. were prominent in chicken breast and whole chicken meat, respectively. The 118 isolated strains of psychrotrophic bacteria comprised Pseudomonas spp. (58.48%), Serratia spp. (10.17%), and Morganella spp. (6.78%). All isolates grew well at 10°C and they induced different proteolytic activities depending on the species and strains. Parallel analysis of the next generation sequencing and culture dependent approach provides in-depth information on the biodiversity of the spoilage microbiota in chicken meat. Further study is needed to develop better preservation methods against these spoilage bacteria.

  18. Activity of R(+) limonene on the maximum growth rate of fish spoilage organisms and related effects on shelf-life prolongation of fresh gilthead sea bream fillets.

    PubMed

    Giarratana, Filippo; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Panebianco, Antonio

    2016-11-21

    R(+)limonene (LMN) is the major aromatic compound in essential oils obtained from oranges, grapefruits, and lemons. The improvement of preservation techniques to reduce the growth and activity of spoilage microorganisms in foods is crucial to increase their shelf life and to reduce the losses due to spoilage. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of LMN on the shelf life of fish fillets. Its effectiveness was preliminarily investigated in vitro against 60 strains of Specific Spoilage Organisms (SSOs) and then on gilt-head sea bream fillets stored at 2±0.5°C for 15days under vacuum. LMN showed a good inhibitory effect against tested SSOs strains. On gilt-head sea bream fillets, LMN inhibited the growth SSOs effectively, and its use resulted in a shelf-life extension of ca. 6-9days of treated fillets, compared to the control samples. The LMN addition in Sparus aurata fillets giving a distinctive smell and like-lemon taste to fish fillets that resulted pleasant to panellists. Its use contributed to a considerable reduction of fish spoilage given that the fillets treated with LMN were still sensory acceptable after 15days of storage. LMN may be used as an effective antimicrobial system to reduce the microbial growth and to improve the shelf life of fresh gilt-head sea bream fillets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of volatile spoilage metabolites in fermented cucumbers using nontargeted, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS)

    A nontargeted, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) method was developed for the analysis of fermented cucumber volatiles before and after anaerobic spoilage. Volatiles extracted by solid-phase microextraction were separated on a polyethyle...

  20. Purification of leucocin A for use on wieners to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of spoilage organisms.

    PubMed

    Balay, Danielle R; Dangeti, Ramana V; Kaur, Kamaljit; McMullen, Lynn M

    2017-08-16

    The aims of this study were to improve the method for purification of leucocin A to increase yield of peptide and to evaluate the efficacy of leucocin A and an analogue of leucocin A (leucocin N17L) to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on wieners in the presence of spoilage organisms. Leucocin A was produced by Leuconostoc gelidum UAL187 and purified with a five-fold increase in yield; leucocin N17L was synthesized replacing asparagine at residue 17 with leucine. Five strains of L. monocytogenes associated with foodborne illness were used to assess bacteriocin efficacy in vitro and in situ. Minimum inhibitory concentrations could not be determined in broth; however, on agar the minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 11.7-62.5μM and 62.5->500μM for leucocin A and leucocin N17L, respectively. Leucocin N17L was less effective than the native bacteriocin at controlling the growth of L. monocytogenes. The inactivation profiles of L. monocytogenes in broth in the presence of leucocin A suggested each isolate had different levels of resistance to the bacteriocin as determined by the initial bactericidal effect. The formation of spontaneously resistance subpopulations were also observed for each strain of L. monocytogenes. In situ, wieners were inoculated with the spoilage organisms, Carnobacterium divergens and Brochothrix thermosphacta, followed by surface application of purified leucocin A, and inoculated with a cocktail of L. monocytogenes. Wieners were vacuum packaged and stored at 7°C for 16d. Leucocin A reduced the counts L. monocytogenes on wieners during storage, regardless of the presence of C. divergens. B. thermosphacta was unaffected by the presence of leucocin A on wieners over the duration of storage. This study suggests that leucocin A may be beneficial to industry as a surface application on wieners to help reduce L. monocytogenes counts due to post-processing contamination even in the presence of spoilage organisms. However, further

  1. Applicability of a microbial Time Temperature Indicator (TTI) for monitoring spoilage of modified atmosphere packed minced meat.

    PubMed

    Vaikousi, Hariklia; Biliaderis, Costas G; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2009-08-15

    The applicability of a microbial Time Temperature Indicator (TTI) prototype, based on the growth and metabolic activity of a Lactobacillus sakei strain developed in a previous study, in monitoring quality of modified atmosphere packed (MAP) minced beef was evaluated at conditions simulating the chill chain. At all storage temperatures examined (0, 5, 10, 15 degrees C), the results showed that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were the dominant bacteria and can be used as a good spoilage index of MAP minced beef. The end of product's shelf life as revealed by the sensory evaluation coincided with a LAB population level of 7 log(10) CFU/g. For all temperatures tested, the growth of L. sakei in the TTI resembled closely the growth of LAB in the meat product, with similar temperature dependence of the micro(max) and thus similar activation energy values calculated as 111.90 and 106.90 kJ/mol, for the two systems, respectively. In addition, the end point of TTI colour change coincided with the time of sensory rejection point of the beef product during its storage under isothermal chilled temperature conditions. The estimated activation energy, E(alpha), values obtained for parameters related to the response of DeltaE (total colour change of the TTI) describing the kinetics of colour change of the TTI during isothermal storage (i.e. the maximum specific rate of DeltaEpsilon evolution curve, micro(DeltaEpsilon), and also the reciprocal of t(i), time at which half of the maximum DeltaEpsilon is reached), were 112.77 and 127.28 kJ/mol, respectively. Finally, the application of the microbial TTI in monitoring the quality deterioration of MAP minced beef due to spoilage was further evaluated under dynamic conditions of storage, using two separate low temperature periodic changing scenarios, resembling the actual conditions occurring in the distribution chill chain. The results showed that the end point of TTI, after storage at those fluctuating temperature conditions, was noted very

  2. Modelling spoilage of fresh turbot and evaluation of a time-temperature integrator (TTI) label under fluctuating temperature.

    PubMed

    Nuin, Maider; Alfaro, Begoña; Cruz, Ziortza; Argarate, Nerea; George, Susie; Le Marc, Yvan; Olley, June; Pin, Carmen

    2008-10-31

    Kinetic models were developed to predict the microbial spoilage and the sensory quality of fresh fish and to evaluate the efficiency of a commercial time-temperature integrator (TTI) label, Fresh Check(R), to monitor shelf life. Farmed turbot (Psetta maxima) samples were packaged in PVC film and stored at 0, 5, 10 and 15 degrees C. Microbial growth and sensory attributes were monitored at regular time intervals. The response of the Fresh Check device was measured at the same temperatures during the storage period. The sensory perception was quantified according to a global sensory indicator obtained by principal component analysis as well as to the Quality Index Method, QIM, as described by Rahman and Olley [Rahman, H.A., Olley, J., 1984. Assessment of sensory techniques for quality assessment of Australian fish. CSIRO Tasmanian Regional Laboratory. Occasional paper n. 8. Available from the Australian Maritime College library. Newnham. Tasmania]. Both methods were found equally valid to monitor the loss of sensory quality. The maximum specific growth rate of spoilage bacteria, the rate of change of the sensory indicators and the rate of change of the colour measurements of the TTI label were modelled as a function of temperature. The temperature had a similar effect on the bacteria, sensory and Fresh Check kinetics. At the time of sensory rejection, the bacterial load was ca. 10(5)-10(6) cfu/g. The end of shelf life indicated by the Fresh Check label was close to the sensory rejection time. The performance of the models was validated under fluctuating temperature conditions by comparing the predicted and measured values for all microbial, sensory and TTI responses. The models have been implemented in a Visual Basic add-in for Excel called "Fish Shelf Life Prediction (FSLP)". This program predicts sensory acceptability and growth of spoilage bacteria in fish and the response of the TTI at constant and fluctuating temperature conditions. The program is freely

  3. Inhibition of biofilm development and spoilage potential of Shewanella baltica by quorum sensing signal in cell-free supernatant from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Aifei; Zhu, Junli; Ye, Xiaofeng; Ge, Yangyang; Li, Jianrong

    2016-08-02

    The objective of this study was to in vitro evaluate the effect of a cell-free supernatant (CFS) containing quorum sensing (QS) signal of Pseudomonas fluorescens on the growth, biofilm development and spoilage potential of Shewanella baltica, and preliminarily assess the interactive influences of various chemically synthesized autoinducers on spoilage phenotypes of S. baltica. PF01 strain isolated from spoiled Pseudosciaen crocea was identified P. fluorescens. The addition of 25% and 50% CFS to S. baltica culture had no effect on the growth rate during the lag and exponential phase, however, caused cell decline during the stationary phase. The presence of CFS from P. fluorescens significantly inhibited biofilm development, and greatly decreased the production of trimethylamine (TMA) and biogenic amino in S. baltica. Various signal molecules of QS in the CFS of P. fluorescens culture were detected, including seven N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones (AHLs), autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and two diketopiperazines (DKPs). Exogenous supplement of synthesized seven AHLs containing in the CFS decreased biofilm formation and TMA production in S. baltica, while exposure to exogenous cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) was showed to promote spoilage potential, which revealed that S. baltica also sense the two QS molecules. Furthermore, the stimulating effect of cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) was affected when AHL was simultaneously added, suggesting that the inhibitory activity of spoilage phenotypes in S. baltica might be attributed to a competitive effect of these QS compounds in the CFS of P. fluorescens. The present studies provide a good basis for future research on the role of QS in the regulation of spoilage microbial flora. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. De-Novo Assembly and Analysis of the Heterozygous Triploid Genome of the Wine Spoilage Yeast Dekkera bruxellensis AWRI1499

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Paul J.; Pretorius, Isak S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its industrial importance, the yeast species Dekkera (Brettanomyces) bruxellensis has remained poorly understood at the genetic level. In this study we describe whole genome sequencing and analysis for a prevalent wine spoilage strain, AWRI1499. The 12.7 Mb assembly, consisting of 324 contigs in 99 scaffolds (super-contigs) at 26-fold coverage, exhibits a relatively high density of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Haplotype sampling for 1.2% of open reading frames suggested that the D. bruxellensis AWRI1499 genome is comprised of a moderately heterozygous diploid genome, in combination with a divergent haploid genome. Gene content analysis revealed enrichment in membrane proteins, particularly transporters, along with oxidoreductase enzymes. Availability of this assembly and annotation provides a resource for further investigation of genomic organization in this species, and functional characterization of genes that may confer important phenotypic traits. PMID:22470482

  5. Single-walled carbon nanotube/metalloporphyrin composites for the chemiresistive detection of amines and meat spoilage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sophie F; Petty, Alexander R; Sazama, Graham T; Swager, Timothy M

    2015-05-26

    Chemiresistive detectors for amine vapors were made from single-walled carbon nanotubes by noncovalent modification with cobalt meso-arylporphyrin complexes. We show that through changes in the oxidation state of the metal, the electron-withdrawing character of the porphyrinato ligand, and the counteranion, the magnitude of the chemiresistive response to ammonia could be improved. The devices exhibited sub-ppm sensitivity and high selectivity toward amines as well as good stability to air, moisture, and time. The application of these chemiresistors in the detection of various biogenic amines (i.e. putrescine, cadaverine) and in the monitoring of spoilage in raw meat and fish samples (chicken, pork, salmon, cod) over several days was also demonstrated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Detection of beer spoilage bacteria Pectinatus and Megasphaera with acridinium ester labelled DNA probes using a hybridisation protection assay.

    PubMed

    Paradh, A D; Hill, A E; Mitchell, W J

    2014-01-01

    DNA probes specific for rRNA of selected target species were utilised for the detection of beer spoilage bacteria of the genera Pectinatus and Megasphaera using a hybridisation protection assay (HPA). All the probes were modified during synthesis by addition of an amino linker arm at the 5' end or were internally modified by inserting an amine modified thymidine base. Synthesised probes then were labelled with acridinium ester (AE) and purified using reverse phase HPLC. The internally AE labelled probes were able to detect target RNA within the range of 0.016-0.0032pmol. All the designed probes showed high specificity towards target RNA and could detect bacterial contamination within the range of ca. 5×10(2)1×10(3) CFU using the HPA. The developed assay was also compatible with MRS, NBB and SMMP beer enrichment media, routinely used in brewing laboratories. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Longterm storage of post-packaged bread by controlling spoilage pathogens using Lactobacillus fermentum C14 isolated from homemade curd.

    PubMed

    Barman, Soma; Ghosh, Ranjan; Sengupta, Shreya; Mandal, Narayan C

    2017-01-01

    One potent lactic acid bacterial strain C14 with strong antifungal activity was isolated from homemade curd. Based on morphological as well as biochemical characters and 16S rDNA sequence homology the strain was identified as Lactobacillus fermentum. It displayed a wide antimicrobial spectrum against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, and also against number of food spoilage, plant and human pathogenic fungi. The cell free supernatant (CFS) of the strain C14 was also effective against the fungi tested. Inhibition of radial growth of Penicillium digitatum, Trichophyton rubrum and Mucor sp. was noticed in the presence of CFS of C14 even at low concentration (1%). More than 94.3 ± 1.6% and 91.5 ± 2.2% inhibition of conidial germination of P. digitatum and Mucor sp. were noticed in the presence of 10-fold-concentrated CFS of C14. Massive deformation of the fungal mycelia was observed by SEM studies, and losses of cellular proteins and DNA are also evident upon its treatment with C14. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenyl lactic acid, lactic acid along with some unidentified compounds in the antifungal extract. Challenge experiment showed immense potential of the strain C14 in preventing the spoilage of bread samples caused by Mucor sp. and Bacillus subtilis. The bread samples remained fresh upto 25 days even after inoculation with Mucor sp. (3.7 × 104 spores /ml) and B. subtilis (4.6 × 104 CFU /ml). Along with the antifungal properties, the isolated lactic acid bacterial strain also showed very good antioxidant activities. Unchanged level of liver enzymes serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase in albino mice upon feeding with C14 also suggested non-toxic nature of the bacterial isolate.

  8. Longterm storage of post-packaged bread by controlling spoilage pathogens using Lactobacillus fermentum C14 isolated from homemade curd

    PubMed Central

    Barman, Soma; Ghosh, Ranjan; Sengupta, Shreya

    2017-01-01

    One potent lactic acid bacterial strain C14 with strong antifungal activity was isolated from homemade curd. Based on morphological as well as biochemical characters and 16S rDNA sequence homology the strain was identified as Lactobacillus fermentum. It displayed a wide antimicrobial spectrum against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, and also against number of food spoilage, plant and human pathogenic fungi. The cell free supernatant (CFS) of the strain C14 was also effective against the fungi tested. Inhibition of radial growth of Penicillium digitatum, Trichophyton rubrum and Mucor sp. was noticed in the presence of CFS of C14 even at low concentration (1%). More than 94.3 ± 1.6% and 91.5 ± 2.2% inhibition of conidial germination of P. digitatum and Mucor sp. were noticed in the presence of 10-fold-concentrated CFS of C14. Massive deformation of the fungal mycelia was observed by SEM studies, and losses of cellular proteins and DNA are also evident upon its treatment with C14. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenyl lactic acid, lactic acid along with some unidentified compounds in the antifungal extract. Challenge experiment showed immense potential of the strain C14 in preventing the spoilage of bread samples caused by Mucor sp. and Bacillus subtilis. The bread samples remained fresh upto 25 days even after inoculation with Mucor sp. (3.7 × 104 spores /ml) and B. subtilis (4.6 × 104 CFU /ml). Along with the antifungal properties, the isolated lactic acid bacterial strain also showed very good antioxidant activities. Unchanged level of liver enzymes serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase in albino mice upon feeding with C14 also suggested non-toxic nature of the bacterial isolate. PMID:28859156

  9. Rapid and quantitative detection of the microbial spoilage in chicken meat by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (600-1100 nm).

    PubMed

    Lin, M; Al-Holy, M; Mousavi-Hesary, M; Al-Qadiri, H; Cavinato, A G; Rasco, B A

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of visible and short-wavelength near-infrared (SW-NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (600-1100 nm) to quantify the microbial loads in chicken meat and to develop a rapid methodology for monitoring the onset of spoilage. Twenty-four prepackaged fresh chicken breast muscle samples were prepared and stored at 21 degrees C for 24 h. Visible and SW-NIR was used to detect and quantify the microbial loads in chicken breast muscle at time intervals of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 h. Spectra were collected in the diffuse reflectance mode (600-1100 nm). Total aerobic plate count (APC) of each sample was determined by the spread plate method at 32 degrees C for 48 h. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) based prediction models were developed. PCA analysis showed clear segregation of samples held 8 h or longer compared with 0-h control. An optimum PLS model required eight latent variables for chicken muscle (R = 0.91, SEP = 0.48 log CFU g(-1)). Visible and SW-NIR combined with PCA is capable of perceiving the change of the microbial loads in chicken muscle once the APC increases slightly above 1 log cycle. Accurate quantification of the bacterial loads in chicken muscle can be calculated from the PLS-based prediction method. Visible and SW-NIR spectroscopy is a technique with a considerable potential for monitoring food safety and food spoilage. Visible and SW-NIR can acquire a metabolic snapshot and quantify the microbial loads of food samples rapidly, accurately, and noninvasively. This method would allow for more expeditious applications of quality control in food industries.

  10. Spoilage-Related Activity of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum Strains in Air-Stored and Vacuum-Packed Meat ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Casaburi, Annalisa; Nasi, Antonella; Ferrocino, Ilario; Di Monaco, Rossella; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Villani, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo

    2011-01-01

    One hundred three isolates of Carnobacterium spp. from raw meat were analyzed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and PCR and were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Forty-five strains of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum were characterized for their growth capabilities at different temperatures, NaCl concentrations, and pH values and for in vitro lipolytic and proteolytic activities. Moreover, their spoilage potential in meat was investigated by analyzing the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in meat stored in air or vacuum packs. Almost all the strains were able to grow at 4, 10, and 20°C, at pH values of 6 to 9, and in the presence of 2.5% NaCl. The release of VOCs by each strain in beef stored at 4°C in air and vacuum packs was evaluated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. All the meat samples inoculated and stored in air showed higher numbers of VOCs than the vacuum-packed meat samples. Acetoin, 1-octen-3-ol, and butanoic acid were the compounds most frequently found under both storage conditions. The contaminated meat samples were evaluated by a sensory panel; the results indicated that for all sensory odors, no effect of strain was significant (P > 0.05). The storage conditions significantly affected (P < 0.05) the perception of dairy, spoiled-meat, and mozzarella cheese odors, which were more intense in meat stored in air than in vacuum packs but were never very intense. In conclusion, different strains of C. maltaromaticum can grow efficiently in meat stored at low temperatures both in air and in vacuum packs, producing volatile molecules with low sensory impacts, with a negligible contribution to meat spoilage overall. PMID:21784913

  11. Effect of Equilibrated pH and Indigenous Spoilage Microorganisms on the Inhibition of Proteolytic Clostridium botulinum Toxin Production in Experimental Meals under Temperature Abuse.

    PubMed

    Golden, Max C; Wanless, Brandon J; David, Jairus R D; Lineback, D Scott; Talley, Ryan J; Kottapalli, Bala; Glass, Kathleen A

    2017-08-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a foreseeable biological hazard in prepared refrigerated meals that needs to be addressed in food safety plans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of product composition and storage temperature on the inhibition of botulinum toxin formation in nine experimental meals (meat, vegetable, or carbohydrate based). Treatments were inoculated with proteolytic C. botulinum, vacuum packaged, cooked at 90°C for 10 min, and assayed for botulinum toxin in samples stored at 25°C for up to 96 h for phase 1, or at 25°C for 12 h and then transferred to 12.5°C for up to 12 and 6 weeks in phases 1 and 2, respectively. For phase 1, none of the treatments (equilibrated pH 5.8) supported toxin production when stored at 25°C for 48 h, but toxin production was observed in all treatments at 72 h. For the remaining experiments with storage at 12.5°C, toxin production was dependent on equilibrated pH, storage time, and growth of indigenous spoilage microorganisms. In phase 1, no gross spoilage and no botulinum toxin was detected for any treatment (pH ≤5.8) stored at 12.5°C for 12 weeks. In phase 2, gross spoilage varied by commodity, with the brussels sprouts meal with pH 6.5 showing the most rapid spoilage within 2 weeks and botulinum toxin detected at 5 and 6 weeks for the control and cultured celery juice treatments, respectively. In contrast, spoilage microbes decreased the pH of a pH 5.9 beef treatment by 1.0 unit, potentially inhibiting C. botulinum through 6 weeks at 12.5°C. None of the other treatments with pH 5.8 or below supported toxin production or spoilage. This study provides validation for preventive controls in refrigerated meals. These include equilibrated product pH and storage temperature and time to inhibit toxin formation by proteolytic C. botulinum, but the impact of indigenous microflora on safety and interpretation of challenge studies is also highlighted.

  12. Development of a model system for the study of spoilage associated secondary cucumber fermentation during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Franco, Wendy; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys M

    2012-10-01

    Calcium chloride fermentations represent an alternative to reduce chloride concentrations in the wastewaters generated from commercial cucumber fermentations, currently performed in cover brine solutions containing 6% to 12% sodium chloride. However, preliminary attempts to commercially ferment the cucumbers in the presence of oxygen led to the development of a secondary cucumber fermentation or spoilage. The development of cucumber secondary fermentation has also been occasionally reported by processors using cover brine solutions containing sodium chloride. This study focused on the development of a model system to characterize CaCl(2) and NaCl secondary cucumber fermentations under conditions similar to those present on the commercial scale. Cucumber fruits mixed with cover brine solutions, containing 100 mM CaCl(2) or 1.03 M NaCl, and 25 mM acetic acid, were fermented in 2 L fermentation vessels subjected to air-purging at a rate of 5 mL/min. Microorganisms and selected biochemical changes detected in the experimental cucumber fermentations had been previously observed in commercial spoilage samples, suggesting the successful reproduction of the secondary fermentation in the laboratory. Experimental secondary fermentations were characterized by the rapid oxidation of the lactic acid produced during the primary fermentation, which, in turn, increased pH. Lactic acid disappearance seemed to be the result of yeast metabolism that also led to the chemical reduction of the environment to levels at which other bacteria could become established and produce butyric, propionic, and acetic acids. This model system will be applied for the identification of strategies to prevent the initiation of the cucumber secondary fermentation and reduce economic losses in the pickling industry. The study of secondary cucumber fermentation has represented a challenge for many years. The successful development of a model system for the study of this phenomenon in the laboratory is

  13. Spoilage potential of Vagococcus salmoninarum in preservative-free, MAP-stored brown shrimp and differentiation from Brochothrix thermosphacta on streptomycin thallous acetate actidione agar.

    PubMed

    Calliauw, F; Horemans, B; Broekaert, K; Michiels, C; Heyndrickx, M

    2016-05-01

    During a previous study concerning brown shrimp (Crangon crangon), selective streptomycin thallous acetate actidione (STAA) agar was used to determine the growth of Brochothrix thermosphacta. However, the growth of Vagococcus salmoninarum on this medium was also noticed. This study explores the spoilage potential of this organism when inoculated on sterile shrimp. Isolates growing on STAA were identified using (GTG)5 clustering followed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Their biochemical spoilage potential was analysed for H2 S production and enzymatic activities were tested using an APIZYM test. Headspace solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to analyse the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during storage of inoculated shrimp. Fifty-five per cent of isolates taken from STAA could be identified as V. salmoninarum, while no apparent morphological difference with B. thermosphacta isolates was identified upon the prescribed incubation conditions. For isolates identified as V. salmoninarum, production of 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, 2-undecanone was found, as was the possibility to form H2 S. When using the STAA medium for detecting B. thermosphacta, one should consider the possible abundant presence of V. salmoninarum as well. Based on this study, V. salmoninarum does not exhibit great spoilage potential, although it can produce H2 S and formed VOCs which are also found in other spoiled seafood products. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Lactic acid bacteria associated with a heat-processed pork product and sources of variation affecting chemical indices of spoilage and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Laursen, B G; Byrne, D V; Kirkegaard, J B; Leisner, J J

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the potential for developing a quality index for a Danish modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) heat-processed and naturally contaminated pork meat product stored at 5 degrees C. The composition of the predominating microflora and changes in contents of tyramine, arginine, organic acids and sensory characteristics were analysed. The microflora was predominated by Lactobacillus sakei, Leuconostoc carnosum and Carnobacterium divergens. The presence of each species varied between products and batches resulting in limited usefulness of the concentrations of these bacteria or their metabolites as indices of quality. Furthermore, the three species differed in their metabolic activities as shown by use of a model meat extract. However, when MAP storage of the processed pork product was followed by aerobic storage then acetic acid showed some potential as a chemical indicator of sensory quality. Variation in processing parameters and spoilage microbiota limited the usefulness of concentrations of micro-organisms and their metabolites as indices of spoilage for the studied processed MAP pork product. The present study contributes to an understanding of the difficulties experienced in developing quality indices to be used in the control of microbial spoilage of processed MAP meat products.

  15. Differentiation of Lactobacillus brevis strains using Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption-Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry with respect to their beer spoilage potential.

    PubMed

    Kern, Carola C; Vogel, Rudi F; Behr, Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus (L.) brevis is one of the most frequently encountered bacteria in beer-spoilage incidents. As the species Lactobacillus brevis comprises strains showing varying ability to grow in beer, ranging from growth in low hopped wheat to highly hopped pilsner beer, differentiation and classification of L. brevis with regard to their beer-spoiling ability is of vital interest for the brewing industry. Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption-Ionization-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been shown as a powerful tool for species and sub-species differentiation of bacterial isolates and is increasingly used for strain-level differentiation. Seventeen L. brevis strains, representative of different spoilage types, were characterized according to their tolerance to iso-alpha-acids and their growth in wheat-, lager- and pilsner beer. MALDI-TOF MS spectra were acquired to perform strain-level identification, cluster analysis and biomarker detection. Strain-level identification was achieved in 90% out of 204 spectra. Misidentification occurred nearly exclusively among strains belonging to the same spoilage type. Though spectra of strongly beer-spoiling strains showed remarkable similarity, no decisive single markers were detected to be present in all strains of one group. However, MALDI-TOF MS spectra can be reliably assigned to the corresponding strain and thus allow to track single strains and connect them to their physiological properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PMKT2, a new killer toxin from Pichia membranifaciens, and its promising biotechnological properties for control of the spoilage yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis.

    PubMed

    Santos, A; San Mauro, M; Bravo, E; Marquina, D

    2009-02-01

    Pichia membranifaciens CYC 1086 secretes a killer toxin (PMKT2) that is inhibitory to a variety of spoilage yeasts and fungi of agronomical interest. The killer toxin in the culture supernatant was concentrated by ultrafiltration and purified to homogeneity by two successive steps, including native electrophoresis and HPLC gel filtration. Biochemical characterization of the toxin showed it to be a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa and an isoelectric point of 3.7. At pH 4.5, optimal killer activity was observed at temperatures up to 20 degrees C. Above approximately this pH, activity decreased sharply and was barely noticeable at pH 6. The toxin concentrations present in the supernatant during optimal production conditions exerted a fungicidal effect on a variety of fungal and yeast strains. The results obtained suggest that PMKT2 has different physico-chemical properties from PMKT as well as different potential uses in the biocontrol of spoilage yeasts. PMKT2 was able to inhibit Brettanomyces bruxellensis while Saccharomyces cerevisiae was fully resistant, indicating that PMKT2 could be used in wine fermentations to avoid the development of the spoilage yeast without deleterious effects on the fermentative strain. In small-scale fermentations, PMKT2, as well as P. membranifaciens CYC 1086, was able to inhibit B. bruxellensis, verifying the biocontrol activity of PMKT2 in simulated winemaking conditions.

  17. Microbial Profile of Soil-Free versus In-Soil Grown Lettuce and Intervention Methodologies to Combat Pathogen Surrogates and Spoilage Microorganisms on Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Sirsat, Sujata A.; Neal, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    Aquaponics is an effective method to practice sustainable agriculture and is gaining popularity in the US; however, the microbial safety of aquaponically grown produce needs to be ascertained. Aquaponics is a unique marriage of fish production and soil-free produce (e.g., leafy greens) production. Fish are raised in fresh water tanks that are connected to water filled beds where fruits and vegetables are grown. The fish bi-products create nutrient-rich water that provides the key elements for the growth of plants and vegetables. The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the microbial safety and quality of aquaponic lettuce and soil grown lettuce (conventional, bagged, certified organic, and field lettuce). Following this, an intervention study was performed to combat foodborne pathogen surrogates (Salmonella and E. coli), spoilage, and fecal microorganisms using 2.5% acetic acid. The results of the comparative analysis study showed that aquaponically grown lettuce had significantly lower concentration of spoilage and fecal microorganisms compared to in-soil grown lettuce. The intervention study showed that diluted vinegar (2.5% acetic acid) significantly reduced Salmonella, E. coli, coliforms, and spoilage microorganisms on fresh lettuce by 2 to 3 log CFU/g. Irrespective of growing methods (in-soil or soilless), it is crucial to incorporate good agricultural practices to reduce microbial contamination on fresh produce. The intervention employed in this study can be proposed to small farmers and consumers to improve quality and safety of leafy greens. PMID:28239132

  18. Microbial Profile of Soil-Free versus In-Soil Grown Lettuce and Intervention Methodologies to Combat Pathogen Surrogates and Spoilage Microorganisms on Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Sirsat, Sujata A; Neal, Jack A

    2013-11-11

    Aquaponics is an effective method to practice sustainable agriculture and is gaining popularity in the US; however, the microbial safety of aquaponically grown produce needs to be ascertained. Aquaponics is a unique marriage of fish production and soil-free produce (e.g., leafy greens) production. Fish are raised in fresh water tanks that are connected to water filled beds where fruits and vegetables are grown. The fish bi-products create nutrient-rich water that provides the key elements for the growth of plants and vegetables. The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the microbial safety and quality of aquaponic lettuce and soil grown lettuce (conventional, bagged, certified organic, and field lettuce). Following this, an intervention study was performed to combat foodborne pathogen surrogates ( Salmonella and E. coli ), spoilage, and fecal microorganisms using 2.5% acetic acid. The results of the comparative analysis study showed that aquaponically grown lettuce had significantly lower concentration of spoilage and fecal microorganisms compared to in-soil grown lettuce. The intervention study showed that diluted vinegar (2.5% acetic acid) significantly reduced Salmonella , E. coli , coliforms, and spoilage microorganisms on fresh lettuce by 2 to 3 log CFU/g. Irrespective of growing methods (in-soil or soilless), it is crucial to incorporate good agricultural practices to reduce microbial contamination on fresh produce. The intervention employed in this study can be proposed to small farmers and consumers to improve quality and safety of leafy greens.

  19. High pressure treatments combined with sodium lactate to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and spoilage microbiota in cured beef carpaccio.

    PubMed

    Masana, Marcelo Oscar; Barrio, Yanina Ximena; Palladino, Pablo Martín; Sancho, Ana Maria; Vaudagna, Sergio Ramón

    2015-04-01

    High-pressure treatments (400 and 600 MPa) combined with the addition of sodium lactate (1 and 3%) were tested to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) and spoilage microbiota contamination in a manufactured cured beef carpaccio in fresh or frozen conditions. Counts of spoilage microorganisms and STEC O157 were also examined during the curing step to prepare the carpaccio. STEC O157 counts remained almost unchanged through the curing process performed at 1 ± 1 °C for 12 days, with a small decrease in samples with 3% of sodium lactate. High-pressure treatments at 600 MPa for 5 min achieved an immediate reduction of up to 2 logarithmic units of STEC O157 in frozen carpaccio, and up to 1.19 log in fresh condition. Counts of spoilage bacteria diminished below detection limits in fresh or frozen carpaccio added with sodium lactate by the application of 400 and 600 MPa. Maximum injury on STEC O157 cells was observed at 600 MPa in carpaccio in fresh condition without added sodium lactate. Lethality of high-pressure treatments on STEC O157 was enhanced in frozen carpaccio, while the addition of sodium lactate at 3% reduced the lethality on STEC O157 in frozen samples, and the degree of injury in fresh carpaccio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of hot versus cold boning of beef carcasses on bacterial growth and the risk of blown pack spoilage.

    PubMed

    Reid, Rachael; Fanning, Séamus; Whyte, Paul; Kerry, Joe; Bolton, Declan

    2017-03-01

    Primals were prepared from beef Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL), psoas major (PM), quadriceps femoris (QF) and semitendinosus (S) muscles from cold and hot boned carcasses, vacuum-packaged and stored for 42 or 100days at 2°C and 7°C. Storage temperature, carcass or primal surface temperature, pH and a w were monitored. Samples were taken periodically and tested for total viable count mesophilic (TVCm), TVC psychrophilic (TVCp), total Enterobacteriaceae count (TEC), presumptive Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Clostridium spp. and Brochothrix thermosphacta. A fifth muscle, biceps femoris (BF), was used to examine the impact of hot boning on blown pack spoilage (BPS). Primal counts increased to 6-7log 10 cfucm -2 after 6weeks. Significantly (P<0.05) higher TEC, Pseudomonas spp. and Br. thermosphacta counts were observed on cold versus hot boned primals. In contrast, significantly (P<0.05) higher TVC, LAB and Clostridium spp. concentrations were obtained on hot boned beef. Moreover, BPS pack distension/bursting occurred considerably sooner in hot boned product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Testing nano-silver food packaging to evaluate silver migration and food spoilage bacteria on chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Gallocchio, Federica; Cibin, Veronica; Biancotto, Giancarlo; Roccato, Anna; Muzzolon, Orietta; Carmen, Losasso; Simone, Belluco; Manodori, Laura; Fabrizi, Alberto; Patuzzi, Ilaria; Ricci, Antonia

    2016-06-01

    Migration of nanomaterials from food containers into food is a matter of concern because of the potential risk for exposed consumers. The aims of this study were to evaluate silver migration from a commercially available food packaging containing silver nanoparticles into a real food matrix (chicken meat) under plausible domestic storage conditions and to test the contribution of such packaging to limit food spoilage bacteria proliferation. Chemical analysis revealed the absence of silver in chicken meatballs under the experimental conditions in compliance with current European Union legislation, which establishes a maximum level of 0.010 mg kg(-1) for the migration of non-authorised substances through a functional barrier (Commission Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011). On the other hand, microbiological tests (total microbial count, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae) showed no relevant difference in the tested bacteria levels between meatballs stored in silver-nanoparticle plastic bags or control bags. This study shows the importance of testing food packaging not only to verify potential silver migration as an indicator of potential nanoparticle migration, but also to evaluate the benefits in terms of food preservation so as to avoid unjustified usage of silver nanoparticles and possible negative impacts on the environment.

  2. Past and Future of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts: From Spoilage Microorganisms to Biotechnological Tools for Improving Wine Aroma Complexity.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Beatriz; Gil, José V; Manzanares, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, considered in the past as undesired or spoilage yeasts, can enhance the analytical composition, and aroma profile of the wine. The contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, including the ability to secret enzymes and produce secondary metabolites, glycerol and ethanol, release of mannoproteins or contributions to color stability, is species- and strain-specific, pointing out the key importance of a clever strain selection. The use of mixed starters of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts with strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an alternative to both spontaneous and inoculated wine fermentations, taking advantage of the potential positive role that non-Saccharomyces wine yeast species play in the organoleptic characteristics of wine. In this context mixed starters can meet the growing demand for new and improved wine yeast strains adapted to different types and styles of wine. With the aim of presenting old and new evidences on the potential of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to address this market trend, we mainly review the studies focused on non-Saccharomyces strain selection and design of mixed starters directed to improve primary and secondary aroma of wines. The ability of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts to produce enzymes and metabolites of oenological relevance is also discussed.

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Ethyl Acetate the Extract of Noni Fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) Against Bacterial Spoilage in Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraheni, E. R.; Adriani, G. R.; Munawaroh, H.

    2017-04-01

    Noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) contains compounds that have potential as antibacterial agent. Antibacterial compounds produced noni fruit (M. citrifolia L.) can inhibit bacterial growth. This study was conducted to test the antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate extract of noni fruit (M. citrifolia L.) against spoilage bacterial in fish. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Enterobacter aerogenes isolates and examine antibacterial phytochemical profile. Extraction of noni compounds was done by maceration, followed by partition with ethyl acetate to obtain the soluble and insoluble ethyl acetate fraction. Previews result show that the ethyl acetate extract had very strong activity. Extraction process continued by separation and isolation used preparative thin layer chromatography method, so that obtained five isolates and mark them as A, B, C, D and E. Antibacterial activity assay performed on isolates A, B, C, D, and E with 20 and 30% concentration. The test results showed that isolates A could not be inhibit the growth of bacteria, isolates B, C, D, and E has antibacterial activity with weak to strong inhibition. Isolate B had the greatest inhibition activity against the B. cereus, whereas isolates E had the greatest inhibition activity against P. aeroginosa. MIC (Minimum Inhibitor Concentration) and MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration) test result showed that MIC and MBC values could not be determined. Analysis of compounds by TLC showed that isolate B suspected contains coumarin or flavonoids compounds that have antibacterial activity.

  4. Characterisation of volatile compounds produced by bacteria isolated from the spoilage flora of cold-smoked salmon.

    PubMed

    Joffraud, J J; Leroi, F; Roy, C; Berdagué, J L

    2001-06-15

    This study investigated the volatile compounds produced by bacteria belonging to nine different bacterial groups: Lactobacillus sake, L. farciminis, L. alimentarius, Carnobacterium piscicola, Aeromonas sp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Photobacterium phosphoreum and Enterobacteriaceae isolated from cold-smoked salmon. Each bacterial group was represented by several strains. In addition, combinations of the groups were examined as well. Sterile blocks of cold-smoked salmon were inoculated, vacuum-packed and stored at 6 degrees C. After 40 days of storage at 6 degrees C, aerobic viable count and pH were recorded, the volatile fraction of the samples was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and spoilage was assessed by sensory evaluation. Among the 81 volatile compounds identified by GC-MS, 30 appeared to be released as a result of bacterial metabolism. Some of the effects of inoculated bacterial strains on the composition of the volatile fraction seemed to be characteristic of certain bacterial species. Sensory analysis showed relationships between bacteria, the composition of the volatile fraction and the organoleptic quality of smoked salmon.

  5. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mith, Hasika; Duré, Rémi; Delcenserie, Véronique; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 15 commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential application in highly perishable food preservation. The antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) and food spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were tested using paper disk diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. Most of the tested essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, except galangal oil. The essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and thyme showed strong antimicrobial activities with MIC ≥ 0.125 μL/mL and MBC ≥ 0.25 μL/mL. Among tested bacteria, P. fluorescens was the most resistant to selected essential oils with MICs and MBCs of 1 μL/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and clove can be attributed to the existence mostly of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, which appear to possess similar activities against all the tested bacteria. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food products. PMID:25473498

  6. Past and Future of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts: From Spoilage Microorganisms to Biotechnological Tools for Improving Wine Aroma Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Beatriz; Gil, José V.; Manzanares, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, considered in the past as undesired or spoilage yeasts, can enhance the analytical composition, and aroma profile of the wine. The contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, including the ability to secret enzymes and produce secondary metabolites, glycerol and ethanol, release of mannoproteins or contributions to color stability, is species- and strain-specific, pointing out the key importance of a clever strain selection. The use of mixed starters of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts with strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an alternative to both spontaneous and inoculated wine fermentations, taking advantage of the potential positive role that non-Saccharomyces wine yeast species play in the organoleptic characteristics of wine. In this context mixed starters can meet the growing demand for new and improved wine yeast strains adapted to different types and styles of wine. With the aim of presenting old and new evidences on the potential of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to address this market trend, we mainly review the studies focused on non-Saccharomyces strain selection and design of mixed starters directed to improve primary and secondary aroma of wines. The ability of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts to produce enzymes and metabolites of oenological relevance is also discussed. PMID:27065975

  7. Anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients of siraitia grosvenorii on the spoilage bacteria isolated from sauced pork head meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Xu, L. Y.; Cui, Y. Q.; Pang, M. X.; Wang, F.; Qi, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    Extraction and anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients of Siraitia grosvenorii were studied in this paper. Extraction combined with ultrasonic was adopted. The optimum extraction condition was determined by single factor test; the anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were valued by Oxford-cup method. The results indicated that optimum extraction condition of active ingredients extracted from Siraitia grosvenorii were described as follows: ethanol concentrations of sixty-five percent and twenty minutes with ultrasonic assisted extraction; the active ingredients of Siraitia grosvenorii had anti-bacteria effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus sp, Serratia sp and MIC was 0.125g/mL, 0.0625g/mL, 0.125g/mL and 0.125g/mL. The active constituent of Siraitia grosvenorii has obvious anti-bacteria effect on the spoilage bacteria isolated from Sauced pork head meat and can be used as a new natural food preservation to prolong the shelf-life of Low-temperature meat products.

  8. Mold spoilage of bread and its biopreservation: A review of current strategies for bread shelf life extension.

    PubMed

    Axel, Claudia; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2017-11-02

    Microbial spoilage of bread and the consequent waste problem causes large economic losses for both the bakery industry and the consumer. Furthermore the presence of mycotoxins due to fungal contamination in cereals and cereal products remains a significant issue. The use of conventional chemical preservatives has several drawbacks, necessitating the development of clean-label alternatives. In this review, we describe current research aiming to extend the shelf life of bread through the use of more consumer friendly and ecologically sustainable preservation techniques as alternatives to chemical additives. Studies on the in situ-production/-expression of antifungal compounds are presented, with special attention given to recent developments over the past decade. Sourdough fermented with antifungal strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is an area of increasing focus and serves as a high-potential biological ingredient to produce gluten-containing and gluten-free breads with improved nutritional value, quality and safety due to shelf-life extension, and is in-line with consumer's demands for more products containing less additives. Other alternative biopreservation techniques include the utilization of antifungal peptides, ethanol and plant extracts. These can be added to bread formulations or incorporated in antimicrobial films for active packaging (AP) of bread. This review outlines recent progress that has been made in the area of bread biopreservation and future perspectives in this important area.

  9. The effect of heat shrink treatment and storage temperature on the time of onset of "blown pack" spoilage.

    PubMed

    Moschonas, Galatios; Bolton, Declan J; Sheridan, James J; McDowell, David A

    2011-02-01

    This study determined the effects of (a) the short "heat shrink" treatment frequently applied to vacuum packed meats within normal commercial production, and (b) chill holding storage temperature, on the subsequent time to onset (TTO) of "blown pack" spoilage (BPS). Beef or lamb steaks were inoculated with 10³ CFU/cm² of spore suspensions of five gas producing clostridia, vacuum packed (VP) and treated as follows: no heat, 50°C/15 s, 70°C/10 s or 90°C/3 s. Samples were stored at -1.5, 1 or 4°C and examined daily to determine TTO of BPS. For each strain, pack treatment and storage temperature had significant (P<0.05 and P<0.001 respectively) effects on TTO of BPS, i.e. 90°C/3 s<70°C/10 s<50°C/15 s≤"no heat", and 4°C<1°C<-1.5°C. The study suggested that the meat industry could reduce the risks of BPS by avoiding higher temperature (90°C/3 s or 70°C/10 s) heat shrinking, and by storing VP meats at lower temperatures (e.g. -1.5°C). Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes of microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical properties during post mortem refrigerated storage of goat meat.

    PubMed

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Aghwan, Zeiad Amjad; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Kaka, Ubedullah; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda

    2016-06-01

    Examined was the effect of post mortem refrigerated storage on microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical traits of goat meat. Seven Boer bucks were slaughtered, eviscerated and aged for 24 h. The Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles were excised and subjected to 13 days post mortem refrigerated storage. The pH, lipid and protein oxidation, tenderness, color and drip loss were determined in LL while microbiological analysis was performed on ST. Bacterial counts generally increased with increasing aging time and the limit for fresh meat was reached at day 14 post mortem. Significant differences were observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) content at day 7 of storage. The thiol concentration significantly reduced as aging time increased. The band intensities of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and troponin-T significantly decreased as storage progressed, while actin remained relatively stable. After 14 days of aging, tenderness showed significant improvement while muscle pH and drip loss reduced with increase in storage time. Samples aged for 14 days had higher lightness (P < 0.05) and lower (P < 0.05) yellowness and redness. Post mortem refrigerated storage influenced oxidative and microbial stability and physico-chemical properties of goat meat. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Impact of available nitrogen and sugar concentration in musts on alcoholic fermentation and subsequent wine spoilage by Brettanomyces bruxellensis.

    PubMed

    Childs, Bradford C; Bohlscheid, Jeffri C; Edwards, Charles G

    2015-04-01

    The level of yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) supplementation required for Saccharomyces cerevisiae to complete fermentation of high sugar musts in addition to the impact of non-metabolized nitrogen on post-alcoholic spoilage by Brettanomyces bruxellensis was studied. A 2 × 3 factorial design was employed using a synthetic grape juice medium with YAN (150 or 250 mg N/L) and equal proportions of glucose/fructose (230, 250, or 270 g/L) as variables. S. cerevisiae ECA5 (low nitrogen requirement) or Uvaferm 228 (high nitrogen requirement) were inoculated at 10(5) cfu/mL while B. bruxellensis E1 or B2 were added once alcoholic fermentation ceased. Regardless of YAN concentration, musts that contained 230 or 250 g/L glucose/fructose at either nitrogen level attained dryness (mean = 0.32 g/L fructose) while those containing 270 g/L generally did not (mean = 2.5 g/L fructose). Higher concentrations of YAN present in musts yielded wines with higher amounts of α-amino acids and ammonium but very little (≤ 6 mg N/L) was needed by B. bruxellensis to attain populations ≥ 10(7) cfu/mL. While adding nitrogen to high sugar musts does not necessarily ensure completion of alcoholic fermentation, residual YAN did not affect B. bruxellensis growth as much as ethanol concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanoemulsion of orange oil with non ionic surfactant produced emulsion using ultrasonication technique: evaluating against food spoilage yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugumar, Saranya; Singh, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, N.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, food industries have shown great interest in developing nanoemulsion (NE) using essential oils (EOs) to prevent food spoilage caused by microorganisms. The hydrophobic properties of EOs have lead to reduced solubilization effect of food, which in turn, created a negative impact on the quality of food and its antimicrobial efficacy. Focusing this issue, we attempted a unique NE preparation using orange oil, Tween 80 (organic phase) and water (aqueous phase) by sonication technique. Based on thermodynamic stability studies, the effective diameter was reported to be in the size range from 20 to 30 nm. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used in testing the anti-yeast effect. Their activity was studied in both growth medium and apple juice. The minimum inhibitory concentration of this NE was determined using broth dilution method. At 2 μl/ml, orange oil NE demonstrated inhibition of tested microorganisms. The kinetics of killing curve, have shown that the NE treated cells had lost its viability within 30 min of interaction. Also, SEM image revealed that the treated cells became distorted in comparison to their control cells. NE treated apple juice showed complete loss of viability even on dilution as compared to their controls.

  13. In vitro antifungal effect of black cumin seed quinones against dairy spoilage yeasts at different acidity levels.

    PubMed

    Halamova, Katerina; Kokoska, Ladislav; Flesar, Jaroslav; Sklenickova, Olga; Svobodova, Blanka; Marsik, Petr

    2010-12-01

    The antiyeast activity of the black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) quinones dithymoquinone, thymohydroquinone (THQ), and thymoquinone (TQ) were evaluated in vitro with a broth microdilution method against six dairy spoilage yeast species. Antifungal effects of the quinones were compared with those of preservatives commonly used in milk products (calcium propionate, natamycin, and potassium sorbate) at two pH levels (4.0 and 5.5). THQ and TQ possessed significant antiyeast activity and affected the growth of all strains tested at both pH levels, with MICs ranging from 8 to 128 μg/ml. With the exception of the antibiotic natamycin, the inhibitory effects of all food preservatives against the yeast strains tested in this study were strongly affected by differences in pH, with MICs of ≥16 and ≥512 μg/ml at pH 4.0 and 5.5, respectively. These findings suggest that HQ and TQ are effective antiyeast agents that could be used in the dairy industry as chemical preservatives of natural origin.

  14. Dekkera bruxellensis--spoilage yeast with biotechnological potential, and a model for yeast evolution, physiology and competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Blomqvist, Johanna; Passoth, Volkmar

    2015-06-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a non-conventional yeast normally considered a spoilage organism in wine (off-flavours) and in the bioethanol industry. But it also has potential as production yeast. The species diverged from Saccharomyces cerevisiae 200 mya, before the whole genome duplication. However, it displays similar characteristics such as being Crabtree- and petite positive, and the ability to grow anaerobically. Partial increases in ploidy and promoter rewiring may have enabled evolution of the fermentative lifestyle in D. bruxellensis. On the other hand, it has genes typical for respiratory yeasts, such as for complex I or the alternative oxidase AOX1. Dekkera bruxellensis grows more slowly than S. cerevisiae, but produces similar or greater amounts of ethanol, and very low amounts of glycerol. Glycerol production represents a loss of energy but also functions as a redox sink for NADH formed during synthesis of amino acids and other compounds. Accordingly, anaerobic growth required addition of certain amino acids. In spite of its slow growth, D. bruxellensis outcompeted S. cerevisiae in glucose-limited cultures, indicating a more efficient energy metabolism and/or higher affinity for glucose. This review tries to summarize the latest discoveries about evolution, physiology and metabolism, and biotechnological potential of D. bruxellensis. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Identification of food spoilage in the smart home based on neural and fuzzy processing of odour sensor responses.

    PubMed

    Green, Geoffrey C; Chan, Adrian D C; Goubran, Rafik A

    2009-01-01

    Adopting the use of real-time odour monitoring in the smart home has the potential to alert the occupant of unsafe or unsanitary conditions. In this paper, we measured (with a commercial metal-oxide sensor-based electronic nose) the odours of five household foods that had been left out at room temperature for a week to spoil. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network was trained to recognize the age of the samples (a quantity related to the degree of spoilage). For four of these foods, median correlation coefficients (between target values and MLP outputs) of R > 0.97 were observed. Fuzzy C-means clustering (FCM) was applied to the evolving odour patterns of spoiling milk, which had been sampled more frequently (4h intervals for 7 days). The FCM results showed that both the freshest and oldest milk samples had a high degree of membership in "fresh" and "spoiled" clusters, respectively. In the future, as advancements in electronic nose development remove the present barriers to acceptance, signal processing methods like those explored in this paper can be incorporated into odour monitoring systems used in the smart home.

  16. Inactivation of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms using ultraviolet-A light in combination with ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Shirai, A; Watanabe, T; Matsuki, H

    2017-02-01

    The low energy of UV-A (315-400 nm) is insufficient for disinfection. To improve UV-A disinfection technology, we evaluated the effect of ferulic acid (FA) addition on disinfection by UV-A light-emitting diode (LED) (350-385 nm) against various food spoilers and pathogens (seven bacteria and four fungi species). Photoantimicrobial assays were performed at FA concentrations below the MIC. The MIC of the isomerized FA, consisting of 93% cis-form and 7% trans-form, was very similar to that of the commercially available FA (trans-form). Irradiation with UV-A (1·0 J cm -2 ) in the presence of 100 mg l -1 FA resulted in enhanced reducing of all of the tested bacterial strains. A combination of UV-A (10 J cm -2 ) and 1000 mg l -1 FA resulted in enhanced reducing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one of the tested filamentous fungi. These results demonstrated that the combination of a short-term application of UV-A and FA at a low concentration yielded synergistic enhancement of antimicrobial activity, especially against bacteria. Microbial contamination is one of the most serious problems for foods, fruit and sugar thick juices. UV light is suitable for the nonthermal decontamination of food products by inactivating the contaminating micro-organisms. However, UV-A exposure is insufficient for disinfection. This study demonstrates that the combination of UV-A LED light (350-385 nm), which is not hazardous to human eyes and skin, and ferulic acid (FA), a known phytochemical and food additive, provides synergistic antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms. Therefore, FA addition to UV-A light treatment may be useful for improvement of UV-A disinfection technology to prevent food deterioration. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Rapid and quantitative detection of the microbial spoilage in milk using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, Nicoletta; Goodacre, Royston

    2008-10-01

    Microbiological safety plays a very significant part in the quality control of milk and dairy products worldwide. Current methods used in the detection and enumeration of spoilage bacteria in pasteurized milk in the dairy industry, although accurate and sensitive, are time-consuming. FT-IR spectroscopy is a metabolic fingerprinting technique that can potentially be used to deliver results with the same accuracy and sensitivity, within minutes after minimal sample preparation. We tested this hypothesis using attenuated total reflectance (ATR), and high throughput (HT) FT-IR techniques. Three main types of pasteurized milk - whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed - were used and milk was allowed to spoil naturally by incubation at 15 degrees C. Samples for FT-IR were obtained at frequent, fixed time intervals and pH and total viable counts were also recorded. Multivariate statistical methods, including principal components-discriminant function analysis and partial least squares regression (PLSR), were then used to investigate the relationship between metabolic fingerprints and the total viable counts. FT-IR ATR data for all milks showed reasonable results for bacterial loads above 10(5) cfu ml(-1). By contrast, FT-IR HT provided more accurate results for lower viable bacterial counts down to 10(3) cfu ml(-1) for whole milk and, 4 x 10(2) cfu ml(-1) for semi-skimmed and skimmed milk. Using FT-IR with PLSR we were able to acquire a metabolic fingerprint rapidly and quantify the microbial load of milk samples accurately, with very little sample preparation. We believe that metabolic fingerprinting using FT-IR has very good potential for future use in the dairy industry as a rapid method of detection and enumeration.

  18. The antimicrobial efficacy and structure activity relationship of novel carbohydrate fatty acid derivatives against Listeria spp. and food spoilage microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Nobmann, Patricia; Smith, Aoife; Dunne, Julie; Henehan, Gary; Bourke, Paula

    2009-01-15

    Novel mono-substituted carbohydrate fatty acid (CFA) esters and ethers were investigated for their antibacterial activity against a range of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria focussing on Listeria monocytogenes. Carbohydrate derivatives with structural differences enable comparative studies on the structure/activity relationship for antimicrobial efficacy and mechanism of action. The antimicrobial efficacy of the synthesized compounds was compared with commercially available compounds such as monolaurin and monocaprylin, as well as the pure free fatty acids, lauric acid and caprylic acid, which have proven antimicrobial activity. Compound efficacy was compared using an absorbance based broth microdilution assay to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), increase in lag phase and decrease in maximum growth rate. Among the carbohydrate derivatives synthesized, lauric ether of methyl alpha-d-glucopyranoside and lauric ester of methyl alpha-d-mannopyranoside showed the highest growth-inhibitory effect with MIC values of 0.04 mM, comparable to monolaurin. CFA derivatives were generally more active against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria. The analysis of both ester and ether fatty acid derivatives of the same carbohydrate, in tandem with alpha and beta configuration of the carbohydrate moiety suggest that the carbohydrate moiety is involved in the antimicrobial activity of the fatty acid derivatives and that the nature of the bond also has a significant effect on efficacy, which requires further investigation. This class of CFA derivatives has great potential for developing antibacterial agents relevant to the food industry, particularly for control of Listeria or other Gram-positive pathogens.

  19. A gaseous acetic acid treatment to disinfect fenugreek seeds and black pepper inoculated with pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nei, Daisuke; Enomoto, Katsuyoshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka

    2015-08-01

    Contamination of spices by pathogenic and/or spoilage bacteria can be deleterious to consumer's health and cause deterioration of foods, and inactivation of such bacteria is necessary for the food industry. The present study examined the effect of gaseous acetic acid treatment in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis and Bacillus subtilis populations inoculated on fenugreek seeds and black pepper. Treatment with gaseous acetic acid at 0.3 mmol/L, 0.6 mmol/L and 4.7 mmol/L for 1-3 h significantly reduced the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis on black pepper and fenugreek seeds at 55 °C (p < 0.05). The gas treatments at 4.7 mmol/L were more effective in inactivating the pathogens than the treatment at 0.3 mmol/L. An approximately 5.0 log reduction was obtained after 3 h of treatment with 4.7 mmol/L acetic acid. No significant reductions in the population of B. subtilis spores inoculated on fenugreek seeds and black pepper were obtained after the gas treatments at 0.3 mmol/L or 0.6 mmol/L (p > 0.05). However, the gas treatment at 4.7 mmol/L significantly reduced B. subtilis spores (p < 0.05), and 4.0 log CFU/g and 3.5 log CFU/g reductions on fenugreek seeds and black pepper, respectively, were obtained after 3 h of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Environment factors influence in vitro interspecific interactions between A. ochraceus and other maize spoilage fungi, growth and ochratoxin production.

    PubMed

    Lee, H B; Magan, N

    1999-01-01

    The effect of water availability (water activity, aw; 0.995-0.90) and temperature (18-30 degrees C) on in vitro interactions between an ochratoxin producing strain of Aspergillus ochraceus and six other spoilage fungi was assessed in dual culture experiments on a maize meal-based agar medium. In primary resource capture of nutrient substrate, A. ochraceus was dominant against many of the interacting species, being able to overgrow and replace A. candidus, and sometimes A. flavus and the Eurotium spp. regardless of aw or temperature. However, with freely available water (0.995 aw) A. alternata and A. niger were dominant, with mutual antagonism between A. ochraceus and A. flavus at 25-30 degrees C. In the driest conditions tested (0.90 aw) there was also mutual antagonism between A. ochraceus and the two Eurotium spp. Overall, under all conditions tested the Index of Dominance for A. ochraceus was much higher than for other competing species combined suggesting that A. ochraceus was a good competitive colonist able to replace a number of other species. However, the growth rate of A. ochraceus was modified and decreased by the interaction with competitors. Interaction between A. ochraceus and species such as A. alternata (18 degrees C/0.995) and Eurotium spp. (0.995-0.95 and 25-30 degrees C) resulted in a significant stimulation of ochratoxin production. The results are discussed in relation to the effect that environmental factors have on the possible competitiveness of A. ochraceus in the maize grain ecosystem and the role of ochratoxin in niche exclusion of competitors.

  1. Phytochemical profiles and antimicrobial activity of aromatic Malaysian herb extracts against food-borne pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Aziman, Nurain; Abdullah, Noriham; Noor, Zainon Mohd; Kamarudin, Wan Saidatul Syida Wan; Zulkifli, Khairusy Syakirah

    2014-04-01

    Preliminary phytochemical and flavonoid compounds of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 6 aromatic Malaysian herbs were screened and quantified using Reverse-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). The herbal extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 10 food-borne pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms using disk diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)/minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of herbal extracts were determined. In the phytochemical screening process, both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. hydropiper exhibited presence of all 7 tested phytochemical compounds. Among all herbal extracts, the aqueous P. hydropiper and E. elatior extracts demonstrated the highest antibacterial activity against 7 tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with diameter ranging from 7.0 to 18.5 mm and 6.5 to 19 mm, respectively. The MIC values for aqueous and ethanolic extracts ranged from 18.75 to 175 mg/mL and 0.391 to 200 mg/mL, respectively while the MBC/MFC values for aqueous and ethanolic extracts ranged from 25 to 200 mg/mL and 3.125 to 50 mg/mL, respectively. Major types of bioactive compounds in aqueous P. hydropiper and E. elatior extracts were identified using RP-HPLC instrument. Flavonoids found in these plants were epi-catechin, quercetin, and kaempferol. The ability of aqueous Persicaria hydropiper (L.) H. Gross and Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. Sm. extracts to inhibit the growth of bacteria is an indication of its broad spectrum antimicrobial potential. Hence these herbal extracts may be used as natural preservative to improve the safety and shelf-life of food and pharmaceutical products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Modeling growth of three bakery product spoilage molds as a function of water activity, temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Onno, Bernard; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of water activity, pH and storage temperature on the growth of Eurotium repens, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum, isolated from spoiled bakery products. Moreover, the behaviors of these three mold species were compared to assess whether a general modeling framework may be set and re-used in future research on bakery spoilage molds. The mold growth was modeled by building two distinct Gamma-type secondary models: one on the lag time for growth and another one on the radial growth rate. A set of 428 experimental growth curves was generated. The effect of temperature (15-35 °C), water activity (0.80-0.98) and pH (3-7) was assessed. Results showed that it was not possible to apply the same set of secondary model equations to the three mold species given that the growth rate varied significantly with the factors pH and water activity. In contrast, the temperature effect on both growth rate and lag time of the three mold species was described by the same equation. The equation structure and model parameter values of the Gamma models were also compared per mold species to assess whether a relationship between lag time and growth rate existed. There was no correlation between the two growth responses for E. repens, but a slight one for A. niger and P. corylophilum. These findings will help in determining bakery product shelf-life and guiding future work in the predictive mycology field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Strong and Consistently Synergistic Inactivation of Spores of Spoilage-Associated Bacillus and Geobacillus spp. by High Pressure and Heat Compared with Inactivation by Heat Alone ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, S. A.; Bull, M. K.; Stone, G.; van Diepenbeek, R. J.; Kormelink, F.; Jacops, L.; Chapman, B.

    2011-01-01

    The inactivation of spores of four low-acid food spoilage organisms by high pressure thermal (HPT) and thermal-only processing was compared on the basis of equivalent thermal lethality calculated at a reference temperature of 121.1°C (Fz121.1°C, 0.1 MPa or 600 MPa) and characterized as synergistic, not different or protective. In addition, the relative resistances of spores of the different spoilage microorganisms to HPT processing were compared. Processing was performed and inactivation was compared in both laboratory and pilot scale systems and in model (diluted) and actual food products. Where statistical comparisons could be made, at least 4 times and up to around 190 times more inactivation (log10 reduction/minute at FTz121.1°C) of spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus sporothermodurans, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus was achieved using HPT, indicating a strong synergistic effect of high pressure and heat. Bacillus coagulans spores were also synergistically inactivated in diluted and undiluted Bolognese sauce but were protected by pressure against thermal inactivation in undiluted cream sauce. Irrespective of the response characterization, B. coagulans and B. sporothermodurans were identified as the most HPT-resistant isolates in the pilot scale and laboratory scale studies, respectively, and G. stearothermophilus as the least in both studies and all products. This is the first study to comprehensively quantitatively characterize the responses of a range of spores of spoilage microorganisms as synergistic (or otherwise) using an integrated thermal-lethality approach (FTz). The use of the FTz approach is ultimately important for the translation of commercial minimum microbiologically safe and stable thermal processes to HPT processes. PMID:21278265

  4. Strong and consistently synergistic inactivation of spores of spoilage-associated Bacillus and Geobacillus spp. by high pressure and heat compared with inactivation by heat alone.

    PubMed

    Olivier, S A; Bull, M K; Stone, G; van Diepenbeek, R J; Kormelink, F; Jacops, L; Chapman, B

    2011-04-01

    The inactivation of spores of four low-acid food spoilage organisms by high pressure thermal (HPT) and thermal-only processing was compared on the basis of equivalent thermal lethality calculated at a reference temperature of 121.1°C (F(z)(121.1)(°)(C, 0.1 MPa or 600 MPa)) and characterized as synergistic, not different or protective. In addition, the relative resistances of spores of the different spoilage microorganisms to HPT processing were compared. Processing was performed and inactivation was compared in both laboratory and pilot scale systems and in model (diluted) and actual food products. Where statistical comparisons could be made, at least 4 times and up to around 190 times more inactivation (log(10) reduction/minute at F(T)(z)(121.1)(°)(C)) of spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus sporothermodurans, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus was achieved using HPT, indicating a strong synergistic effect of high pressure and heat. Bacillus coagulans spores were also synergistically inactivated in diluted and undiluted Bolognese sauce but were protected by pressure against thermal inactivation in undiluted cream sauce. Irrespective of the response characterization, B. coagulans and B. sporothermodurans were identified as the most HPT-resistant isolates in the pilot scale and laboratory scale studies, respectively, and G. stearothermophilus as the least in both studies and all products. This is the first study to comprehensively quantitatively characterize the responses of a range of spores of spoilage microorganisms as synergistic (or otherwise) using an integrated thermal-lethality approach (F(T)(z)). The use of the F(T)(z) approach is ultimately important for the translation of commercial minimum microbiologically safe and stable thermal processes to HPT processes.

  5. Effect of different packaging materials containing poly-[2-(tert-butylamino) methylstyrene] on the growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria on fresh meat.

    PubMed

    Dohlen, S; Braun, C; Brodkorb, F; Fischer, B; Ilg, Y; Kalbfleisch, K; Lorenz, R; Kreyenschmidt, M; Kreyenschmidt, J

    2017-09-18

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of novel antimicrobial packaging materials containing poly-[2-(tertbutylamino) methylstyrene] (poly(TBAMS)) on the growth of typical spoilage and pathogenic bacteria present on meat. The antimicrobial activity of materials containing different poly(TBAMS) concentrations was determined by comparing the bacterial counts on reference and sample materials at different temperatures and times and in the presence of meat components. Storage tests with poultry fillets and veal cutlets were conducted with samples vacuum packaged in the reference foil and foil containing 10% poly(TBAMS). After specific time intervals, typical spoilage microorganisms, total viable count (TVC), sensory changes and pH value were analysed. The results of the different poly(TBAMS) containing packaging materials showed an increase of the antimicrobial activity with an increasing amount of poly(TBAMS) in the base polymer. A high antimicrobial activity against inoculum of spoilage and pathogenic organisms typical for meat products was detected of a multilayer foil containing 10% poly(TBAMS) in the inner layer after 24h at 7°C. Gram positive-bacteria were more sensitive to poly(TBAMS) foil than gram-negative bacteria. In storage tests however, over the entire storage, a significant effect of this poly(TBAMS) foil on microbial growth on chicken breast fillets and veal cutlets could not be identified. Poly(TBAMS) packaging materials showed very good antimicrobial properties against a wide range of bacteria. However, for a significant inhibition of microbial growth on fresh meat, a higher amount of poly(TBAMS) was necessary to prolong the shelf life of meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Culture-dependent and culture-independent assessment of spoilage community growth on VP lamb meat from packaging to past end of shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Mandeep; Shang, Hongshan; Tamplin, Mark; Ross, Tom; Bowman, John P

    2017-12-01

    Packaging and storage temperature are important factors that influence the shelf-life of vacuum packed (VP) meat. In this study the shelf-life of VP bone-in lamb hind shanks stored at 8 °C and -1.2 °C was determined in parallel to analyses of starting and eventual spoilage bacterial communities via Illumina MiSeq based 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. The mean total viable counts (TVC) and lactic acid bacterial viable counts (LAB) were observed to increase to log 7.5 CFU/cm 2 and 7 CFU/cm 2 after 6 and 42 days at 8 °C and -1.2 °C and stayed stable until shelf-life termination after 13 and 124 days, respectively. The sequence data showed initial communities were patchily distributed and were mainly derived from skin microbiome taxa likely prevalent within the abattoir. A broad diversity of VP meat associated specific spoilage organisms (SSO) were comparatively abundant in this initial population. Overtime meat spoilage communities developed a distinctive and stable microbiome. At -1.2 °C SSO included mainly Carnobacterium, Yersinia and Clostridium spp. while at 8 °C SSO expanded to include Hafnia, Lactococcus, Providencia spp. Growth curves inferred from the sequence data after taking into account rRNA copy number suggested that SSO growth rates were consistent with overall growth rates determined from TVC and LAB data and are predictable. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spoilage of Microfiltered and Pasteurized Extended Shelf Life Milk Is Mainly Induced by Psychrotolerant Spore-Forming Bacteria that often Originate from Recontamination

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Etienne V.; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    Premature spoilage and varying product quality due to microbial contamination still constitute major problems in the production of microfiltered and pasteurized extended shelf life (ESL) milk. Spoilage-associated bacteria may enter the product either as part of the raw milk microbiota or as recontaminants in the dairy plant. To identify spoilage-inducing bacteria and their routes of entry, we analyzed end products for their predominant microbiota as well as the prevalence and biodiversity of psychrotolerant spores in bulk tank milk. Process analyses were performed to determine the removal of psychrotolerant spores at each production step. To detect transmission and recontamination events, strain typing was conducted with isolates obtained from all process stages. Microbial counts in 287 ESL milk packages at the end of shelf life were highly diverse ranging from <1 to 7.9 log cfu/mL. In total, 15% of samples were spoiled. High G+C Gram-positive bacteria were the most abundant taxonomic group, but were responsible for only 31% of spoilage. In contrast, psychrotolerant spores were isolated from 55% of spoiled packages. In 90% of samples with pure cultures of Bacillus cereus sensu lato and Paenibacillus spp., counts exceeded 6 log cfu/mL. In bulk tank milk, the concentration of psychrotolerant spores was low, accounting for merely 0.5 ± 0.8 MPN/mL. Paenibacillus amylolyticus/xylanexedens was by far the most dominant species in bulk tank milk (48% of all isolates), but was never detected in ESL milk, pointing to efficient removal during manufacturing. Six large-scale process analyses confirmed a high removal rate for psychrotolerant spores (reduction by nearly 4 log-units). B. cereus sensu lato, on the contrary, was frequently found in spoiled end products, but was rarely detected in bulk tank milk. Due to low counts in bulk tank samples and efficient spore removal during production, we suggest that shelf life is influenced only to a minor extent by raw

  8. Spoilage of Microfiltered and Pasteurized Extended Shelf Life Milk Is Mainly Induced by Psychrotolerant Spore-Forming Bacteria that often Originate from Recontamination.

    PubMed

    Doll, Etienne V; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    Premature spoilage and varying product quality due to microbial contamination still constitute major problems in the production of microfiltered and pasteurized extended shelf life (ESL) milk. Spoilage-associated bacteria may enter the product either as part of the raw milk microbiota or as recontaminants in the dairy plant. To identify spoilage-inducing bacteria and their routes of entry, we analyzed end products for their predominant microbiota as well as the prevalence and biodiversity of psychrotolerant spores in bulk tank milk. Process analyses were performed to determine the removal of psychrotolerant spores at each production step. To detect transmission and recontamination events, strain typing was conducted with isolates obtained from all process stages. Microbial counts in 287 ESL milk packages at the end of shelf life were highly diverse ranging from <1 to 7.9 log cfu/mL. In total, 15% of samples were spoiled. High G+C Gram-positive bacteria were the most abundant taxonomic group, but were responsible for only 31% of spoilage. In contrast, psychrotolerant spores were isolated from 55% of spoiled packages. In 90% of samples with pure cultures of Bacillus cereus sensu lato and Paenibacillus spp., counts exceeded 6 log cfu/mL. In bulk tank milk, the concentration of psychrotolerant spores was low, accounting for merely 0.5 ± 0.8 MPN/mL. Paenibacillus amylolyticus/xylanexedens was by far the most dominant species in bulk tank milk (48% of all isolates), but was never detected in ESL milk, pointing to efficient removal during manufacturing. Six large-scale process analyses confirmed a high removal rate for psychrotolerant spores (reduction by nearly 4 log-units). B. cereus sensu lato, on the contrary, was frequently found in spoiled end products, but was rarely detected in bulk tank milk. Due to low counts in bulk tank samples and efficient spore removal during production, we suggest that shelf life is influenced only to a minor extent by raw

  9. Study of benzoate, propionate, and sorbate salts as mould spoilage inhibitors on intermediate moisture bakery products of low pH (4.5-5.5).

    PubMed

    Guynot, M E; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V; Marín, S

    2005-05-25

    A hurdle technology approach has been applied to control common mold species causing spoilage of intermediate moisture bakery products (Eurotium spp., Aspergillus spp., and Penicillium corylophilum), growing on a fermented bakery product analogue (FBPA). The factors studied included a combination of different levels of weak acid preservatives (potassium sorbate, calcium propionate, and sodium benzoate; 0-0.3%), pH (4.5-5.5), and water activity (a(w); 0.80-0.90). Potassium sorbate was found to be the most effective in preventing fungal spoilage of this kind of products at the maximum concentration tested (0.3%) regardless of a(w). The same concentration of calcium propionate and sodium benzoate was effective only at low a(w) levels. On the other hand, potassium sorbate activity was slightly reduced at pH 5.5, the 0.3% being only effective at 0.80 a(w). These findings indicate that potassium sorbate may be a suitable preserving agent to inhibit deterioration of a FBPA of slightly acidic pH (near 4.5) by xerophilic fungi. Further studies have to be done in order to adjust the minimal inhibitory concentration necessary to obtain a product with the required shelf life.

  10. Fate and control of pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms in orange blossom (Citrus aurantium) and rose flower (Rosa centifolia) hydrosols.

    PubMed

    Labadie, C; Cerutti, C; Carlin, F

    2016-12-01

    Hydrosols are hydrodistillation products used in food and cosmetic industries, perfumery, pharmacy and aromatherapy. The ability of preservatives to control previously reported bacterial proliferation and spoilage was evaluated. All tested preservatives were authorized for food and cosmetic application. Major pathogens of concern for foods and cosmetics were poorly able to grow in rose and orange blossom hydrosols when inoculated and incubated at 30°C. Commercial antimicrobials, such as isothiazolinone, chlorphenesin and paraben solutions, benzyl alcohol and sodium benzoate at pH = 5·0, controlled the growth of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia sp. strains representative of the natural microbiota of both hydrosols for >90 days at 30°C, only at concentrations close to the authorized limits. Concentrations of some of the tested preservatives that controlled growth at 5°C were lower than at 30°C. Pathogenic micro-organisms likely represent a low risk in rose flower and orange blossom hydrosol. However, the oligotrophic character of hydrosols and the antimicrobial properties of their essential oils do not prevent microbiological spoilage by the naturally present microbiota. In the absence of aseptic conditions and microbial inactivation process, only preservatives can stabilize hydrosols for a several-month storage. Several effective preservatives have been identified. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Chemical spoilage extent traceability of two kinds of processed pork meats using one multispectral system developed by hyperspectral imaging combined with effective variable selection methods.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weiwei; Sun, Da-Wen; Pu, Hongbin; Wei, Qingyi

    2017-04-15

    The feasibility of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) (400-1000nm) for tracing the chemical spoilage extent of the raw meat used for two kinds of processed meats was investigated. Calibration models established separately for salted and cooked meats using full wavebands showed good results with the determination coefficient in prediction (R 2 P ) of 0.887 and 0.832, respectively. For simplifying the calibration models, two variable selection methods were used and compared. The results showed that genetic algorithm-partial least squares (GA-PLS) with as much continuous wavebands selected as possible always had better performance. The potential of HSI to develop one multispectral system for simultaneously tracing the chemical spoilage extent of the two kinds of processed meats was also studied. Good result with an R 2 P of 0.854 was obtained using GA-PLS as the dimension reduction method, which was thus used to visualize total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) contents corresponding to each pixel of the image. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of the sulphate ion as one of the key components of yeast spoilage of a sports drink through genome-wide expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Jayakody, Lahiru N; Tsuge, Keisuke; Suzuki, Akihiro; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Because of the growing market for sports drinks, prevention of yeast contamination of these beverages is of significant concern. This research was performed to achieve insight into the physiology of yeast growing in sports drinks through a genome-wide approach to prevent microbial spoilage of sports drinks. The genome-wide gene expression profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing in the representative sports drink was investigated. Genes that were relevant to sulphate ion starvation response were upregulated in the yeast cells growing in the drink. These results suggest that yeast cells are suffering from deficiency of extracellular sulphate ions during growth in the sports drink. Indeed, the concentration of sulphate ions was far lower in the sports drink than in a medium that allows the optimal growth of yeast. To prove the starvation of sulphate ions of yeast, several ions were added to the beverage and its effects were investigated. The addition of sulphate ions, but not chloride ions or sodium ions, to the beverage stimulated yeast growth in the beverage in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the addition of sulphate ions to the sports drink increased the biosynthesis of sulphur-containing amino acids in yeast cells and hydrogen sulphide in the beverage. These results indicate that sulphate ion concentration should be regulated to prevent microbial spoilage of sports drinks.

  13. Determination of Spoilage Microbiota of Pacific White Shrimp During Ambient and Cold Storage Using Next-Generation Sequencing and Culture-Dependent Method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Ping; Xie, Jing; Qian, Yun-Fang

    2017-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the initial and spoilage microbiota of Pacific white shrimp during ambient and cold storage using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and a culture-dependent method. The quality changes were also evaluated by sensory analysis and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values. After 1 d of storage, the psychrotrophic bacteria were only 5.97 log CFU/g, accounting for 1.1% of the mesophilic bacteria counts (7.94 log CFU/g). The psychrotrophic bacteria counts exceeded the counts of mesophilic bacteria for shrimp stored at 4 °C after 6 d of storage, indicating that psychrotrophic bacteria became predominant. The NGS was used to identify the bacterial species in samples stored at 25 and 4 °C. The results showed that the dominant microorganisms were Vibrio at 25 °C, and Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter, and Shewanella at 4 °C. By the culture-dependent method based on 16S rRNA gene and VITEK®2 CompactA system, it showed that the dominant microorganisms were Proteus spp. at 25 °C, and Shewanella putrefaciens, Acinetobacter johnsonii, and Aeromonas sobria at 4 °C. In conclusion, differences in results of microbiota analyzed by culture dependent and independent approaches were observed. The combination of both methodologies may provide more comprehensive information about the dominant spoilage microbiota in Pacific white shrimp during ambient and cold storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Microbiological Spoilage of Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawlor, Kathleen A.; Schuman, James D.; Simpson, Peter G.; Taormina, Peter J.

    Commercially packaged, non-alcoholic, ready-to-drink (RTD) beverages comprise a diverse group of products, both carbonated (sparkling) and non-carbonated (still), that appeal to consumers of all ages and provide refreshment, hydration, energy, and nutrition at home and "on-the-go." Examples of such products include purified, mineral, and spring waters, flavored or enhanced waters, colas, fruit-flavored sodas, sports and energy drinks, fruit or vegetable juices, teas, coffees, smoothies, dairy and yogurt drinks, and fusion beverages (hybrid products that bridge multiple beverage categories).

  15. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages.

    PubMed

    Hultman, Jenni; Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2015-10-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected to culturing and amplicon sequence analyses. Abundant mesophilic psychrotrophs were detected within the microbiomes throughout the different compartments of the production plant environment. However, each of the main genera of food safety and quality interest, e.g., Leuconostoc, Brochothrix, and Yersinia, had their own characteristic patterns of contamination. Bacteria from the genus Leuconostoc, commonly causing spoilage of cold-stored, modified-atmosphere-packaged foods, were detected in high abundance (up to >98%) in the sausages studied. The same operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were, however, detected in lower abundances in raw meat and emulsion (average relative abundance of 2%±5%), as well as on the processing plant surfaces (<4%). A completely different abundance profile was found for OTUs phylogenetically close to the species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. These OTUs were detected in high abundance (up to 28%) on the processing plant surfaces but to a lesser extent (<1%) in raw meat, sausage emulsion, and sausages. The fact that Yersinia-like OTUs were found on the surfaces of a high-hygiene packaging compartment raises food safety concerns related to their resilient existence on surfaces. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. A Double-Stimuli-Responsive Fluorescent Center for Monitoring of Food Spoilage based on Dye Covalently Modified EuMOFs: From Sensory Hydrogels to Logic Devices.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Yu; Lian, Xiao; Hao, Ji-Na; Zhang, Chi; Yan, Bing

    2017-10-01

    Unsafe food is a huge threat to human health and the economy, and detecting food spoilage early is an ongoing and imperative need. Herein, a simple and effective strategy combining a fluorescence sensor and one-to-two logic operation is designed for monitoring biogenic amines, indicators of food spoilage. Sensors (methyl red@lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (MR@EuMOFs)) are created by covalently modifying MR into NH 2 -rich EuMOFs, which have a high quantum yield (48%). A double-stimuli-responsive fluorescence center is produced via energy transfer from the ligands to Eu 3+ and MR. Portable sensory hydrogels are obtained by dispersing and solidifying MR@EuMOFs in water-phase sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC-Na). The hydrogels exhibit a color transition upon "smelling" histamine (HI) vapor. This transition and shift in the MR-based emission peak are closely related to the HI concentration. Using the HI concentration as the input signal and the two fluorescence emissions as output signals, an advanced analytical device based on a one-to-two logic gate is constructed. The four output combinations, NOT (0, 1), YES (1, 0), PASS 1 (1, 1), and PASS 0 (0, 0), allow the direct analysis of HI levels, which can be used for real-time food-freshness evaluation. The novel strategy suggested here may be a new application for a molecular logic system in the sensing field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. UV Tolerance of Spoilage Microorganisms and Acid-Shocked and Acid-Adapted Escherichia coli in Apple Juice Treated with a Commercial UV Juice-Processing Unit.

    PubMed

    Usaga, Jessie; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I; Worobo, Randy W

    2016-02-01

    The enhanced thermal tolerance and survival responses of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in acid and acidified foods is a major safety concern for the production of low-pH products, including beverages. Little is known about this phenomenon when using UV light treatments. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of strain (E. coli O157:H7 strains C7927, ATCC 35150, ATCC 43895, and ATCC 43889 and E. coli ATCC 25922) and physiological state (control-unadapted, acid adapted, and acid shocked) on the UV tolerance of E. coli in apple juice treated under conditions stipulated in current U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations. A greater than 5-log reduction of E. coli was obtained under all tested conditions. A significant effect of strain (P < 0.05) was observed, but the physiological state did not influence pathogen inactivation (P ≥ 0.05). The UV sensitivity of three spoilage microorganisms (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium commune, and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris) was also determined at UV doses of 0 to 98 mJ/cm(2). Alicyclobacillus was the most UV sensitive, followed by Penicillium and Aspergillus. Because of the nonsignificant differences in UV sensitivity of E. coli in different physiological states, the use of an unadapted inoculum would be adequate to conduct challenge studies with the commercial UV unit used in this study at a UV dose of 14 mJ/cm(2). The high UV tolerance of spoilage microorganisms supports the need to use a hurdle approach (e.g., coupling of refrigeration, preservatives, and/or other technologies) to extend the shelf life of UV-treated beverages.

  18. The effects of packaging method (vacuum pouch vs. plastic tray) on spoilage in a cook-chill pork-based dish kept under refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pedro; Garrido, María Dolores; Bañón, Sancho

    2010-03-01

    The effects of two packaging methods on the spoilage of a cook-chill pork-based dish kept under refrigeration were studied. Raw pork cuts and pre-cooked tomato sauce were packed under vacuum "sous vide" in polyamide-polypropylene pouches (SV) or into translucent polypropylene trays under modified atmosphere (80% N(2)+20% CO(2)) and sealed with a top film (PT). Samples were cooked inside the pack at an oven temperature/time of 70 degrees C/7h, chilled at 3 degrees C and stored at 2 degrees C for up to 90days. Microbial (psychrotrophs, lactic-acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts), physical-chemical (pH, water activity and total acidity) and sensory (colour, odour, flavour, texture and acceptance) parameters were determined. Heat penetration was faster in SV (2 degrees C/min) than in PT (1 degrees C/min) (core temperature). Both packaging methods were equally effective in protecting against microbial spoilage for 90 day at 2 degrees C. Minor counts were only detected for lactic-acid bacteria and anaerobic psychrotrophs in SV. No Enterobacteriaceae growth was found. Slight differences between SV and PT in pH and total acidity were observed. SV and PT had similar effects on the sensory preservation of the dishes. A gradual loss of acceptance of the cooked pork and tomato sauce was observed. Rancid flavour in PT and warmed-over-flavour in SV were noted in the final stages of storage. According to acceptance scores, the shelf-life of both SV and PT was 56 days at 2 degrees C. Both packaging methods can be used to manufacture sous vide meat-based dishes subsequently stored under refrigeration for catering use. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K. Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected to culturing and amplicon sequence analyses. Abundant mesophilic psychrotrophs were detected within the microbiomes throughout the different compartments of the production plant environment. However, each of the main genera of food safety and quality interest, e.g., Leuconostoc, Brochothrix, and Yersinia, had their own characteristic patterns of contamination. Bacteria from the genus Leuconostoc, commonly causing spoilage of cold-stored, modified-atmosphere-packaged foods, were detected in high abundance (up to >98%) in the sausages studied. The same operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were, however, detected in lower abundances in raw meat and emulsion (average relative abundance of 2% ± 5%), as well as on the processing plant surfaces (<4%). A completely different abundance profile was found for OTUs phylogenetically close to the species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. These OTUs were detected in high abundance (up to 28%) on the processing plant surfaces but to a lesser extent (<1%) in raw meat, sausage emulsion, and sausages. The fact that Yersinia-like OTUs were found on the surfaces of a high-hygiene packaging compartment raises food safety concerns related to their resilient existence on surfaces. PMID:26231646

  20. Effect of white mustard essential oil on the growth of foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms and the effect of food components on its efficacy.

    PubMed

    Monu, Emefa A; David, Jairus R D; Schmidt, Marcel; Davidson, P Michael

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial preservative compounds are added to foods to target specific pathogens and spoilage organisms. White mustard essential oil (WMEO) is an extract that contains 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate, a compound which has been demonstrated to have antimicrobial activity in limited studies. The objective of this research was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of WMEO against gram-positive and gram-negative spoilage and pathogenic bacteria and determine the effect of food components on the antimicrobial activity. The bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Lactobacillus fermentum, as well as the acid- and preservative-resistant yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, were evaluated. All microorganisms were inhibited by WMEO at 8.3 g/liter (equivalent to 1,000 mg/liter 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate). In general, WMEO was more effective against gram-negative than against gram-positive bacteria. Salmonella Enteritidis and S. pombe were the most sensitive, with inhibition at as low as 2.1 g/liter. The effects on growth profiles varied but included increased lag phases and lethality, indicating both bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity. Soybean oil had a negative effect on the efficacy of WMEO against L. monocytogenes, and at 5% soybean oil, the antimicrobial activity against Salmonella Enteritidis was eliminated after 48 h. Sodium caseinate at 1% also negated the antimicrobial effect of WMEO against Salmonella Enteritidis and decreased its effectiveness against L. monocytogenes. The presence of starch had no significant effect on the antimicrobial activity of WMEO against L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis. Thus, WMEO is effective against a wide range of microorganisms and has potential to be used in foods, depending upon the target microorganism and food components present.

  1. Stereo and scanning electron microscopy of in-shell Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.): part two-surface sound nut fungi spoilage susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Scussel, Vildes M; Manfio, Daniel; Savi, Geovana D; Moecke, Elisa H S

    2014-11-01

    This work reports the in-shell Brazil nut spoilage susceptible morpho-histological characteristics and fungi infection (shell, edible part, and brown skin) through stereo and scanning electron microscopies (SEM). The following characteristics related to shell (a) morphology-that allow fungi and insects' entrance to inner nut, and (b) histology-that allow humidity absorption, improving environment conditions for living organisms development, were identified. (a.1) locule in testae-the nut navel, which is a cavity formed during nut detaching from pods (located at 1.0 to 2.0/4th of the shell B&C nut faces linkage). It allows the nut brown skin (between shell and edible part) first contact to the external environment, through the (a.2) nut channel-the locule prolongation path, which has the water/nutrients cambium function for their transport and distribution to the inner seed (while still on the tree/pod). Both, locule followed by the channel, are the main natural entrance of living organisms (fungi and insects), including moisture to the inner seed structures. In addition, the (a.3) nut shell surface-which has a crinkled and uneven surface morphology-allows water absorption, thus adding to the deterioration processes too. The main shell histological characteristic, which also allows water absorption (thus improving environment conditions for fungi proliferation), is the (b.1) cell wall porosity-the multilayered wall and porous rich cells that compose the shell faces double tissue layers and the (b.2) soft tissue-the mix of tissues 2 faces corner/linkage. This work also shows in details the SEM nut spoilage susceptible features highly fungi infected with hyphae and reproductive structures distribution. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. A chemometrics approach applied to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for monitoring the spoilage of fresh salmon (Salmo salar) stored under modified atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, C; Vasconcelos, H; de Almeida, José M M M

    2017-01-16

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to detect and predict the bacterial load of salmon fillets (Salmo salar) stored at 3, 8 and 30°C under three packaging conditions: air packaging (AP) and two modified atmospheres constituted by a mixture of 50%N 2 /40%CO 2 /10%O 2 with lemon juice (MAPL) and without lemon juice (MAP). Fresh salmon samples were periodically examined for total viable counts (TVC), specific spoilage organisms (SSO) counts, pH, FTIR and sensory assessment of freshness. Principal components analysis (PCA) allowed identification of the wavenumbers potentially correlated with the spoilage process. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of infrared spectral data was performed to support sensory data and to accurately identify samples freshness. The effect of the packaging atmospheres was assessed by microbial enumeration and LDA was used to determine sample packaging from the measured infrared spectra. It was verified that modified atmospheres can decrease significantly the bacterial load of fresh salmon. Lemon juice combined with MAP showed a more pronounced delay in the growth of Brochothrix thermosphacta, Photobacterium phosphoreum, psychrotrophs and H 2 S producers. Partial least squares regression (PLS-R) allowed estimates of TVC and psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and H 2 S producer counts from the infrared spectral data. For TVC, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) value was 0.78logcfug -1 for an external set of samples. According to the results, FTIR can be used as a reliable, accurate and fast method for real time freshness evaluation of salmon fillets stored under different temperatures and packaging atmospheres. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel screen-printed mast cell-based electrochemical sensor for detecting spoilage bacterial quorum signaling molecules (N-acyl-homoserine-lactones) in freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Donglei; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Hui; Rao, Shengqi; Fang, Wu; Wu, Mangang; Yuan, Limin; Fang, Weiming

    2018-04-15

    A novel screen-printed cell-based electrochemical sensor was developed to assess bacterial quorum signaling molecules, N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE), which possesses excellent properties such as low-cost, disposable and energy-efficient, was modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to improve electrochemical signals and enhance the sensitivity. Rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) mast cells encapsulated in alginate/graphene oxide (NaAgl/GO) hydrogel were immobilized on the MWNTs/SPCE to serve as recognition element. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was employed to record the cell impedance signal as-influenced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing molecule, N-3-oxododecanoyl homoserine lactone (3OC 12 -HSL). Experimental results show that 3OC 12 -HSL caused a significant decrease in cell viability in a dose dependent manner. The EIS value decreased with concentrations of 3OC 12 -HSL in the range of 0.1-1μM, and the detection limit for 3OC 12 -HSL was calculated to be 0.094μM. These results were confirmed via cell viability, SEM, TEM analysis. Next, the sensor was successfully applied to monitoring the production of AHLs by spoilage bacteria in three different freshwater fish juice samples which efficiently proved the practicability of this cell based method. Therefore, the proposed cell sensor may serve as an innovative and effective approach to the measurement of quorum signaling molecule and thus provides a new avenue for real-time monitoring the spoilage bacteria in freshwater fish production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Two Application Methods of Plantaricin BM-1 on Control of Listeria monocytogenes and Background Spoilage Bacteria in Sliced Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Ham Stored at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huimin; Xie, Yuanhong; Liu, Hui; Jin, Junhua; Duan, Huixia; Zhang, Hongxing

    2015-10-01

    Two application methods were used to investigate the effect of plantaricin BM-1 on the control of Listeria monocytogenes and background spoilage bacteria in sliced vacuum-packaged cooked ham without the addition of any chemical preservatives, including sodium nitrite, during 35 days of storage at 4°C. Regardless of the application method, plantaricin BM-1 treatment (320, 640, or 1,280 arbitrary units [AU]/g of sliced cooked ham) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the survival of L. monocytogenes (inoculated at 4 log CFU/g of sliced ham) compared with its survival in the control during the first 21 days of storage at 4°C. The inhibitory effect of plantaricin applied to the surface of the ham was significantly better than the same concentration of plantaricin incorporated into the cooked ham (P < 0.0001) during storage. Even 320 AU/g plantaricin applied to the surface exhibited greater inhibition of L. monocytogenes than 1,280 AU/g plantaricin incorporated into the cooked ham on days 1, 14, and 28. A level of 1,280 AU/g plantaricin applied to the surface of the ham reduced L. monocytogenes counts to below the detection limit from the 1st to the 21st day of storage at 4°C. Afterwards, L. monocytogenes was able to regrow, and the viable counts of L. monocytogenes at the end of storage reached 2.76 log CFU/g (6.11 log CFU/g lower than in the control). In the control ham, the counts of background spoilage bacteria increased gradually and surpassed the microbiological spoilage limitation level on the 21st day of storage. However, plantaricin BM-1 treatment significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the survival of background spoilage bacteria in ham compared with their survival in the control from day 21 to 35 of storage at 4°C. A level of 1,280 AU/g plantaricin incorporated into cooked ham was the most effective, reducing the count of background spoilage bacteria count from an initial 2.0 log CFU/g to 1.5 log CFU/g on day 7. This was then maintained for another 14 days and

  5. Evaluation of the role of Carnobacterium piscicola in spoilage of vacuum- and modified-atmosphere-packed cold-smoked salmon stored at 5 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Paludan-Müller, C; Dalgaard, P; Huss, H H; Gram, L

    1998-02-17

    The microflora on spoiled cold-smoked salmon often consists of a mixture of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Gram-negative bacteria. To elucidate the role of the different groups, a storage trial was carried out in which nisin and CO2 were used for the selective inhibition of the two bacterial groups. The shelf-life of vacuum-packed cold-smoked salmon, recorded by sensory evaluation, was four weeks at 5 degrees C and the microflora was composed of LAB (10(6)-10(7) cfu/g) with an associate Gram-negative flora in varying levels (10(5)-10(7) cfu/g). The addition of nisin and/or a CO2-atmosphere increased the shelf-life to five or six weeks and limited the level of LAB to about 10(4)-10(6), 10(3)-10(6) and 10(2)-10(4) cfu/g, respectively. CO2-atmosphere +/- nisin inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas nisin had no effect on these in vacuum packages. The Gram-negative flora on vacuum-packed salmon was dominated by a Vibrio sp., resembling V. marinus, Enterobacteriaceae (Enterobacter agglomerans, Serratia liquefaciens and Rahnella aquatilis) and occasionally Aeromonas hydrophila. Irrespective of the addition of nisin and/or CO2-atmosphere, the LAB microflora was dominated by Carnobacterium piscicola, which was found to account for 87% of the 255 LAB isolates characterized. Whole-cell-protein patterns analysed by SDS-PAGE confirmed the Carnobacterium species identification. The spoilage potential of C. piscicola isolates was further studied by inoculation of approx. 10(6) cfu/g in cold-smoked salmon stored at 5 degrees C. The salmon did not spoil within 4 weeks of storage in vacuum- or CO2-atmosphere, and it is concluded that despite high levels (> 10(7) cfu/g) of C. piscicola, sensory rejection was caused by autolytic changes. This was supported by the development of soft texture and sour, rancid and bitter off-flavours at the point of spoilage, irrespective of the length of shelf-life and low or high total counts of LAB and Gram-negative bacteria.

  6. Volatile metabolite production of spoilage micro-organisms on a mixed-lettuce agar during storage at 7 degrees C in air and low oxygen atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ragaert, P; Devlieghere, F; Devuyst, E; Dewulf, J; Van Langenhove, H; Debevere, J

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes the volatile metabolite production of spoilage bacteria (Pantoea agglomerans and Rahnella aquatilis) and spoilage yeasts (Pichia fermentans and Cryptococcus laurentii), previously isolated from mixed lettuce, on a simulation medium of shredded mixed lettuce (mixed-lettuce agar) both under air conditions and modified atmosphere (MA)-conditions at 7 degrees C. These latter conditions simulated the equilibrium modified atmosphere packaging, which is used to extend the shelf-life of shredded mixed lettuce. Besides volatile metabolites, organic acid metabolites and consumption of sugars were measured. Microbiological growth on the mixed-lettuce agar resulted in metabolite production and consumption of sugars. Bacteria and yeasts produced a range of volatile organic compounds both under air conditions and MA-conditions: ethanol, ethyl acetate, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2,3-butanedione, 3-methyl-1-pentanol, 1-butanol and 1-hexanol. Under MA-conditions, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and ethanol were the first compounds that were detected in the headspace as being produced by the inoculated micro-organisms. In the case of the yeast P. fermentans, production of these compounds was detected from a count of 5.0+/-0.1 log cfu/cm(2) with a fast increase when exceeding 6.0-6.5 log cfu/cm(2). Unlike P. fermentans, the yeast C. laurentii showed a slow metabolism under MA-conditions, compared to air conditions. In the case of the bacteria, production of 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol was detected starting from a count of 6.7+/-0.1 log cfu/cm(2) in the case of R. aquatilis and from a count of 7.1+/-0.4 log cfu/cm(2) in the case of P. agglomerans with a fast increase when exceeding 8 log cfu/cm(2). No production of ethanol by the bacteria under MA-conditions was detected in contradiction to air conditions. It could be concluded that, if these counts are reached on the cut surfaces of shredded mixed lettuce

  7. Quantitative assessment of the risk of microbial spoilage in foods. Prediction of non-stability at 55 °C caused by Geobacillus stearothermophilus in canned green beans.

    PubMed

    Rigaux, Clémence; André, Stéphane; Albert, Isabelle; Carlin, Frédéric

    2014-02-03

    Microbial spoilage of canned foods by thermophilic and highly heat-resistant spore-forming bacteria, such as Geobacillus stearothermophilus, is a persistent problem in the food industry. An incubation test at 55 °C for 7 days, then validation of biological stability, is used as an indicator of compliance with good manufacturing practices. We propose a microbial risk assessment model predicting the percentage of non-stability due to G. stearothermophilus in canned green beans manufactured by a French company. The model accounts for initial microbial contaminations of fresh unprocessed green beans with G. stearothermophilus, cross-contaminations in the processing chain, inactivation processes and probability of survival and growth. The sterilization process is modeled by an equivalent heating time depending on sterilization value F₀ and on G. stearothermophilus resistance parameter z(T). Following the recommendations of international organizations, second order Monte-Carlo simulations are used, separately propagating uncertainty and variability on parameters. As a result of the model, the mean predicted non-stability rate is of 0.5%, with a 95% uncertainty interval of [0.1%; 1.2%], which is highly similar to data communicated by the French industry. A sensitivity analysis based on Sobol indices and some scenario tests underline the importance of cross-contamination at the blanching step, in addition to inactivation due to the sterilization process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Probabilistic model for the spoilage wine yeast Dekkera bruxellensis as a function of pH, ethanol and free SO2 using time as a dummy variable.

    PubMed

    Sturm, M E; Arroyo-López, F N; Garrido-Fernández, A; Querol, A; Mercado, L A; Ramirez, M L; Combina, M

    2014-01-17

    The present study uses a probabilistic model to determine the growth/no growth interfaces of the spoilage wine yeast Dekkera bruxellensis CH29 as a function of ethanol (10-15%, v/v), pH (3.4-4.0) and free SO2 (0-50 mg/l) using time (7, 14, 21 and 30 days) as a dummy variable. The model, built with a total of 756 growth/no growth data obtained in a simile wine medium, could have application in the winery industry to determine the wine conditions needed to inhibit the growth of this species. Thereby, at 12.5% of ethanol and pH 3.7 for a growth probability of 0.01, it is necessary to add 30 mg/l of free SO2 to inhibit yeast growth for 7 days. However, the concentration of free SO2 should be raised to 48 mg/l to achieve a probability of no growth of 0.99 for 30 days under the same wine conditions. Other combinations of environmental variables can also be determined using the mathematical model depending on the needs of the industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of rapid cooling and acidic pH on cellular homeostasis of Pectinatus frisingensis, a strictly anaerobic beer-spoilage bacterium.

    PubMed

    Chihib, N E; Tholozan, J L

    1999-06-01

    Pectinatus frisingensis is a strictly anaerobic mesophilic bacterium involved in bottled beer spoilage. Cellular volume, adenylate energy charge, intracellular pH and intracellular potassium concentration measurements were performed in late exponential-phase cell suspensions placed in different physiological conditions, to evaluate the capability of this bacterium to maintain cellular homeostasis. The intracellular pH was calculated from the intracellular accumulation of a [carboxyl-14C]benzoic acid. Optimum physiological conditions were the presence of a carbon source and pH of 6.2, hostile conditions were a pH 4.5, absence of a carbon source, and rapid cooling treatment. The cell was able to maintain a higher intracellular pH than the external pH under all conditions. Intracellular volume was lower at pH 4.5 than at pH 6.2. A low net potassium efflux rate was routinely measured in starving cells, while glucose addition promoted immediate net potassium uptake from the medium. Cooling treatment resulted in sudden net potassium efflux from the cell, a decrease of the intracellular pH, and low modifications of the adenylate energy charge in metabolizing-glucose cell suspensions. Thus, cold treatment perturbs the P. frisingensis homeostasis but the bacteria were able to restore their homeostasis in the presence of a carbon source, and under warm conditions.

  10. Pulsed electric field processing of different fruit juices: impact of pH and temperature on inactivation of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, R A H; Nierop Groot, M N; Nederhoff, A L; van Boekel, M A J S; Matser, A M; Mastwijk, H C

    2014-03-03

    Pulsed electrical field (PEF) technology can be used for the inactivation of micro-organisms and therefore for preservation of food products. It is a mild technology compared to thermal pasteurization because a lower temperature is used during processing, leading to a better retention of the quality. In this study, pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms relevant in refrigerated fruit juices were studied to determine the impact of process parameters and juice composition on the effectiveness of the PEF process to inactivate the micro-organisms. Experiments were performed using a continuous-flow PEF system at an electrical field strength of 20 kV/cm with variable frequencies to evaluate the inactivation of Salmonella Panama, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in apple, orange and watermelon juices. Kinetic data showed that under the same conditions, S. cerevisiae was the most sensitive micro-organism, followed by S. Panama and E. coli, which displayed comparable inactivation kinetics. L. monocytogenes was the most resistant micro-organism towards the treatment conditions tested. A synergistic effect between temperature and electric pulses was observed at inlet temperatures above 35 °C, hence less energy for inactivation was required at higher temperatures. Different juice matrices resulted in a different degree of inactivation, predominantly determined by pH. The survival curves were nonlinear and could satisfactorily be modeled with the Weibull model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evolution of divergent DNA recognition specificities in VDE homing endonucleases from two yeast species.

    PubMed

    Posey, Karen L; Koufopanou, Vassiliki; Burt, Austin; Gimble, Frederick S

    2004-01-01

    Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) are mobile DNA elements that are thought to confer no benefit to their host. They encode site-specific DNA endonucleases that perpetuate the element within a species population by homing and disseminate it between species by horizontal transfer. Several yeast species contain the VMA1 HEG that encodes the intein-associated VMA1-derived endonuclease (VDE). The evolutionary state of VDEs from 12 species was assessed by assaying their endonuclease activities. Only two enzymes are active, PI-ZbaI from Zygosaccharomyces bailii and PI-ScaI from Saccharomyces cariocanus. PI-ZbaI cleaves the Z.bailii recognition sequence significantly faster than the Saccharomyces cerevisiae site, which differs at six nucleotide positions. A mutational analysis indicates that PI-ZbaI cleaves the S.cerevisiae substrate poorly due to the absence of a contact that is analogous to one made in PI-SceI between Gln-55 and nucleotides +9/+10. PI-ZbaI cleaves the Z.bailii substrate primarily due to a single base-pair substitution (A/T+5 --> T/A+5). Structural modeling of the PI-ZbaI/DNA complex suggests that Arg-331, which is absent in PI-SceI, contacts T/A+5, and the reduced activity observed in a PI-ZbaI R331A mutant provides evidence for this interaction. These data illustrate that homing endonucleases evolve altered specificity as they adapt to recognize alternative target sites.

  12. Resistance of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms to disinfectants in the presence of organic matter and their residual effect on stainless steel and polypropylene.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez-Moreno, Maricarmen

    2018-04-23

    The effectiveness of disinfectants can vary according to the microorganism, type of residues and surface. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of four disinfectants in the presence of organic matter and their residual effect on stainless steel grade 304 (SS) and polypropylene B (PP-B). The disinfectant effectiveness in the presence of meat extract, yolk egg and whole milk was determined according to AOAC and UNE-EN 1040:2015; the residual effect was realized according to UNE-EN 13697:2015, using approved strains. The disinfectant effectiveness was affect at different grades depending on the organic matter present; disinfectant A (400μgmL -1 , fifth generation quaternary ammonium compound, QAC) was most effective in the presence of 10% meat extract, while the disinfectant C (200μgmL -1 , peracetic acid) had better activity in the presence of 10% egg yolk and whole milk. In the evaluation of residual effect onto SS and PP-B, the QAC had the better effect, reducing 6 Log 10 CFU mL -1 of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111 24h after their application. Conversely, the disinfectants had no residual effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442. The antimicrobial activity of disinfectants tested against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms was affected according to the type of organic matter. Disinfectant A had a more residual effect than the other disinfectants evaluated. Moreover, the residual effect of a disinfectant is greater on SS than on PP-B and dependent on the microorganism tested. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Bacterial Community and Spoilage Profiles Shift in Response to Packaging in Yellow-Feather Broiler, a Highly Popular Meat in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huhu; Zhang, Xinxiao; Wang, Guangyu; Jia, Kun; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of yellow-feathered broiler has been advocated for purchasing with chilled meat rather than live broilers in Asia due to the outbreaks of animal influenza. Here, the microbial community of chilled yellow-feathered broiler response to modified-air packaging (MAP, 80% CO2/20% N2) and penetrated-air packaging (PAP, air-filling) during storage was revealed by a combination of whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing and traditional isolation methods, and the volatile organic compounds and proteolytic activity of representative dominant isolates were also accessed. The results revealed that MAP prolonged shelf life from 4 to 8 days compared to PAP, when the numbers of total viable counts and lactic acid bacteria reached more than 7 log CFU/g. Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, Escherichia, and Streptococcus occupied the bacteria communities in initial broiler carcasses. MAP dramatically increased the bacteria diversity during storage compared to PAP. Clear shifts of the dominant bacteria species were obviously observed, with the top genera of Aeromonas, Lactococcus, Serratia, and Shewanella in MAP, whereas the microbial communities in PAP were largely dominated by Pseudomonas. The isolates of Pseudomonas from PAP carcasses and Aeromonas from MAP carcasses displayed strong proteolytic activities. Meanwhile, the principal component analysis based on the volatile organic compounds indicated that the metabolic profiles greatly varied between each treatment, and no link between the natural odor of spoilage meat in situ and the volatile odor of the dominant isolates incubated in standard culture was found. These data could lead to new insights into the bacteria communities of yellow-feathered broiler meat during storage and would benefit the development of novel preservative approaches. PMID:29312261

  14. Enhanced inactivation of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria by FD&C Red no. 3 and other xanthene derivatives during ultrahigh pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Waite, Joy G; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2008-09-01

    Variability among microorganisms in barotolerance has been demonstrated at genus, species, and strain levels. Identification of conditions and additives that enhance the efficacy of ultrahigh pressure (UHP) against important foodborne microorganisms is crucial for maximizing product safety and stability. Preliminary work indicated that FD&C Red No. 3 (Red 3), a xanthene derivative, was bactericidal and acted synergistically with UHP against Lactobacillus spp. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of Red 3 and other xanthene derivatives, alone and combined with UHP, against spoilage and pathogenic bacteria in citrate-phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Xanthene derivatives tested were fluorescein, Eosin Y, Erythrosin B, Phloxine B, Red 3, and Rose Bengal. Halogenated xanthene derivatives (10 ppm) were effective at reducing Listeria monocytogenes survivors but ineffective against Escherichia coli O157:H7. When combined with UHP (400 MPa, 3 min), the presence of derivatives enhanced inactivation. Because Red 3 was the only xanthene derivative to produce synergistic inactivation of both pathogens, further studies using this colorant were warranted. Efficacy of Red 3 against gram-positive bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum and L. monocytogenes) was concentration dependent (1 to 10 ppm). E. coi O157: H7 strains were resistant to Red 3 concentrations up to 300 ppm. When Red 3 was combined with UHP, the lethality against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was dose dependent, with synergy being significant for most strains at > or = 3 ppm. Additional gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria showed lethalities similar to those observed for L. plantarum or L. monocytogenes, and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. Red 3 is a potentially useful additive to enhance the safety and stability of UHP-treated food products.

  15. Combined Effect of Thermosonication and Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water to Reduce Foodborne Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms on Fresh-cut Kale.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of individual treatments (thermosonication [TS+DW] and slightly acidic electrolyzed water [SAcEW]) and their combination on reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and spoilage microorganisms (total bacterial counts [TBC], Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and yeast and mold counts [YMC]) on fresh-cut kale. For comparison, the antimicrobial efficacies of sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L) and sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L) were also evaluated. Each 10 g sample of kale leaves was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was then dip treated with deionized water (DW; control), TS+DW, and SAcEW at various treatment conditions (temperature, physicochemical properties, and time) to assess the efficacy of each individual treatment. The efficacy of TS+DW or SAcEW was enhanced at 40 °C for 3 min, with an acoustic energy density of 400 W/L for TS+DW and available chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L for SAcEW. At 40 °C for 3 min, combined treatment of thermosonication 400 W/L and SAcEW 5 mg/L (TS+SAcEW) was more effective in reducing microorganisms compared to the individual treatments (SAcEW, SC, SH, and TS+DW) and combined treatments (TS+SC and TS+SH), which significantly (P < 0.05) reduced E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, TBC, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and YMC by 3.32, 3.11, 3.97, 3.66, 3.62, and >3.24 log CFU/g, respectively. The results suggest that the combined treatment of TS+SAcEW has the potential as a decontamination process in fresh-cut industry. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. An automated ranking platform for machine learning regression models for meat spoilage prediction using multi-spectral imaging and metabolic profiling.

    PubMed

    Estelles-Lopez, Lucia; Ropodi, Athina; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Fotopoulou, Jenny; Gkousari, Christina; Peyrodie, Audrey; Panagou, Efstathios; Nychas, George-John; Mohareb, Fady

    2017-09-01

    Over the past decade, analytical approaches based on vibrational spectroscopy, hyperspectral/multispectral imagining and biomimetic sensors started gaining popularity as rapid and efficient methods for assessing food quality, safety and authentication; as a sensible alternative to the expensive and time-consuming conventional microbiological techniques. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of the data generated from such analyses, the output needs to be coupled with a suitable statistical approach or machine-learning algorithms before the results can be interpreted. Choosing the optimum pattern recognition or machine learning approach for a given analytical platform is often challenging and involves a comparative analysis between various algorithms in order to achieve the best possible prediction accuracy. In this work, "MeatReg", a web-based application is presented, able to automate the procedure of identifying the best machine learning method for comparing data from several analytical techniques, to predict the counts of microorganisms responsible of meat spoilage regardless of the packaging system applied. In particularly up to 7 regression methods were applied and these are ordinary least squares regression, stepwise linear regression, partial least square regression, principal component regression, support vector regression, random forest and k-nearest neighbours. MeatReg" was tested with minced beef samples stored under aerobic and modified atmosphere packaging and analysed with electronic nose, HPLC, FT-IR, GC-MS and Multispectral imaging instrument. Population of total viable count, lactic acid bacteria, pseudomonads, Enterobacteriaceae and B. thermosphacta, were predicted. As a result, recommendations of which analytical platforms are suitable to predict each type of bacteria and which machine learning methods to use in each case were obtained. The developed system is accessible via the link: www.sorfml.com. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Quantitative analyses of the bacterial microbiota of rearing environment, tilapia and common carp cultured in earthen ponds and inhibitory activity of its lactic acid bacteria on fish spoilage and pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kaktcham, Pierre Marie; Temgoua, Jules-Bocamdé; Ngoufack Zambou, François; Diaz-Ruiz, Gloria; Wacher, Carmen; Pérez-Chabela, María de Lourdes

    2017-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the bacterial load of water, Nile Tilapia and common Carp intestines from earthen ponds, isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and assess their antimicrobial activity against fish spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Following enumeration and isolation of microorganisms the antimicrobial activity of the LAB isolates was evaluated. Taxonomic identification of selected antagonistic LAB strains was assessed, followed by partial characterisation of their antimicrobial metabolites. Results showed that high counts (>4 log c.f.u ml -1 or 8 log c.f.u g -1 ) of total aerobic bacteria were recorded in pond waters and fish intestines. The microbiota were also found to be dominated by Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Escherichia coli. LAB isolates (5.60%) exhibited potent direct and extracellular antimicrobial activity against the host-derived and non host-derived spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. These antagonistic isolates were identified and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was found as the predominant (42.85%) specie. The strains displayed the ability to produce lactic, acetic, butyric, propionic and valeric acids. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances with activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative (Vibrio spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were produced by three L. lactis subsp. lactis strains. In this study, the LAB from the microbiota of fish and pond water showed potent antimicrobial activity against fish spoilage or pathogenic bacteria from the same host or ecological niche. The studied Cameroonian aquatic niche is an ideal source of antagonistic LAB that could be appropriate as new fish biopreservatives or disease control agents in aquaculture under tropical conditions in particular or worldwide in general.

  18. Characterization of culturable yeast species associating with whole crop corn and total mixed ration silage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huili; Hao, Wei; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the association of yeast species with improved aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages with prolonged ensiling, and clarified the characteristics of yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration. Methods Whole crop corn (WCC) silages and TMR silages formulated with WCC were ensiled for 7, 14, 28, and 56 d and used for an aerobic stability test. Predominant yeast species were isolated from different periods and identified by sequencing analyses of the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain. Characteristics (assimilation and tolerance) of the yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration were investigated. Results In addition to species of Candida glabrata and Pichia kudriavzevii (P. kudriavzevii) previously isolated in WCC and TMR, Pichia manshurica (P. manshurica), Candida ethanolica (C. ethanolica), and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (Z. bailii) isolated at great frequency during deterioration, were capable of assimilating lactic or acetic acid and tolerant to acetic acid and might function more in deteriorating TMR silages at early fermentation (7 d and 14 d). With ensiling prolonged to 28 d, silages became more (p<0.01) stable when exposed to air, coinciding with the inhibition of yeast to below the detection limit. Species of P. manshurica that were predominant in deteriorating WCC silages were not detectable in TMR silages. In addition, the predominant yeast species of Z. bailii in deteriorating TMR silages at later fermentation (28 d and 56 d) were not observed in both WCC and WCC silages. Conclusion The inhibition of yeasts, particularly P. kudriavzevii, probably account for the improved aerobic stability of TMR silages at later fermentation. Fewer species seemed to be involved in aerobic deterioration of silages at later fermentation and Z. bailii was most likely to initiate the aerobic deterioration of TMR silages at later fermentation. The use of WCC in TMR might not influence the predominant yeast

  19. Characterization of culturable yeast species associating with whole crop corn and total mixed ration silage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Hao, Wei; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the association of yeast species with improved aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages with prolonged ensiling, and clarified the characteristics of yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration. Whole crop corn (WCC) silages and TMR silages formulated with WCC were ensiled for 7, 14, 28, and 56 d and used for an aerobic stability test. Predominant yeast species were isolated from different periods and identified by sequencing analyses of the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain. Characteristics (assimilation and tolerance) of the yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration were investigated. In addition to species of Candida glabrata and Pichia kudriavzevii ( P. kudriavzevii ) previously isolated in WCC and TMR, Pichia manshurica ( P. manshurica ), Candida ethanolica ( C. ethanolica ), and Zygosaccharomyces bailii ( Z. bailii ) isolated at great frequency during deterioration, were capable of assimilating lactic or acetic acid and tolerant to acetic acid and might function more in deteriorating TMR silages at early fermentation (7 d and 14 d). With ensiling prolonged to 28 d, silages became more (p<0.01) stable when exposed to air, coinciding with the inhibition of yeast to below the detection limit. Species of P. manshurica that were predominant in deteriorating WCC silages were not detectable in TMR silages. In addition, the predominant yeast species of Z. bailii in deteriorating TMR silages at later fermentation (28 d and 56 d) were not observed in both WCC and WCC silages. The inhibition of yeasts, particularly P. kudriavzevii , probably account for the improved aerobic stability of TMR silages at later fermentation. Fewer species seemed to be involved in aerobic deterioration of silages at later fermentation and Z. bailii was most likely to initiate the aerobic deterioration of TMR silages at later fermentation. The use of WCC in TMR might not influence the predominant yeast species during aerobic

  20. Hydrosols of orange blossom (Citrus aurantium), and rose flower (Rosa damascena and Rosa centifolia) support the growth of a heterogeneous spoilage microbiota.

    PubMed

    Labadie, Cécile; Ginies, Christian; Guinebretiere, Marie-Hélène; Renard, Catherine M G C; Cerutti, Céline; Carlin, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    Hydrosols are hydrodistillation products of aromatic plants. They contain less than 1g/L of dispersed essential oils giving organoleptic properties. Hydrosols are subjected to microbial proliferation. Reasons for spoilage have to be found in the nature of substrates supporting growth and of microbiological contaminants. The composition in essential oils and the microbiota of 22 hydrosol samples of Citrus aurantium L. ssp. amara L. (orange blossom), Rosa damascena Miller (rose D.), and Rosa centifolia L. (rose C.) flowers were analyzed to determine the factors responsible for decay. The median concentrations in essential oils were 677mg/L for orange blossom hydrosols, 205mg/L for rose D. hydrosols, and 116mg/L for rose C. hydrosols. The dry matter content of these hydrosols varied between 4.0mg/L and 702mg/L, and the carbohydrate content varied between 0.21mg/L and 0.38mg/L. These non-volatile compounds were likely carried over during distillation by a priming and foaming effect, and could be used as nutrients by microorganisms. A microbial proliferation at ambient temperature and also at 5°C has been observed in all studied hydrosols when stored in a non-sterile container. In contaminated hydrosols, maximal counts were about 7log 10 CFU/mL, while the French pharmacopeia recommends a maximal total bacterial count of 2log 10 CFU/mL. Neither yeast nor mold was detected. The isolated microbial population was composed of environmental Gram-negative bacteria, arranged in four major genera: Pseudomonas sp., Burkholderia cepacia complex, and presumably two new genera belonging to Acetobacteraceae and Rhodospirillaceae. Among those bacteria, Burkholderia vietnamiensis and Novosphingobium capsulatum were able to metabolize volatile compounds, such as geraniol to produce 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one or geranic acid, or phenylethyl acetate to produce 2-phenylethanol. EO concentrations in hydrosols or cold storage are not sufficient to insure microbiological stability. Additional

  1. Overlap of Spoilage-Associated Microbiota between Meat and the Meat Processing Environment in Small-Scale and Large-Scale Retail Distributions.

    PubMed

    Stellato, Giuseppina; La Storia, Antonietta; De Filippis, Francesca; Borriello, Giorgia; Villani, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo

    2016-07-01

    facility (LD or SD) did not apparently affect the contamination. The study provides an in-depth description of the microbiota of meat and meat processing environments. It highlights the importance of the environment as a contamination source of spoilage bacteria, and it shows that the size of the retail facility does not affect the level and type of contamination. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Overlap of Spoilage-Associated Microbiota between Meat and the Meat Processing Environment in Small-Scale and Large-Scale Retail Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Stellato, Giuseppina; La Storia, Antonietta; De Filippis, Francesca; Borriello, Giorgia; Villani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    of retail facility (LD or SD) did not apparently affect the contamination. IMPORTANCE The study provides an in-depth description of the microbiota of meat and meat processing environments. It highlights the importance of the environment as a contamination source of spoilage bacteria, and it shows that the size of the retail facility does not affect the level and type of contamination. PMID:27129965

  3. Antibacterial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. essential oils and their combination against food-borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria in ready-to-eat vegetables.

    PubMed

    Iseppi, Ramona; Sabia, Carla; de Niederhäusern, Simona; Pellati, Federica; Benvenuti, Stefania; Tardugno, Roberta; Bondi, Moreno; Messi, Patrizia

    2018-06-06

    The antibacterial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. essential oils (EOs), and their combination against food-borne and spoilage bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spp.) was determined. The EOs inhibitory effect was evaluated both in vitro by using the disk diffusion assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination, and on food by using an artificially contaminated ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables. The results showed that the lowest MIC values were obtained with R. officinalis and T. vulgaris EOs against E. coli (4 and 8 μL/mL, respectively). The incorporation of the EOs alone or their combination in RTE vegetables reduced the viable counts of all the tested strains. Lastly, in the on food study we simulated the worst hygienic conditions, obtaining results that can be considered a warranty of safety.

  4. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species.

  5. Suitability of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotics intended for fruit juices containing citrus extracts.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Maddalena, Lucia; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2013-11-01

    A strain of Lactobacillus plantarum and 4 strains of bifidobacteria were inoculated in apple juice and in a commercial beverage labeled as "red-fruit juice," containing citrus extracts as natural preservatives; the suitability of the probiotics was evaluated in relation to their resistance to 2 kinds of citrus extracts (biocitro and lemon extract), survival in juices at 4 and 37 °C, and inhibition of Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Cell count of L. plantarum and bifidobacteria over time was fitted through the Weibull equation, for the evaluation of the first reduction time (δ), death time, and microbiological shelf life (the break-point was set to 7 log cfu/mL). Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis experienced the highest δ-value (23.21 d) and death time (96.59 d) in the red-fruit juice at 4 °C, whereas L. plantarum was the most promising strain in apple juice at 37 °C. Biocitro and lemon extract did not exert a biocidal effect toward probiotics; moreover, the probiotics controlled the growth of Z. bailii and the combination of L. plantarum with 40 ppm of biocitro reduced the level of the yeast after 18 d by 2 log cfu/mL. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. The application of non-Saccharomyces yeast in fermentations with limited aeration as a strategy for the production of wine with reduced alcohol content.

    PubMed

    Contreras, A; Hidalgo, C; Schmidt, S; Henschke, P A; Curtin, C; Varela, C

    2015-07-16

    High alcohol concentrations reduce the complexity of wine sensory properties. In addition, health and economic drivers have the wine industry actively seeking technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol, however commercially available wine yeasts produce very similar ethanol yields. Non-conventional yeast, in particular non-Saccharomyces species, have shown potential for producing wines with lower alcohol content. These yeasts are naturally present in the early stages of fermentation but in general are not capable of completing alcoholic fermentation. We have evaluated 48 non-Saccharomyces isolates to identify strains that, with limited aeration and in sequential inoculation regimes with S. cerevisiae, could be used for the production of wine with lower ethanol concentration. Two of these, Torulaspora delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Zygosaccharomyces bailii AWRI1578, enabled the production of wine with reduced ethanol concentration under limited aerobic conditions. Depending on the aeration regime T. delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Z. bailii AWRI1578 showed a reduction in ethanol concentration of 1.5% (v/v) and 2.0% (v/v) respectively, compared to the S. cerevisiae anaerobic control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sphagnan--a pectin-like polymer isolated from Sphagnum moss can inhibit the growth of some typical food spoilage and food poisoning bacteria by lowering the pH.

    PubMed

    Stalheim, T; Ballance, S; Christensen, B E; Granum, P E

    2009-03-01

    Investigate if the antibacterial effect of sphagnan, a pectin-like carbohydrate polymer extracted from Sphagnum moss, can be accounted for by its ability to lower the pH. Antibacterial activity of sphagnan was assessed and compared to that of three other acids. Sphagnan in its acid form was able to inhibit growth of various food poisoning and spoilage bacteria on low-buffering solid growth medium, whereas sphagnan in its sodium form at neutral pH had no antibacterial activity. At similar acidic pH, sphagnan had comparable antibacterial activity to that of hydrochloric acid and a control rhamnogalacturonan pectin in its acid form. Sphagnan in its acid form is a weak macromolecular acid that can inhibit bacterial growth by lowering the pH of environments with a low buffering capacity. It has previously been suggested that sphagnan is an antimicrobial polysaccharide in the leaves of Sphagnum moss with a broad range of potential practical applications. Our results now show that sphagnan in its acid form can indeed inhibit bacterial growth, but only of acid-sensitive species. These findings represent increased knowledge towards our understanding on how sphagnan or Sphagnum moss might be used in practical applications.

  8. Evolution of divergent DNA recognition specificities in VDE homing endonucleases from two yeast species

    PubMed Central

    Posey, Karen L.; Koufopanou, Vassiliki; Burt, Austin; Gimble, Frederick S.

    2004-01-01

    Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) are mobile DNA elements that are thought to confer no benefit to their host. They encode site-specific DNA endonucleases that perpetuate the element within a species population by homing and disseminate it between species by horizontal transfer. Several yeast species contain the VMA1 HEG that encodes the intein-associated VMA1-derived endonuclease (VDE). The evolutionary state of VDEs from 12 species was assessed by assaying their endonuclease activities. Only two enzymes are active, PI-ZbaI from Zygosaccharomyces bailii and PI-ScaI from Saccharomyces cariocanus. PI-ZbaI cleaves the Z.bailii recognition sequence significantly faster than the Saccharomyces cerevisiae site, which differs at six nucleotide positions. A mutational analysis indicates that PI-ZbaI cleaves the S.cerevisiae substrate poorly due to the absence of a contact that is analogous to one made in PI-SceI between Gln-55 and nucleotides +9/+10. PI-ZbaI cleaves the Z.bailii substrate primarily due to a single base-pair substitution (A/T+5 → T/A+5). Structural modeling of the PI-ZbaI/DNA complex suggests that Arg-331, which is absent in PI-SceI, contacts T/A+5, and the reduced activity observed in a PI-ZbaI R331A mutant provides evidence for this interaction. These data illustrate that homing endonucleases evolve altered specificity as they adapt to recognize alternative target sites. PMID:15280510

  9. Effectiveness of chitosan against wine-related microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Bağder Elmaci, Simel; Gülgör, Gökşen; Tokatli, Mehmet; Erten, Hüseyin; İşci, Asli; Özçelik, Filiz

    2015-03-01

    The antimicrobial action of chitosan against wine related microorganisms, including Lactobacillus plantarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Oeonococcus oeni, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Zygosaccharomyces bailii was examined in laboratory media. In order to assess the potential applicability of chitosan as a microbial control agent for wine, the effect of chitosan, applied individually and/or in combination with sulphur dioxide (SO2), on the growth of microorganisms involved in various stages of winemaking and on the fermentative performance of S. cerevisiae was investigated. Of the seven wine-related microorganisms studied, S. cerevisiae exhibited the strongest resistance to antimicrobial action of chitosan in laboratory media with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) greater than 2 g/L. L. hilgardii, O. oeni and B. bruxellensis were the most susceptible to chitosan since they were completely inactivated by chitosan at 0.2 g/L. The MIC of chitosan for L. plantarum, H. uvarum and Z. bailii was 2, 0.4 and 0.4 g/L, respectively. In wine experiments, it was found that chitosan had a retarding effect on alcoholic fermentation without significantly altering the viability and the fermentative performance of S. cerevisiae. With regard to non-Saccharomyces yeasts (H. uvarum and Z. bailii) involved in winemaking, the early deaths of these yeasts in mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae were not probably due to the antimicrobial action of chitosan but rather due to ethanol produced by the yeasts. The complex interactions between chitosan and wine ingredients as well as microbial interactions during wine fermentation considerably affect the efficacy of chitosan. It was concluded that chitosan was worthy of further investigation as an alternative or complementary preservative to SO2 in wine industry.

  10. A novel photosensitization treatment for the inactivation of fungal spores and cells mediated by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, Fahad; Mereddy, Ram; Sultanbawa, Yasmina

    2017-08-01

    The global concerns regarding the emergence of fungicide-resistant strains and the impact of the excessive use of fungicidal practises on our health, food, and environment have increased, leading to a demand for alternative clean green technologies as treatments. Photosensitization is a treatment that utilises a photosensitiser, light and oxygen to cause cell damage to microorganisms. The effect of photosensitization mediated by curcumin on Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium griseofulvum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Fusarium oxysporum, Candida albicans and Zygosaccharomyces bailii was investigated using three methods. The viability of spores/cells suspended in aqueous buffer using different concentrations of curcumin solution (100-1000μM) and light dose (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96J/cm 2 ) were determined. Spraying curcumin solution on inoculated surfaces of agar plates followed by irradiation and soaking spores/cells in curcumin solution prior to irradiation was also investigated. In aqueous mixtures, photosensitised spores/cells of F. oxysporum and C. albicans were inhibited at all light doses and curcumin concentrations, while inactivation of A. niger, A. flavus P. griseofulvum, P. chrysogenum and Z. bailii were highly significant (P<0.001) reduced by 99%, 88.9%, 78%, 99.7% and 99.2% respectively. On the surface of agar plates, spores/cells exposed to a light dose of 360J/cm 2 sprayed with curcumin at 800μM showed complete inhibition for A. niger, F. oxysporum, C. albicans and Z. bailii, while A. flavus P. griseofulvum, and P. chrysogenum reduced by 75%, 80.4% and 88.5% respectively. Soaking spores/cells with curcumin solution prior to irradiation did not have a significant effect on the percentage reduction. These observations suggest that a novel photosensitization mediated curcumin treatment is effective against fungal spores/cells and the variation of percentage reduction was dependent on curcumin concentration, light dosage and fungal species

  11. Unraveling microbial ecology of industrial-scale Kombucha fermentations by metabarcoding and culture-based methods.

    PubMed

    Coton, Monika; Pawtowski, Audrey; Taminiau, Bernard; Burgaud, Gaëtan; Deniel, Franck; Coulloumme-Labarthe, Laurent; Fall, Abdoulaye; Daube, Georges; Coton, Emmanuel

    2017-05-01

    Kombucha, historically an Asian tea-based fermented drink, has recently become trendy in Western countries. Producers claim it bears health-enhancing properties that may come from the tea or metabolites produced by its microbiome. Despite its long history of production, microbial richness and dynamics have not been fully unraveled, especially at an industrial scale. Moreover, the impact of tea type (green or black) on microbial ecology was not studied. Here, we compared microbial communities from industrial-scale black and green tea fermentations, still traditionally carried out by a microbial biofilm, using culture-dependent and metabarcoding approaches. Dominant bacterial species belonged to Acetobacteraceae and to a lesser extent Lactobacteriaceae, while the main identified yeasts corresponded to Dekkera, Hanseniaspora and Zygosaccharomyces during all fermentations. Species richness decreased over the 8-day fermentation. Among acetic acid bacteria, Gluconacetobacter europaeus, Gluconobacter oxydans, G. saccharivorans and Acetobacter peroxydans emerged as dominant species. The main lactic acid bacteria, Oenococcus oeni, was strongly associated with green tea fermentations. Tea type did not influence yeast community, with Dekkera bruxellensis, D. anomala, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Hanseniaspora valbyensis as most dominant. This study unraveled a distinctive core microbial community which is essential for fermentation control and could lead to Kombucha quality standardization. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Correlation between microbial flora, sensory changes and biogenic amines formation in fresh chicken meat stored aerobically or under modified atmosphere packaging at 4 degrees C: possible role of biogenic amines as spoilage indicators.

    PubMed

    Balamatsia, C C; Paleologos, E K; Kontominas, M G; Savvaidis, I N

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the formation of biogenic amines (BAs) in breast chicken meat during storage under aerobic and modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) conditions at 4 degrees C, the correlation of microbial and sensory changes in chicken meat with formation of BAs and the possible role of BAs as indicators of poultry meat spoilage. Poultry breast fillets were stored aerobically or under MAP (30%, CO(2), 70% N(2)) at 4 degrees C for up to 17 days. Quality evaluation was carried out using microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses. Total viable counts, Pseudomonads and Enterobacteriaceae, were in general higher for chicken samples packaged in air whereas lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Enterobacteriaceae were among the dominant species for samples under MAP. Levels of putrescine and cadaverine increased linearly with storage time and were higher in aerobically stored chicken samples. Spermine and spermidine levels were also detected in both aerobically and MAP stored chicken meat. Levels of tyramine in both chicken samples stored aerobically and or under MAP were low (< 10 mg kg(-1)) whereas the formation of histamine was only observed after day 11 of storage when Enterobacteriaceae had reached a population of ca. 10(7) CFU g(-1). Based on sensory and microbiological analyses and also taking into account a biogenic amines index (BAI, sum of putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine), BAI values between 96 and 101 mg kg(-1) may be proposed as a quality index of MAP and aerobically-packaged fresh chicken meat. Spermine and spermidine decreased steadily throughout the entire storage period of chicken meat under aerobic and MAP packaging, and thus these two amines cannot be used as indicators of fresh chicken meat quality.

  13. Microbiological Spoilage of Eggs and Egg Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebuski, Joseph R.; Freier, Timothy A.

    Chicken eggs are the eggs most commonly consumed by humans. The US per capita consumption was 255 eggs in 2005. Approximately 77 billion eggs were produced in the USA in 2005 (American Egg Board, 2005). Of these about 30% were further processed in some manner and the remainder were consumed as whole shell eggs. The greatest increase in production and consumption of eggs, however, is in the developing countries. China is now the number one producer of eggs, with the USA second, and India third. In fact, developing countries currently have >67% of the global egg production share (Clark, 2007). Only a small percentage of eggs are exported because shell eggs are relatively difficult to transport.

  14. Production and characterization of a novel yeast extracellular invertase activity towards improved dibenzothiophene biodesulfurization.

    PubMed

    Arez, Bruno F; Alves, Luís; Paixão, Susana M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of this work was the production and characterization of a novel invertase activity from Zygosaccharomyces bailii strain Talf1 for further application to biodesulfurization (BDS) in order to expand the exploitable alternative carbon sources to renewable sucrose-rich feedstock. The maximum invertase activity (163 U ml(-1)) was achieved after 7 days of Z. bailii strain Talf1 cultivation at pH 5.5-6.0, 25 °C, and 150 rpm in Yeast Malt Broth with 25 % Jerusalem artichoke pulp as inducer substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the crude enzyme activity were 5.5 and 50 °C, respectively, and moreover, high stability was observed at 30 °C for pH 5.5-6.5. The application of Talf1 crude invertase extract (1 %) to a BDS process by Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B at 30 °C and pH 7.5 was carried out through a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) approach in which 10 g l(-1) sucrose and 250 μM dibenzothiophene were used as sole carbon and sulfur sources, respectively. Growth and desulfurization profiles were evaluated and compared with those of BDS without invertase addition. Despite its lower stability at pH 7.5 (loss of activity within 24 h), Talf1 invertase was able to catalyze the full hydrolysis of 10 g l(-1) sucrose in culture medium into invert sugar, contributing to a faster uptake of the monosaccharides by strain 1B during BDS. In SSF approach, the desulfurizing bacterium increased its μmax from 0.035 to 0.070 h(-1) and attained a 2-hydroxybiphenyl productivity of 5.80 μM/h in about 3 days instead of 7 days, corresponding to an improvement of 2.6-fold in relation to the productivity obtained in BDS process without invertase addition.

  15. Yeast species associated with wine grapes in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang-Shi; Cheng, Chao; Li, Zheng; Chen, Jing-Yu; Yan, Bin; Han, Bei-Zhong; Reeves, Malcolm

    2010-03-31

    Having more information on the yeast ecology of grapes is important for wine-makers to produce wine with high quality and typical attributes. China is a significant wine-consuming country and is becoming a serious wine-producer, but little has been reported about the yeast ecology of local ecosystems. This study provides the first step towards the exploitation of the yeast wealth in China's vine-growing regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the yeast population density and diversity on three grape varieties cultivated in four representative vine-growing regions of China. Yeast species diversity was evaluated by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis of the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region of cultivable yeasts. The grapes harbored yeast populations at 10(2)-10(6)CFU/mL, consisting mostly of non-Saccharomyces species. Seventeen different yeast species belonging to eight genera were detected on the grape samples tested, including Hanseniaspora uvarum, Cryptococcus flavescens, Pichia fermentans, Candida zemplinina, Cryptococcus carnescens, Candida inconpicua, Zygosaccharomyces fermentati, Issatchenkia terricola, Candida quercitrusa, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Candida bombi, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Sporidiobolus pararoseus, Cryptococcus magnus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Issatchenkia orientalis and Pichia guilliermondii. H. uvarum and C. flavescens were the dominant species present on the grapes. For the first time Sporidiobolus pararoseus was discovered as an inhabitant of the grape ecosystem. The yeast community on grape berries was influenced by the grape chemical composition, vine-variety and vine-growing region. This study is the first to identify the yeast communities associated with grapes in China using molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of wine-related microorganisms, and can be used to promote the development of the local wine

  16. Application of proanthocyanidins from peanut skins as a natural yeast inhibitory agent.

    PubMed

    Sarnoski, Paul J; Boyer, Renee R; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2012-04-01

    Proanthocyanidins were extracted from peanut skins and investigated for their antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus in traditional growth media (Sabouraud Dextrose and Maltose broth) and a simulated apple juice beverage. Peanut skins extracts (PSE) were prepared through a multisolvent extraction procedure. The PSE extended the lag phase growth of the 3 yeasts studied at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and at 10 mg/mL yeast growth was totally inhibited for 120 h. PSE was fractionated by normal phase high performance liquid chromatography and the active components/fractions were determined. Compounds present in the fractions were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the compounds responsible for inhibition. Fractions consisting mostly of A-type proanthocyanidin dimers, trimers, and tetramers showed the highest percent inhibition toward the yeasts tested in this study. Both optical density (OD) and standard enumeration plating methods were performed in this study. The OD method led to an overestimation of the inhibitory effects of PSE, the 2 methods agreed in respect to treatment effects but not the severity of the inhibition. There is a growing consumer demand for "fresh like" products containing reduced amounts of chemical preservatives without compromising food safety and quality. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine if an extract of peanut skins containing flavonoid rich compounds could function as a natural antimicrobial in a model beverage system. Proteins were removed through the process of producing the peanut skin extract, thus it is unlikely to contain peanut allergens. The antimicrobial compounds mentioned in this study were successfully integrated into a model beverage system, and were found to have antimicrobial effect. However, the incorporation of these compounds would likely lead to negative sensory attributes at the concentration needed

  17. Wine aromatic compound production and fermentative behaviour within different non-Saccharomyces species and clones.

    PubMed

    Escribano, R; González-Arenzana, L; Portu, J; Garijo, P; López-Alfaro, I; López, R; Santamaría, P; Gutiérrez, A R

    2018-06-01

    Twenty-five enological yeasts belonging to nine different species (Candida zeylanoides, Cryptococcus uzbekistanensis, Debaryomyces hansenii, Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Williopsis pratensis, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were screened for aroma formation and fermentative behaviour as part of a non-Saccharomyces yeast selection programme. Pure cultures were inoculated in pasteurized grape juice in order to perform alcoholic fermentations. Some non-Saccharomyces species did not ferment, others did not get established and none of them completed alcoholic fermentations. The physico-chemical parameters of the wines and the abundance of aromatic compounds at the end of alcoholic fermentation highlighted the notable differences in the aroma-forming ability and fermentative behaviour of the different non-Saccharomyces species, but not within clones. Lower diversity was detected within non-Saccharomyces species than that reported in S. cerevisiae with regard to enological behaviour and aromatic profiles. Metschnikowia pulcherrima and L. thermotolerans are the two species with higher possibilities to become an inoculum. Few significant differences were found within clones of the same species, but very important parameters in wine quality, such as volatile acidity, ethyl acetate and acetoin, which would justify selection programmes within those species. The results also demonstrated that T. delbrueckii and L. thermotolerans are two close species in their aromatic profiles. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Detection of antifungal properties in Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei SM20, SM29, and SM63 and molecular typing of the strains.

    PubMed

    Schwenninger, Susanne Miescher; von Ah, Ueli; Niederer, Brigitte; Teuber, Michael; Meile, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacilli isolated from different food and feed samples such as raw milk, cheese, yoghurt, olives, sour dough, as well as corn and grass silage, were screened for their antifungal activities. Out of 1,424 isolates tested, 82 were shown to be inhibitory to different yeasts (Candida spp. and Zygosaccharomyces bailii) and a Penicillium sp., which were previously isolated from spoiled yoghurt and fruits. Carbohydrate fermentation patterns suggested that a substantial portion, 25%, belonged to the Lactobacillus casei group, including L. casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus. The isolates SM20 (DSM14514), SM29 (DSM14515), and SM63 (DSM14516) were classified by PCR using species-specific primers to target the corresponding type strains (L. casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus) as controls. Further molecular typing methods such as randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene allowed classifying strains SM20, SM29, and SM63 as L. paracasei subsp. paracasei in accordance with the new reclassification of the L. casei group proposed by Collins et al.

  19. Characterization of in vitro antifungal activities of small and American cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos L. and V. macrocarpon Aiton) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) concentrates in sugar reduced fruit spreads.

    PubMed

    Ermis, Ertan; Hertel, Christian; Schneider, Christin; Carle, Reinhold; Stintzing, Florian; Schmidt, Herbert

    2015-07-02

    In this study, cranberry and lingonberry concentrates were added to commercial sugar-reduced fruit spreads (raspberry-Aloe vera, strawberry-guava, and strawberry-lime), and tested for their antifungal activities. Selected strains of the species Absidia glauca, Penicillium brevicompactum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, as well as xerophilic environmental isolates of the genera Penicillium and Eurotium were used for challenge testing. Initially, varying concentrations of synthetic antifungal agents, such as sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate were tested against these fungi on wort agar containing 31% fructose at different pH values. Subsequently, the experiments were conducted in fruit spreads containing different concentrations of cranberry and lingonberry concentrates. The results of this study demonstrate that these concentrates were able to inhibit growth of visible colonies of xerophilic and non-xerophilic fungi. Cranberry and lingonberry concentrates are interesting candidates for natural preservation against fungal growth in sugar reduced fruit spreads. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of crude epicarp and seed extracts from mature avocado fruit (Persea americana) of three cultivars.

    PubMed

    Raymond Chia, Teck Wah; Dykes, Gary A

    2010-07-01

    The epicarp and seed of Persea Americana Mill. var. Hass (Lauraceae), Persea Americana Mill. var. Shepard, and Persea americana Mill. var Fuerte cultivars of mature avocados (n = 3) were ground separately and extracted with both absolute ethanol and distilled water. Extracts were analyzed for antimicrobial activity using the microtiter broth microdilution assay against four Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast. Antimicrobial activity against two molds was determined by the hole plate method. The ethanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity (104.2-416.7 microg/mL) toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (except Escherichia coli), while inhibition of the water extracts was only observed for Listeria monocytogenes (93.8-375.0 microg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (354.2 microg/mL). The minimum concentration required to inhibit Zygosaccharomyces bailii was 500 microg/mL for the ethanol extracts, while no inhibition was observed for the water extracts. No inhibition by either ethanol or water extracts was observed against Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus flavus.

  1. Yeast community associated with the solid state fermentation of traditional Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun; Chen, Liangqiang; Xu, Yan

    2013-09-02

    Yeasts are the most important group of microorganisms contributing to liquor quality in the solid-state fermentation process of Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor. There occurred a complex yeast community structure during this process, including stages of Daqu (the starter) making, stacking fermentation on the ground and liquor fermentation in the pits. In the Daqu making stage, few yeast strains accumulated. However, the stacking fermentation stage accumulated nine yeast species with different physio-biochemical characteristics. But only four species kept dominant until liquor fermentation, which were Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, implying their important functions in liquor making. The four species tended to inhabit in different locations of the stack and pits during stacking and liquor fermentation, due to the condition heterogeneity of the solid-state fermentation, including the different fermentation temperature profiles and oxygen density in different locations. Moreover, yeast population was much larger in the upper layer than that in the middle and bottom layers in liquor fermentation, which was in accordance with the profile of reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production. This was a systematical investigation of yeast community structure dynamics in the Maotai-flavor liquor fermentation process. It would be of help to understand the fermentative mechanism in solid-state fermentation for Maotai-flavor liquor. © 2013.

  2. Yeast diversity on grapes in two German wine growing regions.

    PubMed

    Brysch-Herzberg, Michael; Seidel, Martin

    2015-12-02

    The yeast diversity on wine grapes in Germany, one of the most northern wine growing regions of the world, was investigated by means of a culture dependent approach. All yeast isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and the ITS region. Besides Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, which are well known to be abundant on grapes, Metschnikowia viticola, Rhodosporidium babjevae, and Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, as well as two potentially new species related to Sporidiobolus pararoseus and Filobasidium floriforme, turned out to be typical members of the grape yeast community. We found M. viticola in about half of the grape samples in high abundance. Our data strongly suggest that M. viticola is one of the most important fermenting yeast species on grapes in the temperate climate of Germany. The frequent occurrence of Cu. pallidicorallinum and strains related to F. floriforme is a new finding. The current investigation provides information on the distribution of recently described yeast species, some of which are known from a very few strains up to now. Interestingly yeasts known for their role in the wine making process, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus ssp. uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were not found in the grape samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Yeast communities associated with artisanal mezcal fermentations from Agave salmiana.

    PubMed

    Verdugo Valdez, A; Segura Garcia, L; Kirchmayr, M; Ramírez Rodríguez, P; González Esquinca, A; Coria, R; Gschaedler Mathis, A

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this work were to characterize the fermentation process of mezcal from San Luis Potosi, México and identify the yeasts present in the fermentation using molecular culture-dependent methods (RFLP of the 5.8S-ITS and sequencing of the D1/D2 domain) and also by using a culture-independent method (DGGE). The alcoholic fermentations of two separate musts obtained from Agave salmiana were analyzed. Sugar, ethanol and major volatile compounds concentrations were higher in the first fermentation, which shows the importance of having a quality standard for raw materials, particularly in the concentration of fructans, in order to produce fermented Agave salmiana must with similar characteristics. One hundred ninety-two (192) different yeast colonies were identified, from those present on WL agar plates, by RFLP analysis of the ITS1-5.8S- ITS2 from the rRNA gene, with restriction endonucleases, HhaI, HaeIII and HinfI. The identified yeasts were: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia kluyveri, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Clavispora lusitaniae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Candida ethanolica and Saccharomyces exiguus. These identifications were confirmed by sequencing the D1-D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene. With the PCR-DGGE method, bands corresponding to S. cerevisiae, K. marxianus and T. delbrueckii were clearly detected, confirming the results obtained with classic techniques.

  4. Adaptive ingredients against food spoilage in Japanese cuisine.

    PubMed

    Ohtsubo, Yohsuke

    2009-12-01

    Billing and Sherman proposed the antimicrobial hypothesis to explain the worldwide spice use pattern. The present study explored whether two antimicrobial ingredients (i.e. spices and vinegar) are used in ways consistent with the antimicrobial hypothesis. Four specific predictions were tested: meat-based recipes would call for more spices/vinegar than vegetable-based recipes; summer recipes would call for more spices/vinegar than winter recipes; recipes in hotter regions would call for more spices/vinegar; and recipes including unheated ingredients would call for more spices/vinegar. Spice/vinegar use patterns were compiled from two types of traditional Japanese cookbooks. Dataset I included recipes provided by elderly Japanese housewives. Dataset II included recipes provided by experts in traditional Japanese foods. The analyses of Dataset I revealed that the vinegar use pattern conformed to the predictions. In contrast, analyses of Dataset II generally supported the predictions in terms of spices, but not vinegar.

  5. Lactobacillus perolens sp. nov., a soft drink spoilage bacterium.

    PubMed

    Back, W; Bohak, I; Ehrmann, M; Ludwig, W; Pot, B; Kersters, K; Schleifer, K H

    1999-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria that are able to spoil soft drinks with low pH comprise a limited number of acidotolerant or acidophilic species of the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Weissella. Various Gram-positive rods causing turbidity and off-flavour were isolated from orange lemonades. Physiological and biochemical studies including SDS-PAGE whole-cell protein analysis showed a homogeneous group of organisms. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of two representatives revealed that they formed a phylogenetically distinct line within the genus Lactobacillus. All strains were facultatively heterofermentative, producing L-lactic acid. Based on the data presented a new species L. perolens is proposed. The name refers to the off-flavour caused by high amounts of diacetyl. The type strain of L. perolens is DSM 12744 (LMG 18936). A rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probe was designed that allows a fast and reliable identification of L. perolens.

  6. Molecular and physiological comparison of spoilage wine yeasts.

    PubMed

    Sangorrín, M P; García, V; Lopes, C A; Sáez, J S; Martínez, C; Ganga, M A

    2013-04-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis and Pichia guilliermondii are contaminating yeasts in wine due to the production of phenolic aromas. Although the degradation pathway of cinnamic acids, precursors of these phenolic compounds has been described in D. bruxellensis, no such pathway has been described in P. guilliermondii. A molecular and physiological characterization of 14 D. bruxellensis and 15 P. guilliermondii phenol-producing strains was carried out. Both p-coumarate decarboxylase (CD) and vinyl reductase (VR) activities, responsible for the production of volatile phenols, were quantified and the production of 4-vinylphenol and 4-ethylphenol were measured. All D. bruxellensis and some P. guilliermondii strains showed the two enzymatic activities, whilst 11 of the 15 strains of this latter species showed only CD activity and did not produce 4-EP in the assay conditions. Furthermore, PCR products obtained with degenerated primers showed a low homology with the sequence of the gene for a phenyl acrylic acid decarboxylase activity described in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. D. bruxellensis and P. guilliermondii may share a similar metabolic pathway for the degradation of cinnamic acids. This is the first work that analyses the CD and VR activities in P. guilliermondii, and the results suggest that within this species, there are differences in the metabolization of cinnamic acids. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Thermal inactivation of the wine spoilage yeasts Dekkera/Brettanomyces.

    PubMed

    Couto, José António; Neves, Filipe; Campos, Francisco; Hogg, Tim

    2005-10-25

    The heat resistance of three strains of Dekkera/Brettanomyces (Dekkera anomala PYCC 5,153, Dekkera bruxellensis PYCC 4,801 and Dekkera/Brettanomyces 093) was evaluated at different temperatures between 32.5 and 55 degrees C. Thermal inactivation tests were performed in tartrate buffer solution (pH 4.0) and in wines. In the studies employing buffer as the heating menstruum, measurable thermal inactivation began only at temperatures of 50 degrees C. When heating was performed in wine, significant inactivation begins at 35 degrees C. Subsequent thermal inactivation tests were performed in buffer at various levels of pH, ethanol concentration, and various phenolic acids. Results from experiments in buffer with added ethanol suggest that the greater heat sensitivity shown in wines can be largely attributed to ethanol, although potentiation of this effect might be due to the phenolic content, particularly from ferulic acid. In the range of pH values tested (2.5-4.5), this factor had no influence in the heat inactivation kinetics. Relevant data, in the form of D and Z values calculated in the various environments, potentially useful for the establishment of regimes of thermal control of Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts in wine and contaminated equipment is presented.

  8. Biotechnological exploitation of Tetrapisispora phaffii killer toxin: heterologous production in Komagataella phaffii (Pichia pastoris).

    PubMed

    Chessa, Rossella; Landolfo, Sara; Ciani, Maurizio; Budroni, Marilena; Zara, Severino; Ustun, Murat; Cakar, Zeynep Petek; Mannazzu, Ilaria

    2017-04-01

    The use of natural antimicrobials from plants, animals and microorganisms to inhibit the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms is becoming more frequent. This parallels the increased consumer interest towards consumption of minimally processed food and 'greener' food and beverage additives. Among the natural antimicrobials of microbial origin, the killer toxin produced by the yeast Tetrapisispora phaffii, known as Kpkt, appears to be a promising natural antimicrobial agent. Kpkt is a glycoprotein with β-1,3-glucanase and killer activity, which induces ultrastructural modifications to the cell wall of yeast of the genera Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora and Zygosaccharomyces. Moreover, Kpkt maintains its killer activity in grape must for at least 14 days under winemaking conditions, thus suggesting its use against spoilage yeast in wine making and the sweet beverage industry. Here, the aim was to explore the possibility of high production of Kpkt for biotechnological exploitation. Molecular tools for heterologous production of Kpkt in Komagataella phaffii GS115 were developed, and two recombinant clones that produce up to 23 mg/L recombinant Kpkt (rKpkt) were obtained. Similar to native Kpkt, rKpkt has β-glucanase and killer activities. Moreover, it shows a wider spectrum of action with respect to native Kpkt. This includes effects on Dekkera bruxellensis, a spoilage yeast of interest not only in wine making, but also for the biofuel industry, thus widening the potential applications of this rKpkt.

  9. Simultaneously saccharification and fermentation approach as a tool for enhanced fossil fuels biodesulfurization.

    PubMed

    Paixão, Susana M; Arez, Bruno F; Roseiro, José C; Alves, Luís

    2016-11-01

    Biodesulfurization can be a complementary technology to the hydrodesulfurization, the commonly physical-chemical process used for sulfur removal from crude oil. The desulfurizing bacterium Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B as a fructophilic microorganism requires fructose as C-source. In this context, the main goal of this work was the optimization of a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) approach using the Zygosaccharomyces bailii strain Talf1 crude enzymes with invertase activity and sucrose as a cheaper fructose-rich commercial C-source (50% fructose) towards dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulfurization by strain 1B. The determination of optimal conditions, for both sucrose hydrolysis and DBT desulfurization was carried out through two sequential experimental uniform designs according to the Doehlert distribution for two factors: pH (5.5-7.5) and temperature (28-38 °C), with the enzyme load of 1.16 U/g/L; and enzyme load (0-4 U/g/L) and temperature (28-38 °C), with pH at 7.5. Based on 2-hydroxybiphenyl production, the analysis of the response surfaces obtained pointed out for pH 7.5, 32 °C and 1.8 U/g/L as optimal conditions. Further optimized SSF of sucrose during the DBT desulfurization process permitted to attain a 4-fold enhanced biodesulfurization. This study opens a new focus of research through the exploitation of sustainable low cost sucrose-rich feedstocks towards a more economical viable bioprocess scale-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of glutaminase(E.C. 3.2.1.5) from Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in solid-state fermentation and modeling the growth of Z. rouxii therein.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Padma; Singhal, Rekha S

    2010-04-01

    Glutaminase production in Zygosacchromyces rouxii by solid-state fermentation (SSF) is detailed. Substrates screening showed best results with oatmeal (OM) and wheatbran (WB). Further, a 1:1 combination of OM: WB gave 0.614units/gds with artificial sea water (ASW) as moistening agent. Evaluation of additional carbon, nitrogen, aminoacids and minerals supplementation was done. A central composite design was employed to investigate effects of four variables, viz. moisture content, glucose, corn steep liquor and glutamine on production. A 4-fold increase in enzyme production was obtained. Studies were undertaken to analyze the time course model the microbial growth and nutrient utilization during SSF. Logistic equation (R2=0.8973), describing the growth model of Z.rouxii was obtained, with maximum values of micronm and Xm at 0.326h-1 and 7.35% of dry matter weight loss, respectively. A good-fit model to describe utilization of total carbohydrate (R2=0.9906) nitrogen concentration (R2=0.9869) with time was obtained. The model was used successfully to predict enzyme production (R2=0.7950).

  11. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Oil: A Natural Preservative to Control Meat Spoilage

    PubMed Central

    Del Serrone, Paola; Toniolo, Chiara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived extracts (PDEs) are a source of biologically-active substances having antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of neem oil (NO) as a preservative of fresh retail meat. The antibacterial activity of NO against Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Lactobacillus curvatus and L. sakei was assessed in a broth model system. The bacterial growth inhibition zone (mm) ranged from 18.83 ± 1.18 to 30.00 ± 1.00, as was found by a disc diffusion test with 100 µL NO. The bacterial percent growth reduction ranged from 30.81 ± 2.08 to 99.70 ± 1.53 in the broth microdilution method at different NO concentrations (1:10 to 1:100,000). Viable bacterial cells were detected in experimentally-contaminated meat up to the second day after NO treatment (100 µL NO per 10 g meat), except for C. maltaromaticum, which was detected up to the sixth day by PCR and nested PCR with propidium monoazide (PMA™) dye. In comparison to the previously published results, C. maltaromaticum, E. coli, L. curvatus and L. sakei appeared more susceptible to NO compared to neem cake extract (NCE) by using a broth model system. PMID:28231186

  12. Peptides derived from tryptic hydrolysate of Bacillus subtilis culture suppress fungal spoilage of table grapes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jingnan; Ning, Shuqing; Yuan, Quan; Chen, Xiangning; Zhang, Yanyan; Fan, Junfeng

    2018-01-15

    This study confirmed the anti-fungal effect of trypsin-treated Bacillus subtilis culture (BC) (tryptic hydrolysate, TH) on mold growth on Kyoho grapes. We examined the anti-fungal activity of TH by identifying TH peptides and performing a computational docking analysis. TH was more potent than untreated BC in suppressing fungal growth on grapes. Specifically, TH maintained grape freshness by inhibiting respiration and rachis browning, maintaining firmness, and preventing weight loss. Thirty-six inhibitory peptides against β-1,3-glucan synthase (GS) were screened from 126 TH peptides identified through proteomic analysis. Among them, 13 peptides bound tightly to GS active pockets with lower binding energies than that of GppNHp. The most potent peptides, LFEIDEELNEK and FATSDLNDLYR, were synthesized, and further experiments showed that these peptides had a highly suppressive effect on GS activity and Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum growth. Our results confirm that tryptic treatment is effective for improving the anti-fungal activity of BC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbiological contamination of dried and lyophilized garlic as a potential source of food spoilage.

    PubMed

    Kłębukowska, Lucyna; Zadernowska, Anna; Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta

    2015-03-01

    Garlic is valued more for its flavoring and used in a wide variety of foods. In food technology, fresh garlic is not used, but instead its processed forms, most often dried and lyophilized, are utilized. The quality and safety of the final product largely depends on their microbiological quality. This research has provided information about effect of garlic fixation methods and provided information about effect of microbiological contamination of garlic used as a spice for quality of garlic mayonnaise sauce. The authors decided to undertake studies following a report from one of the manufacturers of garlic sauces on product defects which originated in dried garlic used in the production process. Samples of garlic (n = 26) were examinated using standard cultural methods (counts of fungi, lactic acid bacteria-LAB, spore-producing Bacillus sp. and the presence of anaerobic saccharolytic and proteolytic clostridia), automated system TEMPO (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae), immunoenzymatic method using VIDAS tests (occurrence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes). The number of total viable count was ranged from 3.51 to 6.85 log CFU/g. Enterobacteriaceae were detected only in one sample. Comparably low values were recorded for fungi (1.30 to 3.47 log CFU/g). The number of LAB was ranged from 2.34 to 5.49 log CFU/g. Clostridium sp. were detected in 22 samples. Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected. It was found that garlic, regardless of th preservation procedure, might be a source of contamination of garlic mayonnaise sauce especially with lactic acid bacteria and Clostridium sp. spores.

  14. Microbial spoilage of portuguese chouriço along shelf life period

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus da Silva Matos, Teresa; Bruno-Soares, Arminda; Azevedo, António Amaral

    2013-01-01

    Microbial flora of portuguese chouriço (Alentejano (A) and Ribatejano (R)) with abnormal sensorial characteristics along shelf life was studied. Mesophilic anaerobic bacteria, enterococci, mesophilic sporeformers, coliforms, coagulase-positive staphylococci, sulphite reducing clostridia, Clostridium perfringens, moulds and yeasts were the most representative in both types of chouriço. PMID:24159290

  15. Identification of food and beverage spoilage yeasts from DNA sequence analyses

    Detection, identification, and classification of yeasts has undergone a major transformation in the last decade and a half following application of gene sequence analyses and genome comparisons. Development of a database (barcode) of easily determined DNA sequences from domains 1 and 2 (D1/D2) of th...

  16. Microbial spoilage, quality and safety within the context of meat sustainability.

    PubMed

    Saucier, Linda

    2016-10-01

    Meat is a nutrient-dense food that provides ideal conditions for microbes to grow and defines its perishable nature. Some organisms simply spoil it while others are a threat to our health. In either case, meat must be discarded from the food chain and, being wasted and consequently an environmental burden. Worldwide, more than 20% of the meat produced is either lost or wasted. Hence, coordinated efforts from farm to table are required to improve microbial control as part of our effort towards global sustainability. Also, new antimicrobial systems and technologies arise to better fulfill consumer trends and demands, new lifestyles and markets, but for them to be used to their full extent, it is imperative to understand how they work at the molecular level. Undetected survivors, either as injured, dormant, persister or viable but non-culturable (VBNC) cells, undermine proper risk evaluation and management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria in minced meat.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Rall, Vera Lucia Mores; Fernandes, Ana Angélica Henrique; Ushimaru, Priscila Ikeda; da Silva Probst, Isabella; Fernandes, Ary

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils of oregano, thyme, basil, marjoram, lemongrass, ginger, and clove was investigated in vitro by agar dilution method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli and Salmonella Enteritidis). MIC(90%) values were tested against bacterial strains inoculated experimentally in irradiated minced meat and against natural microbiota (aerobic or facultative, mesophilic, and psychrotrophic bacteria) found in minced meat samples. MIC(90%) values ranged from 0.05%v/v (lemongrass oil) to 0.46%v/v (marjoram oil) to Gram-positive bacteria and from 0.10%v/v (clove oil) to 0.56%v/v (ginger oil) to Gram-negative strains. However, the MIC(90%) assessed on minced meat inoculated experimentally with foodborne pathogen strains and against natural microbiota of meat did not show the same effectiveness, and 1.3 and 1.0 were the highest log CFU/g reduction values obtained against tested microorganisms.

  18. Antimicrobial potential of macro and microalgae against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in food.

    PubMed

    Pina-Pérez, M C; Rivas, A; Martínez, A; Rodrigo, D

    2017-11-15

    Algae are a valuable and never-failing source of bioactive compounds. The increasing efforts to use ingredients that are as natural as possible in the formulation of innovative products has given rise to the introduction of macro and microalgae in food industry. To date, scarce information has been published about algae ingredients as antimicrobials in food. The antimicrobial potential of algae is highly dependent on: (i) type, brown algae being the most effective against foodborne bacteria; (ii) the solvent used in the extraction of bioactive compounds, ethanolic and methanolic extracts being highly effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; and (iii) the concentration of the extract. The present paper reviews the main antimicrobial potential of algal species and their bioactive compounds in reference and real food matrices. The validation of the algae antimicrobial potential in real food matrices is still a research niche, being meat and bakery products the most studied substrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heavy metal contamination, microbiological spoilage and biogenic amine content in sushi available on the Polish market.

    PubMed

    Kulawik, Piotr; Dordevic, Dani; Gambuś, Florian; Szczurowska, Katarzyna; Zając, Marzena

    2018-05-01

    The present study determined the heavy metal contamination (mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic and nickel) of nori, restaurant-served sushi and ready-to-eat sushi meals available via retail chains. Moreover, both microbiological load and biogenic amine content in ready-to-eat sushi meals were analysed. All of the nori samples contained high levels of Cd (2.122 mg kg -1 ), Ni (0.715 mg kg -1 ), As (34.56 mg kg -1 ) and Pb (0.659 mg kg -1 ). The studied sushi samples contained high levels of Ni and Pb, reaching 0.194 and 0.142 mg kg -1 wet weight, respectively, being potentially hazardous to women during pregnancy and lactation and small children. None of the studied samples contained high levels of Hg. Overall, 37% of ready-to-eat sushi meals exceeded a microbiological load of 10 6  cfu g -1 . However, biogenic amine content in all of the samples was low, with a highest histamine content of 2.05 mg kg -1 . Sushi is not the source of high levels of biogenic amines even with high microbiological loads. Nevertheless, the high microbiological loads at the end of the shelf-life indicate that some processors might have problems with the distribution chain or implement a poor hygienic regime. Moreover as a result of possible risk associated with heavy metal contamination, the present study highlights the need to establish new regulations regarding the contamination of nori and sushi. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Antibacterial and Antiadhesive Activities of Extracts from Edible Plants against Soft Drink Spoilage by Asaia spp.

    PubMed

    Antolak, Hubert; Czyzowska, Agata; Kregiel, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and antiadhesive activities of ethanol extracts from five edible plant parts: cinnamon bark ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum ), licorice root ( Glycyrrhiza radix ), nettle leaves ( Urtica dioica ), green tea leaves ( Camellia sinensis ), and elderberry flowers ( Sambucus nigra ). The chemical constituents of the extracts were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography plus mass spectrometry. Six strains of Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis bacteria isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored noncarbonated mineral water were used. Bacterial adhesion to polystyrene as an attachment substrate in culture media supplemented with 10% plant extract was evaluated using luminometric measurement of the ATP extracted from adhered cells. The viability of the adhered and planktonic cells was assessed using the plate count method, and the relative adhesion coefficient was calculated. All tested crude extracts contained flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, and their derivatives), flavanols (catechin and derivatives), flavanones (glabrol, licorice glycoside A, and liquiritin), and phenolic acids (gallic, quinic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, caffeic, coumaric, and ferulic). The culture medium with 10% elderberry extract provided the least favorable environment for all tested bacterial strains. Extracts from green tea, cinnamon, and licorice also had significant inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the tested bacterial strains. This research suggests that the addition of selected edible plant extracts could improve the microbial stability of noncarbonated soft drinks.

  1. Synergistic effects of some essential oils against fungal spoilage on pear fruit.

    PubMed

    Nikkhah, Mehdi; Hashemi, Maryam; Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Farhoosh, Reza

    2017-09-18

    The development of natural protective agents as alternatives to chemical fungicides is currently in the spotlight. In the present investigation, chemical composition and antifungal activities of thyme, cinnamon, rosemary and marjoram essential oils (EO), as well as synergism of their possible double and triple combinations were investigated. The compositions of the oils were determined by GC/MS. For determination of antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea, a broth microdilution method was used. The possible interactions of some essential oil combinations were performed by the two and three-dimensional checkerboard assay and isobologram construction. An in vivo antifungal assay was performed by artificial wounding of pear fruits. The maximum antifungal activity was demonstrated by thyme and cinnamon oils which displayed lower MIC values whereas rosemary and marjoram oils with MIC range between 2500 and 10,000μg/mL exhibited weak antifungal activities against tested fungi. In synergy testing, some double combinations (thyme/cinnamon, thyme/rosemary, cinnamon/rosemary) were found to be synergistic (FICi≤0.5). The triple combination of thyme, cinnamon and rosemary was synergistic for B. cinerea and P. expansum (FICi values of 0.5 and 0.375, respectively); while combination of cinnamon, marjoram and thyme exhibited additive and synergistic effect against P. expansum (FIC=0.625) and B. cinerea (FIC=0.375) respectively. The usage of a mathematical Gompertz model in relation to fungal kinetics, showed that the model could be used to predict growth curves (R 2 =0.993±0.05). For B. cinerea, Gompertz parameters for double and triple combination treatments showed significant increase in lag phase (1.92 and 2.92days, respectively) compared to single treatments. Increase lag time up to 2.82days (P<0.05) also observed in P. expansum treated by triple combination of EOs. Base on the results, the lowest maximum growth rate (0.37mm/day) was observed in B. cinerea treated by triple combination of thyme, cinnamon and rosemary. The in vivo test also demonstrated considerable inhibitory effects of EO combination treatments. Average lesion diameter of pears treated with triple combination of cinnamon/rosemary/thyme (78, 1250, 39μg/mL) was 6mm and 8mm against B. cinerea and P. expansum respectively, in 10days at 25°C. Results also showed that double combination of thyme/cinnamon (78, 156μg/mL) has more inhibitory effect than single EO treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts on foodborne bacterial pathogens and food spoilage bacteria

    Bacterial foodborne diseases are caused by consumption of foods contaminated with bacteria and/or their toxins. In this study, we evaluated antibacterial properties of twelve different extracts including turmeric, lemon and different kinds of teas against four major pathogenic foodborne bacteria inc...

  3. Efficient reduction of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms from apple cider by combining microfiltration with UV treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongjun; Barrientos, Jessie Usaga; Wang, Qing; Markland, Sarah M; Churey, John J; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I; Worobo, Randy W; Kniel, Kalmia E; Moraru, Carmen I

    2015-04-01

    Thermal pasteurization can achieve the U. S. Food and Drug Administration-required 5-log reduction of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Cryptosporidium parvum in apple juice and cider, but it can also negatively affect the nutritional and organoleptic properties of the treated products. In addition, thermal pasteurization is only marginally effective against the acidophilic, thermophilic, and spore-forming bacteria Alicyclobacillus spp., which is known to cause off-flavors in juice products. In this study, the efficiency of a combined microfiltration (MF) and UV process as a nonthermal treatment for the reduction of pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli, C. parvum, and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris from apple cider was investigated. MF was used to physically remove suspended solids and microorganisms from apple cider, thus enhancing the effectiveness of UV and allowing a lower UV dose to be used. MF, with ceramic membranes (pore sizes, 0.8 and 1.4 μm), was performed at a temperature of 10 °C and a transmembrane pressure of 155 kPa. The subsequent UV treatment was conducted using at a low UV dose of 1.75 mJ/cm(2). The combined MF and UV achieved more than a 5-log reduction of E. coli, C. parvum, and A. acidoterrestris. MF with the 0.8-μm pore size performed better than the 1.4-μm pore size on removal of E. coli and A. acidoterrestris. The developed nonthermal hurdle treatment has the potential to significantly reduce pathogens, as well as spores, yeasts, molds, and protozoa in apple cider, and thus help juice processors improve the safety and quality of their products.

  4. Effect of cinnamaldehyde on melanosis and spoilage of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during storage.

    PubMed

    Mu, Honglei; Chen, Hangjun; Fang, Xiangjun; Mao, Jinlin; Gao, Haiyan

    2012-08-15

    Shrimp is a very perishable product and postmortem changes occur rapidly. Sulfiting agents were once and are still widely used as a preservative in the shrimp industry. However, the application of sulfite in shrimp may pose a risk to human health. Thus development of a natural preservative as a sulfite alternative to extend the shelf life of Pacific white shrimp is urgently needed. The effects of cinnamaldehyde essential oil (1 and 5 g kg(-1) ) on the shelf life of Pacific white shrimp stored at 4 °C were investigated. As the concentration of cinnamaldehyde increased, residual polyphenoloxidase (PPO) enzyme activity decreased. Kinetic analysis showed that cinnamaldehyde was a noncompetitive inhibitor for the oxidation of L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) by PPO of Pacific white shrimp. Based on this study, shrimp treated with 5 g kg(-1) cinnamaldehyde possessed the lowest aerobic plate count, total volatile basic nitrogen, and pH values in all treatments after 10 days of storage. According to the results of L*, cinnamaldehyde showed inhibitory activity toward the formation of melanosis. Treatment with cinnamaldehyde could improve the sensory properties and extend the shelf life of Pacific white shrimp to 8 days. Therefore, cinnamaldehyde could be used as a promising natural preservative for inhibiting melanosis and preventing the growth of microbes during the chilled storage of Pacific white shrimp. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Mathematical modeling of growth Salmonella and spoilage microorganisms in raw oysters

    The main objective of this study was to develop primary and secondary models to describe the growth of Salmonella as well as background microorganisms in fresh shucked oysters. The cocktail of two Salmonella serotypes, S. Typhimurium (CICC22956) and S. Enteritidis (CICC21482), was inoculated to raw...

  6. Literature Survey on Causes of Spoilage of Fresh Produce - 1959 to 1977

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    abscisic acid synthesis, and the enzymatic transformation of colorless carotenes to yellow, then orange, and finally red. 44. WJ. Lipton, 1967. Market...alamine, glycine, aspartic acid , glutamic acid , methionine, seraine, betaine methyl, glyoxalate, acrylate, propionate, ethanol, acetate, citrate...polygalacturonase forming monogalacturonic acid could not be detected. 23. MJ. Ceponis and J. Kaufman, 1968. Effect of Relative Humidity on Moisture Loss and Decay

  7. Microbiological and biochemical spoilage of smoke-dried fishes sold in West African open markets.

    PubMed

    Ikutegbe, Victoria; Sikoki, Francis

    2014-10-15

    Proximate composition and microbiological characteristics of pre-dried Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Pseudotolithus typus were studied over a period of 4weeks to determine the health risks associated with delayed consumption. All analyses were conducted using standard microbiological and chemical methods. Results showed a general decline in microbiological safety and nutritive characteristics of both fish species over time, with an observed increase in microbial loads over time. Aspergillus flavus was also present on both species which makes consumption of the fishes hazardous to the health of consumers due to its ability to produce carcinogenic aflatoxins. In order to minimise the health risks to consumers, it is recommended that smoke-dried fishes be consumed with minimal delay and cooked properly before consumption. The findings of this study will prove important in the development of more stringent regulations regarding food safety in Nigeria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neem (Azadirachtaindica A. Juss) Oil: A Natural Preservative to Control Meat Spoilage.

    PubMed

    Del Serrone, Paola; Toniolo, Chiara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-09

    Plant-derived extracts (PDEs) are a source of biologically-active substances having antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of neem oil (NO) as a preservative of fresh retail meat. The antibacterial activity of NO against Carnobacterium maltaromaticum , Brochothrix thermosphacta, Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas fluorescens , Lactobacillus curvatus and L. sakei was assessed in a broth model system . The bacterial growth inhibition zone (mm) ranged from 18.83 ± 1.18 to 30.00 ± 1.00, as was found by a disc diffusion test with 100 µL NO. The bacterial percent growth reduction ranged from 30.81 ± 2.08 to 99.70 ± 1.53 in the broth microdilution method at different NO concentrations (1:10 to 1:100,000). Viable bacterial cells were detected in experimentally-contaminated meat up to the second day after NO treatment (100 µL NO per 10 g meat), except for C. maltaromaticum , which was detected up to the sixth day by PCR and nested PCR with propidium monoazide (PMA™) dye. In comparison to the previously published results, C. maltaromaticum , E. coli , L. curvatus and L. sakei appeared more susceptible to NO compared to neem cake extract (NCE) by using a broth model system.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Kefir against Various Food Pathogens and Spoilage Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunsook

    2016-01-01

    Kefir is a unique fermented dairy product produced by a mixture of lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, and yeast. Here, we compared the antimicrobial spectra of four types of kefirs (A, L, M, and S) fermented for 24, 36, 48, or 72 h against eight food-borne pathogens. Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Cronobacter sakazakii were used as test strains, and antibacterial activity was investigated by the spot on lawn method. The spectra, potencies, and onsets of activity varied according to the type of kefir and the fermentation time. The broadest and strongest antimicrobial spectrum was obtained after at least 36-48 h of fermentation for all kefirs, although the traditional fermentation method of kefir is for 18-24 h at 25℃. For kefir A, B. cereus, E. coli, S. Enteritidis, P. aeruginosa, and C. sakazakii were inhibited, while B. cereus, S. aureus, E. coli, S. Enteritidis, P. aeruginosa, and C. sakazakii were inhibited to different extents by kefirs L, M, and S. Remarkably, S. aureus, S. Enteritidis, and C. sakazakii were only inhibited by kefirs L, M, and S, and L. monocytogenes by kefir M after fermentation for specific times, suggesting that the antimicrobial activity is attributable not only to a low pH but also to antimicrobial substances secreted during the fermentation. PMID:28115890

  10. The carbon consumption pattern of the spoilage yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis in synthetic wine-like medium.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brendan D; Divol, Benoit

    2018-08-01

    The wine matrix contains limited carbon compounds to sustain microbial life. Brettanomyces bruxellensis is one of very few yeast species that has adapted to this environment. Indeed, the presence of growth-inhibiting compounds and conditions do not prevent its proliferation. Literature regarding the nutritional requirements of this yeast is surprisingly poor, given the observation that B. bruxellensis produces biomass with apparently less nutrients than other yeasts. In this study, various carbon sources were screened in a synthetic wine medium, under anaerobic and semi-aerobic growth conditions, in order to determine which compounds B. bruxellensis assimilates. Slight differences were observed between strains but overall, B. bruxellensis produced biomass from limited nutrients consumed in a specific order regardless of the oxygen conditions. Upon initial consumption of the simple sugars, B. bruxellensis was able to remain viable, by concurrently utilising ethanol (only in the presence of oxygen) and malic acid. Although initially beneficial, oxygen was found detrimental in the long term. Formation of volatile phenols occurred during the consumption of the sugars but not as a mechanism to help correct the redox imbalance. The study confirms that B. bruxellensis is able to survive using limited amount of nutrients, making this yeast a challenge for winemakers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Review of vegetable fermentations with particular emphasis on processing modifications, microbial ecology, and spoilage

    The consumption of vegetables is widespread in the world and represents a major component of the human diet. Microorganisms (mainly lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, Enterobacteriaceae, Propionibacterium and Clostridium species) play a significant role in vegetable fermentations, affecting the quality a...

  12. Biofilm inhibition of spoilage bacteria by Argentinean fruit juices with antihypertensive activity.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Claudia V; Aredes-Fernández, Pedro A; Farías, Marta E; Rodríguez-Vaquero, María J

    2013-01-01

    Argentinean juices have been studied for their antihypertensive activity, the inhibition of bacteria biofilm formation and the effect on the viability of wine yeast. The influence of phenolic compounds on these activities was evaluated. These studies are the first step for the development of a new type of wine that includes grape must supplement with fruit juices with antihypertensive effect. All juices posses a high antihypertensive activity, higher than 50%. Strawberry juices and eureka lemon showed the highest activity, whereas clarified juices posses the lowest activity. All studied juices produce a high inhibition of bacteria biofilm formation, and the strawberry, orange and mandarin varieties not affect the growth or viability of yeast. Our results permit to conclude that it could be possible the use of these juices in a new type of wine or as a source of new antihypertensive agents for pharmaceutical industry.

  13. Essential Oils Against Foodborne Pathogens and Spoilage Bacteria in Minced Meat

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Rall, Vera Lucia Mores; Fernandes, Ana Angélica Henrique; Ushimaru, Priscila Ikeda; da Silva Probst, Isabella

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The antimicrobial activity of essential oils of oregano, thyme, basil, marjoram, lemongrass, ginger, and clove was investigated in vitro by agar dilution method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli and Salmonella Enteritidis). MIC90% values were tested against bacterial strains inoculated experimentally in irradiated minced meat and against natural microbiota (aerobic or facultative, mesophilic, and psychrotrophic bacteria) found in minced meat samples. MIC90% values ranged from 0.05%v/v (lemongrass oil) to 0.46%v/v (marjoram oil) to Gram-positive bacteria and from 0.10%v/v (clove oil) to 0.56%v/v (ginger oil) to Gram-negative strains. However, the MIC90% assessed on minced meat inoculated experimentally with foodborne pathogen strains and against natural microbiota of meat did not show the same effectiveness, and 1.3 and 1.0 were the highest log CFU/g reduction values obtained against tested microorganisms. PMID:19580445

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Kefir against Various Food Pathogens and Spoilage Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Jeong, Dana; Kim, Hyunsook; Kang, Il-Byeong; Chon, Jung-Whan; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Kefir is a unique fermented dairy product produced by a mixture of lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, and yeast. Here, we compared the antimicrobial spectra of four types of kefirs (A, L, M, and S) fermented for 24, 36, 48, or 72 h against eight food-borne pathogens. Bacillus cereus , Staphylococcus aureus , Listeria monocytogenes , Enterococcus faecalis , Escherichia coli , Salmonella Enteritidis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Cronobacter sakazakii were used as test strains, and antibacterial activity was investigated by the spot on lawn method. The spectra, potencies, and onsets of activity varied according to the type of kefir and the fermentation time. The broadest and strongest antimicrobial spectrum was obtained after at least 36-48 h of fermentation for all kefirs, although the traditional fermentation method of kefir is for 18-24 h at 25℃. For kefir A, B. cereus , E. coli , S . Enteritidis, P. aeruginosa , and C. sakazakii were inhibited, while B. cereus , S. aureus , E. coli , S . Enteritidis, P. aeruginosa , and C. sakazakii were inhibited to different extents by kefirs L, M, and S. Remarkably, S. aureus , S . Enteritidis, and C. sakazakii were only inhibited by kefirs L, M, and S, and L. monocytogenes by kefir M after fermentation for specific times, suggesting that the antimicrobial activity is attributable not only to a low pH but also to antimicrobial substances secreted during the fermentation.

  15. Adhesive Property of Bacteria and Its Relationship to Microbial Spoilage of Shrimp.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-04

    that it may be either homopolymers or complex heteropolymers, made up of varying monosaccharides . However, neutral hexoses, 6-deoxyhexoses, polyols...a surface, surrounds itself with addi- tional exopolysaccharide and then replicates within this environment. This protective polysaccharide shell... polysaccharide adhesions produced by S. mutans to be alpha 1,3 and alpha 1,6 branched glucans produced by a group of glucosyltransferaces. 6 Hamada and

  16. The antimicrobial effects of wood-associated polyphenols on food pathogens and spoilage organisms.

    PubMed

    Plumed-Ferrer, Carme; Väkeväinen, Kati; Komulainen, Heli; Rautiainen, Maarit; Smeds, Annika; Raitanen, Jan-Erik; Eklund, Patrik; Willför, Stefan; Alakomi, Hanna-Leena; Saarela, Maria; von Wright, Atte

    2013-06-03

    The antimicrobial effects of the wood-associated polyphenolic compounds pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether, astringin, piceatannol, isorhapontin, isorhapontigenin, cycloXMe, dHIMP, ArX, and ArXOH were assessed against both Gram-negative (Salmonella) and Gram-positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus) and yeasts (Candida tropicalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Particularly the stilbenes pinosylvin, its monomethyl ether and piceatannol demonstrated a clear antimicrobial activity, which in the case of pinosylvin was present also in food matrices like sauerkraut, gravlax and berry jam, but not in milk. The destabilization of the outer membrane of Gram-negative microorganisms, as well as interactions with the cell membrane, as indicated by the NPN uptake and LIVE/DEAD viability staining experiments, can be one of the specific mechanisms behind the antibacterial action. L. monocytogenes was particularly sensitive to pinosylvin, and this effect was also seen in L. monocytogenes internalized in intestinal Caco2 cells at non-cytotoxic pinosylvin concentrations. In general, the antimicrobial effects of pinosylvin were even more prominent than those of a related stilbene, resveratrol, well known for its various bioactivities. According to our results, pinosylvin could have potential as a natural disinfectant or biocide in some targeted applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid identification of the genus Dekkera/Brettanomyces, the Dekkera subgroup and all individual species.

    PubMed

    Hulin, M; Harrison, E; Stratford, M; Wheals, A E

    2014-09-18

    The genus Dekkera/Brettanomyces comprises five described species: Dekkera bruxellensis, D. anomala, Brettanomyces custersianus, B. naardenensis and B. nanus. Some of them, especially D. bruxellensis, are important spoilage organisms, particularly in the wine and beverage industries. Because of their economic importance many different methods have been developed to identify members of the genus in general and D. bruxellensis in particular. These methods vary in their rapidity, complexity and cost but, partly because of confidentiality issues, it is unclear which methods are used, or how widely, in the relevant industries. Building on previous work with the genera Saccharomyces and Zygosaccharomyces, a suite of eight PCR primer pairs has been designed either on the D1-D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene or translation elongation factor TEF1-α. These primers can specifically identify the genus as a whole, only Dekkera species, each one of the five recognised species as well as a significant subgroup of D. bruxellensis represented by NCYC 3426. Multiplexing has also been tried and it has been shown to be possible with some combinations of genus or Dekkera-level and species-specific primers. Using direct colony PCR amplification followed by gel electrophoresis, a clear positive result can be obtained in less than 3h, thus providing a quick, reliable and inexpensive way to identify target species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of butter spoiling yeasts and their inhibition by some spices.

    PubMed

    Sagdic, Osman; Ozturk, Ismet; Bayram, Okan; Kesmen, Zulal; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the yeasts in packaged and unpackaged butters and screen antiyeast activity of spices, including marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), and black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) against the most dominant yeast species in the packaged and unpackaged butters. Mean total yeast populations were 5.40 log CFU/g in unpackaged butter samples and 2.22 log CFU/g in packaged butter samples, indicating better hygienic quality of packaged samples. Forty-nine yeast species were isolated and identified from butter samples with the most prevalent isolates belonging to genera Candida-C. kefyr, C. zeylanoides, and C. lambica-and with moderate number of isolates belonging to genera Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces. Black cumin exhibited the highest antiyeast activity against C. zeylanoides and C. lambica species, even inhibited these species, while summer savory inhibited C. kefyr. The results of this study revealed clear antimicrobial potential of black cumin against the yeast species isolated from butters. Marjoram, summer savory, and black cumin could be used as natural antimicrobial agents against spoilage yeasts in food preservation, especially in butter. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Sexual reproduction as the cause of heat resistance in the food spoilage fungus Byssochlamys spectabilis (anamorph Paecilomyces variotii).

    PubMed

    Houbraken, Jos; Varga, János; Rico-Munoz, Emilia; Johnson, Shawn; Samson, Robert A

    2008-03-01

    Paecilomyces variotii is a common cosmopolitan species that is able to spoil various food- and feedstuffs and is frequently encountered in heat-treated products. However, isolates from heat-treated products rarely form ascospores. In this study we examined by using molecular techniques and mating tests whether this species can undergo a sexual cycle and form ascospores. The population structure of this species was examined by analyzing the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene, as well as partial beta-tubulin, actin, and calmodulin gene sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. variotii is a highly variable species. Partition homogeneity tests revealed that P. variotii has a recombining population structure. In addition to sequence analyses, mating experiments indicated that P. variotii is able to form ascomata and ascospores in culture in a heterothallic manner. The distribution of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 genes showed a 1:1 ratio in the progeny of the mating experiments. From the sequence analyses and mating data we conclude that P. variotii is the anamorph of Talaromyces spectabilis and that it has a biallelic heterothallic mating system. Since Paecilomyces sensu stricto anamorphs group within Byssochlamys, a new combination Byssochlamys spectabilis is proposed.

  20. Anti-bacteria Effect of Active Ingredients of Cacumen Platycladi on the Spoilage Bacteria of Sauced Pork Head Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Xu, Lingyi; Cui, Yuqian; Pang, Meixia; Wang, Fang; Qi, Jinghua

    2017-12-01

    Extraction and anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients of Cacumen Platycladi were studied in this paper. Extraction combined with ultrasonic was adopted. The optimum extraction condition was determined by single factor test; the anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients and minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) were valued by Oxford-cup method. The results indicated that kaempferol was the active ingredients of Cacumen Platycladi whose optimum extraction condition for ethanol concentrations were sixty-five percent and twenty minutes with ultrasonic assisted extraction.; the active ingredients of Cacumen Platycladi had anti-bacteria effect on Staphylococcus, Proteus, Bacillus, Serratia and MIC was 0.5 g/mL,0.5 g/mL,0.0313 g/mL and 0.0625 g/mL. The active constituent of Cacumen Platycladi is kaempferol which has obvious anti-bacteria effect and can be used to prolong the shelf-life of Low-temperature meat products.

  1. Effect of Essential Oils on Germination and Growth of Some Pathogenic and Spoilage Spore-Forming Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Voundi, Stève Olugu; Nyegue, Maximilienne; Lazar, Iuliana; Raducanu, Dumitra; Ndoye, Florentine Foe; Marius, Stamate; Etoa, François-Xavier

    2015-06-01

    The use of essential oils as a food preservative has increased due to their capacity to inhibit vegetative growth of some bacteria. However, only limited data are available on their effect on bacterial spores. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of some essential oils on the growth and germination of three Bacillus species and Geobacillus stearothermophilus. Essential oils were chemically analyzed using gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of vegetative growth and spore germination were assessed using the macrodilution method. Germination inhibitory effect of treated spores with essential oils was evaluated on solid medium, while kinetic growth was followed using spectrophotometry in the presence of essential oils. Essential oil from Drypetes gossweileri mainly composed of benzyl isothiocyanate (86.7%) was the most potent, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.0048 to 0.0097 mg/mL on vegetative cells and 0.001 to 0.002 mg/mL on spore germination. Furthermore, essential oil from D. gossweileri reduced 50% of spore germination after treatment at 1.25 mg/mL, and its combination with other oils improved both bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities with additive or synergistic effects. Concerning the other essential oils, the minimal inhibitory concentration ranged from 5 to 0.63 mg/mL on vegetative growth and from 0.75 to 0.09 mg/mL on the germination of spores. Spectrophotometric evaluation showed an inhibitory effect of essential oils on both germination and outgrowth. From these results, it is concluded that some of the essential oils tested might be a valuable tool for bacteriological control in food industries. Therefore, further research regarding their use as food preservatives should be carried out.

  2. Wine bottle colour and oxidative spoilage: whole bottle light exposure experiments under controlled and uncontrolled temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Dias, Daniel A; Clark, Andrew C; Smith, Trevor A; Ghiggino, Kenneth P; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2013-06-15

    Exposure of a Chardonnay wine to light from a mercury vapour lamp under controlled temperature conditions showed that colour enhancement was dependent on bottle colour. The increase in colouration was Antique Green

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Plant Extracts Against Food-Borne Pathogens and Spoilage Bacteria In Vitro and on Poultry Skin

    Some plant extracts are known to contain substances that inhibit the growth of bacteria; therefore, experiments were conducted to examine the ability of extracts of pomegranate, orange, and lemon peels to inhibit the growth of five bacteria associated with processed poultry. The antibacterial activi...

  4. Mould spoilage of cereals during transportation by sea from Latin America to Europe mechanisms, impact and management.

    PubMed

    Mossel, D A

    1988-12-01

    Safe water contents of consignments of cereals to be shipped overseas can be calculated from the relation between mould-free storage time and storage conditions (temperature of the environment, aw of the cereal), corrected for heterogeneity of water distribution, content of damaged kernels and degree of infestation by insects. The validity of this model was substantiated by the inspection of shipments and theoretical data from the literature. This predictive model can usefully be substituted for previously used, ill-defined criteria like average or any portion's water content and should prompt the trade to sell consignments of cereals on the basis of dry substance.

  5. Exploring the use of natural antimicrobial agents and pulsed electric fields to control spoilage bacteria during a beer production process.

    PubMed

    Galvagno, M A; Gil, G R; Iannone, L J; Cerrutti, P

    2007-01-01

    Different natural antimicrobials affected viability of bacterial contaminants isolated at critical steps during a beer production process. In the presence of 1 mg/ml chitosan and 0.3 mg/ml hops, the viability of Escherichia coli in an all malt barley extract wort could be reduced to 0.7 and 0.1% respectively after 2 hour- incubation at 4 degrees C. The addition of 0.0002 mg/ml nisin, 0.1 mg/ml chitosan or 0.3 mg/ml hops, selectively inhibited growth of Pediococcus sp. in more than 10,000 times with respect to brewing yeast in a mixed culture. In the presence of 0.1 mg ml chitosan in beer, no viable cells of the thermoresistant strain Bacillus megaterium were detected. Nisin, chitosan and hops increased microbiological stability during storage of a local commercial beer inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum or Pediococcus sp. isolated from wort. Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) (8 kV/cm, 3 pulses) application enhanced antibacterial activity of nisin and hops but not that of chitosan. The results herein obtained suggest that the use of these antimicrobial compounds in isolation or in combination with PEF would be effective to control bacterial contamination during beer production and storage.

  6. Use of Extract of Citrus sinensis as an antimicrobial agent for foodborne zoonotic pathogens and spoilage bacteria

    Foodborne pathogens remain global health problems despite concerted efforts to control the transmission of these microorganisms through food. The resurgence of drug resistant bacteria has renewed interest in developing and testing new sources of antimicrobial agents to control foodborne illness. Thi...

  7. Solid-phase microextraction for the determination of volatile compounds in the spoilage of raw ground beef.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Rosa Ana; Rojo, Maria Dolores; González, Gema; De Lorenzo, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    A method using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was developed and applied to the determination of volatile compounds generated in meat, at different times, from ground beef stored under refrigeration. Selection of the extractive fiber, extraction time, and headspace (HS) or direct extraction was optimized for the determination of volatile compounds from ground meat. Various fibers were investigated, and carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane was selected for these analyses. The HS analysis of the solid sample by HS-SPME produced a higher volatile signal than did direct-SPME. The meat samples were stored under refrigeration and analyzed after 0, 3, and 6 days of storage. These analyses at different times showed important changes in the volatile profile of the evaluated samples. The ketones 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and 2,3-butanedione, and the alcohol 3-methyl-1-butanol were the most representative compounds generated during the meat storage. In general, compounds associated with a butter off-flavor were detected during the storage of raw ground beef.

  8. Evaluation of the risk of fungal spoilage when substituting sucrose with commercial purified Stevia glycosides in sweetened bakery products.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Magan, Naresh; Medina, Angel

    2016-08-16

    The objectives of this study were to compare the effect of different Stevia-based sugar substitutes (S1-S3), sucrose alone and a mixture of sucrose+S1 on: (a) humectant properties, (b) relative colonisation rates of sponge cake slices at 0.90 aw by strains of Aspergillus flavus, Eurotium amstelodami, Fusarium graminearum and Penicillium verrucosum at 20 and 25°C and (c) shelf-life periods in days prior to visible growth. Results showed that sucrose, S1 commercial sugar substitute and the mixture of sucrose+S1 in water solutions were able to reach water activity levels similar to those of glycerol and glucose mixtures. The S2 and S3 commercial sugar substitutes were unable to reduce aw levels significantly. At 25°C, colonisation of sponge cake slices by E. amstelodami, A. flavus and P. verrucosum occurred in all the treatments. Growth of F. graminearum only occurred on sponge cake slices containing S2 and S3 Stevia-based products at both temperatures. The best control of growth (30days) was achieved in cake slices modified with sucrose or S1 Stevia treatments inoculated with A. flavus and in the sucrose treatment for E. amstelodami at 20°C. F. graminearum growth was completely inhibited when sucrose alone, S1 or sucrose+S1 treatments were used at both temperatures. This study suggests that, as part of a hurdle technology approach, replacing sucrose with low calorie sugar substitutes based on Stevia glycosides needs to be done with care. This is because different products may have variable humectant properties and bulking agents which may shorten the potential shelf-life of intermediate moisture bakery products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ustilago maydis killer toxin as a new tool for the biocontrol of the wine spoilage yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Antonio; Navascués, Eva; Bravo, Enrique; Marquina, Domingo

    2011-01-31

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis is one of the most damaging species for wine quality, and tools for controlling its growth are limited. In this study, thirty-nine strains belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and B. bruxellensis have been isolated from wineries, identified and then tested against a panel of thirty-nine killer yeasts. Here, for the first time, the killer activity of Ustilago maydis is proven to be effective against B. bruxellensis. Mixed cultures in winemaking conditions show that U. maydis CYC 1410 has the ability to inhibit B. bruxellensis, while S. cerevisiae is fully resistant to its killer activity, indicating that it could be used in wine fermentation to avoid the development of B. bruxellensis without undesirable effects on the fermentative yeast. The characterization of the dsRNAs isolated and purified from U. maydis CYC 1410 indicated that this strain produces a KP6-related toxin. Killer toxin extracts were active against B. bruxellensis at pH values between 3.0 and 4.5 and temperatures comprised between 15 °C and 25 °C, confirming their biocontrol activity in winemaking and wine aging conditions. Furthermore, small amounts (100 AU/ml) of killer toxin extracts from U. maydis significantly reduced the amount of 4-ethylphenol produced by B. bruxellensis, indicating that in addition to the growth inhibition observed for high killer toxin concentrations (ranging from 400 to 2000 AU/ml), small amounts of the toxin are able to reduce the production of volatile phenols responsible for the aroma defects in wines caused by B. bruxellensis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of a chitosan based natural coating materials to reduce spoilage and pathogenic bacteria on poultry products

    Chitosan is a natural compound with proven antimicrobial activity having GRAS status (generally recognized as safe) as determined by the United States Food and Drug Administration (Smith et al., 2014). Efforts are underway to develop and improve the use of chitosan based films as packaging material...

  11. Fungal Gene Mutation Analysis Elucidating Photoselective Enhancement of UV-C Disinfection Efficiency Toward Spoilage Agents on Fruit Surface.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pinkuan; Li, Qianwen; Azad, Sepideh M; Qi, Yu; Wang, Yiwen; Jiang, Yina; Xu, Ling

    2018-01-01

    Short-wave ultraviolet (UV-C) treatment represents a potent, clean and safe substitute to chemical sanitizers for fresh fruit preservation. However, the dosage requirement for microbial disinfection may have negative effects on fruit quality. In this study, UV-C was found to be more efficient in killing spores of Botrytis cinerea in dark and red light conditions when compared to white and blue light. Loss of the blue light receptor gene Bcwcl1 , a homolog of wc-1 in Neurospora crassa , led to hypersensitivity to UV-C in all light conditions tested. The expression of Bcuve1 and Bcphr1 , which encode UV-damage endonuclease and photolyase, respectively, were strongly induced by white and blue light in a Bcwcl1 -dependent manner. Gene mutation analyses of Bcuve1 and Bcphr1 indicated that they synergistically contribute to survival after UV-C treatment. In vivo assays showed that UV-C (1.0 kJ/m 2 ) abolished decay in drop-inoculated fruit only if the UV-C treatment was followed by a dark period or red light, while in contrast, typical decay appeared on UV-C irradiated fruits exposed to white or blue light. In summary, blue light enhances UV-C resistance in B. cinerea by inducing expression of the UV damage repair-related enzymes, while the efficiency of UV-C application for fruit surface disinfection can be enhanced in dark or red light conditions; these principles seem to be well conserved among postharvest fungal pathogens.

  12. Effect of different marinating conditions on the evolution of spoilage microbiota and metabolomic profile of chicken breast fillets.

    PubMed

    Lytou, Anastasia E; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Nychas, George-John E

    2017-09-01

    Five different marinades were prepared containing lemon juice, apple cider vinegar, pomegranate juice and combinations of them. Three different temperatures (4, 10, and 20 °C) and five marinating time intervals (1, 3, 6, and 9 h) were tested. Microbial, physicochemical as well as sensory analyses were performed to assess marination. Noticeable microbial reductions and satisfactory sensory results were observed only in samples treated for short time (1 and 3 h). The marinade in which pomegranate and lemon juices were combined caused a decrease in microbial counts and led to desirable sensory attributes. Each of the marinades was characterized by a distinguishable organic acid profile, while the discrimination of the samples, based on organic acid concentration, between low (1 and 3) and high (6 and 9) marinating time was feasible. It can be concluded that marinating time affected the indigenous microbiota and the sensory characteristics of chicken meat while pomegranate could be a promising marinating ingredient from a microbiological and physicochemical perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Shelf-life evaluation of natural antimicrobials for Concord and Niagara grape juices.

    PubMed

    Siricururatana, P; Iyer, M M; Manns, D C; Churey, J J; Worobo, R W; Padilla-Zakour, O I

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of natural antimicrobials for shelf-life extension of cold-filled still and carbonated Concord and Niagara grape juices, which have traditionally been preserved with chemical preservatives. Commercial juices were inoculated with a spoilage yeast cocktail of Dekkera, Kluveromyces, Brettanomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces at 10(2) and 10(4) CFU/ml. The following agents were added to still juices: no preservative (negative control), 0.05% potassium sorbate plus 0.05% sodium benzoate (positive control), 0.1 or 0.2% cultured dextrose, 250 ppm of dimethyldicarbonate (DMDC), 10 or 20 ppm of natamycin, and 250 ppm of DMDC plus 5 or 10 ppm of natamycin. Carbonated juice was treated with the negative control, positive control, and 250 ppm of DMDC plus 10 ppm of natamycin. Microbial stability of samples was assessed every 2 weeks during 6 months of storage at 21°C by yeast enumeration and measurement of turbidity, pH, and °Brix. Juices were deemed spoiled when yeast counts exceeded 10(6) CFU/ml. Cultured dextrose was not effective at levels tested in both types of juice. The most promising results were obtained with DMDC and natamycin combination treatments in still Niagara juice and in carbonated Concord and Niagara juices. In these treatments, shelf-life extension similar to that of the positive control (153 to 161 days) was achieved while maintaining similar turbidity, pH, and °Brix. Spoiled juices had lower pH and °Brix values and higher turbidity due to microbial activity and increased in microbial levels.

  14. 21 CFR 180.25 - Mannitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fructose. (2) The fermentation of sugars or sugar alcohols such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, or sorbitol using the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. (3) A pure culture fermentation of sugars such as fructose...

  15. 21 CFR 180.25 - Mannitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fructose. (2) The fermentation of sugars or sugar alcohols such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, or sorbitol using the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. (3) A pure culture fermentation of sugars such as fructose...

  16. Modeling microbial spoilage and quality of gilthead seabream fillets: combined effect of osmotic pretreatment, modified atmosphere packaging, and nisin on shelf life.

    PubMed

    Tsironi, Theofania N; Taoukis, Petros S

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was the kinetic modeling of the effect of storage temperature on the quality and shelf life of chilled fish, modified atmosphere-packed (MAP), and osmotically pretreated with the addition of nisin as antimicrobial agent. Fresh gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fillets were osmotically treated with 50% high dextrose equivalent maltodextrin (DE 47) plus 5% NaCl. Water loss, solid gain, salt content, and water activity were monitored throughout treatment and treatment conditions were selected for the shelf life study. Untreated and osmotically pretreated slices with and without nisin (2 x 10(4) IU/100 g osmotic solution), packed in air or modified atmosphere (50% CO(2)-50% air), and stored at controlled isothermal conditions (0, 5, 10, and 15 degrees C) were studied. Quality assessment and modeling were based on growth of several microbial indices, total volatile nitrogen, trimethylamine nitrogen, lipid oxidation (TBARS), and sensory scoring. Temperature dependence of quality loss rates was modeled by the Arrhenius equation, validated under dynamic conditions. Pretreated samples showed improved quality stability during subsequent refrigerated storage, in terms of microbial growth, chemical changes, and organoleptic degradation. Osmotic pretreatment with the addition of nisin in combination with MAP was the most effective treatment resulting in significant shelf life extension of gilthead seabream fillets (48 days compared to 10 days for the control at 0 degrees C).

  17. Efficacy of the combined application of chitosan and Locust Bean Gum with different citrus essential oils to control postharvest spoilage caused by Aspergillus flavus in dates.

    PubMed

    Aloui, Hajer; Khwaldia, Khaoula; Licciardello, Fabio; Mazzaglia, Agata; Muratore, Giuseppe; Hamdi, Moktar; Restuccia, Cristina

    2014-01-17

    This study reports the efficacy of the combined application of chitosan (CH) and Locust Bean Gum (LBG) in combination with different citrus essential oils (EOs) to inhibit Aspergillus flavus in vitro and on artificially infected dates for a storage period of 12 days. The effect of these treatments on the fruits' sensory characteristics was evaluated to verify the complete absence of off-odours and off-flavours. Bergamot EO was the most effective in reducing mycelial growth, followed by bitter orange EO. Both bergamot and bitter orange oils significantly reduced conidial germination and a complete inhibition was obtained at concentrations higher than 2%. The mixtures based on CH-2% (v/v) bergamot EO or CH-2% (v/v) bitter orange EO proved to be the most effective coatings to reduce conidial germination resulting in an 87-90% inhibition compared with the control. In fruit decay assays coatings based on CH incorporating citrus oils were able to reduce fungal decay in the range of 52-62% at day 12. The study results and the complete absence of off-flavours and off-odours demonstrate the potential of CH coatings carrying citrus EOs at sub-inhibitory concentrations to control postharvest growth of A. flavus in dates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of edible coatings combined with mild heat shocks on microbial spoilage and sensory quality of fresh cut broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Moreira, María del R; Ponce, Alejandra; Ansorena, R; Roura, Sara I

    2011-08-01

    The use of edible coatings and mild heat shocks is proposed as postharvest treatments to prevent microbial deterioration of refrigerated broccoli. Minimally processed broccoli was coated with either chitosan or carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) combined or not with a previous application of a mild heat shock. The evolution of microbial populations (mesophilic, psycrotrophic, Enterobacteriaceae, molds and yeast, and lactic acid bacteria) was studied during 20 d of storage and fitted to Gompertz and logistic models. Results revealed that, at the end of the storage, chitosan coating significantly reduced all microbiological population counts, except lactic acid bacteria; while higher reduction was observed with chitosan coating combined with a heat shock treatment. A significant delay at the beginning of the exponential phase was observed for all the bacterial populations analyzed. On the other hand, CMC coating, with and without a previous thermal treatment, did not exert any antibacterial effect. Excellent agreement was found between experimental microbial counts and predicted values obtained from Gompertz and logistic models. Kinetic modeling was found to be valuable for prediction of microbiological shelf life of broccoli during storage. Results showed that the application of chitosan coating effectively maintained microbiological quality and extended shelf life of minimally processed broccoli. According to these results, the use of the edible chitosan coating alone or in combination with a heat mild shock appear to be a viable alternative for controlling microbiological growth and sensory attributes in minimally processed broccoli. The continuous consumer interest in high quality and food safety, combined with environmental concern has induced to the development and study of edible coatings that avoid the use of synthetic materials. The edible coatings, formed from generally recognized as safe materials, have the potential to reduce weight loss, respiration rate, and improve food appearance and integrity. It is one of the most effective methods to maintain food quality. On the other hand, heat treatments have been demonstrated to be effective as a nonchemical means of improving postharvest quality for a variety of horticultural products. The applications of mild heat shocks combined with edible coatings constitute an alternative for the natural preservation of crops for which the use of synthetic chemicals is objectionable. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Hop resistance in the beer spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus brevis is mediated by the ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter HorA.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, K; Margolles, A; van Veen, H W; Konings, W N

    2001-09-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is a major contaminant of spoiled beer. The organism can grow in beer in spite of the presence of antibacterial hop compounds that give the beer a bitter taste. The hop resistance in L. brevis is, at least in part, dependent on the expression of the horA gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of HorA is 53% identical to that of LmrA, an ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter in Lactococcus lactis. To study the role of HorA in hop resistance, HorA was functionally expressed in L. lactis as a hexa-histidine-tagged protein using the nisin-controlled gene expression system. HorA expression increased the resistance of L. lactis to hop compounds and cytotoxic drugs. Drug transport studies with L. lactis cells and membrane vesicles and with proteoliposomes containing purified HorA protein identified HorA as a new member of the ABC family of multidrug transporters.

  20. Microbiological diversity and prevalence of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria in commercial fermented alcoholic beverages (beer, fruit wine, refined rice wine, and yakju).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Se Hui; Kim, Nam Hee; Shim, Moon Bo; Jeon, Young Wook; Ahn, Ji Hye; Lee, Soon Ho; Hwang, In Gyun; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined 469 commercially available fermented alcoholic beverages (FABs), including beer (draft, microbrewed, and pasteurized), fruit wine (grape and others), refined rice wine, and yakju (raw and pasteurized). Samples were screened for Escherichia coli and eight foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Yersinia enterocolitica), and the aerobic plate count, lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, fungi, and total coliforms were also enumerated. Microbrewed beer contained the highest number of microorganisms (average aerobic plate count, 3.5; lactic acid bacteria, 2.1; acetic acid bacteria, 2.0; and fungi, 3.6 log CFU/ml), followed by draft beer and yakju (P < 0.05), whereas the other FABs contained , 25 CFU/25 ml microorganisms. Unexpectedly, neither microbial diversity nor microbial count correlated with the alcohol content (4.7 to 14.1%) or pH (3.4 to 4.2) of the product. Despite the harsh conditions, coliforms (detected in 23.8% of microbrewed beer samples) and B. cereus (detected in all FABs) were present in some products. B. cereus was detected most frequently in microbrewed beer (54.8% of samples) and nonpasteurized yakju (50.0%), followed by pasteurized yakju (28.8%), refined rice wine (25.0%), other fruit wines (12.3%), grape wine (8.6%), draft beer (5.6%), and pasteurized beer (2.2%) (P < 0.05). The finding that spore-forming B. cereus and coliform bacteria can survive the harsh conditions present in alcoholic beverages should be taken into account (alongside traditional quality indicators such as the presence of lactic acid-producing bacteria, acetic acid-producing bacteria, or both) when developing manufacturing systems and methods to prolong the shelf life of high-quality FAB products. New strategic quality management plans for various FABs are needed.

  1. Assessment of the Factors Contributing to the Growth or Spoilage of Meyerozyma guilliermondii in Organic Yogurt: Comparison of Methods for Strain Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wrent, Petra; Rivas, Eva-María; Gil de Prado, Elena; Peinado, José M.; de Silóniz, María-Isabel

    2015-01-01

    In this work we analyze the spoiling potential of Meyerozyma guilliermondii in yogurt. The analysis was based on contaminated samples sent to us by an industrial laboratory over two years. All the plain and fruit yogurt packages were heavily contaminated by yeasts, but only the last ones, containing fermentable sugars besides lactose, were spoiled by gas swelling. These strains were unable to grow and ferment lactose (as the type strain); they did grow on lactate plus galactose, fermented glucose and sucrose, and galactose (weakly), but did not compete with lactic acid bacteria for lactose. This enables them to grow in any yogurt, although only those with added jam were spoiled due to the fermentation of the fruit sugars. Fermentation, but not growth, was strongly inhibited at 8 °C. In consequence, in plain yogurt as well as in any yogurt maintained at low temperature, yeast contamination would not be detected by the consumer. The risk could be enhanced because the species has been proposed for biological control of fungal infections in organic agriculture. The combination of the IGS PCR-RFLP (amplification of the intergenic spacer region of rDNA followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis) method and mitochondrial DNA-RFLP makes a good tool to trace and control the contamination by M. guilliermondii. PMID:27682098

  2. Assertiveness of meat-borne Lactococcus piscium strains and their potential for competitive exclusion of spoilage bacteria in situ and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hilgarth, M; Nani, M; Vogel, R F

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate intraspecies assertiveness of meat-borne Lactococcus piscium isolates, inhibitory effects on unwanted and harmful meat spoilers, and the prevalence on beef deliberately inoculated with Lc. piscium. Co-inoculation of Lc. piscium isolates and spoilers (Brochothrix thermosphacta, Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum, Carnobacterium divergens, Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis, Serratia liquefaciens, Hafnia alvei) were conducted in sterile meat simulation medium. Differentiation of Lc. piscium strains was carried out with colony-based RAPD-PCR. Selective cultivation was used to differentiate spoilers from Lc. piscium. Intraspecies assertiveness revealed Lc. piscium TMW2.1614 as most assertive strain. Co-inoculation of selected Lc. piscium strains caused substantial growth reduction of spoilers while the extent was strain- and spoiler dependent. Monitoring the microbiota on beef steaks deliberately inoculated with Lc. piscium revealed prevalence over the endogenous microbiota while maintaining a ripened sensory impression without undesired alterations. This study reveals Lc. piscium strains TMW2.1612/2.1614/2.1615 as highly competitive against spoilers in vitro while beef deliberately inoculated with these strains maintained acceptable organoleptics. Selected Lc. piscium strains exhibit high potential for application as bioprotective cultures for competitive exclusion on beef in order to extend minimum shelf life and enhance product safety of meat. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Identity of Artificial Color on Oranges; Analysis for Spoilage Indicators in Butter; Rapid Identity of Margarine and Butter; Identity of Synthetic Colors in Foods. FDA's Science Project Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    These guides are four of several prepared through the F.D.A.'s Science Project Series for senior high school chemistry students and teachers investigating the quality of constituents of foods through experimentation. Each eight page pamphlet gives background information on the subject, equipment and reagents needed for the experiment, the…

  4. Development of sensitive and selective food sensors using new Re(I)-Pt(II) bimetallic complexes to detect volatile biogenic sulfides formed by meat spoilage.

    PubMed

    Chow, Cheuk-Fai; Ho, Pui-Yu; Sun, Dong; Lu, Yu-Jing; Wong, Wing-Leung; Tang, Qian; Gong, Cheng-Bin

    2017-02-01

    Detection of volatile biogenic sulfides (VBS) plays a crucial role in food safety because the amounts of these compounds can reflect the freshness of meat. A new indicator-displacement assay with Re(I)-Pt(II) complexes, [Re(Lig)(CO)3(bridge)]-[Pt(DMSO)(Cl)2] (1: Lig=5-phenyl-1,10-phenanthroline and bridge=NCS(-); 2: Lig=5-phenyl-1,10-phenanthroline and bridge=CN(-); 3: Lig=2,2'-biquinoline and bridge=NCS(-)), was demonstrated to be a very effective sensing method to VBS. The results indicated that the control of Re(I)-bridge-Pt(II) and Re(I)-ligand combination are able to regulate their sensing selectivity and sensitivity. This system was successfully applied to detect CH3SCH3 in real rotten pork with a linear luminometric response up to 20.0mgkg(-1) (R=0.997) with the detection limit as 0.05 mgkg(-1). Complex 1 also gave comparable results on the detection of VBS with respect to those determined by GCMS with recovery range from 76% to 102% (RSD%=13.8). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of superatmospheric oxygen packaging on sensorial quality, spoilage, and Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas caviae growth in fresh processed mixed salads.

    PubMed

    Allende, Ana; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Devlieghere, Frank; Debevere, Johan; Artés, Francisco

    2002-10-01

    Atmospheres with O2 levels higher than 70 kPa have recently been suggested as an innovation to modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for fresh processed vegetables to maintain sensory quality and safety. In the present work, mixed vegetable salad collected from a commercial processing plant and stored with the MAP technique was studied. Two gas mixtures were actively generated by using an initial O2 concentration of 95 kPa and combined with two plastic films. The low-barrier film permeability for O2 was 1,629 mlO2/m2 x 24 h x atm with 30 microm of thickness (Hyplast, Hoogstraten, Belgium) and the O2 permeability of the high-barrier film was 2 mlO2/m2 x 24h x atm with 150 microm of thickness (Euralpack, Wommelgen, Belgium) at 23 degrees C. As control, active conventional MAP with application of 3 to 5 kPa of O2 and 6 to 8 kPa of CO2 was used. Packaged salads were stored up to 8 days at 4 degrees C and at temperatures simulating chilled distribution chain conditions. Microbial safety and sensory quality, as well as the survival of inoculated Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas caviae, were monitored. The effect of superatmospheric O2 on the growth of aerobic microflora was variable. Under superatmospheric conditions, lactic acid bacteria and members of Enterobacteriaceae were inhibited. Nevertheless, growth of yeast and A. caviae seem to be stimulated by superatmospheric O2, whereas growth of psychrotrophic bacteria and L monocytogenes was not affected. The overall visual appearance (mainly color) of the mixed vegetable salads was better maintained and the shelf life prolonged when packaged under O2 concentrations greater than 50 kPa.

  6. Effect of X-ray treatments on salmonella enterica and spoilage bacteria on skin-on chicken breast fillets and shell eggs

    The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of X-ray irradiation on the inactivation of a 3- strain mixture of Salmonella enterica (S. Enteritidis E190-88, S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and S. Montevideo ATCC 8387) using an RS 2400 X-ray system on chicken breast fillets and shell eggs a...

  7. Deterioration and spoilage of peanuts and desiccated coconuts from two sub-Saharan tropical East African countries due to the associated mycobiota and their degradative enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M A

    2001-01-01

    A broad variety of fungi (84 species belonging to 36 genera) were identified with more taxa infesting peanut seed samples from two tropical countries (29 genera and 61 species) compared to those found in desiccated coconuts (20 genera and 55 species) on both DRBC and DG18 media. This may be due to the higher moisture levels in peanuts (5.07-7.97%) compared with coconuts (1.5-4.17%). More taxa and propagules were recovered on DG18 in both cases. The dominant fungi from both substrates on both isolation media were Aspergillus and Penicillium, with other fungi from only one substrate/medium. The aflatoxigenic species (A. flavus) dominated Kenyan samples more so than Ugandan samples on both substrates. However only 71.5% and 87.5% of the peanut kernels, on DRBC and DG18, respectively, were found to be infested with fungi. The aflatoxigenic species (A. flavus/parasiticus) were found in 75% of the samples, however only 15.75% and 13% of the kernels analyzed were infested. The most frequently isolated species from peanuts were A. niger followed by A. flavus and M. phaseolina. E. repens, E. amstelodami, E. rubrum and E. chevalieri dominated peanut seeds on DG18, and R. stolonifer, A. parasiticus, F. solani, L. theobromae and P. chrysogenum on DRBC. The mean count of fungal propagules in coconut samples were approximately 0.7 x 10(3) and 0.8 x 10(3) on DRBC and DG18, respectively, with a high proportion of those propagules recorded for the aflatoxigenic species (about 0. 17 x 10(3) and 0.25 x 10(3) colonies/g). The mycobiota of desiccated coconut was dominated by A. niger, A. flavus and P. chrysogenum. Also A. ochraceus, P. waksmanii, Paecilomyces variotii, P. islandicum and R. mucilaginosa were more frequent on DRBC, while, species of Cladosporium. Chrysosporium and Eurotium were more frequent on DG18. Enzyme indices (or the activities) for each specific strain, when determined after 5 and 8 days of incubation, proved to be similar. A recommendation is given. The proteolytic and lipolytic potentialities of the most commonly encountered species from both peanuts and coconuts were studied. The most interesting observation is that most of the positive isolates, in both commodities had high enzymic activity compared to those reported earlier for isolates of the same species. Such capabilities suggest that these commodities are expected to deteriorate, since climatic conditions in tropical areas favour fungal proliferation. Emphasis on the proper harvesting, drying, handling, transportation and/or storage; and also education of the populace, especially those are dealing with these foods, should be taken into consideration by the relevant authorities. The contaminated foods constitute a health hazard for human consumption.

  8. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    PubMed

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  9. Stingless Bee Larvae Require Fungal Steroid to Pupate.

    PubMed

    Paludo, Camila R; Menezes, Cristiano; Silva-Junior, Eduardo A; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Andrade-Dominguez, Andres; Pishchany, Gleb; Khadempour, Lily; do Nascimento, Fabio S; Currie, Cameron R; Kolter, Roberto; Clardy, Jon; Pupo, Mônica T

    2018-01-18

    The larval stage of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis must consume a specific brood cell fungus in order to continue development. Here we show that this fungus is a member of the genus Zygosaccharomyces and provides essential steroid precursors to the developing bee. Insect pupation requires ecdysteroid hormones, and as insects cannot synthesize sterols de novo, they must obtain steroids in their diet. Larval in vitro culturing assays demonstrated that consuming ergosterol recapitulates the developmental effects on S. depilis as ingestion of Zygosaccharomyces sp. cells. Thus, we determined the molecular underpinning of this intimate mutualistic symbiosis. Phylogenetic analyses showed that similar cases of bee-Zygosaccharomyces symbiosis may exist. This unprecedented case of bee-fungus symbiosis driven by steroid requirement brings new perspectives regarding pollinator-microbiota interaction and preservation.

  10. 21 CFR 1.360 - What are the record retention requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... release the food all required records for any food having a significant risk of spoilage, loss of value... required records for any food for which a significant risk of spoilage, loss of value, or loss of... release the food all required records for any food for which a significant risk of spoilage, loss of value...

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Nine Strains of Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium divergens, Lactobacillus algidus, Lactobacillus fuchuensis, Lactococcus piscium, Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum, Pseudomonas lundensis, and Weissella viridescens, a Collection of Psychrotrophic Species Involved in Meat and Seafood Spoilage.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Simon; Coeuret, Gwendoline; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine; Chaillou, Stéphane

    2018-06-14

    In this study, we present the draft genome sequences of nine strains from various psychrotrophic species identified in meat products and being recognized as important emerging food spoilers. Many of these species have only one or few strains being sequenced, and this work will contribute to the improvement of the overall genomic knowledge about them. Copyright © 2018 Poirier et al.

  12. 7 CFR 993.49 - Incoming regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA..., without material deterioration or spoilage, unrefrigerated or not otherwise artificially preserved, they...

  13. Microbiota on spoiled vegetables and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Beom; Kim, Mihyun; Roh, Eunjung; Jung, Kyusuk; Choi, Minseon; Oh, Changsik; Choi, Jaehyuk; Yun, Jongchul; Heu, Sunggi

    2013-08-01

    Spoilage causes vegetables to deteriorate and develop unpleasant characteristics. Approximately 30 % of fresh vegetables are lost to spoilage, mainly due to colonization by bacteria. In the present study, a total of 44 bacterial isolates were obtained from a number of spoiled vegetables. The isolates were identified and classified into 20 different species of 14 genera based on fatty acid composition, biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA sequence analyses. Pseudomonas spp. were the species most frequently isolated from the spoiled vegetables. To evaluate the spoilage ability of each species, a variety of fresh vegetables were treated with each isolate and their degree of maceration was observed. In addition, the production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), such as cellulase, xylanase, pectate lyase, and polygalacturonase, was compared among isolates to investigate their potential associations with spoilage. Strains that produce more PCWDEs cause spoilage on more diverse plants, and pectinase may be the most important enzyme among PCWDEs for vegetable spoilage. Most gram-negative spoilage bacteria produced acylated homoserine lactone, a quorum-sensing signal molecule, suggesting that it may be possible to use this compound effectively to prevent or slow down the spoilage of vegetables contaminated with diverse bacteria.

  14. 7 CFR 1430.304 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Program § 1430.304 Eligibility. (a) Producers in the United States are eligible to receive hurricane... spoilage losses in counties declared a disaster by the President due to any hurricane in 2004. To be... production and milk spoilage losses were incurred as a result of 2004 hurricanes, and limiting their claims...

  15. 7 CFR 1430.304 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Program § 1430.304 Eligibility. (a) Producers in the United States are eligible to receive hurricane... spoilage losses in counties declared a disaster by the President due to any hurricane in 2004. To be... production and milk spoilage losses were incurred as a result of 2004 hurricanes, and limiting their claims...

  16. 7 CFR 1430.304 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Program § 1430.304 Eligibility. (a) Producers in the United States are eligible to receive hurricane... spoilage losses in counties declared a disaster by the President due to any hurricane in 2004. To be... production and milk spoilage losses were incurred as a result of 2004 hurricanes, and limiting their claims...

  17. 7 CFR 1430.304 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Program § 1430.304 Eligibility. (a) Producers in the United States are eligible to receive hurricane... spoilage losses in counties declared a disaster by the President due to any hurricane in 2004. To be... production and milk spoilage losses were incurred as a result of 2004 hurricanes, and limiting their claims...

  18. 7 CFR 1430.304 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Program § 1430.304 Eligibility. (a) Producers in the United States are eligible to receive hurricane... spoilage losses in counties declared a disaster by the President due to any hurricane in 2004. To be... production and milk spoilage losses were incurred as a result of 2004 hurricanes, and limiting their claims...

  19. Photocatalytic inactivation of bacteria from spoiled raw chicken carcasses in aqueous suspensions by TiO2 nanoparticles

    Bacterial spoilage is a major cause of reduced shelf life of fresh poultry; therefore, decreasing contamination by spoilage bacteria could increase the shelf life of these products. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in the presence of UVA light possess antibacterial activities towards several ba...

  20. Airborne thermography of temperature patterns in sugar beet piles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G.; Bichsel, S.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the use of thermography for locating spoilage areas (chimneys) within storage piles and to subsequently use the information for the scheduling of their processing. Thermal-infrared quantitative scanner data were acquired initially on January 16, 1975, over the storage piles at Moorhead, Minnesota, both during the day and predawn. Photographic data were acquired during the day mission to evaluate the effect of uneven snow cover on the thermal emittance, and the predawn thermography was used to locate potential chimneys. The piles were examined the day prior for indications of spoilage areas, and the ground crew indicated that no spoilage areas were located using their existing methods. Nine spoilage areas were interpreted from the thermography. The piles were rechecked by ground methods three days following the flights. Six of the nine areas delineated by thermography were actual spoilage areas.

  1. Specific inhibition of Photobacterium phosphoreum extends the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, P; Garcia Munoz, L; Mejlholm, O

    1998-09-01

    Inhibition of the specific spoilage organism, Photobacterium phosphoreum, was studied in model substrates and in modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets. The objective was to determine how inhibition of this organism influenced spoilage. The spoilage reactions limiting shelf life were studied rather than the development of a new product. In naturally contaminated modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets, 500 ppm Na2CaEDTA reduced the growth rate of P. phosphoreum by 40% and shelf life was increased proportionally by 40%, from 15 to 17 days to 21 to 23 days at 0 degree C. In aerobically stored cod fillets other microorganisms were responsible for spoilage and Na2CaEDTA had no effect on shelf life. The extension of the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod therefore was a result of the reduced growth of P. phosphoreum and no other microbial or nonmicrobial spoilage reactions limited shelf life. These results confirmed P. phosphoreum as the specific spoilage organism in modified-atmosphere-packed cod and showed the organism to have an extensive spoilage domain. Consequently, any preservation procedure able to reduce growth of P. phosphoreum is likely to extend shelf life of packed cod. However, the effect of different inhibitory compounds in model systems as well as results from packed cod indicated the need to include product studies in the screening of antimicrobials and in the development of preservation procedures.

  2. Bacterial spoilers of food: behavior, fitness and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Remenant, Benoît; Jaffrès, Emmanuel; Dousset, Xavier; Pilet, Marie-France; Zagorec, Monique

    2015-02-01

    Most food products are highly perishable as they constitute a rich nutrient source for microbial development. Among the microorganisms contaminating food, some present metabolic activities leading to spoilage. In addition to hygienic rules to reduce contamination, various treatments are applied during production and storage to avoid the growth of unwanted microbes. The nature and appearance of spoilage therefore depend on the physiological state of spoilers and on their ability to resist the processing/storage conditions and flourish on the food matrix. Spoilage also relies on the interactions between the microorganisms composing the ecosystems encountered in food. The recent rapid increase in publicly available bacterial genome sequences, as well as the access to high-throughput methods, should lead to a better understanding of spoiler behavior and to the possibility of decreasing food spoilage. This review lists the main bacterial species identified as food spoilers, their ability to develop during storage and/or processing, and the functions potentially involved in spoilage. We have also compiled an inventory of the available genome sequences of species encompassing spoilage strains. Combining in silico analysis of genome sequences with experimental data is proposed in order to understand and thus control the bacterial spoilage of food better. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage and... must provide for storage of commodities that protects them from theft, spoilage, damage or destruction...

  4. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage and... must provide for storage of commodities that protects them from theft, spoilage, damage or destruction...

  5. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage and... must provide for storage of commodities that protects them from theft, spoilage, damage or destruction...

  6. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage and... must provide for storage of commodities that protects them from theft, spoilage, damage or destruction...

  7. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage and... must provide for storage of commodities that protects them from theft, spoilage, damage or destruction...

  8. Efficacy of supercritical carbon dioxide for inactivating Lactobacillus plantarum in apple cider

    Juice makers have traditionally used thermal pasteurization to prevent deterioration by spoilage bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum; however this thermal processing causes adverse effects on product quality such as undesirable taste and destruction of heat sensitive nutrients. For this reason,...

  9. Inactivation of microorganisms in apple cider and orange juice using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Juice processors have traditionally used thermal pasteurization to prevent deterioration by spoilage bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae; however, thermal processing may cause adverse effects on product quality such as undesirable taste and destruction of heat sensi...

  10. Gamma irradiation reduces the survival and regrowth of inoculated antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistant genes on romaine lettuce

    Introduction: Gamma irradiation effectively reduces foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms on fresh produce. However, limited research is available regarding the effect of gamma irradiation on the survival and regrowth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) or the persistence of antibiotic ...

  11. Combination irradiation treatments for food safety and phytosanitary uses

    Combination of irradiation treatment with other preservation techniques is of potential importance in enhancing the effectiveness and reducing the energy or dose requirement for destroying food borne illness and spoilage organisms while retaining or improving product quality. Phytosanitary irradiati...

  12. Organoleptic Analysis of Doughs Fermented with Yeasts From A Nigerian Palm Wine (Elaeis guineensis) and Certain Commercial Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    B, Boboye; I, Dayo-Owoyemi; F. A, Akinyosoye

    2008-01-01

    Yeasts isolated from a freshly tapped palm wine obtained from Akure, Nigeria were identified as Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Geotrichum lactis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Each of the isolates was used to ferment wheat flour dough and baked. Sensory analysis of the doughs was carried out on leavening, texture, aroma, taste and appearance. Saccharomyces cerevisiae performed best in leavening the dough while Debaryomyces hansenii produced doughs with the best taste and aroma. Appearances of the doughs made with all the isolated yeasts did not differ significantly (P<0.05) from that of the dough that lacked yeast. PMID:19088921

  13. Metabolism of the Fusarium mycotoxins zearalenone and deoxynivalenol by yeast strains of technological relevance.

    PubMed

    Böswald, C; Engelhardt, G; Vogel, H; Wallnöfer, P R

    1995-01-01

    The Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA), added at a level of 2 micrograms/ml, was reduced stereoselectively by cultures of Candida tropicalis, Torulaspora delbrückii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, and 7 Saccharomyces strains to both alpha- and beta-zearalenol. In contrast, only alpha-zearalenol was produced from ZEA by Pichia fermentans and several yeast strains of the genera Candida, Hansenula, Brettanomyces, Schizosaccharomyces, and Saccharomycopsis. No glucose conjugates of ZEA (zearalenone-4-beta-D-glucopyranoside) were detected. The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) was not metabolized by any of the yeast strains that were used for analysis.

  14. The contribution of moulds and yeasts to the fermentation of 'agbelima' cassava dough.

    PubMed

    Amoa-Awua, W K; Frisvad, J C; Sefa-Dedeh, S; Jakobsen, M

    1997-09-01

    Agbelima, a fermented cassava meal widely consumed in Ghana, Togo and Benin, is produced by fermenting grated cassava with one of several types of traditional cassava dough inoculum. During fermentation a smooth textured sour dough is produced, the toxicity of cassava is reduced and there is a build up of volatile aroma compounds. Four types of inocula were included in the present investigation. In one type moulds were found to form a dominant part of the microbiota, the species present being Penicillium sclerotiorum, P. citrinum, P. nodulum, Geotrichum candidum and a basidiomycete. All these moulds were found to possess cellulase activity which was responsible for the hydrolysis of cassava tuber cellulose during fermentation leading to a breakdown of the coarse texture of cassava dough. The yeasts Candida krusei, C. tropicalis and Zygosaccharomyces spp. were present in high numbers in the four types of inocula including the moudly inoculum. The yeasts C. tropicalis and some strains of Zygosaccharomyces, all of which possessed cellulase activity, were also found to contribute to the modification of cassava texture during fermentation. All yeasts and moulds exhibited linamarase activity and were therefore capable of breaking down the cyanogenic glucosides present in cassava.

  15. Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Contributes to the Development of Sour Rot in Grape.

    PubMed

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Guzzon, Raffaele; Anfora, Gianfranco; Ghidoni, Franca; Mazzoni, Valerio; Villegas, Tomas Roman; Dalton, Daniel T; Walton, Vaughn M

    2018-02-09

    This research aimed to more clearly describe the interactions of Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; Diptera: Drosophilidae) with microorganisms that may contribute to spoilage or quality loss of wine grapes during harvest. Experiments were conducted in controlled laboratory experiments and under field conditions to determine these effects. Laboratory trials determined the role of insect contact and oviposition to vector spoilage bacteria onto wine grapes. In the field, the roles of key organoleptic parameters in grape fruit ripening were assessed to determine their relative contribution to oviposition potential as fruit ripened. Finally, field trials determined the relationships of egg and larval infestation to sour rot levels. Non-ovipositional trials indicated elevated levels of microbiota when D. suzukii was present. D. suzukii oviposition exponentially increased the concentration of acetic acid bacteria. Both incised and sound berries showed a significant increase in concentrations of acetic acid bacteria exposed to D. suzukii. Volatile acidity was higher in treatments infested with D. suzukii. Fruit with only eggs did not develop a significant increase of volatile acidity. Larva-infested grape berries in 9.5% of samples developed higher volatile acidity after 14 d. Sound grape berries were less susceptible to the development of microbiota associated with sour rot and spoilage. D. suzukii oviposition and larval development increase risk of spoilage bacteria vectored by D. suzukii adults. Acetic acid bacteria induced fermentation and produced several volatile compounds contributing to spoilage. Spoilage bacteria may create a positive feedback loop that attracts both D. suzukii and other drosophilids, which may contribute to additional spoilage. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Why fruit rots: theoretical support for Janzen's theory of microbe-macrobe competition.

    PubMed

    Ruxton, Graeme D; Wilkinson, David M; Schaefer, H Martin; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2014-05-07

    We present a formal model of Janzen's influential theory that competition for resources between microbes and vertebrates causes microbes to be selected to make these resources unpalatable to vertebrates. That is, fruit rots, seeds mould and meat spoils, in part, because microbes gain a selective advantage if they can alter the properties of these resources to avoid losing the resources to vertebrate consumers. A previous model had failed to find circumstances in which such a costly spoilage trait could flourish; here, we present a simple analytic model of a general situation where costly microbial spoilage is selected and persists. We argue that the key difference between the two models lies in their treatments of microbial dispersal. If microbial dispersal is sufficiently spatially constrained that different resource items can have differing microbial communities, then spoilage will be selected; however, if microbial dispersal has a strong homogenizing effect on the microbial community then spoilage will not be selected. We suspect that both regimes will exist in the natural world, and suggest how future empirical studies could explore the influence of microbial dispersal on spoilage.

  17. Effect of psychrotrophic post-pasteurization contamination of the keeping quality at 11 and 5 degrees C of HTST-pasteurized milk in the UK.

    PubMed

    Schröder, M J; Cousins, C M; McKinnon, C H

    1982-11-01

    The keeping quality of commercial HTST-pasteurized milk and laboratory pasteurized milk from a common bulk raw supply has been investigated for 5 dairies. Spoilage occurred at levels of total bacterial counts around 10(7) colony forming units/ml, but with a slightly higher off-flavour threshold for the commercial milks than the laboratory pasteurized milks. The predominant microflora at spoilage and the type of off-flavour produced differed between the 2 types of milk. Raising the storage temperature from 5 to 11 degrees C caused a slight shift in the spoilage microflora and led to an average reduction in the shelf life of the laboratory pasteurized milk from 28 to 6 d and of the commercial pasteurized milk from 13 to 5 d. Changes in the level of post-pasteurization contamination (PPC) were reflected in changes in keeping quality, particularly at 5 degrees C. However, the greatest improvements were found in the absence of PPC.

  18. Microbiological quality of desiccated coconut.

    PubMed Central

    Kinderlerer, J. L.; Clark, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    A microbial survey of Sri Lankan desiccated coconut has been made on material purchased in supermarkets in Sheffield or on material obtained directly from the processing company. The total viable count (TVC) was reduced by spoilage and pasteurization from 10(4)/g to 10(3)/g. Most samples contained low levels of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus suggesting that this commodity had been handled during production. One focus of contamination with Aspergillus flavus was found for each 8.34 g of desiccated coconut (mean contamination). The number of bacteria and moulds in spoiled coconut was significantly lower than that in coconut obtained from the processor or purchased from retail outlets. It is suggested that the accumulation of free fatty acids, aliphatic methyl ketones and secondary alcohols produced during fungal spoilage has had a bactericidal and fungicidal effect. The use of microbial specifications for foods is questioned in situations where there is evidence of microbial spoilage having taken place. PMID:3081627

  19. Growth of Staphylococcus and Salmonella on Frankfurters With and Without Sodium Nitrite

    PubMed Central

    Bayne, Henry G.; Michener, H. David

    1975-01-01

    Conventional and nitrite-free frankfurters in loosely wrapped packages were compared as to their ability to support growth of Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and their naturally occurring spoilage flora at 7 C (simulating refrigerated storage) and 20 C (simulating possible temperature abuse). At 7 C Salmonella did not grow in either type of frankfurter; Staphylococcus and the natural spoilage flora sometimes grew more rapidly in the absence of nitrite, but the difference was not significant. At 20 C growth of Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and of the spoilage flora was, at most, only slightly faster on nitrite-free frankfurters. Salmonella was not suppressed in broth culture experiments at the pH and nitrite content found in frankfurters. Although either type of frankfurter can become hazardous due to growth of Salmonella or Staphylococcus, no unusual or additional hazard resulted from the omission of nitrite from frankfurters. PMID:952

  20. Tannins and extracts of fruit byproducts: antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Widsten, Petri; Cruz, Cristina D; Fletcher, Graham C; Pajak, Marta A; McGhie, Tony K

    2014-11-19

    The shelf life of fresh fish and meat transported over long distances could be extended by using plant-based extracts to control spoilage bacteria. The goals of the present study were to identify plant-based extracts that effectively suppress the main spoilage bacteria of chilled fish and lamb and to assess their antioxidant capacity. The phenolic compounds in wood-based tannins and extracts isolated from byproducts of the fruit processing industry were identified and/or quantified. The total phenol content, but not the flavonoid to total phenol ratio, was strongly associated with higher antibacterial activity against several fish and lamb spoilage bacteria in zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration assays as well as greater antioxidant capacity in the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical assay. The most promising compounds in both cases, and thus good candidates for antibacterial packaging or antioxidant dietary supplements, were mango seed extract and tannic acid containing mostly polygalloyl glucose type phenols.

  1. An evaluation of the effectiveness of FreshCase technology to extend the storage life of whole muscle beef and ground beef.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Woerner, D R; Hasty, J D; McCullough, K R; Geornaras, I; Sofos, J N; Belk, K E

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the maximum time of refrigerated storage before aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria (APB) grew to a level indicative of spoilage (7 log cfu/g) or other indicators of spoilage were observed for whole muscle beef and ground beef packaged using FreshCase technology. Storage life for beef steaks stored in FreshCase packages at 4°C was 36 d, with ground beef stored in FreshCase packages at 4°C lasting 10 d. Additionally, greater ( < 0.05) a* (redness) values were detected in FreshCase packaged samples of both beef steaks and ground beef over storage time. At the point of spoilage, off-odors were detected at very low levels in all samples along with low thiobarbituric acid values (< 2 mg malonaldehyde/kg). Therefore, use of FreshCase technology in whole muscle beef and ground beef is a viable option to extend storage life.

  2. Changes in Bacterial Composition of Zucchini Flowers Exposed to Refrigeration Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Baruzzi, F.; Cefola, M.; Carito, A.; Vanadia, S.; Calabrese, N.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial spoilage is one of the main factors affecting the quality of fresh fruits and vegetables, leading to off-flavor, fermented aroma, and tissue decay. The knowledge of microbial growth kinetics is essential for estimating a correct risk assessment associated with consuming raw vegetables and better managing the development of spoilage microorganisms. This study shows, for the first time, that only a part of total microbial community, originally present on fresh harvested female zucchini flowers, was able to adapt itself to refrigerated conditions. Through the study of microbial growth kinetics it was possible to isolate forty-four strains belonging to twenty-two species of the genera Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Pseudoclavibacter, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Staphylococcus, and Weissella, suggesting Enterobacteriaceae as potentially responsible for pistil spoilage. PMID:22566759

  3. Attachment of Asaia bogorensis Originating in Fruit-Flavored Water to Packaging Materials

    PubMed Central

    Otlewska, Anna; Antolak, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the adhesion of isolated spoilage bacteria to packaging materials used in the food industry. Microorganisms were isolated from commercial fruit-flavored mineral water in plastic bottles with flocks as a visual defect. The Gram-negative rods were identified using the molecular method through the amplification of a partial region of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on the sequence identity (99.6%) between the spoilage organism and a reference strain deposited in GenBank, the spoilage isolate was identified as Asaia bgorensis. Experiments on bacterial adhesion were conducted using plates made of glass and polystyrene (packaging materials commonly used in the beverage industry). Cell adhesion ability was determined using luminometry, plate count, and the microscopic method. The strain of A. bogorensis was characterized by strong adhesion properties which were dependent on the surface type, with the highest cell adhesion detected on polystyrene. PMID:25295262

  4. Towards Using NMR to Screen for Spoiled Tomatoes Stored in 1,000 L, Aseptically Sealed, Metal-Lined Totes

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, Michael D.; Harter, Tod; McCarthy, Michael J.; Augustine, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used to track factory relevant tomato paste spoilage. It was found that spoilage in tomato paste test samples leads to longer spin lattice relaxation times T1 using a conventional low magnetic field NMR system. The increase in T1 value for contaminated samples over a five day room temperature exposure period prompted the work to be extended to the study of industry standard, 1,000 L, non-ferrous, metal-lined totes. NMR signals and T1 values were recovered from a large format container with a single-sided NMR sensor. The results of this work suggest that a handheld NMR device can be used to study tomato paste spoilage in factory process environments. PMID:24594611

  5. Towards using NMR to screen for spoiled tomatoes stored in 1,000 L, aseptically sealed, metal-lined totes.

    PubMed

    Pinter, Michael D; Harter, Tod; McCarthy, Michael J; Augustine, Matthew P

    2014-03-03

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used to track factory relevant tomato paste spoilage. It was found that spoilage in tomato paste test samples leads to longer spin lattice relaxation times T1 using a conventional low magnetic field NMR system. The increase in T1 value for contaminated samples over a five day room temperature exposure period prompted the work to be extended to the study of industry standard, 1,000 L, non-ferrous, metal-lined totes. NMR signals and T1 values were recovered from a large format container with a single-sided NMR sensor. The results of this work suggest that a handheld NMR device can be used to study tomato paste spoilage in factory process environments.

  6. Inhibition of bacterial growth in sweet cheese whey by carbon dioxide as determined by culture-independent community profiling.

    PubMed

    Lo, Raquel; Xue, Tian; Weeks, Mike; Turner, Mark S; Bansal, Nidhi

    2016-01-18

    Whey is a valuable co-product from cheese making that serves as a raw material for a wide range of products. Its rich nutritional content lends itself to rapid spoilage, thus it typically needs to be pasteurised and refrigerated promptly. Despite the extensive literature on milk spoilage bacteria, little is known about the spoilage bacteria of whey. The utility of carbon dioxide (CO2) to extend the shelf-life of raw milk and cottage cheese has been well established, but its application in whey preservation has not yet been explored. This study aims to characterise the microbial populations of fresh and spoiled sweet whey by culture-independent community profiling using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and to determine whether carbonation is effective in inhibiting bacterial growth in sweet whey. The microbiota of raw Cheddar and Mozzarella whey was dominated by cheese starter bacteria. After pasteurisation, two out of the three samples studied became dominated by diverse environmental bacteria from various phyla, with Proteobacteria being the most dominant. Diverse microbial profiles were maintained until spoilage occurred, when the entire population was dominated by just one or two genera. Whey spoilage bacteria were found to be similar to those of milk. Pasteurised Cheddar and Mozzarella whey was spoiled by Bacillus sp. or Pseudomonas sp., and raw Mozzarella whey was spoiled by Pseudomonas sp., Serratia sp., and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. CO2 was effective in inhibiting bacterial growth of pasteurised Cheddar and Mozzarella whey stored at 15°C and raw Mozzarella whey stored at 4°C. The spoilage bacteria of the carbonated samples were similar to those of the non-carbonated controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Smart packaging for the monitoring of fish freshness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacquit, Alexis; Lau, King Tong; Diamond, Dermot

    2005-06-01

    The development of chromo-reactive sensor spots for real time monitoring of fish freshness is described. The on-package sensor spots incorporating an immobilized pH sensitive dye, respond through visible colour change to basic volatile spoilage compounds collectively known as Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N). Trials on fresh fish filets have verified that the sensor can be employed for real time monitoring of fish spoilage. The sensor response can be interrogated with a simple, inexpensive reflectance colorimeter that we have developed based on two LEDs and a photodetector.

  8. Comparative evaluation of microbial diversity and metabolite profiles in doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, during the two different industrial manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunmin; Lee, Sarah; Singh, Digar; Oh, Ji Young; Jeon, Eun Jung; Ryu, Hyung SeoK; Lee, Dong Wan; Kim, Beom Seok; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2017-04-15

    Two different doenjang manufacturing processes, the industrial process (IP) and the modified industrial process (mIP) with specific microbial assortments, were subjected to metabolite profiling using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). The multivariate analyses indicated that both primary and secondary metabolites exhibited distinct patterns according to the fermentation processes (IP and mIP). Microbial community analysis for doenjang using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), exhibited that both bacteria and fungi contributed proportionally for each step in the process viz., soybean, steaming, drying, meju fermentation, cooling, brining, and aging. Further, correlation analysis indicated that Aspergillus population was linked to sugar metabolism, Bacillus spp. with that of fatty acids, whereas Tetragenococcus and Zygosaccharomyces were found associated with amino acids. These results suggest that the components and quality of doenjang are critically influenced by the microbial assortments in each process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbial terroir and food innovation: The case of yeast biodiversity in wine.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Garofalo, Carmela; Chiriatti, Maria Assunta; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces represents a heterogeneous class in the grape/must/wine environments including several yeast genera (e.g., Saccharomyces, Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Candida, Metschnikowia, Kluyveromyces, Zygosaccharomyces, Torulaspora, Dekkera and Schizosaccharomyces) and species. Since, each species may differently contribute to the improvement/depreciation of wine qualities, it appears clear the reason why species belong to non-Saccharomyces are also considered a biotechnological resource in wine fermentation. Here, we briefly review the oenological significance of this specific part of microbiota associated with grapes/musts/wine. Moreover, the diversity of cultivable non-Saccharomyces genera and their contribute to typical wines fermentations will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethyl Carbamate Formation Regulated by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Nonconventional Yeasts in Solid-State Fermentation of Chinese Moutai-Flavor Liquor.

    PubMed

    Du, Hai; Song, Zhewei; Xu, Yan

    2018-01-10

    This study aimed to identify specific microorganisms related to the formation of precursors of EC (ethyl carbamate) in the solid-state fermentation of Chinese Moutai-flavor liquor. The EC content was significantly correlated with the urea content during the fermentation process (R 2 = 0.772, P < 0.01). Differences in urea production and degradation were found at both species and functional gene levels by metatranscriptomic sequencing and culture-dependent analysis. Lactobacillus spp. could competitively degrade arginine through the arginine deiminase pathway with yeasts, and most Lactobacillus species were capable of degrading urea. Some dominant nonconventional yeasts, such as Pichia, Schizosaccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces species, were shown to produce low amounts of urea relative to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, unusual urea degradation pathways (urea carboxylase, allophanate hydrolase, and ATP-independent urease) were identified. Our results indicate that EC precursor levels in the solid-state fermentation can be controlled using lactic acid bacteria and nonconventional yeasts.

  11. Formation by yeast of 2-furanmethanethiol and ethyl 2-mercaptopropionate aroma compounds in Japanese soy sauce.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qi; Hatakeyama, Makoto; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2014-01-01

    Two aroma compounds of volatile thiols, 2-furanmethanethiol (2FM) and ethyl 2-mercaptopropionate (ET2MP), were formed in five types of Japanese soy sauce during fermentation by yeast. The concentrations of 2FM and ET2MP in the soy sauce samples increased during alcoholic fermentation. The concentrations of 2FM and ET2MP were higher in the soy sauce fermented by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii than in that fermented by Candida versatilis. The enantiomers of ET2MP were separated by gas chromatography in a capillary column. The average enantiomeric ratio of ET2MP in the soy sauce was approximately 1:1. 2FM was formed by yeast in a medium prepared from cysteine and furfural, and cysteine is considered the key precursor of 2FM by yeast in soy sauce.

  12. Rational selection of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts for mixed starters based on ester formation and enological traits.

    PubMed

    Viana, Fernando; Gil, José V; Genovés, Salvador; Vallés, Salvador; Manzanares, Paloma

    2008-09-01

    Thirty-eight yeast strains belonging to the genera Candida, Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Torulaspora and Zygosaccharomyces were screened for ester formation on synthetic microbiological medium. The genera Hanseniaspora and Pichia stood out as the best acetate ester producers. Based on the ester profile Hanseniaspora guilliermondii 11027 and 11102, Hanseniaspora osmophila 1471 and Pichia membranifaciens 10113 and 10550 were selected for further characterization of enological traits. When growing on must H. osmophila 1471, which displayed a glucophilic nature and was able to consume more than 90% of initial must sugars, produced levels of acetic acid, medium chain fatty acids and ethyl acetate, within the ranges described for wine. On the other hand, it was found to be a strong producer of 2-phenylethyl acetate. Our data suggest that H. osmophila 1471 is a good candidate for mixed starters, although the possible interactions with S. cerevisiae deserve further research.

  13. Batch-batch stable microbial community in the traditional fermentation process of huyumei broad bean pastes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linjiang; Fan, Zihao; Kuai, Hui; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    During natural fermentation processes, a characteristic microbial community structure (MCS) is naturally formed, and it is interesting to know about its batch-batch stability. This issue was explored in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation process of huyumei, a Chinese broad bean paste product. The results showed that this MCS mainly contained four aerobic Bacillus species (8 log CFU per g), including B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. methylotrophicus, and B. tequilensis, and the facultative anaerobe B. cereus with a low concentration (4 log CFU per g), besides a very small amount of the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (2 log CFU per g). The dynamic change of the MCS in the brine fermentation process showed that the abundance of dominant species varied within a small range, and in the beginning of process the growth of lactic acid bacteria was inhibited and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability. Also, the MCS and its dynamic change were proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches of fermentation. Therefore, the MCS naturally and stably forms between different batches of the traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei. Revealing microbial community structure and its batch-batch stability is helpful for understanding the mechanisms of community formation and flavour production in a traditional fermentation. This issue in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei broad bean paste was firstly explored. This fermentation process was revealed to be dominated by a high concentration of four aerobic species of Bacillus, a low concentration of B. cereus and a small amount of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Lactic acid bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability at the beginning of fermentation. Such the community structure was proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Blue Sky Below My Feet: Daycamp & After School Programs--9 to 11 Year Olds. Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual presents a 10-day lesson plan for day camp and after-school program leaders. The activities and experiments described in the manual focus on nutrition and space exploration. Topics covered by the lesson plan and specific projects include: (1) gravity; (2) food spoilage; (3) model rocket building and launching; (4) the basic food…

  15. Physiology and quality of fresh-cut produce in CA/MA storage

    Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables have exposed injured tissues due to the mechanical processes of peeling, slicing and/or cutting. Such processing consequently renders the produce highly susceptible to physiological breakdown and microbial spoilage. Product deterioration is usually accompanied with ph...

  16. The Effect of LAB Silage Inoculants on the Rumen Environment--Current Research Status

    Inoculants containing mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common additives used in making silage. Their function is to promote intensive production of lactic acid and rapid decrease in pH and so minimize fermentation losses. Some LAB inoculants reduce aerobic spoilage. In addition, feedin...

  17. Shelf life and safety concerns of bakery products--a review.

    PubMed

    Smith, James P; Daifas, Daphne Phillips; El-Khoury, Wassim; Koukoutsis, John; El-Khoury, Anis

    2004-01-01

    Bakery products are an important part of a balanced diet and, today, a wide variety of such products can be found on supermarket shelves. This includes unsweetened goods (bread, rolls, buns, crumpets, muffins and bagels), sweet goods (pancakes, doughnuts, waffles and cookies) and filled goods (fruit and meat pies, sausage rolls, pastries, sandwiches, cream cakes, pizza and quiche). However, bakery products, like many processed foods, are subject to physical, chemical and microbiological spoilage. While physical and chemical spoilage limits the shelf life of low and intermediate moisture bakery products, microbiological spoilage by bacteria, yeast and molds is the concern in high moisture products i.e., products with a water activity (a(w)) > 0.85. Furthermore, several bakery products also have been implicated infoodborne illnesses involving Salmonella spp., Listeria monoctyogenes and Bacillus cereus, while Clostridium botulinum is a concern in high moisture bakery products packaged under modified atmospheres. This extensive review is divided into two parts. Part I focuses on the spoilage concerns of low, intermediate and high moisture bakery products while Part II focuses on the safety concerns of high moisture bakery products only. In both parts, traditional and novel methods of food preservation that can be used by the bakery industry to extend the shelf life and enhance the safety of products are discussed in detail.

  18. Probing the onset of structural instabilities as a tool for detection of staling of dairy milk: A permittivity and conductivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhurima, V.; Harindran, Aswini

    2018-05-01

    Dairy milk is a worldwide drink and a versatile raw material for food industries too. The major issue regarding dairy milk is their contamination by micro-organisms and subsequent spoiling. Pasteurization and sealed packing are used to minimize this contamination. The presence of pathogenic micro-organisms like psychrotrophs, reduces the pH of fresh milk by fermenting the lactose into lactic acid leading to the spoiling of milk. While there are various tests to check the spoilage of milk, there is no unique test to detect the onset of the complex dynamics of spoilage. There have been some studies on the dielectric properties of dairy milk but the primary method of identification of freshness of milk is through the measurement of pH. In this study, broadband dielectric spectroscopy is used as a tool to probe the spoiling of milk and that provides the information about the structural changes of milk during spoilage. The gamma dispersion explains the influence of free water content which is found to be a sensitive tool to probe the onset of milk spoilage process. The observations here are further backed by studies on the particle size and zeta potential.

  19. 48 CFR 32.503-16 - Risk of loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Risk of loss. 32.503-16... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Progress Payments Based on Costs 32.503-16 Risk of loss. (a) Under the Progress Payments clause, and except for normal spoilage, the contractor bears the risk for lost...

  20. 48 CFR 32.1010 - Risk of loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Risk of loss. 32.1010... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Performance-Based Payments 32.1010 Risk of loss. (a) Under the clause at 52.232-32, Performance-Based Payments, and except for normal spoilage, the contractor bears the risk for...

  1. High pressure processing of Queso Fresco: effects on textural and rheological properties over 12 weeks of storage

    High pressure processing (HPP) is a non-thermal post-packaging process with the potential to improve cheese safety and shelf life because of its lethality to bacteria (spoilage and pathogens) and ability to inactivate many enzymes. Queso Fresco (QF), a high moisture Hispanic-style cheese popular in ...

  2. Hedonic evaluation of cooked chicken wrapped with apple and tomato films formulated with cinnamaldehvde and carvacrol

    Edible films and coatings can be used as carriers of plant essential oils and their active antibacterial components to protect food against bacterial pathogens and spoilage, while potentially enhancing sensory properties of the wrapped foods. To demonstrate this possibility, this study evaluated the...

  3. Cottonseed air-handling and storage requirements

    In addition to lint, cottonseed is an additional product of the cotton plant that accounts for 15 to 25 percent of the crop value. Due to the value of the cottonseed, proper handling, storage, and aeration are critical for maintaining seed quality and minimizing spoilage. Over the last few decades,...

  4. Biochemical changes in mango after infection with Rhizoctonia bataticola.

    PubMed

    Vyas, H G; Chhatpar, H S

    1980-04-15

    Rhizoctonia bataticola is responsible for the spoilage of mango fruits (Mangifera india) during post-harvest preservation and storage. Culture of R. bataticola exhibited significant pectinase and cellulase activity. In Rhizoctonia-infected fruits an increase of protease and cellulase activity, and a decrease in certain enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, were observed in comparison to healthy fruits.

  5. 48 CFR 15.408 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... inventory, provide a separate cost breakdown, if priced based on cost. For interorganizational transfers..., travel, computer and consultant services, preservation, packaging and packing, spoilage and rework, and... records as of the cutoff date. These include such costs as preproduction engineering, special plant...

  6. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 8530

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Bushell, Barry R.

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is found in the human gastrointestinal tract and is important for probiotics. We became interested in L. rhamnosus isolate ATCC 8530 in relation to beer spoilage and hops resistance. We report here the genome sequence of this isolate, along with a brief comparison to other available L. rhamnosus genome sequences. PMID:22247527

  7. Genome sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 8530.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Bushell, Barry R; Ziola, Barry

    2012-02-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is found in the human gastrointestinal tract and is important for probiotics. We became interested in L. rhamnosus isolate ATCC 8530 in relation to beer spoilage and hops resistance. We report here the genome sequence of this isolate, along with a brief comparison to other available L. rhamnosus genome sequences.

  8. Effect of processing method on bacterial community recovered from scalder and chiller water tanks in a commercial broiler processing facility.

    In poultry processing plants, chicken carcasses were processed through a succession of steps including their immersion in scalder and chiller water tanks. Water tank microbiota may impact the microbiological quality of carcasses and the occurrence of pathogens or spoilage bacteria may lead to their ...

  9. 26 CFR 1.263A-0 - Outline of regulations under section 263A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Utilities. (O) Repairs and maintenance. (P) Engineering and design costs. (Q) Spoilage. (R) Tools and...) Engineering and design services. (F) Safety engineering services. (v) Accounting method change. (h) Simplified... mixed service costs. (7) Costs allocable to more than one business. (8) De minimis rule. (9) Separate...

  10. 26 CFR 1.263A-0 - Outline of regulations under section 263A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Utilities. (O) Repairs and maintenance. (P) Engineering and design costs. (Q) Spoilage. (R) Tools and...) Engineering and design services. (F) Safety engineering services. (v) Accounting method change. (h) Simplified... mixed service costs. (7) Costs allocable to more than one business. (8) De minimis rule. (9) Separate...

  11. 26 CFR 1.263A-0 - Outline of regulations under section 263A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Utilities. (O) Repairs and maintenance. (P) Engineering and design costs. (Q) Spoilage. (R) Tools and...) Engineering and design services. (F) Safety engineering services. (v) Accounting method change. (h) Simplified... mixed service costs. (7) Costs allocable to more than one business. (8) De minimis rule. (9) Separate...

  12. 26 CFR 1.263A-0 - Outline of regulations under section 263A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Utilities. (O) Repairs and maintenance. (P) Engineering and design costs. (Q) Spoilage. (R) Tools and...) Engineering and design services. (F) Safety engineering services. (v) Accounting method change. (h) Simplified... mixed service costs. (7) Costs allocable to more than one business. (8) De minimis rule. (9) Separate...

  13. Beyond the standard plate count: genomic views into microbial food ecology

    Food spoilage is a complex process that involves multiple species with specific niches and metabolic processes; bacterial culturing techniques are the traditional methods for identifying the microbes responsible. These culture-dependent methods may be considered selective, targeting the isolation of...

  14. Development of metal-organic framework for gaseous plant hormone encapsulation to manage ripening of climacteric produce

    Spoilage of fruits and vegetables accounts for 50% of the 2.6 trillion U.S. dollars lost annually to global food wastage. Seventy-eight percent of this wastage is associated with overripe produce. Fresh fruits and vegetables are composed of biological tissues and their life processes continue after ...

  15. 7 CFR 1430.606 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... hurricane-related disaster. Specifically, dairy production and spoilage losses incurred by producers under... production marketed during the applicable claim period that corresponds with the hurricane-related disaster... that corresponds to the hurricane-related disaster. These adjustments are made to account for the...

  16. 7 CFR 1430.606 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... hurricane-related disaster. Specifically, dairy production and spoilage losses incurred by producers under... production marketed during the applicable claim period that corresponds with the hurricane-related disaster... that corresponds to the hurricane-related disaster. These adjustments are made to account for the...

  17. 7 CFR 1430.606 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... hurricane-related disaster. Specifically, dairy production and spoilage losses incurred by producers under... production marketed during the applicable claim period that corresponds with the hurricane-related disaster... that corresponds to the hurricane-related disaster. These adjustments are made to account for the...

  18. 7 CFR 1430.606 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... hurricane-related disaster. Specifically, dairy production and spoilage losses incurred by producers under... production marketed during the applicable claim period that corresponds with the hurricane-related disaster... that corresponds to the hurricane-related disaster. These adjustments are made to account for the...

  19. 7 CFR 1430.604 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita the base month is July 2005 and the corresponding claim period are the... hurricane-related dairy disaster benefits under this part only if they have suffered dairy production or dairy spoilage losses in 2005 as a result of a hurricane disaster or related condition, in a hurricane...

  20. 7 CFR 1430.600 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... losses and dairy spoilage losses in eligible counties as a result of Hurricanes Katrina, Ophelia, Rita, and Wilma or conditions related to those hurricanes. (b) To be eligible for this program, a producer... a 2005 hurricane or related condition thereof, or in a contiguous county to a county that is...

  1. 7 CFR 1430.604 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita the base month is July 2005 and the corresponding claim period are the... hurricane-related dairy disaster benefits under this part only if they have suffered dairy production or dairy spoilage losses in 2005 as a result of a hurricane disaster or related condition, in a hurricane...

  2. 7 CFR 1430.600 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... losses and dairy spoilage losses in eligible counties as a result of Hurricanes Katrina, Ophelia, Rita, and Wilma or conditions related to those hurricanes. (b) To be eligible for this program, a producer... a 2005 hurricane or related condition thereof, or in a contiguous county to a county that is...

  3. 7 CFR 1430.600 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... losses and dairy spoilage losses in eligible counties as a result of Hurricanes Katrina, Ophelia, Rita, and Wilma or conditions related to those hurricanes. (b) To be eligible for this program, a producer... a 2005 hurricane or related condition thereof, or in a contiguous county to a county that is...

  4. 7 CFR 1430.604 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita the base month is July 2005 and the corresponding claim period are the... hurricane-related dairy disaster benefits under this part only if they have suffered dairy production or dairy spoilage losses in 2005 as a result of a hurricane disaster or related condition, in a hurricane...

  5. 7 CFR 1430.600 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... losses and dairy spoilage losses in eligible counties as a result of Hurricanes Katrina, Ophelia, Rita, and Wilma or conditions related to those hurricanes. (b) To be eligible for this program, a producer... a 2005 hurricane or related condition thereof, or in a contiguous county to a county that is...

  6. 7 CFR 1430.604 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita the base month is July 2005 and the corresponding claim period are the... hurricane-related dairy disaster benefits under this part only if they have suffered dairy production or dairy spoilage losses in 2005 as a result of a hurricane disaster or related condition, in a hurricane...

  7. 7 CFR 1430.604 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita the base month is July 2005 and the corresponding claim period are the... hurricane-related dairy disaster benefits under this part only if they have suffered dairy production or dairy spoilage losses in 2005 as a result of a hurricane disaster or related condition, in a hurricane...

  8. 7 CFR 1430.600 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... losses and dairy spoilage losses in eligible counties as a result of Hurricanes Katrina, Ophelia, Rita, and Wilma or conditions related to those hurricanes. (b) To be eligible for this program, a producer... a 2005 hurricane or related condition thereof, or in a contiguous county to a county that is...

  9. Characterization of microencapsulated pear ester, (2E,4Z)-ethyl-2,4-decadienoate: a kairomonal spray-adjuvant against neonate codling moth larvae

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella, is the key pest of apples, pears and walnuts worldwide, causing internal feeding damage by larvae and introduction of molds and spoilage micro-organisms. Hatched CM larvae are highly responsive to a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the ...

  10. Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella, larvae cause severe damage apples, pears and walnuts worldwide by internal feeding and the introduction of molds and spoilage micro-organisms. CM neonate larvae are attracted to and arrested by a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the “pear es...

  11. Microbial control and food Preservation: Theory and practice:Principles of food preservation

    Food preservation is an action or method used to maintain foods at certain desirable properties or quality to obtain maximum benefit. A good method of food preservation is one that slows down or prevents altogether the action of the agents of spoilage without damaging the food. To achieve this, cert...

  12. 19 CFR 10.177 - Cost or value of materials produced in the beneficiary developing country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of the beneficiary developing country; or (2) Substantially... the materials to the manufacturer's plant; (iii) The actual cost of waste or spoilage (material list... expenses incurred in the growth, production, manufacture or assembly of the material, including general...

  13. 19 CFR 10.177 - Cost or value of materials produced in the beneficiary developing country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of the beneficiary developing country; or (2) Substantially... the materials to the manufacturer's plant; (iii) The actual cost of waste or spoilage (material list... expenses incurred in the growth, production, manufacture or assembly of the material, including general...

  14. 19 CFR 10.177 - Cost or value of materials produced in the beneficiary developing country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of the beneficiary developing country; or (2) Substantially... the materials to the manufacturer's plant; (iii) The actual cost of waste or spoilage (material list... expenses incurred in the growth, production, manufacture or assembly of the material, including general...

  15. Life under the Microscope: Children's Ideas about Microbes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Michael; Bridle, Georgina; Briten, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Microbes (by definition) are tiny living things that are only visible through a microscope and include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protoctists (mainly single-celled life forms such as amoebae and algae). Although people are familiar with the effects of microbes, such as infectious disease and food spoilage, because of their lack of visibility,…

  16. 21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... added vitamin D as prescribed by paragraph (b) of this section. It is homogenized. It is sealed in a container and so processed by heat, either before or after sealing, as to prevent spoilage. (b) Vitamin addition. (1) Vitamin D shall be present in such quantity that each fluid ounce of the food contains 25...

  17. IPMP 2013 - A comprehensive data analysis tool for predictive microbiology

    Predictive microbiology is an area of applied research in food science that uses mathematical models to predict the changes in the population of pathogenic or spoilage microorganisms in foods undergoing complex environmental changes during processing, transportation, distribution, and storage. It f...

  18. Development of an effective treatment for a 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli in refrigerated pickle products

    Refrigerated cucumber pickle products cannot be heat processed due to the loss of characteristic sensory attributes. Typically brined refrigerated pickles contain less than 100 mM acetic acid with pH values of 3.7 to 4.0. Refrigeration (4 to 10 ºC) helps to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria an...

  19. Study Finds Consumer Food Safety Knowledge Lacking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Sandria; Coppings, Richard; Speller-Henderson, Leslie; Pearson, Lou

    2005-01-01

    Proper cooling of foods is known to reduce spoilage and help prevent food-borne illnesses. Nonetheless, little is known about consumers' awareness of guidelines regarding appropriate refrigeration of food or their actual refrigeration practices. Focus groups of consumers of common ethnic backgrounds were designed to evaluate food safety knowledge…

  20. Effects of silage additives on ruminal and intestinal microbiology

    Ensiling is the preservation of forage for livestock through microbial fermentation. Although ensiling of plant material by its associated surface microbial community alone is possible, the cost of an uncontrolled fermentation can include dry matter loss, decreased quality, and spoilage. While prope...

  1. External Corrosion of Tinplate Ration Food Cans Under Tropical Field Storage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    can with the subsequent risk of spoilage, nor detracts from the cosmetic appearance of the can. Hartwell (1956) states that the obvious standard for...not satisfactory, where cimatic condiions are conducive to rust formation, and where warehousing conditions are poor Beyer (1965) reported that

  2. Potassium acetate and potassium lactate enhance the microbiological and physical properties of marinated catfish fillets

    Sodium or potassium salts such as lactate and acetate can be used to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens, and thereby prolong the shelf-life of refrigerated seafood. However, minimal information is available regarding the combined effects of potassium salts (acetate and ...

  3. Dual effectiveness of ascorbic acid and ethanol combined treatment to inhibit browning and inactivate pathogens on fresh-cut apples

    Commercially-produced apple wedges have recently been associated with several recalls due to foodborne pathogen contamination. The fresh-cut industry faces a major technical challenge due to the incompatibility between chemicals used to control spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms (usually oxidize...

  4. Phenotypic and genotypic diversity of Lactobacillus buchneri strains isolated from spoiled, fermented cucumber

    Lactobacillus buchneri is a Gram-positive, obligate heterofermentative, facultative anaerobe commonly affiliated with spoilage of food products. Notably, L. buchneri is able to metabolize lactic acid into acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. Although beneficial to the silage industry, this metabolic cap...

  5. Assessing the Microbiomes of Scalder and Chiller Tank Waters Throughout a Typical Commercial Poultry Processing Day

    The commercial poultry processing environment plays a significant role in reducing foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms from poultry products prior to being supplied to consumers. While understanding the microbiological quality of these products is essential, little is known about the microbi...

  6. Silostop Bunker Covers

    The quality of the seal provided by the plastic cover is a key issue for minimizing losses in bunker and pile silos. Most bunker covers are 6 to 8 mil polyethylene sheets held in place by tires or tire sidewalls. Frequently there are problems with spoilage at the shoulders (i.e., against the walls),...

  7. Shifts in spinach microbial communities after chlorine washing and storage at compliant and abusive temperatures

    Fresh produce, such as spinach, harbors large, diverse bacterial populations, including spoilage and potentially pathogenic bacteria. This study examined the effects of produce washing in chlorinated water and subsequent storage on the microbiota of spinach. Baby spinach leaves from a commercial fre...

  8. Removal of Brettanomyces bruxellensis from red wine using membrane filtration

    While sulfites help limit growth of the spoilage yeast, Brettanomyces, SO2 has been reported to decrease cell size, thereby potentially decreasing the porosities of filtration membranes required for removal. B. bruxellensis strains B1b and F3 were inoculated into red wines and after 12 days, half th...

  9. 48 CFR 31.205-26 - Material costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Material costs. 31.205-26....205-26 Material costs. (a) Material costs include the costs of such items as raw materials, parts... material costs, the contractor shall consider reasonable overruns, spoilage, or defective work (unless...

  10. 48 CFR 31.205-26 - Material costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Material costs. 31.205-26....205-26 Material costs. (a) Material costs include the costs of such items as raw materials, parts... material costs, the contractor shall consider reasonable overruns, spoilage, or defective work (unless...

  11. Food toxin detection with atomic force microscope

    Externally introduced toxins or internal spoilage correlated pathogens and their metabolites are all potential sources of food toxins. To prevent and protect unsafe food, many food toxin detection techniques have been developed to detect various toxins for quality control. Although several routine m...

  12. 21 CFR 155.130 - Canned corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a high vacuum in the container. (iii) The color type used only when the product consists of white... manner, before or after being sealed in a container, so as to prevent spoilage. (2) Styles. The optional... liquid in the container, as determined by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section...

  13. 48 CFR 17.106-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., preproduction engineering, initial rework, initial spoilage, pilot runs, allocable portions of the costs of... should obtain in-house engineering cost estimates identifying the detailed recurring and nonrecurring... cancellation. For example, consider that the total nonrecurring costs (see 15.408, Table 15-2, Formats for...

  14. 48 CFR 17.106-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., preproduction engineering, initial rework, initial spoilage, pilot runs, allocable portions of the costs of... should obtain in-house engineering cost estimates identifying the detailed recurring and nonrecurring... cancellation. For example, consider that the total nonrecurring costs (see 15.408, Table 15-2, Formats for...

  15. 48 CFR 17.106-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., preproduction engineering, initial rework, initial spoilage, pilot runs, allocable portions of the costs of... should obtain in-house engineering cost estimates identifying the detailed recurring and nonrecurring... cancellation. For example, consider that the total nonrecurring costs (see 15.408, Table 15-2, Formats for...

  16. Effects of combination of ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, native microbial loads, and quality of button mushrooms

    Mushrooms are prone to microbial spoilage and browning during growing and processing. Ultraviolet light (UV-C) has been used as an alternative technology to chemical sanitizers for food products. Hydrogen peroxide is classified as generally recognized as safe for use in foods as a bleaching and ant...

  17. Appearance and overall acceptability of fresh-cut cantaloupe pieces from whole melon treated with wet steam process

    Minimally processed fresh-cut fruits have a limited shelf-life because of deterioration caused by spoilage microflora and changes in physiological processes. Whole melons were inoculated with 7 log CFU/ml of each bacterium (Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes) and then t...

  18. A Novel Method for Moisture Determination in Peanuts

    Accurate determination of moisture content of the peanuts is an important factor for preserving the quality and prevention of spoilage in peanuts. Hence, it is very important to devise rapid methods for determining moisture during harvesting, storage, marketing, and processing of peanuts. This paper...

  19. Trends in antimicrobial food packaging systems: Emitting sachets and absorbent pads

    Active antimicrobial packaging interacts with packaged food and headspace to reduce, retard, or even inhibit the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Sachets and pads are one of the most successful applications of active food packaging. This review discusses recent developments of antim...

  20. A reappraisal of Aspergillus section Nidulantes with descriptions of two new sterigmatocystin producing species

    Aspergillus section Nidulantes is a speciose group of microscopic fungi whose species are important in indoor air quality, food spoilage, mycotoxin production and human pathogenicity. We assembled as many species from the section as possible with either type specimens or protologues for analysis. DN...