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Sample records for zymosan

  1. Antigen-specific response of murine immune system toward a yeast beta-glucan preparation, zymosan.

    PubMed

    Miura, T; Ohno, N; Miura, N N; Adachi, Y; Shimada, S; Yadomae, T

    1999-06-01

    Zymosan, a particulate beta-glucan preparation from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, shows various biological activities, including anti-tumor activity. We have previously shown that soluble beta-glucan initiated anti-tumor activity was long-lived and was effective even by prophylactic treatment at 1 month prior to tumor challenge. However, the activity by zymosan was relatively short-lived. Antigen-specific responses of mice to zymosan might be a causative mechanism. In this paper, mice were immunized with zymosan and antibody production and antigen-specific responses of lymphocytes to zymosan were analyzed. Sera of zymosan immune mice contained zymosan-specific IgG assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and FACS. Spleen and bone marrow cells of zymosan-immune mice showed higher cytokine production in response to zymosan. Specificity of zymosan-specific responses were also analyzed using various derivatives prepared from zymosan. These facts strongly suggested that mice recognize zymosan as antigen in addition to non-specific immune stimulant.

  2. Quercetin attenuates zymosan-induced arthritis in mice.

    PubMed

    Guazelli, Carla F S; Staurengo-Ferrari, Larissa; Zarpelon, Ana C; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Ruiz-Miyazawa, Kenji W; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Vignoli, Josiane A; Camilios-Neto, Doumit; Georgetti, Sandra R; Baracat, Marcela M; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2018-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by articular lesions, recruitment of inflammatory cells and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine. The intra-articular administration of zymosan is an experimental model that promotes inflammatory parameters resembling RA. Therefore, this model was used to investigate the efficacy of quercetin as a treatment of articular inflammation. Treatment with quercetin dose-dependently reduced zymosan-induced hyperalgesia, articular edema and the recruitment of neutrophils to the knee joint cavity. Histological analysis confirmed that quercetin inhibited zymosan-induced arthritis. The treatment with quercetin also inhibited zymosan-induced depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, TNFα and IL-1β production, and gp91 phox , prepro-endothelin-1 (preproET-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression. These molecular effects of quercetin were related to the inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa-B and induction of Nuclear factor erythroid 2- related factor (Nrf2)/home oxygenase (HO-1) pathway. Thus, quercetin exerted anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant effects in experimental arthritis, suggesting quercetin is a possible candidate for arthritis treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Ouabain Modulates Zymosan-Induced Peritonitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Jacqueline Alves; Alves, Anne Kaliery De Abreu; Galvão, José Guilherme Marques; Teixeira, Mariana Pires; Rumjanek, Vivian Mary; Rodrigues-Mascarenhas, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Ouabain, a potent inhibitor of the Na+, K+-ATPase, was identified as an endogenous substance. Recently, ouabain was shown to affect various immunological processes. We have previously demonstrated the ability of ouabain to modulate inflammation, but little is known about the mechanisms involved. Thus, the aim of the present work is to evaluate the immune modulatory role of ouabain on zymosan-induced peritonitis in mice. Our results show that ouabain decreased plasma exudation (33%). After induction of inflammation, OUA treatment led to a 46% reduction in the total number of cells, as a reflex of a decrease of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which does not appear to be due to cell death. Furthermore, OUA decreased TNF-α (57%) and IL-1β (58%) levels, without interfering with IL-6 and IL-10. Also, in vitro experiments show that ouabain did not affect endocytic capacity. Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) shows that zymosan treatment increased (85%) NF-κB binding activity and that ouabain reduced (30%) NF-κB binding activity induced by zymosan. Therefore, our data suggest that ouabain modulated acute inflammatory response, reducing the number of cells and cytokines levels in the peritoneal cavity, as well as NFκB activation, suggesting a new mode of action of this substance. PMID:26078492

  4. Role of peroxynitrite and poly (ADP-ribosyl) synthetase activation in cardiovascular derangement induced by zymosan in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cuzzocrea, S; Zingarelli, B; Caputi, A P

    1998-01-01

    Peritoneal administration of zymosan in the rat induced a severe inflammatory process characterised by an increase in the plasma levels of nitrite and nitrate, stable metabolites of nitric oxide (NO) and in the levels of peroxynitrite, as measured by the oxidation of the fluorescent dye dihydrorhodamine 123, at 18 hours zymosan challenge. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated a marked increase in the immunoreactivity to nitrotyrosine, a specific "footprint" of peroxynitrite, in the aorta of zymosan-shocked rats. In ex vivo experiments, thoracic aorta rings of zymosan-treated rats showed a reduced contraction to noradrenaline and reduced responsiveness to the relaxant effect to acetylcholine (vascular hyporeactivity and endothelial dysfunction, respectively). Treatment of zymosan-shocked rats with 3-aminobenzamide or Nicotinamide, inhibitors of poly ADP-ribosil synthetase (PARS) activity reduced the production of peroxynitrite and significantly prevented the cardiovascular dysfunction. Our data suggest that peroxynitrite and PARS activation play a role in the zymosan-induced cardiovascular derangements in the rat.

  5. Anti-nociceptive effect of thalidomide on zymosan-induced experimental articular incapacitation.

    PubMed

    Vale, Mariana L; Cunha, Fernando Q; Brito, Gerly A C; Benevides, Verônica M; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Poole, Stephen; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A

    2006-05-01

    The anti-nociceptive effect of thalidomide on zymosan-induced articular knee joint incapacitation in rats was investigated. Thalidomide (5-45 mg/kg), given 30 min before but not 2 h after the intra-articular injection of zymosan, inhibited the nociceptive response in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, thalidomide pretreatment significantly reduced the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, -68.4%) in the exudate of zymosan-injected joints, but not those of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, CINC-1 or interleukin-10. The expression of TNF-alpha, determined by immunohistochemical staining, in synovial tissues obtained from articular joints injected with zymosan was also inhibited by thalidomide pretreatment. The anti-nociceptive effect of thalidomide was not reversed by the co-administration of an opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, suggesting that endogenous opioids do not mediate the anti-nociceptive effect of thalidomide in this model. In conclusion, the anti-nociceptive activity of thalidomide in zymosan-induced articular incapacitation is associated with the inhibition of TNF-alpha by resident synovial cells.

  6. Low-intensity infrared laser effects on zymosan-induced articular inflammatory response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januária dos Anjos, Lúcia Mara; da Fonseca, Adenilson d. S.; Gameiro, Jacy; de Paoli, Flávia

    2015-03-01

    Low-level therapy laser is a phototherapy treatment that involves the application of low power light in the red or infrared wavelengths in various diseases such as arthritis. In this work, we investigated whether low-intensity infrared laser therapy could cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosaninduced articular inflammatory process. Inflammatory process was induced in C57BL/6 mouse by intra-articular injection of zymosan into rear tibio-tarsal joints. Thirty animals were divided in five groups: (I) control, (II) laser, (III) zymosan-induced, (IV) zymosan-induced + laser and (V). Laser exposure was performed after zymosan administration with low-intensity infrared laser (830 nm), power 10 mW, fluence 3.0 J/cm2 at continuous mode emission, in five doses. Twenty-four hours after last irradiation, the animals were sacrificed and the right joints fixed and demineralized. Morphological analysis was observed by hematoxylin and eosin stain, pro-apoptotic (caspase-6) was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and DNA fragmentation was performed by TUNEL assay in articular cartilage cells. Inflammatory process was observed in connective tissue near to articular cartilage, in IV and V groups, indicating zymosan effect. This process was decreased in both groups after laser treatment and dexamethasone. Although groups III and IV presented higher caspase-6 and DNA fragmentation percentages, statistical differences were not observed when compared to groups I and II. Our results suggest that therapies based on low-intensity infrared lasers could reduce inflammatory process and could not cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosan-induced articular inflammatory process.

  7. Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits zymosan-induced intestinal inflammation and barrier dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Meng; Wang, Hai-Bin; Zheng, Jin-Guang; Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Zeng-Kai; Li, Jing-Yuan; Hu, Sen

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) inhibits gut inflammation and barrier dysfunction following zymosan-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham with administration of normal saline (SS group); sham with administration of DMSO (SD group); zymosan with administration of normal saline (ZS group); and zymosan with administration of DMSO (ZD group). Each group contained three subgroups according to 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after surgery. At 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after intraperitoneal injection of zymosan (750 mg/kg), the levels of intestinal inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10] and oxides (myeloperoxidase, malonaldehyde, and superoxide dismutase) were examined. The levels of diamine oxidase (DAO) in plasma and intestinal mucosal blood flow (IMBF) were determined. Intestinal injury was also evaluated using an intestinal histological score and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells was determined by deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The intestinal epithelial tight junction protein, ZO-1, was observed by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: DMSO decreased TNF-α and increased IL-10 levels in the intestine compared with the ZS group at the corresponding time points. The activity of intestinal myeloperoxidase in the ZS group was higher than that in the ZD group 24 h after zymosan administration (P < 0.05). DMSO decreased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the activity of superoxide dehydrogenase (SOD) 24 h after zymosan administration. The IMBF was lowest at 24 h and was 49.34% and 58.26% in the ZS group and ZD group, respectively (P < 0.05). DMSO alleviated injury in intestinal villi, and the gut injury score was significantly lower than the ZS group (3.6 ± 0.2 vs 4.2 ± 0.3, P < 0.05). DMSO decreased the level of DAO in plasma compared with the ZS

  8. Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits zymosan-induced intestinal inflammation and barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Meng; Wang, Hai-Bin; Zheng, Jin-Guang; Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Zeng-Kai; Li, Jing-Yuan; Hu, Sen

    2015-10-14

    To investigate whether dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) inhibits gut inflammation and barrier dysfunction following zymosan-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham with administration of normal saline (SS group); sham with administration of DMSO (SD group); zymosan with administration of normal saline (ZS group); and zymosan with administration of DMSO (ZD group). Each group contained three subgroups according to 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after surgery. At 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after intraperitoneal injection of zymosan (750 mg/kg), the levels of intestinal inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10] and oxides (myeloperoxidase, malonaldehyde, and superoxide dismutase) were examined. The levels of diamine oxidase (DAO) in plasma and intestinal mucosal blood flow (IMBF) were determined. Intestinal injury was also evaluated using an intestinal histological score and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells was determined by deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The intestinal epithelial tight junction protein, ZO-1, was observed by immunofluorescence. DMSO decreased TNF-α and increased IL-10 levels in the intestine compared with the ZS group at the corresponding time points. The activity of intestinal myeloperoxidase in the ZS group was higher than that in the ZD group 24 h after zymosan administration (P < 0.05). DMSO decreased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the activity of superoxide dehydrogenase (SOD) 24 h after zymosan administration. The IMBF was lowest at 24 h and was 49.34% and 58.26% in the ZS group and ZD group, respectively (P < 0.05). DMSO alleviated injury in intestinal villi, and the gut injury score was significantly lower than the ZS group (3.6 ± 0.2 vs 4.2 ± 0.3, P < 0.05). DMSO decreased the level of DAO in plasma compared with the ZS group (65.1 ± 4.7 U/L vs

  9. Protective effects of zymosan on heat stress-induced immunosuppression and apoptosis in dairy cows and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuhang; Liu, Jin; Ye, Gengping; Gan, Fang; Hamid, Mohammed; Liao, Shengfa; Huang, Kehe

    2018-06-02

    Dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS) show decreased performance and immunity, but increased heat shock protein expressions and apoptosis. Zymosan, an extract from yeast cell walls, has been shown to modulate immune responses and defense against oxidative stress. However, few literatures are available about the effects of zymosan on immune responses and other parameters of the dairy cows under HS. Here, both primary peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and dairy cow models were established to assess the effects of zymosan on performance, immunity, heat shock protein, and apoptosis-related gene expressions of dairy cows under HS. In vitro study showed that proliferation, IL-2 production, and Bcl-2/Bax-α ratio of cow primary PBMC were reduced, whereas hsp70 mRNA and protein expressions, as well as Annexin V-bing, were increased when PBMCs were exposed to heat. In contrast, zymosan significantly reversed these above changes induced by the HS. In the in vivo study, 40 Holstein dairy cows were randomly selected and assigned into zymosan group (supplemental zymosan; n = 20) and control group (no supplemental zymosan; n = 20). The results showed that zymosan improved significantly the dry matter intake and milk yield, increased IgA, IL-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) contents in sera, as well as hepatic Bcl-2/Bax-α ratio, but decreased respiration rate and hepatic hsp70 expressions in the dairy cows under HS. Taken together, zymosan could alleviate HS-induced immunosuppression and apoptosis and improve significantly the productive performance and immunity of dairy cows under HS.

  10. Effect of quercitrin gallate on zymosan A-induced peroxynitrite production in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Hak; Cho, Sung-Min; Chang, Yoon Sook; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2007-06-01

    We previously isolated quercetin 3-O-beta-(2"-galloyl)-rhamnopyranoside (QGR), a quercitrin gallate, from aerial parts of Persicaria lapathifolia (Polygonaceae) to prevent superoxide produc tion in monocytes from venous blood of healthy human donors. In this study, effects of QGR and its building moieties (quercitrin, quercetin and gallic acid) on the production of peroxyni trite, a coupling oxidant between superoxide and nitric oxide (NO) radicals, were investigated in zymosan A-stimulated macrophages RAW 264.7. The QGR, quercitrin and quercetin inhib ited peroxynitrite production in dose-dependent manners with IC50 values of 2.1 microM, 24.5 microM and 5.1 microM, respectively, but gallic acid even at 100 microM was inactive. QGR also inhibited both zymosan A- and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced superoxide productions with IC50 values of 3.2 microM and 4.7 microM, respectively. However, QGR affected neither zymosan A-induced NO production nor inducible NO synthase synthesis. Taken together, QGR could inhibit peroxynitrite production by blocking superoxide production without affecting NO production. Finally, this study could provide a pharmacological potential of QGR in the oxidative stress-implicated disorders.

  11. Chemiluminescence of neutrophiles stimulated by opsonized Zymosan in children with bronchial asthma and pneumonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowicz-Uszynska, A.; Jankowski, A.

    2004-08-01

    Oxygen metabolism of neutrophils after stimulation with opsonized zymosan was examined using chemiluminescence test (in the presence of the patient serum or pooled serum). Into the study 37 children aged from 2 to 12 years were enrolled (20 girls and 17 boys). 10 healthy volunteers comprised the control group (group III). Two groups of patients were established: group I -- children with bronchial asthma (without infection), group II -- children with pneumonia. The examination in both groups was performed twice -- in acute phase and in remission period. The group I in acute phase comprised 16 children and in remission phase 9 children, group II - 21 children in acute phase and 9 children in remission phase, respectively. The following parameters of CL were estimated average value of so called spontaneous CL, maximal excitation of neutrophils after stimulation by zymogen (CLmax), time of zymosan opsonization. The following results were obtained: increased spontaneous CL and CLmax (at the presence of both sera) in acute phase of bronchial asthma and pneumonia in comparison to the control group. In the period of remission both these parameters were insignificantly decreased. The longest time of zymosan opsonization in acute period of disease was observed in children with pneumonia (18 min.). This time did not change during remission phase. Only slightly longer time of opsonization was observed in the patients from group I (in exacerbation) (15 min) than in the control group (13,1 min). This time was prolonged in the clinical remission (20 min).

  12. Differential effects of selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibitors on anorexic response and prostaglandin generation in various tissues induced by zymosan.

    PubMed

    Naoi, Kazuhisa; Kogure, Suguru; Saito, Masataka; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Watanabe, Shiro

    2006-07-01

    We have shown that anorexic response is induced by intraperitoneal injection of zymosan in mice, although the role of prostaglandins in this response is relatively unknown as compared with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anorexic response. Indomethacin (0.5 and 2.0 mg/kg), a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, as well as meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg), a selective COX-2 inhibitor, but not FR122047 (2.0 mg/kg), a selective COX-1 inhibitor, attenuated zymosan-induced anorexia. Zymosan injection elevated COX-2 expression in brain and liver but not in small intestine and colon. Meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg) and FR122047 treatment (2.0 mg/kg) similarly suppressed the generation of brain prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and peritoneal prostacyclin (PGI(2)) upon zymosan injection. PGE(2) generation in liver upon zymosan injection was suppressed by meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg) but not by FR122047 treatment (2.0 mg/kg). Our observations suggest that COX-2 plays an important role in zymosan-induced anorexia, which is a similar feature in LPS-induced anorexic response. However, non-selective inhibition by selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors of brain PGE(2) generation upon zymosan injection does not support the role of COX-2 expressed in brain in zymosan-induced anorexic response. PGE(2) generation in liver may account for peripheral role of COX-2 in zymosan-induced anorexic response.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effect of low-level laser and light-emitting diode in zymosan-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Núbia Cristina Rodrigues; Barbosa, Ana Maria; Vale, Mariana Lima; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin; de Lima, Carlos José; Cogo, José Carlos; Zamuner, Stella Regina

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and light-emitting diode (LED) on formation of edema, increase in vascular permeability, and articular joint hyperalgesia in zymosan-induced arthritis. It has been suggested that low-level laser and LED irradiation can modulate inflammatory processes. Arthritis was induced in male Wistar rats (250-280 g) by intra-articular injection of zymosan (1 mg in 50 microL of a sterile saline solution) into one rear knee joint. Animals were irradiated immediately, 1 h, and 2 h after zymosan administration with a semiconductor laser (685 nm and 830 nm) and an LED at 628 nm, with the same dose (2.5 J/cm(2)) for laser and LED. In the positive control group, animals were injected with the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone 1 h prior to the zymosan administration. Edema was measured by the wet/dry weight difference of the articular tissue, the increase in vascular permeability was assessed by the extravasation of Evans blue dye, and joint hyperalgesia was measured using the rat knee-joint articular incapacitation test. Irradiation with 685 nm and 830 nm laser wavelengths significantly inhibited edema formation, vascular permeability, and hyperalgesia. Laser irradiation, averaged over the two wavelengths, reduced the vascular permeability by 24%, edema formation by 23%, and articular incapacitation by 59%. Treatment with LED (628 nm), with the same fluence as the laser, had no effect in zymosan-induced arthritis. LLLT reduces inflammatory signs more effectively than LED irradiation with similar irradiation times (100 sec), average outputs (20 mW), and energy doses (2 J) in an animal model of zymosan-induced arthritis. The anti-inflammatory effects of LLLT appear to be a class effect, which is not wavelength specific in the red and infrared parts of the optical spectrum.

  14. Reactivity of airway phagocytes during the development of acute pneumonia under conditions of stimulation of mononuclear phagocyte system with zymosan.

    PubMed

    Makarova, O P

    2008-12-01

    Pneumonia was induced in (CBA x C57Bl)F1 mice under conditions of stimulation of the mononuclear phagocyte system with zymosan. The number of neutrophils in airways increased after 3 days; by day 14, the number of cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid further increased due to migration of macrophages. After zymosan prestimulation, the number and functional activity of neutrophils during the early period of inflammation (3 days) did not change, but the increase in phagocytic activity of macrophages was inhibited by 20%. By day 14, the effect of prestimulation manifested in 4.5-fold decreased capacity of neutrophils and macrophages to reduce NBT.

  15. Increased negatively of interstitial fluid pressure in rat skin contributes to the edema formation induced by Zymosan.

    PubMed

    Ostgaard, G; Reed, R K

    1993-11-01

    Increased negatively of interstitial fluid pressure (Pif) contributes to rapid edema formation in several acute inflammatory reactions attesting to an "active" role for the loose connective tissues in the transcapillary fluid exchange and edema formation under these circumstances. The present study reports the effect of the complement activator Zymosan on Pif, transcapillary fluid, and albumin flux. Micropipettes (tip diameter 5 to 7 microns) connected to a servo-controlled counterpressure system were used to measure Pif in rat dermis. When compared to saline injection, subdermal injection of 1 mg Zymosan in 10 microliters 0.15 M NaCl increased total tissue water by 1.6 ml/g dry weight in 5 min, corresponding to about 150% increase in interstitial fluid volume. Pif increased from +0.4 to +3.7 mm Hg. Increased negativity of Pif can be masked by the edema formation which will increase Pif. Measurements were therefore also performed after circulatory arrest, when transcapillary fluid flux and edema formation are abolished. Using this experimental protocol Pif fell from +0.3 mm Hg to -2.5 mm Hg 5 min after subdermal injection of Zymosan and remained at this level throughout the observation period of 90 min. Injection of saline alone after circulatory arrest increased Pif transiently by about 1 mm Hg. Thus, subdermal injection of Zymosan causes increased negativity of Pif by about 4 mm Hg. Although the lowering of Pif itself will explain a minor part of the increased fluid filtration, the results attest to the role of loose connective tissues being active in the edema-generating process also in the inflammatory reaction induced by Zymosan.

  16. Differences in the involvement of prostanoids from Kupffer cells in the mediation of anaphylatoxin C5a-, zymosan-, and lipopolysaccharide-dependent hepatic glucose output and flow reduction.

    PubMed

    Pestel, Sabine; Schlaf, Gerald; Götze, Otto; Jungermann, Kurt; Schieferdecker, Henrike L

    2003-12-01

    Various inflammatory stimuli such as anaphylatoxin C5a, zymosan, and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) have been reported both to enhance glucose output in the perfused rat liver and to induce prostanoid (ie, prostaglandin and thromboxane) release from Kupffer cells, the resident liver macrophages. Because prostanoids can enhance glucose output from hepatocytes, it was the aim of this study to compare the possible roles of prostanoids released after C5a, zymosan, and LPS in the mediation of hepatic glucose output. In perfused livers both C5a and zymosan immediately enhanced glucose output, reduced flow, and induced prostanoid overflow into the hepatic vein, but with different quantities and kinetics. Only the C5a-induced but not the zymosan-induced effects were abrogated by inhibitors of prostanoid signaling as the prostanoid synthesis inhibitor indomethacin and the thromboxane receptor antagonist daltroban. In contrast to C5a and zymosan, LPS had no effect on glucose output, flow rate, or prostanoid overflow. In isolated Kupffer cells, C5a and zymosan induced maximal release of prostaglandins D(2) and E(2) and of thromboxane A(2) within a period of 0 to 2 minutes and 5 to 15 minutes, respectively. In pulse-chase experiments, maximal prostanoid release was already observed after 2 minutes of continuous stimulation with C5a, but only after 10 to 15 minutes of continuous stimulation with zymosan. LPS-dependent prostanoid release was not seen before 1 hour. Thus, even though C5a, zymosan, and LPS induced prostanoid release from Kupffer cells, only C5a quickly regulated hepatic glucose metabolism in a prostanoid-dependent manner (due to the kinetics and quantities of prostanoids released).

  17. Oral administration of curcumin (Curcuma longa) can attenuate the neutrophil inflammatory response in zymosan-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Nonose, Nilson; Pereira, José Aires; Machado, Paulo Roberto Moura; Rodrigues, Murilo Rocha; Sato, Daniela Tiemi; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of curcumin in the acute phase of zymosan-induced arthritis. Twenty-eight male rats were subjected to intra-articular infiltration of zymosan of both knees and, in four the infiltration was made with saline. The animals were divided into five groups second received every six hours by gavage: corn oil by (positive and negative control); curcumin (100 mg/kg); prednisone 1 mg/kg/day; prednisone 8 mg/kg. All animals were sacrificed after six, 12, 24 and 48 hours of the infiltration. The knees were removed for evaluation of neutrophil infiltration. The number of neutrophils was counted by computer-assisted analysis of the images. The neutrophil infiltrate was stratified into four grades: 0 = normal; + = mild; ++/+++ = moderate; > ++++ = severe. The results were compared using the Mann-Whitney test and the variance by Kruskal-Wallis test adopting a significance level of 5% (p<0.05). Curcumin reduces inflammatory activity in the first six hours after zymosan-induced arthritis when compared to saline (p<0.01). This was also observed in animals subjected to administration of prednisone (1 mg/kg) and those treated with prednisone (8 mg/kg). Curcumin was more effective than lower doses of prednisone in the first six hours after induction of the arthritis. After 12, 24 and 48 hours, curcumin does not have the same anti-inflammatory effects when compared to prednisone. After 48 hours, prednisone is more effective than curcumin in reducing the inflammatory infiltrate regardless of the dose of prednisone used. Oral administration of curcumin reduces inflammation in the first six hours after experimentally zymosan-induced arthritis.

  18. Agmatine Protects against Zymosan-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice by Inhibiting NF-κB-Mediated Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zheng; Jin, He; Fan, Xia; Yang, Xue; Tang, Wanqi; Liang, Huaping

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and anti-inflammation treatment is proposed to be a therapeutic strategy for ALI. Agmatine, a cationic polyamine formed by decarboxylation of L-arginine, is an endogenous neuromodulator that plays protective roles in diverse central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Consistent with its neuromodulatory and neuroprotective properties, agmatine has been reported to have beneficial effects on depression, anxiety, hypoxic ischemia, Parkinson's disease, and gastric disorder. In this study, we tested the effect of agmatine on the lung inflammation induced by Zymosan (ZYM) challenge in mice. We found that agmatine treatment relieved ZYM-induced acute lung injury, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, wet/dry weight ratio, and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue. This was accompanied by reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreased iNOS expression in lung. Furthermore, agmatine inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB and subsequently blocked the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB induced by Zymosan. Taken together, our results showed that agmatine treatment inhibited NF-κB signaling in lungs and protected mice against ALI induced by Zymosan, suggesting agmatine may be a potential safe and effective approach for the treatment of ALI. PMID:25243152

  19. Agmatine protects against zymosan-induced acute lung injury in mice by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuanfei; Liu, Zheng; Jin, He; Fan, Xia; Yang, Xue; Tang, Wanqi; Yan, Jun; Liang, Huaping

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and anti-inflammation treatment is proposed to be a therapeutic strategy for ALI. Agmatine, a cationic polyamine formed by decarboxylation of L-arginine, is an endogenous neuromodulator that plays protective roles in diverse central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Consistent with its neuromodulatory and neuroprotective properties, agmatine has been reported to have beneficial effects on depression, anxiety, hypoxic ischemia, Parkinson's disease, and gastric disorder. In this study, we tested the effect of agmatine on the lung inflammation induced by Zymosan (ZYM) challenge in mice. We found that agmatine treatment relieved ZYM-induced acute lung injury, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, wet/dry weight ratio, and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue. This was accompanied by reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreased iNOS expression in lung. Furthermore, agmatine inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB and subsequently blocked the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB induced by Zymosan. Taken together, our results showed that agmatine treatment inhibited NF-κB signaling in lungs and protected mice against ALI induced by Zymosan, suggesting agmatine may be a potential safe and effective approach for the treatment of ALI.

  20. Low-level light therapy for zymosan-induced arthritis in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castano, Ana P.; Dai, Tianhong; Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Salomatina, Elena V.; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Cohen, Richard; Apruzzese, William A.; Smotrich, Michael H.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2007-02-01

    It has been known for many years that low level laser (or light) therapy (LLLT) can ameliorate the pain, swelling and inflammation associated with various forms of arthritis. Light is absorbed by mitochondrial chromophores leading to an increase in ATP, reactive oxygen species and/or cyclic AMP production and consequent gene transcription via activation of transcription factors. However, despite many reports about the positive effects of LLLT in medicine, its use remains controversial. Our laboratory has developed animal models designed to objectively quantify response to LLLT and compare different light delivery regimens. In the arthritis model we inject zymosan into rat knee joints to induce inflammatory arthritis. We have compared illumination regimens consisting of a high and low fluence (3 J/cm2 and 30 J/cm2), delivered at a high and low irradiance (5 mW/cm2 and 50 mW/cm2) using 810-nm laser light daily for 5 days, with the effect of conventional corticosteroid (dexamethasone) therapy. Results indicated that illumination with 810-nm laser is highly effective (almost as good as dexamethasone) at reducing swelling and that longer illumination time was more important in determining effectiveness than either total fluence delivered or irradiance. Experiments carried out using 810-nm LLLT on excisional wound healing in mice also confirmed the importance of longer illumination times. These data will be of value in designing clinical trials of LLLT.

  1. Low-Level Laser Therapy for Zymosan-Induced Arthritis in Rats: Importance of Illumination Time

    PubMed Central

    Castano, Ana P.; Dai, Tianhong; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Cohen, Richard; Apruzzese, William A.; Smotrich, Michael H.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been proposed for many years that low-level laser (or light) therapy (LLLT) can ameliorate the pain, swelling, and inflammation associated with various forms of arthritis. Light is thought to be absorbed by mitochondrial chromophores leading to an increase in adenosine triphosphate (ATP), reactive oxygen species and/or cyclic AMP production and consequent gene transcription via activation of transcription factors. However, despite many reports about the positive effects of LLLT in arthritis and in medicine in general, its use remains controversial. For all indications (including arthritis) the optimum optical parameters have been difficult to establish and so far are unknown. Methods We tested LLLT on rats that had zymosan injected into their knee joints to induce inflammatory arthritis. We compared illumination regimens consisting of a high and low fluence (3 and 30 J/cm2), delivered at high and low irradiance (5 and 50 mW/cm2) using 810-nm laser light daily for 5 days, with the positive control of conventional corticosteroid (dexamethasone) therapy. Results Illumination with 810-nm laser was highly effective (almost as good as dexamethasone) at reducing swelling and a longer illumination time (10 or 100 minutes compared to 1 minute) was more important in determining effectiveness than either the total fluence delivered or the irradiance. LLLT induced reduction of joint swelling correlated with reduction in the inflammatory marker serum prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Conclusion LLLT with 810-nm laser is highly effective in treating inflammatory arthritis in this model. Longer illumination times were more effective than short times regardless of total fluence or irradiance. These data will be of value in designing clinical trials of LLLT for various arthritides. PMID:17659584

  2. Attenuation of the programmed cell death-1 pathway increases the M1 polarization of macrophages induced by zymosan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, W; Wang, J; Jia, L; Liu, J; Tian, Y

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is a member of the CD28 superfamily that delivers negative signals on interaction with its 2 ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. We assessed the contribution of the PD-1 pathway to regulating the polarization of macrophages that promote inflammation induced by zymosan. We found that PD-1−/− mice developed robust peritonitis with more abundant infiltration of M1 macrophages, accompanied by higher levels of pro-inflammation factors, especially monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared with wild-type controls ex vivo and in vitro. Our results indicated that PD-1 deficiency promotes M1 rather than M2 polarization of macrophages by enhancing the expression of p-STAT1/p-NF-κB p65 and downregulating p-STAT6. We found that PD-1 engagement followed by zymosan stimulation might primarily attenuate the phosphorylation of tyrosine residue in PD-1 receptor/ligand and the recruitment of SHP-2 to PD-1 receptor/ligand, leading to the reduction of M1 type cytokine production. PMID:26913605

  3. [The protective effects of agmatine in zymosan induced acute lung injury in mice].

    PubMed

    Gu, Ying; Fan, Xia; Zhang, Chun; Yang, Xue; Bao, Yi-xi; Liang, Hua-ping

    2011-11-01

    To examine the protective effects of agmatine (AGM) administration on zymosan (ZYM)-induced inflammatory response and acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. 32 adult male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups (n=8 each) to receive i. p. administration of:() phosphate buffer saline (PBS, 0. 5 ml); © AGM (200 mg/kg); © ZYM (500 mg/kg)+PBS (0.5 ml),and ® AGM (200 mg/kg)-ZYM (500 mg/kg). Blood samples and peritoneal exudates were collected from the animals 12 hours after drug administration for concentration of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a),interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nitric oxide (NO) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Lung tissue samples were also collected at the same time for histological examination, and determination of tissue content of TNF-a, IL-6, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nuclear factor-KB p65 (NF-cB p65) DNA-binding activity. 12 hours after ZYM injection, the treated mice became lethargic, their activity and water consumption were both reduced, AGM greatly improved the general status, activity, and water consumption in treated mice, while attenuated the increase of TNF-a (ng/L: 252. 6+ 32. 1 vs. 421. 7- 76. 7, 295. 7 ± 78. 6vs. 592. 0 ± 84. 3, both P<0. 05) , IL-6 (ng/L: 2 198. 8 281.8 vs. 4 725. 3 615.4, 19 829. 3 ± 3 647. Ovs. 47 751. 3 ± 5 264.8, both P<0. 05) and NO (pmol/L: 33. 2 ± 4. 3 vs. 50. 2 ± 5. 2, 14.0 ± 3. 6 vs. 45.4 ± 5. 2, both P<0. 05) in serum and peritoneal exudates caused by ZYM. AGM also attenuated the increase of TNF-a (ng/L: 245. 7 ± 39. 1 vs. 378. 3 ± 67. 6, P<0. 05), IL-6 (ng/L: 810. 3 ± 175. 6 vs. 1 172. 4 ± 203.3,P <0. 05), MPO activity (ng/mg: 24. 9 4. 4 vs. 37. 3 5.8, P< 0. 05) and NF-iB p65 optical density(absorbance value: 0. 272 + 0. 029 vs. 0. 347 ± 0. 037, P 0.05) in the lung tissue seen in ZYM treated animals. There was no significant difference between normal PBS and AGM treated group in all the indexes examined. Histological examination demonstrated that ZYM treated animals had

  4. Anti-inflammatory effect of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi hydroalcoholic extract on neutrophil migration in zymosan-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Elaine Cruz; Correa, Luana Barbosa; Pádua, Tatiana de Almeida; Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo; Mazzei, José Luiz; Heringer, Alan Patrick; Bizarro, Carlos Alberto; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora Coelho; Figueiredo, Maria Raquel; Henriques, Maria G

    2015-12-04

    Schinus terebinthifolius is a species of plant from the Anacardiaceae family, which can be found in different regions of Brazil. Schinus is popularly known as aroeirinha, aroeira-vermelha, or Brazilian pepper. In folk medicine, S. terebinthifolius is used for several disorders, including inflammatory conditions, skin wounds, mucosal membrane ulcers, respiratory problems, gout, tumors, diarrhea and arthritis. According to chemical analyses, gallic acid, methyl gallate and pentagalloylglucose are the main components of hydroalcoholic extracts from S. terebinthifolius leaves. In the present study, we demonstrated the ability of a hydroalcoholic extract to inhibit cell migration in arthritis and investigated the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. The anti-inflammatory effect of S. terebinthifolius hydroalcoholic leaf extract (ST-70) was investigated in a zymosan-induced experimental model of inflammation. Male Swiss and C57Bl/6 mice received zymosan (100 µg/cavity) via intra-thoracic (i.t.) or intra-articular (i.a.) injection after oral pre-treatment with ST-70. The direct action of ST-70 on neutrophils was evaluated via chemotaxis. ST-70 exhibited a dose-dependent effect in the pleurisy model. The median effective dose (ED50) was 100mg/kg, which inhibited 70% of neutrophil accumulation when compared with the control group. ST-70 reduced joint diameter and neutrophil influx for synovial tissues at 6h and 24h in zymosan-induced arthritis. Additionally, ST-70 inhibited synovial interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (CXCL1/KC) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α production at 6h and CXCL1/KC and IL-1β production at 24h. The direct activity of ST-70 on neutrophils was observed via the impairment of CXCL1/KC-induced chemotaxis in neutrophils. Oral administration of ST-70 did not induce gastric damage. Daily administration for twenty days did not kill any animals. In contrast, similar administrations of diclofenac induced gastric damage and killed

  5. Spinal GABA-B receptor modulates neutrophil recruitment to the knee joint in zymosan-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Gabriel S; do C Malvar, David; Cunha, Thiago M; Cunha, Fernando Q; Kanashiro, Alexandre

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the central nervous system controls inflammatory responses by activating complex efferent neuroimmune pathways. The present study was designed to evaluate the role that central gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA-B) receptor plays in neutrophil migration in a murine model of zymosan-induced arthritis by using different pharmacological tools. We observed that intrathecal administration of baclofen, a selective GABA-B agonist, exacerbated the inflammatory response in the knee after zymosan administration characterized by an increase in the neutrophil recruitment and knee joint edema, whereas saclofen, a GABA-B antagonist, exerted the opposite effect. Intrathecal pretreatment of the animals with SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) blocked the pro-inflammatory effect of baclofen. On the other hand, systemic administration of guanethidine, a sympatholytic drug that inhibits catecholamine release, and nadolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, reversed the effect of saclofen. Moreover, saclofen suppressed the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines into the knee joint (ELISA) and pain-related behaviors (open field test). Since the anti-inflammatory effect of saclofen depends on the sympathetic nervous system integrity, we observed that isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, mimics the central GABA-B blockade decreasing knee joint neutrophil recruitment. Together, these results demonstrate that the pharmacological manipulation of spinal GABAergic transmission aids control of neutrophil migration to the inflamed joint by modulating the activation of the knee joint-innervating sympathetic terminal fibers through a mechanism dependent on peripheral beta-adrenergic receptors and central components, such as p38 MAPK.

  6. Effect of a total extract from Fraxinus ornus stem bark and esculin on zymosan- and carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice.

    PubMed

    Stefanova, Z; Neychev, H; Ivanovska, N; Kostova, I

    1995-05-01

    This study investigates the total ethanol extract (TE) of the stem bark of Fraxinus ornus and its constituent esculin (EN). They inhibited classical pathway (CP) and alternative pathway (AP) of complement activation in mouse serum. After intraperitoneal administration the total extract displayed antiinflammatory activity in both zymosan- and carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice. The results suggest that the traditional use of Fraxinus ornus stem bark extracts in the treatment of inflammatory disorders is at least partially due to its coumarin constituents.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide releasing naproxen offers better anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effect relative to naproxen in a rat model of zymosan induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Dief, A E; Mostafa, D K; Sharara, G M; Zeitoun, T H

    2015-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is rapidly gaining ground as a physiological mediator of inflammation, but there is no clear consensus as to its precise role in inflammation. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of ATB-346 as a novel H2S-releasing naproxen compared to naproxen, as a traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug on zymosan induced mono-arthritis in rats. Male Wistar rats (n=48) were randomly assigned to four main groups: normal control, untreated arthritis, Naproxen and ATB-346 treated groups. Mono-arthritis was induced by intra-articular injection of zymosan into the knee joints. Mechanical hypernociception and joint swelling were evaluated at 6 hours and 5 days. Inflammatory cellular recruitment and adherence, tumor necrosis factor alpha, nuclear factor kappa β, total sulfide levels, and histological changes were evaluated in knee lavages, blood or joint tissues at selected time points. Zymosan injection evoked knee inflammation and pain as characterized by mechanical hypernociception, impaired gait, joint swelling with inflammatory exudation and histological changes. Treatment with ATB-346 attenuated nociceptive responses, inflammatory cellular and biochemical changes in comparison to naproxen. Only ATB-346 was able to suppress neutrophil adherence and to preserve normal articular structure. H2S releasing naproxen represents an advancement over the parent drug, naproxen. Apart from the superior anti-inflammatory and anti-noceiceptive activity, ATB-346 offered a distinguished chondroprotective effect and is almost devoid from naproxen deleterious effects on articular cartilage.

  8. Administration of Wasabia koreana Ameliorates Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Like Symptoms in a Zymosan-Induced Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Bo-Kyung; Chun, Eunho; Choi, Jeong June; Shin, Younmin; Kho, Young Tak; Oh, Seung Hyun; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Taek Hwan; Kim, Tae-Wan; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Jin, Mirim

    2017-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disease with complex pathophysiology involving the brain-gut axis. To assess the effects of Wasabia koreana (WK) on IBS, we employed a mouse model of colonic zymosan injection presenting with diarrhea-predominant IBS-like symptoms. Oral WK administration significantly diminished stool score, suppressed colon length and weight change, and minimized body weight loss without affecting food intake. In WK-treated mice, the submucosal thickening and epithelial lining of the colon were inhibited and were similar to those of naïve mice. Infiltration of mast cells into the colon and serum tumor necrosis factor-α levels were markedly suppressed. These effects were comparable to those of sulfasalazine, an anti-inflammatory drug. Furthermore, the number of visceral pain-related behaviors was significantly decreased, and locomotion activities measured in the elevated plus maze and open field tests were significantly increased by WK in a dose-dependent manner compared with amitriptyline, an antidepressant. These changes were accompanied by reduced FosB2 expression in the brain. Taken together, these data suggest that WK may have potential as a medicinal food for IBS by acting on inflammatory diarrhea and neural activity.

  9. Diarctigenin, a lignan constituent from Arctium lappa, down-regulated zymosan-induced transcription of inflammatory genes through suppression of DNA binding ability of nuclear factor-kappaB in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Hak; Hong, Seong Su; Kwon, Soon Woo; Lee, Hwa Young; Sung, Hyeran; Lee, In-Jeong; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Song, Sukgil; Lee, Chong-Kil; Chung, Daehyun; Ahn, Byeongwoo; Nam, Sang-Yoon; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2008-11-01

    Diarctigenin was previously isolated as an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages from the seeds of Arctium lappa used as an alternative medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. However, little is known about the molecular basis of these effects. Here, we demonstrated that diarctigenin inhibited the production of NO, prostaglandin E(2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 with IC(50) values of 6 to 12 miciroM in zymosan- or lipopolysaccharide-(LPS) activated macrophages. Diarctigenin attenuated zymosan-induced mRNA synthesis of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and also inhibited promoter activities of iNOS and cytokine genes in the cells. Because nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB plays a pivotal role in inflammatory gene transcription, we next investigated the effect of diarctigenin on NF-kappaB activation. Diarctigenin inhibited the transcriptional activity and DNA binding ability of NF-kappaB in zymosan-activated macrophages but did not affect the degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitory kappaB (IkappaB) proteins. Moreover, diarctigenin suppressed expression vector NF-kappaB p65-elicited NF-kappaB activation and also iNOS promoter activity, indicating that the compound could directly target an NF-kappa-activating signal cascade downstream of IkappaB degradation and inhibit NF-kappaB-regulated iNOS expression. Diarctigenin also inhibited the in vitro DNA binding ability of NF-kappaB but did not affect the nuclear import of NF-kappaB p65 in the cells. Taken together, diarctigenin down-regulated zymosan- or LPS-induced inflammatory gene transcription in macrophages, which was due to direct inhibition of the DNA binding ability of NF-kappaB. Finally, this study provides a pharmacological potential of diarctigenin in the NF-kappaB-associated inflammatory disorders.

  10. Inhibition by prostaglandin E(2) of anaphylatoxin C5a- but not zymosan-induced prostanoid release from rat Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Pestel, Sabine; Jungermann, Kurt; Götze, Otto; Schieferdecker, Henrike L

    2002-04-01

    The proinflammatory anaphylatoxin C5a induces the release of prostanoids, ie, prostaglandins (PG) and thromboxane (TX), from the resident liver macrophages (Kupffer cells [KC]). Because KC themselves express prostanoid receptors, prostanoids--besides having paracrine functions--might regulate their own release in an autocrine loop. So far, such a possible feedback regulation has not been investigated systematically, probably because of methodological difficulties to measure newly synthesized prostanoids in the presence of added prostanoids. Here, after prelabeling of phospholipids with [(14)C]arachidonate, cellularly formed [(14)C]prostanoids were determined in the presence of added unlabelled prostanoids by thin layer chromatography. In cultured KC, recombinant rat C5a (rrC5a) rapidly increased PGD(2), PGE(2), and TXA(2) release, which was strongly reduced by PGE(2), but neither by PGD(2) nor by the TXA(2) analog U46619. The inhibitory effect of PGE(2) was mimicked by cAMP, indicating that the G(s)-coupled PGE(2) receptors type 2 or 4 were involved. Zymosan also enhanced prostanoid release from KC, but with slightly slower kinetics; this action was neither inhibited by PGE(2) nor by cAMP. Also in perfused rat livers, rrC5a enhanced prostanoid release from KC as shown by prostanoid overflow and thereby indirectly increased glucose output from hepatocytes. Again, PGE(2), but not PGD(2), inhibited rrC5a-elicited prostanoid overflow. This resulted in a complete inhibition of rrC5a-induced, prostanoid-mediated glucose output. Thus, PGE(2) can inhibit specifically the C5a-induced prostanoid release from KC via a feedback mechanism and thereby limit prostanoid-mediated hepatocellular defense reactions, eg, glucose release.

  11. Downstream components of RhoA required for signal pathway of superoxide formation during phagocytosis of serum opsonized zymosans in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Sub; Kim, Jae Gyu; Jeon, Chan Young; Won, Ha Young; Moon, Mi Young; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Jong Il; Kim, Jaebong; Lee, Jae Yong; Choi, Soo Young; Park, Jinseu; Yoon Park, Jung Han; Ha, Kwon Soo; Kim, Pyeung Hyeun; Park, Jae Bong

    2005-12-31

    Rac1 and Rac2 are essential for the control of oxidative burst catalyzed by NADPH oxidase. It was also documented that Rho is associated with the superoxide burst reaction during phagocytosis of serum- (SOZ) and IgG-opsonized zymosan particles (IOZ). In this study, we attempted to reveal the signal pathway components in the superoxide formation regulated by Rho GTPase. Tat-C3 blocked superoxide production, suggesting that RhoA is essentially involved in superoxide formation during phagocytosis of SOZ. Conversely SOZ activated both RhoA and Rac1/2. Inhibition of RhoA-activated kinase (ROCK), an important downstream effector of RhoA, by Y27632 and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) by ML-7 abrogated superoxide production by SOZ. Extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were activated during phagocytosis of SOZ, and Tat-C3 and SB203580 reduced ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK activation, suggesting that RhoA and p38 MAPK may be upstream regulators of ERK1/2. Inhibition of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase did not block translocation of RhoA to membranes, suggesting that RhoA is upstream to these kinases. Inhibition of RhoA by Tat-C3 blocked phosphorylation of p47(PHOX). Taken together, RhoA, ROCK, p38MAPK, ERK1/2, and p47(PHOX) may be subsequently activated, leading to activation of NADPH oxidase to produce superoxide.

  12. Protection by mTOR Inhibition on Zymosan-Induced Systemic Inflammatory Response and Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress: Contribution of mTOR/MEK1/ERK1/2/IKKβ/IκB-α/NF-κB Signalling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sahan-Firat, Seyhan; Temiz-Resitoglu, Meryem; Guden, Demet Sinem; Kucukkavruk, Sefika Pinar; Tunctan, Bahar; Sari, Ayse Nihal; Kocak, Zumrut; Malik, Kafait U

    2018-02-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine kinase regulate variety of cellular functions including cell growth, differentiation, cell survival, metabolism, and stress response, is now appreciated to be a central regulator of immune responses. Because mTOR inhibitors enhanced the anti-inflammatory activities of regulatory T cells and decreased the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages, mTOR has been a pharmacological target for inflammatory diseases. In this study, we examined the role of mTOR in the production of proinflammatory and vasodilator mediators in zymosan-induced non-septic shock model in rats. To elucidate the mechanism by which mTOR contributes to non-septic shock, we have examined the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase system caused by mTOR/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2)/inhibitor κB kinase (IKKβ)/inhibitor of κB (IκB-α)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalling pathway activation. After 1 h of zymosan (500 mg/kg, i.p.) administration to rats, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was decreased and heart rate (HR) was increased. These changes were associated with increased expression and/or activities of ribosomal protein S6, MEK1, ERK1/2, IKKβ, IκB-α and NF-κB p65, and NADPH oxidase system activity in cardiovascular and renal tissues. Rapamycin (1 mg/kg, i.p.), a selective mTOR inhibitor, reversed these zymosan-induced changes in these tissues. These observations suggest that activation of mTOR/MEK1/ERK1/2/IKKβ/IκB-α/NF-κB signalling pathway with proinflammatory and vasodilator mediator formation and NADPH oxidase system activity contributes to systemic inflammation in zymosan-induced non-septic shock. Thus, mTOR may be an optimal target for the treatment of the diseases characterized by the severe systemic inflammatory response.

  13. Zymosan-induced immune challenge modifies the stress response of hypoxic air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus Bloch): Evidence for reversed patterns of cortisol and thyroid hormone interaction, differential ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response.

    PubMed

    Simi, S; Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

    2017-09-15

    Fishes have evolved physiological mechanisms to exhibit stress response, where hormonal signals interact with an array of ion transporters and regulate homeostasis. As major ion transport regulators in fish, cortisol and thyroid hormones have been shown to interact and fine-tune the stress response. Likewise, in fishes many interactions have been identified between stress and immune components, but the physiological basis of such interaction has not yet delineated particularly in air-breathing fish. We, therefore, investigated the responses of thyroid hormones and cortisol, ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response of an obligate air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch to zymosan treatment or hypoxia stress or both, to understand how immune challenge modifies the pattern of stress response in this fish. Induction of experimental peritonitis in these fish by zymosan treatment (200ngg -1 ) for 24h produced rise in respiratory burst and lysozomal activities in head kidney phagocytes. In contrast, hypoxia stress for 30min in immune-challenged fish reversed these non-specific responses of head kidney phagocytes. The decline in plasma cortisol in zymosan-treated fish and its further suppression by hypoxia stress indicate that immune challenge suppresses the cortisol-driven stress response of this fish. Likewise, the decline in plasma T 3 and T 4 after zymosan-treatment and the rise in plasma T 4 after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish indicate a critical role for thyroid hormone in immune-stress response due to its differential sensitivity to both immune and stress challenges. Further, analysis of the activity pattern of ion-dependent ATPases viz. Na + /K + -ATPase, H + /K + -ATPase and Na + /NH 4 + -ATPase indicates a functional interaction of ion transport system with the immune response as evident in its differential and spatial modifications after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish. The immune-challenge that produced differential

  14. The stimulation of superoxide anion production in guinea-pig peritoneal macrophages and neutrophils by phorbol myristate acetate, opsonized zymosan and IgG2-containing soluble immune complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, M A; Leslie, R G; Reeves, W G

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of superoxide anion production in guinea-pig peritoneal macrophages and neutrophils were determined following in vitro stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), opsonized zymosan (OZ) and soluble immune complexes of guinea-pig IgG2 (SIC). Superoxide production was recorded as chemiluminescence (CL) arising from the reductive cleavage of lucigenin. With PMA, both macrophages and neutrophils displayed a two-phase response consisting of a rapid initial burst of CL, which preceded ligand ingestion, followed by a plateau in the CL response which persisted for more than 30 min. By contrast, OZ induced a slow progressive increase in CL in both phagocytes which was consistent with the development of an oxidative burst concomitant with ingestion. The phagocytes differed in their responses to SIC, the macrophages displaying CL kinetics similar to those observed with PMA, whereas the neutrophils responded in the manner observed with OZ. The relationship between disparity in the patterns of macrophage and neutrophil CL responses to SIC and differences in their expression of Fc receptors for IgG2 (Coupland & Leslie, 1983) is discussed. PMID:6299935

  15. Soy protein diet inhibits zymosan induced monocyte migration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Atherosclerosis has been recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease. Recently, we showed reduced atherosclerotic lesions in a hyperlipidemic mouse model fed isoflavone-free soy protein diet (SPI) compared to casein (CAS)-fed mice, despite unchanged serum lipid levels. However, the molecular mechan...

  16. Protein kinase Cδ is a critical component of Dectin-1 signaling in primary human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Elsori, Deena H; Yakubenko, Valentin P; Roome, Talat; Thiagarajan, Praveena S; Bhattacharjee, Ashish; Yadav, Satya P; Cathcart, Martha K

    2011-09-01

    Zymosan, a mimic of fungal pathogens, and its opsonized form (ZOP) are potent stimulators of monocyte NADPH oxidase, resulting in the production of O(2)(.-), which is critical for host defense against fungal and bacterial pathogens and efficient immune responses; however, uncontrolled O(2)(.-) production may contribute to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Our laboratory has focused on characterizing the signal transduction pathways that regulate NADPH oxidase activity in primary human monocytes. In this study, we examined the involvement of various pattern recognition receptors and found that Dectin-1 is the primary receptor for zymosan stimulation of O(2)(.-) via NADPH oxidase in human monocytes, whereas Dectin-1 and CR3 mediate the activation by ZOP. Further studies identified Syk and Src as important signaling components downstream of Dectin-1 and additionally identified PKCδ as a novel downstream signaling component for zymosan-induced O(2)(.-) as well as phagocytosis. Our results show that Syk and Src association with Dectin-1 is dependent on PKCδ activity and expression and demonstrate direct binding between Dectin-1 and PKCδ. Finally, our data show that PKCδ and Syk but not Src are required for Dectin-1-mediated phagocytosis. Taken together, our data identify Dectin-1 as the major PRR for zymosan in primary human monocytes and identify PKCδ as a novel downstream signaling kinase for Dectin-1-mediated regulation of monocyte NADPH oxidase and zymosan phagocytosis.

  17. Effect of conglutinin on phagocytic activity of bovine granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Dec, M; Wernicki, A; Puchalski, A; Urban-Chmiel, R; Radej, S

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the effect of bovine conglutinin on the phagocytic activity of leukocytes. We measured both the chemotactic activity of conglutinin and its effect on the internalization of zymosan particles and E. coli by granulocytes. We also assessed the binding of conglutinin to various microorganisms isolated from clinical cases in cattle. We showed that conglutinin binds strongly to the surface of yeast cells and to mannan-rich zymosan particles, while weak binding was observed in the case of the bacterial strains tested, including those whose O antigen is composed of mannan. Conglutinin (1-10 microg/ml) neither acts as a chemotactic factor for peripheral blood leukocytes nor affects ingestion of E. coli by granulocytes. However, as flow cytometry based assay showed, conglutinin (0.1-1 microg/ml) increased ingestion of zymosan expressed as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of positive cells.

  18. Antihyperalgesic effect of pentoxifylline on experimental inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Mariana L; Benevides, Verônica M; Sachs, Daniela; Brito, Gerly A C; da Rocha, Francisco A C; Poole, Stephen; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Cunha, Fernando Q; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A

    2004-01-01

    The antihyperalgesic effect of pentoxifylline was investigated in three experimental pain models. Pentoxifylline (0.5–1.6 mg kg−1) given 30 min before the stimulus significantly inhibited the writhing response induced by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of either acetic acid (−90%) or zymosan (−83%), but not that of iloprost, in mice, as well as the zymosan-induced articular hyperalgesia in the zymosan arthritis in rats (−50%). Pentoxifylline also inhibited the mechanical hypernociception in rats induced by the intraplantar injection of either carrageenin (−81%), bradykinin (−56%) or tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α; −46%), but not that induced by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Pentoxifylline did not inhibit the nociceptive response in the hot plate test in mice. Further, the antinociceptive effect of pentoxifylline in the writhing test in mice and the zymosan-induced articular hyperalgesia were not reversed by the coadministration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. Thus, pentoxifylline antinociceptive effect is probably not mediated at a central level. Pentoxifylline significantly reduced TNF-α (−43%) and IL-1β (−42%) concentrations in the joint exudates of rats stimulated by intra-articular injection of zymosan and the production of both cytokines (−66 and −86%, respectively) by mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated in vivo with zymosan as well as the expression of TNF-α at the tissue level in carrageenin-injected rat paws. In conclusion, the antinociceptive activity of pentoxifylline is associated with the inhibition of the release of both TNF-α and IL-1β. PMID:15520047

  19. ACTIVATED NEUTROPHILS INHIBIT PHAGOCYTOSIS BY HUMAN MONOCYTE CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have previously reported the correlation of decreased phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan by sputum monocytic cells with the increase in sputum neutrophils in volunteers 6h after inhalation of endotoxin (20,000 EU) (Alexis, et al. JACI, 2003;112:353). To define whether an intrin...

  20. Burn wound sepsis may be promoted by a failure of local antibacterial host defenses.

    PubMed Central

    Deitch, E A; Bridges, R M; Dobke, M; McDonald, J C

    1987-01-01

    Little attention has been focused on the local burn wound environment, even though burn wound sepsis is a common cause of death in the burn victim. To characterize the effect of the local burn wound environment on neutrophil function and metabolism, the opsonic activity of blister fluid specimens against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was measured as was the effect of blister fluid on control neutrophil oxygen consumption using preopsonized zymosan and f-met-leu-phe (FMLP) as stimuli. Blister fluid did not support the killing of P. aeruginosa by normal neutrophils as well as normal serum. Additionally, blister fluid inhibited zymosan-stimulated, but not FMLP-stimulated, neutrophil oxygen consumption. The inhibitory effect of blister fluid on zymosan-stimulated oxygen consumption correlated with the extent of complement activation, measured as C3d or C3AI (p less than 0.01). That blister fluid did not inhibit the FMLP-mediated respiratory burst supports the concept that the blister fluid inhibitory effect on the zymosan-mediated respiratory burst was mediated through the complement receptor. These findings that blister fluid can affect the bactericidal and metabolic activity of normal neutrophils support the concept that cellular function can be altered by the microenvironment in which the cells are bathed. This potential impairment of host defenses within the burn wound could predispose the burn victim to burn wound sepsis. PMID:3115207

  1. A flow cytometric approach to the study of crustacean cellular immunity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardenas, W.; Jenkins, J.A.; Dankert, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Responses of hemocytes from the crayfish Procambarus zonangulus to stimulation by fungal cell walls (Zymosan A) were measured by flow cytometry. Changes in hemocyte physical characteristics were assessed flow cytometrically using forward- and sidescatter light parameters, and viability was measured by two-color fluorescent staining with calcein-AM and ethidium homodimer 1. The main effects of zymosan A on crayfish hemocytes were reduction in cell size and viability compared to control mixtures (hemocytes in buffer only). Adding diethyldithiocarbamic acid, an inhibitor of phenoloxidase, to hemocyte to zymosan mixtures delayed the time course of cell size reduction and cell death compared to zymosan-positive controls. The inclusion of trypsin inhibitor in reaction mixtures further delayed the reduction in hemocyte size and cell death, thereby indicating that a proteolytic cascade, along with prophenoloxidase activation, played a key role in generating signal molecules which mediate these cellular responses. In addition to traditional methods such as microscopy and protein chemistry, flow cytometry can provide a simple, reproducible, and sensitve method for evaluating invertebrate hemocyte responses to immunological stimuli.

  2. Synthetic chemerin-derived peptides suppress inflammation through ChemR23

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Jenna L.; Hart, Rosie; Russ, Andreas; Dixon, John P.C.; Colledge, William H.; Doran, Joanne; Hendrick, Alan G.; Carlton, Mark B.L.; Greaves, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Chemerin is a chemotactic protein that binds to the G protein–coupled receptor, ChemR23. We demonstrate that murine chemerin possesses potent antiinflammatory properties that are absolutely dependent on proteolytic processing. A series of peptides was designed, and only those identical to specific C-terminal chemerin sequences exerted antiinflammatory effects at picomolar concentrations in vitro. One of these, chemerin15 (C15; A140-A154), inhibited macrophage (MΦ) activation to a similar extent as proteolyzed chemerin, but exhibited reduced activity as a MΦ chemoattractant. Intraperitoneal administration of C15 (0.32 ng/kg) to mice before zymosan challenge conferred significant protection against zymosan-induced peritonitis, suppressing neutrophil (63%) and monocyte (62%) recruitment with a concomitant reduction in proinflammatory mediator expression. Importantly, C15 was unable to ameliorate zymosan-induced peritonitis in ChemR23−/− mice, demonstrating that C15's antiinflammatory effects are entirely ChemR23 dependent. In addition, administration of neutralizing anti-chemerin antibody before zymosan challenge resulted in a significant exacerbation of peritoneal inflammation (up to 170%), suggesting an important endogenous antiinflammatory role for chemerin-derived species. Collectively, these results show that chemerin-derived peptides may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory diseases through ChemR23. PMID:18391062

  3. Biaryl amide compounds reduce the inflammatory response in macrophages by regulating Dectin-1.

    PubMed

    Hyung, Kyeong Eun; Lee, Mi Ji; Lee, Yun-Jung; Lee, Do Ik; Min, Hye Young; Park, So-Young; Min, Kyung Hoon; Hwang, Kwang Woo

    2016-03-01

    Macrophages are archetypal innate immune cells that play crucial roles in the recognition and phagocytosis of invading pathogens, which they identify using pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Dectin-1 is essential for antifungal immune responses, recognizing the fungal cellular component β-glucan, and its role as a PRR has been of increasing interest. Previously, we discovered and characterized a novel biaryl amide compound, MPS 03, capable of inhibiting macrophage phagocytosis of zymosan. Therefore, in this study we aimed to identify other biaryl amide compounds with greater effectiveness than MPS 03, and elucidate their cellular mechanisms. Several MPS 03 derivatives were screened, four of which reduced zymosan phagocytosis in a similar manner to MPS 03. To establish whether such phagocytosis inhibition influenced the production of inflammatory mediators, pro-inflammatory cytokine and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured. The production of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, and NO was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the inflammation-associated MAPK signaling pathway was also affected by biaryl amide compounds. To investigate the underlying cellular mechanism, PRR expression was measured. MPS 03 and its derivatives were found to inhibit zymosan phagocytosis by decreasing Dectin-1 expression. Furthermore, when macrophages were stimulated by zymosan after pretreatment with biaryl amide compounds, downstream transcription factors such as NFAT, AP-1, and NF-κB were downregulated. In conclusion, biaryl amide compounds reduce zymosan-induced inflammatory responses by downregulating Dectin-1 expression. Therefore, such compounds could be used to inhibit Dectin-1 in immunological experiments and possibly regulate excessive inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Cot/tpl2 (MAP3K8) mediates myeloperoxidase activity and hypernociception following peripheral inflammation.

    PubMed

    Soria-Castro, Irene; Krzyzanowska, Agnieszka; Pelaéz, Marta López; Regadera, Javier; Ferrer, Gema; Montoliu, Lluis; Rodríguez-Ramos, Rosario; Fernández, Margarita; Alemany, Susana

    2010-10-29

    Cot/tpl2 (also known as MAP3K8) has emerged as a new and potentially interesting therapeutic anti-inflammatory target. Here, we report the first study of Cot/tpl2 involvement in acute peripheral inflammation in vivo. Six hours after an intraplantar injection of zymosan, Cot/tpl2(-/-) mice showed a 47% reduction in myeloperoxidase activity, concomitant with a 46% lower neutrophil recruitment and a 40% decreased luminol-mediated bioluminescence imaging in vivo. Accordingly, Cot/tpl2 deficiency provoked a 25-30% reduction in luminol-mediated bioluminescence and neutrophil recruitment together with a 65% lower macrophage recruitment 4 h following zymosan-induced peritonitis. Significantly impaired levels of G-CSF and GM-CSF and of other cytokines such as TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6, as well as some chemokines such as MCP-1, MIP-1β, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine, were detected during the acute zymosan-induced intraplantar inflammatory response in Cot/tpl2(-/-) mice. Moreover, Cot/tpl2 deficiency dramatically decreased the production of the hypernociceptive ligand NGF at the inflammatory site during the course of inflammation. Most importantly, Cot/tpl2 deficiency significantly reduced zymosan-induced inflammatory hypernociception in mice, with a most pronounced effect of a 50% decrease compared with wild type (WT) at 24 h following intraplantar injection of zymosan. At this time, Cot/tpl2(-/-) mice showed significantly reduced NGF, TNFα, and prostaglandin E(2) levels compared with WT littermates. In conclusion, our study demonstrates an important role of Cot/tpl2 in the NGF, G-CSF, and GM-CSF production and myeloperoxidase activity in the acute inflammatory response process and its implication in inflammatory hypernociception.

  5. Immune responses of mussel hemocyte subpopulations are differentially regulated by enzymes of the PI 3-K, PKC, and ERK kinase families.

    PubMed

    García-García, Erick; Prado-Alvarez, Maria; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio; Rosales, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Various hemocyte cell types have been described in invertebrates, but for most species a functional characterization of different hemocyte cell types is still lacking. In order to characterize some immunological properties of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) hemocytes, cells were separated by flow cytometry and their capacity for phagocytosis, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and production of nitric oxide (NO), was examined. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K), protein kinase C (PKC), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitors were also used to biochemically characterize these cell responses. Four morphologically distinct subpopulations, designated R1-R4, were detected. R1, R2, and R3 cells presented different levels of phagocytosis towards zymosan, latex beads, and two bacteria species. Similarly, R1 to R3, but not R4, cells produced ROS, while all subpopulations produced NO, in response to zymosan. Internalization of all phagocytic targets was blocked by PI 3-K inhibition. In addition, internalization of latex particles, but not of bacteria, was partially blocked by PKC or ERK inhibition. Interestingly, phagocytosis of zymosan was impaired by PKC, or ERK inhibitors, only in R2 cells. Zymosan-induced ROS production was blocked by PI 3-K inhibition, but not by PKC, or ERK inhibition. In addition, zymosan-stimulated NO production was affected by PI 3-K inhibition in R1 and R2, but not in R3 or R4 cells. NO production in all cell types was unaffected by PKC inhibition, but ERK inhibition blocked it in R2 cells. These data reveal the existence of profound functional and biochemical differences in mussel hemocytes and indicate that M. galloprovincialis hemocytes are specialized cells fulfilling specific tasks in the context of host defense.

  6. Unique phagocytic properties of hemocytes of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas against yeast and yeast cell-wall derivatives.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Keisuke G; Izumi-Nakajima, Nakako; Mori, Katsuyoshi

    2017-11-01

    For a marine bivalve mollusk such as Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, the elimination of foreign particles via hemocyte phagocytosis plays an important role in host defense mechanisms. The hemocytes of C. gigas have a high phagocytic ability for baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and its cell-wall product zymosan. C. gigas hemocytes might phagocytose yeast cells after binding to polysaccharides on the cell-wall surface, but it is unknown how and what kinds of polysaccharide molecules are recognized. We conducted experiments to determine differences in the phagocytic ability of C. gigas hemocytes against heat-killed yeast (HK yeast), zymosan and zymocel, which are similarly sized and shaped but differ in the polysaccharide composition of their particle surface. We found that both the agranulocytes and granulocytes exerted strong phagocytic ability on all tested particles. The phagocytic index (PI) of granulocytes for zymosan was 9.4 ± 1.7, which significantly differed with that for HK yeast and zymocel (P < 0.05). To evaluate the PI for the three types of particles, and especially to understand the outcome of the much higher PI for zymosan, PI was gauged in increments of 5 (1-5, 6-10, 11-15, and ≥16), and the phagocytic frequencies were compared according to these increments. The results show that a markedly high PI of ≥16 was exhibited by 18.1% of granulocytes for zymosan, significantly higher than 1.7% and 3.9% shown for HK yeast and zymocel, respectively (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that the relatively high PI for zymosan could not be attributed to a situation wherein all phagocytic hemocytes shared a high mean PI, but rather to the ability of some hemocytes to phagocytose a larger portion of zymosan. To determine whether the phagocytosis of these respective particles depended on the recognition of specific polysaccharide receptors on the hemocyte surface, C. gigas hemocytes were pretreated with soluble α-mannan or β-laminarin and

  7. Contributions of the three CYP1 monooxygenases to pro-inflammatory and inflammation-resolution lipid mediator pathways.

    PubMed

    Divanovic, Senad; Dalli, Jesmond; Jorge-Nebert, Lucia F; Flick, Leah M; Gálvez-Peralta, Marina; Boespflug, Nicholas D; Stankiewicz, Traci E; Fitzgerald, Jonathan M; Somarathna, Maheshika; Karp, Christopher L; Serhan, Charles N; Nebert, Daniel W

    2013-09-15

    All three cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) monooxygenases are believed to participate in lipid mediator biosynthesis and/or their local inactivation; however, distinct metabolic steps are unknown. We used multiple-reaction monitoring and liquid chromatography-UV coupled with tandem mass spectrometry-based lipid-mediator metabololipidomics to identify and quantify three lipid-mediator metabolomes in basal peritoneal and zymosan-stimulated inflammatory exudates, comparing Cyp1a1/1a2/1b1(⁻/⁻) C57BL/6J-background triple-knockout mice with C57BL/6J wild-type mice. Significant differences between untreated triple-knockout and wild-type mice were not found for peritoneal cell number or type or for basal CYP1 activities involving 11 identified metabolic steps. Following zymosan-initiated inflammation, 18 lipid mediators were identified, including members of the eicosanoids and specialized proresolving mediators (i.e., resolvins and protectins). Compared with wild-type mice, Cyp1 triple-knockout mice exhibited increased neutrophil recruitment in zymosan-treated peritoneal exudates. Zymosan stimulation was associated with eight statistically significantly altered metabolic steps: increased arachidonic acid-derived leukotriene B₄ (LTB₄) and decreased 5S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid; decreased docosahexaenoic acid-derived neuroprotectin D1/protectin D1, 17S-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, and 14S-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid; and decreased eicosapentaenoic acid-derived 18R-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (HEPE), 15S-HEPE, and 12S-HEPE. In neutrophils analyzed ex vivo, elevated LTB₄ levels were shown to parallel increased neutrophil numbers, and 20-hydroxy-LTB₄ formation was found to be deficient in Cyp1 triple-knockout mice. Together, these results demonstrate novel contributions of CYP1 enzymes to the local metabolite profile of lipid mediators that regulate neutrophilic inflammation.

  8. Neonatal cystitis-induced colonic hypersensitivity in adult rats: a model of viscero-visceral convergence.

    PubMed

    Miranda, A; Mickle, A; Schmidt, J; Zhang, Z; Shaker, R; Banerjee, B; Sengupta, J N

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if neonatal cystitis alters colonic sensitivity later in life and to investigate the role of peripheral mechanisms. Neonatal rats received intravesical zymosan, normal saline, or anesthesia only for three consecutive days [(postnatal (PN) days 14-16)]. The estrous cycle phase was determined prior to recording the visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distension (CRD) in adult rats. Eosinophils and mast cells were examined from colon and bladder tissues. CRD- or urinary bladder distension (UBD)-sensitive pelvic nerve afferents (PNAs) were identified and their responses to distension were examined. The relative expression of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA)-NR1 subunit in the lumbo-sacral (L6-S1) spinal cord was examined using Western blot. The VMR to CRD (≥10mmHg) in the neonatal zymosan group was significantly higher than control in both the diestrus, estrus phase and in all phases combined. There was no difference in the total number of eosinophils, mast cells or number of degranulated mast cells between groups. The spontaneous firing of UBD, but not CRD-sensitive PNAs from the zymosan-treated rats was significantly higher than the saline-treated control. However, the mechanosensitive properties of PNAs to CRD or UBD were no different between groups (P>0.05). The expression of spinal NR1 subunit was significantly higher in zymosan-treated rats compared with saline-treated rats (P<0.05). Neonatal cystitis results in colonic hypersensitivity in adult rats without changing tissue histology or the mechanosensitive properties of CRD-sensitive PNAs. Neonatal cystitis does result in overexpression of spinal NR1 subunit in adult rats. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Visceral perfusion abnormalities following complement activation. Clues to the mediators of organ ischemia in trauma and sepsis. First place winner: Conrad Jobst Award.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, W J; Schirmer, J M; Naff, G B; Fry, D E

    1988-12-01

    Complement, activated during infection and injury, has been implicated as a mediator of microvascular injury and obstruction. This study examines how two potent activators of complement, zymosan, and cobra venom factor (CVF), affect systemic and visceral perfusion. Rats were injected with either saline (1 ml/kg), zymosan (5 mg/kg) or CVF (5 units/kg) at t = 0 and 30 minutes. Thermodilution cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, systemic vascular resistance, and hematocrit were determined at t = 2 hours. Effective hepatic and renal blood flows, by clearance of galactose and p-aminohippurate respectively, were determined over the next hour. The per cent change in total hemolytic complement from t = 0 to t = 3 hours was determined by immune hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes. There was no difference in systemic hemodynamic parameters between the three groups. Hepatic blood flow was depressed in both the zymosan (3.83 +/- 0.23 ml/min/100 g) and CVF (3.72 +/- 0.20 ml/min/100 g) groups compared with controls (4.62 +/- 0.19 ml/min/100 g, P less than 0.05). Renal blood flow in the zymosan-treated group (6.40 +/- 0.24 ml/min/100 g) increased over control (4.80 +/- 0.40 ml/min/100 g, P less than 0.05) but was unchanged in the CVF group (5.06 +/- 0.23 ml/min/100 g). The amount of complement activated correlated with the change in hepatic (r = -0.419, P less than 0.05) but not renal (r = -0.008, P = 0.917) flow. Complement activation may occupy a proximal position in the pathogenesis of hepatic ischemia associated with trauma and sepsis.

  10. Evaluation of Non-Lethal Effects of N2 Bubbles on Marine Mammal Health and the Potential Role of Immune Activity in Facilitating the Development of Dive Related Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    control for confounding effects of changing physiological status. Cortisol will be measured using a commercial enzyme immunoassay ( EIA ) and plasma...complement activity in plasma and serum has been tested using zymosan (Sigma Aldrich) which is a known activator of complement. Validation of the EIA ...expected to be underway by November 2015. Data collection for objective 3 will occur during project year 2. RESULTS EIA kits for seal

  11. A pyrogen derived from human white cells which is active in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, A. H.; Parker, I. D.

    1980-01-01

    An endogenous pyrogen smaller in molecular size than that previously obtained from human white cells has been found in supernatants of these cells after uptake of zymosan and incubation for 18 h. The new pyrogen after separation from other pyrogens which are produced at the same time has been found to produce fever in mice but not in rabbits. Because it is not formed if cycloheximide is present and is inactivated by leucine aminopeptidase, it is believed to be a peptide. PMID:7448120

  12. Mast cell granules modulate alveolar macrophage respiratory-burst activity and eicosanoid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rock, M J; Despot, J; Lemanske, R F

    1990-10-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) and mast cells reside in the airway, and both have been demonstrated to contribute independently to allergic inflammatory responses through the generation of respiratory-burst metabolites and the release of biologically active mediators, respectively. Since mast cell granules (MCGs) contain mediators that could potentially interact with the AM respiratory burst, we investigated the effects of isolated MCGs on this important inflammatory pathway of the AM. MCGs and AMs were obtained by peritoneal and tracheoalveolar lavage, respectively, of Sprague-Dawley rats. First, the overall respiratory-burst activity was measured by luminal-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL), and second, the individual oxygen species contributing to CL (superoxide anion [O2-], hydrogen peroxide [H2O2], and hypochlorous acid) were measured. MCGs alone enhanced AM CL responses to an equivalent degree compared to zymosan-stimulated AMs. However, AMs preincubated with MCGs followed by zymosan stimulation significantly and synergistically enhanced the CL responses. This enhanced CL was not due to an increased production of O2-, H2O2, or hypochlorous acid; in fact, there were decreased measured amounts of O2- and H2O2 from zymosan-stimulated AMs in the presence of MCGs, most likely caused by the content of granules of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, respectively. The lipoxygenase inhibitor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, completely abolished the enhanced CL of AM preincubated with MCGs and subsequently stimulated by zymosan, but O2- production was not affected by nordihydroguaiaretic acid. Taken together, these results suggest that derivatives of arachidonic acid metabolism, most likely those of the lipoxygenase pathway, are responsible for the enhanced AM CL response observed in the presence of MCGs. Thus, mast cell-macrophage interactions may be important within the airway in enhancing the generation of mediators that contribute to tissue inflammation and bronchospasm.

  13. Peripheral and central P2X3 receptor contributions to colon mechanosensitivity and hypersensitivity in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Shinoda, Masamichi; Feng, Bin; Gebhart, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by altered sensory qualities, namely discomfort/pain and colorectal hypersensitivity. In mice, we examined the role of P2X3 receptors in colon mechanosensitivity and intracolonic zymosan-produced hypersensitivity, a model of persistent colon hypersensitivity without colon inflammation. Methods The visceromotor response (VMR) to colon distension (15 – 60 mmHg) was determined before and after intracolonic saline or zymosan (30 mg/mL, 0.1 mL, daily for 3 days) treatment. Colon pathology and intracolonic ATP release was assessed in parallel experiments. To examine P2X3 receptor contributions to colon mechanosensation and hypersensitivity, electrophysiological experiments were performed using an in vitro colon-pelvic nerve preparation. Results VMRs to distension were significantly reduced in P2X3+/−and P2X3−/− mice relative to wildtype mice. Colon hypersensitivity produced by zymosan was virtually absent in P2X3−/− relative to wildtype or P2X3+/− mice. Intralumenal release of the endogenous P2X receptor ligand ATP did not differ between wildtype and P2X3−/− mice or change after intracolonic zymosan treatment. Responses of muscular and muscular-mucosal pelvic nerve afferents to mechanical stretch did not differ between P2X3−/− and wildtype mice. Both muscular and muscular-mucosal afferents in wildtype mice sensitized to application of an inflammatory soup, whereas only muscular-mucosal afferents did so in P2X3−/− mice. Conclusions These results suggest differential roles for peripheral and central P2X3 receptors in colon mechanosensory transduction and hypersensitivity. PMID:19549524

  14. Protective effects of papaverine salicylate in mouse ear dermatitis and PAF-induced rat paw oedema.

    PubMed

    de Bernardis, E; Leonardi, G; Caruso, A; Cutuli, V M; Amico-Roxas, M

    1994-08-01

    Papaverine salicylate (MR-800) has been tested as a topical antiinflammatory agent in several models of skin inflammation in rodents, such as mouse ear dermatitis induced by croton oil, cantharidin or zymosan, and rat paw oedema induced by PAF. MR-800 exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory activity in all assays, when equimolar doses of sodium salicylate or papaverine were less effective, suggesting the existence of a favourable synergism between salicylate and papaverine.

  15. COX-2 expression and function in the hyperalgesic response to paw inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Naveen K.; Ishikawa, Tomo-o; Spigelman, Igor; Herschman, Harvey R.

    2009-01-01

    Peripheral inflammation and edema are often accompanied by primary and secondary hyperalgesia which are mediated by both peripheral and central mechanisms. The role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-mediated prostanoid production in hyperalgesia is a topic of substantial current interest. We have established a murine foot-pad inflammation model in which both pharmacologic and genetic tools can be used to characterize the role of COX-2 in hyperalgesia. Zymosan, an extract from yeast, injected into the plantar surface of the hind paw induces an edema response and an increase in COX-2 expression in the hindpaw, spinal cord and brain. Zymosan-induced primary hyperalgesia, measured as a decrease in hindpaw withdrawal latency in response to a thermal stimulus, is long-lasting and is not inhibited by pre-treatment with the systemic COX-2 selective inhibitor, parecoxib (20 mg/kg). In contrast, the central component of hyperalgesia, measured as a reduction in tail flick latency in response to heat, is reduced by parecoxib. Zymosan-induced primary hyperalgesia in Cox-2−/− mice is similar to that of their Cox-2+/+ littermate controls. However, the central component of hyperalgesia is substantially reduced in Cox-2−/− versus Cox-2+/+ mice, and returns to baseline values much more rapidly. Thus pharmacological data suggest, and genetic experiments confirm, (i) that primary hyperalgesia in response to zymosan inflammation in the mouse paw is not mediated by COX-2 function and (ii) that COX-2 function plays a major role in the central component of hyperalgesia in this model of inflammation. PMID:18829279

  16. ICAM-1-expressing neutrophils exhibit enhanced effector functions in murine models of endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Woodfin, Abigail; Beyrau, Martina; Voisin, Mathieu-Benoit; Ma, Bin; Whiteford, James R; Hordijk, Peter L; Hogg, Nancy; Nourshargh, Sussan

    2016-02-18

    Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on the cell surface of numerous cell types such as endothelial and epithelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and certain leukocyte subsets. With respect to the latter, ICAM-1 has been detected on neutrophils in several clinical and experimental settings, but little is known about the regulation of expression or function of neutrophil ICAM-1. In this study, we report on the de novo induction of ICAM-1 on the cell surface of murine neutrophils by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor, and zymosan particles in vitro. The induction of neutrophil ICAM-1 was associated with enhanced phagocytosis of zymosan particles and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Conversely, neutrophils from ICAM-1-deficient mice were defective in these effector functions. Mechanistically, ICAM-1-mediated intracellular signaling appeared to support neutrophil ROS generation and phagocytosis. In vivo, LPS-induced inflammation in the mouse cremaster muscle and peritoneal cavity led to ICAM-1 expression on intravascular and locally transmigrated neutrophils. The use of chimeric mice deficient in ICAM-1 on myeloid cells demonstrated that neutrophil ICAM-1 was not required for local neutrophil transmigration, but supported optimal intravascular and extravascular phagocytosis of zymosan particles. Collectively, the present results shed light on regulation of expression and function of ICAM-1 on neutrophils and identify it as an additional regulator of neutrophil effector responses in host defense. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits contact hypersensitivity induced by trichophytin via dectin-1.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tomoya; Nishibu, Akiko; Yoshida, Naoki; Yasoshima, Mitsue; Anzawa, Kazushi; Watanabe, Yasuharu; Nagai, Yoshinori; Takatsu, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuo; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    Trichophyton infection is highly prevalent and tends to be recurrent. Therefore, it is important to develop new therapeutic agents. Previously, we established a mouse model of Trichophyton-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and demonstrated that dectin-1 was involved in inflammation induced by trichophytin, the Trichophyton antigen. Here, we used that model to investigate glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) from plants of the genus Glycyrrhiza as a potential anti-inflammatory agent against superficial mycoses. GA suppressed swelling and the expression of inflammatory cytokines, including macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA. Anti-MIP-2 antibody suppressed trichophytin-induced inflammation, and antidectin-1 antibody suppressed zymosan-induced MIP-2 production in keratinocyte cells. These results suggest that MIP-2 is produced by dectin-1 activation and is involved in inflammation associated with CHS to trichophytin. GA also suppressed zymosan-induced MIP-2 and interleukin (IL)-8, production in mouse and human macrophages and keratinocytes. Furthermore, GA suppressed the phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B (IκBα) and the degradation of IκBα in zymosan-simulated RAW264.7 cells. The results of this study suggest that GA suppresses inflammation induced by trichophytin, partly by the downregulation of Syk phosphorylation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Failure of rabbit neutrophils to secrete endogenous pyrogen when stimulated with staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Hanson, D F; Murphy, P A; Windle, B E

    1980-06-01

    Cells obtained from acute peritoneal exudates in rabbits were separated into neutrophil and mononuclear populations by centrifugation on colloidal silica gradients. When these populations were separately incubated in tissue culture medium in the presence of opsonized Staphylococcus epidermidis, endogenous pyrogen was secreted only by the adherent cells of the mononuclear population. Pyrogen production by neutrophils could not have amounted to as much as 1% of the pyrogen produced by macrophages. When mononuclear cells were added back to purified neutrophils, no pyrogen was produced that could not be accounted for by the number of macrophages added. Rabbit blood cells were similarly fractionated on colloidal silica gradients. Again, endogenous pyrogen was made only by the adherent mononuclear population. The neutrophils isolated on these gradients appeared to be morphologically normal and were 85% viable as judged by dye exclusion. They showed normal random motility. Both blood and exudate neutrophils responded chemotactically to N-formyl Met-Leu-Phe, and blood neutrophils responded chemotactically to zymosan-activated serum. Both kinds of neutrophils phagocytosed zymosan particles and both killed opsonized S. epidermidis in a roller tube system. Both blood and exudate neutrophils showed normal superoxide production when stimulated with opsonized zymosan particles. This evidence suggests that macrophages are the only source of endogenous pyrogens, and that pyrogens secreted by cell populations that are rich in neutrophils are to be attributed to the monocytes or macrophages that they contain.

  19. Failure of rabbit neutrophils to secrete endogenous pyrogen when stimulated with staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Cells obtained from acute peritoneal exudates in rabbits were separated into neutrophil and mononuclear populations by centrifugation on colloidal silica gradients. When these populations were separately incubated in tissue culture medium in the presence of opsonized Staphylococcus epidermidis, endogenous pyrogen was secreted only by the adherent cells of the mononuclear population. Pyrogen production by neutrophils could not have amounted to as much as 1% of the pyrogen produced by macrophages. When mononuclear cells were added back to purified neutrophils, no pyrogen was produced that could not be accounted for by the number of macrophages added. Rabbit blood cells were similarly fractionated on colloidal silica gradients. Again, endogenous pyrogen was made only by the adherent mononuclear population. The neutrophils isolated on these gradients appeared to be morphologically normal and were 85% viable as judged by dye exclusion. They showed normal random motility. Both blood and exudate neutrophils responded chemotactically to N-formyl Met-Leu-Phe, and blood neutrophils responded chemotactically to zymosan-activated serum. Both kinds of neutrophils phagocytosed zymosan particles and both killed opsonized S. epidermidis in a roller tube system. Both blood and exudate neutrophils showed normal superoxide production when stimulated with opsonized zymosan particles. This evidence suggests that macrophages are the only source of endogenous pyrogens, and that pyrogens secreted by cell populations that are rich in neutrophils are to be attributed to the monocytes or macrophages that they contain. PMID:6247413

  20. Molecular cloning of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its effect on the respiratory burst activity of phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Sun; Hwang, Yoon Jung; Yoon, Ki Joon; Zenke, Kosuke; Nam, Yoon Kwon; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Ki Hong

    2009-11-01

    Rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rbTNF-alpha) gene was cloned, recombinantly produced, and the effect of the recombinant rbTNF-alpha on the respiratory burst activity of rock bream phagocytes was analyzed. Structurally, genomic DNA of rbTNF-alpha was comprised with four exons and three introns, and deduced amino acid sequence of its cDNA possessed the TNF family signature, a transmembrane domain, a protease cleavage site, and two cysteine residues, which are the typical characteristics of TNF-alpha gene in mammals and fish. The chemiluminescent (CL) response of rock bream phagocytes was significantly enhanced by pre-incubation with recombinant rbTNF-alpha, when opsonized zymosan was used as a stimulant of the respiratory burst. However, CL enhancing effect of the recombinant rbTNF-alpha was very weak when the respiratory burst activity of phagocytes was triggered with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) instead of zymosan. These results suggest that rock bream TNF-alpha might have an ability to prime the respiratory burst activity of phagocytes against receptor-mediated phagocytosis inducing stimulants, such as zymosan, but have little ability against stimulants not accompanying receptor-mediated phagocytosis.

  1. Comparative study of bacterial translocation control with nitric oxide donors and COX2 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    García-Cenador, María Begoña; Lorenzo-Gómez, María Fernanda; García-Moro, María; García-García, María Inmaculada; Sánchez-Conde, María Pilar; García-Criado, Francisco Javier; García-Sánchez, Enrique; Lozano-Sánchez, Francisco; García-Sánchez, José Elías

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the beneficial effects of exogenous NO and an inhibitor of the COX2, and their action levels in a model of SIRS/bacterial translocation (BT) induced by Zymosan A(®). Ninety Wistar rats were submitted to different treatments, and after 12h and 24h they were anaesthetized in order to collect blood, mesenteric lymph nodes, and kidney for subsequent biochemical analyses and microbiological examinations. A nitric oxide donor, Molsidomine(®), was compared with a COX2 inhibitor, Celecoxib(®). Zymosan A(®) was administered to Wistar rats. The animals were divided into 6 groups: one group for survival study, Group (1) No manipulation (BASAL); Group (2) vehicle of Zymosan A(®) given intraperitoneally (SHAM); Group I (control), with Zymosan A(®) (0.6g/kg) intraperitoneally; Group II (Molsidomine), with Molsidomine(®) (4mg/kg) through the penis dorsal vein, 30min prior to administration of the Zy(®) (0.6g/kg); Group III (Celecoxib), with Celecoxib(®) (400mg/kg) orally through a stomach tube, 6h prior to administration of the Zy (0.6g/kg). The parameters survival, bacterial translocation, renal function, neutrophil accumulation, oxygen free radicals (OFR), detoxifying enzymes, and cytokines were measured at different times after Zymosan administration. The model established induced a mortality rate of 100% and generated BT and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in all samples. It also significantly increased all variables, with p<.001 for MPO and all pro-inflammatory cytokines, and p<.01 for all OFR. Treatment with Molsidomine reduced mortality to 0%, decreased BT, MPO, pro-inflammatory cytokines and OFR (p<.001) significantly and increased IL-10 and IL-6 production. Moreover, the Celecoxib(®) showed a lower capacity for SIRS regulation. The exogenous administration of NO prevented BT and controlled SIRS. Therefore these results suggest that Molsidomine could be used as a therapeutic strategy to protect against BT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  2. A facile way to fabricate manganese phosphate self-assembled carbon networks as efficient electrochemical catalysts for real-time monitoring of superoxide anions released from HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xuan; Shi, Libo; Sun, Wenqian; Zhao, Hongli; Li, Hong; He, Haiyan; Lan, Minbo

    2018-04-15

    Quantification of superoxide anions (O 2 •- ) is significant in the monitoring of many serious diseases and the design of enzyme-mimic catalysts plays the main role in the development of non-enzymatic O 2 •- sensors. Herein, we proposed a facile self-assembly process to synthesize manganese phosphate modified carbon networks using three kinds of widely-used carbon materials (MWCNTs, NGS and GO) as pillar connectors. Characterizations demonstrate that manganese phosphate is widely dispersed inside and on the surface of carbon networks without visible morphology. Meanwhile, all three kinds of synthesized catalysts were successfully immobilized on the screen-printed carbon electrodes to evaluate the electrochemical performance of fabricated sensors. The results indicate that sensors based on Mn x (PO 4 ) y modified MWCNTs exhibit high sensitivity with an extremely low detection limit of 0.127μM (S/N = 3) and a wide liner range of 0-1.817mM (R 2 = 0.998). We further employed the recommended sensors in the real-time monitoring of HepG2 cells released O 2 •- under the stimulating of Zymosan (20mg/mL). Noticeably, the proposed sensors exhibit not only sensitive response but also stable current steps upon different addition of Zymosan. The calculated concentrations of cell-released O 2 •- vary from 6.772 to 24.652pM cell -1 for the Zymosan amount used in this work. The established novel sensors display low background current and signal noises, thus holding unique advantages in the trace analysis of O 2 •- in biological samples and in vivo environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. CD40 ligation and phagocytosis differently affect the differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Rosenzwajg, Michelle; Jourquin, Frédéric; Tailleux, Ludovic; Gluckman, Jean Claude

    2002-12-01

    That monocytes can differentiate into macrophages or dendritic cells (DCs) makes them an essential link between innate and adaptive immunity. However, little is known about how interactions with pathogens or T cells influence monocyte engagement toward DCs. We approached this point in cultures where granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4 induced monocytes to differentiate into immature DCs. Activating monocytes with soluble CD40 ligand (CD40L) led to accelerated differentiation toward mature CD83(+) DCs with up-regulated human leukocyte antigen-DR, costimulatory molecules and CD116 (GM-CSF receptor), and down-regulation of molecules involved in antigen capture. Monocytes primed by phagocytosis of antibody-opsonized, killed Escherichia coli differentiated into DCs with an immature phenotype, whereas Zymosan priming yielded active DCs with an intermediate phenotype. Accordingly, DCs obtained from cultures with CD40L or after Zymosan priming had a decreased capacity to endocytose dextran, but only DCs cultured with CD40L had increased capacity to stimulate allogeneic T cells. DCs obtained after E. coli or Zymosan priming of monocytes produced high levels of proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-6 as well as of regulatory IL-10, but they produced IL-12p70 only after secondary CD40 ligation. Thus, CD40 ligation on monocytes accelerates the maturation of DCs in the presence of GM-CSF/IL-4, whereas phagocytosis of different microorganisms does not alter and even facilitates their potential to differentiate into immature or active DCs, the maturation of which can be completed upon CD40 ligation. In vivo, such differences may correspond to DCs with different trafficking and T helper cell-stimulating capacities that could differently affect induction of adaptive immune responses to infections.

  4. Phagocytosis as a biomarker for stress responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, K.; Krotz-Fahning, M.; Hock, B.

    2005-08-01

    An in vitro test has been developed for the detection of immunotoxic events. It will be used within the project "TRIPLE LUX" on the International Space Station to investigate the effects of single and combined space flight conditions on mammalian phagocytes. The intensity of the respiratory burst during phagocytosis can be followed by the luminol-based chemiluminescence response after stimulation with zymosan. We adapted this test system for polymorphonuclear leukocytes, purified from sheep blood and stored by cryoconservation. In this report we show the immunostimulating effect of hydrocortisone and the immunosuppressive impact of cadmium as an example for alterations that can be detected by this test.

  5. A biologically active fructan from the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules.

    PubMed

    Kardosová, A; Ebringerová, A; Alföldi, J; Nosál'ová, G; Franová, S; Hríbalová, V

    2003-11-01

    From the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules a low-molecular-weight fructofuranan of the inulin-type has been isolated by water extraction and ethanol precipitation, followed by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration of the crude precipitate. The methods employed in structural determination were methylation analysis and 1H and 13C NMR spectral measurements. In tests for antitussive activity in cats the fructan was found to be equally active as some non-narcotic, synthetic preparations used in clinical practice to treat coughing, and in mitogenic and comitogenic tests its biological response was comparable to that of the commercial Zymosan immunomodulator.

  6. Electroluminescent TCC, C3dg and fB/Bb epitope assays for profiling complement cascade activation in vitro using an activated complement serum calibration standard.

    PubMed

    van Vuuren, B Jansen; Bergseth, G; Mollnes, T E; Shaw, A M

    2014-01-15

    Electroluminescent assays for epitopes on the complement components C3dg, terminal complement complex (TCC) and factor B/Bb (fB/Bb) have been developed with capture and detection antibodies to produce detection limits C3dg=91±9ng/mL, TCC=3±0.1ng/mL and fB=55.7±0.1ng/mL. The assay performance was assessed against a series of zymosan and heat aggregated IgG (HAIgG) in vitro activations of complement using a calibrated activated complement serum (ACS) as calibration standard. The ACS standard was stable within 20% accuracy over a 6-month period with freeze-thaw cycles as required. Differential activation of the complement cascade was observed for TCC showing a pseudo-first order formation half-life of 3.5h after activation with zymosan. The C3dg activation fragment indicates a 10% total activation for both activation agents. The kinetic-epitope analysis for fB indicates that the capture epitope is on the fB/Bb protein fragment which can then become covered by the formation of C3bBb or C3bBbP complexes during the time course of the cascade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbiota signalling through MyD88 is necessary for a systemic neutrophilic inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Karmarkar, Dipti; Rock, Kenneth L

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we have found that intestinal flora strongly influence peritoneal neutrophilic inflammatory responses to diverse stimuli, including pathogen-derived particles like zymosan and sterile irritant particles like crystals. When germ-free and flora-deficient (antibiotic-treated) mice are challenged with zymosan intraperitoneally, neutrophils are markedly impaired in their ability to extravasate from blood into the peritoneum. In contrast, in these animals, neutrophils can extravasate in response to an intraperitoneal injection of the chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein 2. Neutrophil recruitment upon inflammatory challenge requires stimulation by microbiota through a myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) -dependent pathway. MyD88 signalling is crucial during the development of the immune system but depending upon the ligand it may be dispensable at the time of the actual inflammatory challenge. Furthermore, pre-treatment of flora-deficient mice with a purified MyD88-pathway agonist is sufficient to restore neutrophil migration. In summary, this study provides insight into the role of gut microbiota in influencing acute inflammation at sites outside the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23909393

  8. Triggering Dectin-1-Pathway Alone Is Not Sufficient to Induce Cytokine Production by Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Walachowski, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    β-glucans (BG) are abundant polysaccharides of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall (Sc CW), an industry byproduct. They have immuno-stimulatory properties upon engagement of dectin-1 (Clec7a), their main receptor on particular immune cells, and they actually become of great interest because of their preventive or therapeutic potentials. Zymosan, a crude extract of Sc CW was studied as a prototypic BG, despite its miscellaneous PAMPs content. Here, we examined the response of murine wild type or Clec7a-/- bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) to products with increasing BG content (15, 65 or 75%) and compared their effects with those of other dectin-1 ligands. The enrichment process removed TLR ligands while preserving dectin-1 activity. The most enriched extracts have very low NFκB activity and triggered low amounts of cytokine production in contrast with crude products like zymosan and BG15. Furthermore, MyD88-/- BMDM did not produce TNFα in response to crude Sc CW extracts, whereas their response to BG-enriched extracts was unaffected, suggesting that BG alone are not able to initiate cytokine secretion. Although Sc CW-derived BG stimulated the late and strong expression of Csf2 in a dectin-1-dependent manner, they remain poor inducers of chemokine and cytokine production in murine macrophages. PMID:26840954

  9. Coiling Phagocytosis of Trypanosomatids and Fungal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rittig, M. G.; Schröppel, K.; Seack, K.-H.; Sander, U.; N’Diaye, E.-N.; Maridonneau-Parini, I.; Solbach, W.; Bogdan, C.

    1998-01-01

    Coiling phagocytosis has previously been studied only with the bacteria Legionella pneumophila and Borrelia burgdorferi, and the results were inconsistent. To learn more about this unconventional phagocytic mechanism, the uptake of various eukaryotic microorganisms by human monocytes, murine macrophages, and murine dendritic cells was investigated in vitro by video and electron microscopy. Unconventional phagocytosis of Leishmania spp. promastigotes, Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes, Candida albicans hyphae, and zymosan particles from Saccharomyces cerevisiae differed in (i) morphology (rotating unilateral pseudopods with the trypanosomatids, overlapping bilateral pseudopods with the fungi), (ii) frequency (high with Leishmania; occasional with the fungi; rare with T. cruzi), (iii) duration (rapid with zymosan; moderate with the trypanosomatids; slow with C. albicans), (iv) localization along the promastigotes (flagellum of Leishmania major and L. aethiopica; flagellum or posterior pole of L. donovani), and (v) dependence on complement (strong with L. major and L. donovani; moderate with the fungi; none with L. aethiopica). All of these various types of unconventional phagocytosis gave rise to similar pseudopod stacks which eventually transformed to a regular phagosome. Further video microscopic studies with L. major provided evidence for a cytosolic localization, synchronized replication, and exocytic release of the parasites, extending traditional concepts about leishmanial infection of host cells. It is concluded that coiling phagocytosis comprises phenotypically similar consequences of various disturbances in conventional phagocytosis rather than representing a single separate mechanism. PMID:9712785

  10. Regulation of glutamate in cultures of human monocytic THP-1 and astrocytoma U-373 MG cells.

    PubMed

    Klegeris, A; Walker, D G; McGeer, P L

    1997-09-01

    Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter, is neurotoxic at high concentrations. Neuroglial cells, including astrocytes and microglia, play an important role in regulating its extracellular levels. Cultured human monocytic THP-1 cells increased their glutamate secretion following 18 and 68 h exposure to the inflammatory mediators zymosan, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), lipopolysaccharide, interferon-gamma, tumor-necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta. Cultured astrocytoma U-373 MG cells increased their glutamate secretion following similar exposure to zymosan and PMA. DL-Alpha-aminopimelic acid, an inhibitor of the glutamate secretion system, reduced extracellular glutamate in both cell culture systems, while the high-affinity glutamate uptake inhibitors D-Aspartic acid, DL-threo-beta-hydroxyaspartic acid and L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid increased extracellular glutamate in U-373 MG, but not THP-1 cell cultures. In co-cultures of THP-1 and U-373 MG cells, extracellular glutamate levels were increased significantly by the Alzheimer beta-amyloid peptide (1-40) and were decreased significantly by the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone. These data indicate that inflammatory stimuli may increase extracellular glutamate while antiinflammatory drugs decrease it.

  11. Differential regulation of interleukin 12 and interleukin 23 production in human dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Gerosa, Franca; Baldani-Guerra, Barbara; Lyakh, Lyudmila A.; Batoni, Giovanna; Esin, Semih; Winkler-Pickett, Robin T.; Consolaro, Maria Rita; De Marchi, Mario; Giachino, Daniela; Robbiano, Angela; Astegiano, Marco; Sambataro, Angela; Kastelein, Robert A.; Carra, Giuseppe; Trinchieri, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed interleukin (IL) 12 and IL-23 production by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mono-DCs). Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and zymosan preferentially induced IL-23. IL-23 but not IL-12 was efficiently induced by the combination of nucleotide-binding oligodimerization domain and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 ligands, which mimics activation by M. tuberculosis, or by the human dectin-1 ligand β-glucan alone or in combination with TLR2 ligands, mimicking induction by zymosan. TLR2 ligands inhibited IL-12 and increased IL-23 production. DC priming with interferon (IFN) γ strongly increased IL-12 production, but was not required for IL-23 production and inhibited IL-23 production induced by β-glucan. The pattern of IL-12 and IL-23 induction was reflected in accumulation of the IL-12p35 and IL-23p19 transcripts, respectively, but not IL-12/23p40. Although IL-23, transforming growth factor β, and IL-6 contained in the supernatants of activated mono-DCs played a role in the induction of IL-17 by human CD4+ T cells, IL-1β, in combination with one or more of those factors, was required for IL-17 production, and its production determined the differential ability of the stimuli used to elicit mono-DCs to produce soluble factors directing IL-17 production. Thus, the differential ability of pathogens to induce antigen-presenting cells to produce cytokines regulates the immune response to infection. PMID:18490488

  12. Altered macrophage arachidonic acid metabolism induced by endotoxin tolerance: characterization and mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, T.S.

    Altered macrophage arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism may play a role in endotoxic shock and the phenomenon of endotoxin tolerance induced by repeated injections of endotoxin. Studies were initiated to characterize both lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase metabolite formation by endotoxin tolerant and non-tolerant macrophages in response to 4 different stimuli, i.e., endotoxin, glucan, zymosan, and the calcium ionophore A23187. In contrast to previous reports of decreased prostaglandin synthesis by tolerant macrophages, A23187-stimulated immunoreactive (i) leukotriene (LT) C/sub 4/D/sub 4/ and prostaglandin (PG) E/sub 2/ production by tolerant cells was greater than that by non-tolerant controls (p <0.001). However, A23187-stimulated i6-keto PGF/sub 1a/more » levels were lower in tolerant macrophages compared to controls (P < 0.05). iL TC/sub 4/D/sub 4/ production was not significantly stimulated by endotoxin or glucan, but was stimulated by zymosan in non-tolerant cells. Synthesis of iLTB/sub 4/ by control macrophages was stimulated by endotoxin (p <0.01). The effect of tolerance on factors that affect AA release was investigated by measuring /sup 14/C-AA incorporation and release and phospholipase A/sub 2/ activity« less

  13. Morphologic, cytometric and functional characterization of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Martínez, S; Prado-Alvarez, M; Lobo-da-Cunha, A; Azevedo, C; Gestal, C

    2014-05-01

    The hemocytes of Octopus vulgaris were morphologically and functionally characterized. Light and electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), and flow cytometry analyses revealed the existence of two hemocyte populations. Large granulocytes showed U-shaped nucleus, a mean of 11.6 μm±1.2 in diameter with basophilic granules, polysaccharide and lysosomic deposits in the cytoplasm. Small granulocytes measured a mean of 8.1 μm±0.7 in diameter, and have a round nucleus occupying almost the entire cell and few or not granules in the cytoplasm. Flow cytometry analysis showed that large granulocytes are the principal cells that develop phagocytosis of latex beads (rising up to 56%) and ROS after zymosan stimulation. Zymosan induced the highest production of both ROS and NO. This study is the first tread towards understanding the O. vulgaris immune system by applying new tools to provide a most comprehensive morpho-functional study of their hemocytes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pregnancy amelioration of arthritis in SKG mice corresponds with alterations in serum amyloid A3 levels

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Laura A; Stefanski, Adrianne L; Peterson, Lisa K; Rumer, Kristen K; Vondracek, Andrea; Phang, Tzu L; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Winn, Virginia D; Dragone, Leonard L

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Pregnancy leads to rheumatoid arthritis remission in humans. The objective of this study was to determine if the SKG mouse could serve as a model for pregnancy-associated inflammatory arthritis amelioration. In addition, the maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) transcriptome was assessed to define a biomarker associated with remission. Methods: Cohorts of zymosan-treated pregnant SKG mice and controls were monitored for arthritis progression. Microarray analysis evaluated alterations in gene expression in maternal PBMCs at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) between arthritic and pregnancy-remitted mice. A selected target, serum amyloid A3 (SAA3), was further investigated using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Pregnancy resulted in complete or partial remission in the majority of the zymosan-treated SKG mice. Twenty-seven transcripts were differentially expressed in the PBMCs between arthritic and pregnancy-remitted mice. Expression and plasma SAA3 levels decreased with pregnancy-induced arthritis amelioration and plasma SAA3 levels correlated with arthritis severity. Conclusions: These results establish the SKG mouse as a model system to study pregnancy-induced amelioration of arthritis. These studies also establish SAA3 as a biomarker of arthritis amelioration in SKG mice. This model can be used to elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the impact of pregnancy on the maternal immune system that results in arthritis amelioration. PMID:23097751

  15. Pregnancy amelioration of arthritis in SKG mice corresponds with alterations in serum amyloid A3 levels.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Laura A; Stefanski, Adrianne L; Peterson, Lisa K; Rumer, Kristen K; Vondracek, Andrea; Phang, Tzu L; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Winn, Virginia D; Dragone, Leonard L

    2012-06-30

    OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy leads to rheumatoid arthritis remission in humans. The objective of this study was to determine if the SKG mouse could serve as a model for pregnancy-associated inflammatory arthritis amelioration. In addition, the maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) transcriptome was assessed to define a biomarker associated with remission. METHODS: Cohorts of zymosan-treated pregnant SKG mice and controls were monitored for arthritis progression. Microarray analysis evaluated alterations in gene expression in maternal PBMCs at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) between arthritic and pregnancy-remitted mice. A selected target, serum amyloid A3 (SAA3), was further investigated using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Pregnancy resulted in complete or partial remission in the majority of the zymosan-treated SKG mice. Twenty-seven transcripts were differentially expressed in the PBMCs between arthritic and pregnancy-remitted mice. Expression and plasma SAA3 levels decreased with pregnancy-induced arthritis amelioration and plasma SAA3 levels correlated with arthritis severity. CONCLUSIONS: These results establish the SKG mouse as a model system to study pregnancy-induced amelioration of arthritis. These studies also establish SAA3 as a biomarker of arthritis amelioration in SKG mice. This model can be used to elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the impact of pregnancy on the maternal immune system that results in arthritis amelioration.

  16. "Curcumin-loaded Poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanovesicles induce antinociceptive effects and reduce pronociceptive cytokine and BDNF release in spinal cord after acute administration in mice".

    PubMed

    Pieretti, Stefano; Ranjan, Amalendu P; Di Giannuario, Amalia; Mukerjee, Anindita; Marzoli, Francesca; Di Giovannandrea, Rita; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K

    2017-10-01

    Given the poor bioavailability of curcumin, its antinociceptive effects are produced after chronic intravenous administration of high doses, while poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-loaded vesicles (PLGA) can improve drug delivery. This paper investigates the antinociceptive effects of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanovesicles (PLGA-CUR) administered via intravenous (i.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) routes at low and high doses. The following models of pain were used: formalin test, zymosan-induced hyperalgesia and sciatic nerve ligation inducing neuropathic allodynia and hyperalgesia. PLGA-CUR administered intravenously was able to reduce the response to nociceptive stimuli in the formalin test and hyperalgesia induced by zymosan. Curcumin, instead, was inactive. Low-dose i.t. administration of PLGA-CUR significantly reduced allodynia produced by sciatic nerve ligation, whereas low doses of curcumin did not change the response to nociceptive stimuli. Long-lasting antinociceptive effects were observed when high doses of PLGA-CUR were administered intrathecally. At high doses, i.t. administration of curcumin only exerted rapid and transient antinociceptive effects. Measurement of cytokine and BDNF in the spinal cord of neuropathic mice demonstrate that the antinociceptive effects of PLGA-CUR depend on the reduction in cytokine release and BDNF in the spinal cord. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of PLGA-CUR and suggest that PLGA-CUR nanoformulation might be a new potential drug in the treatment of pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species is critically required for survival of undifferentiated human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing-Mei; Zhao, Sheng-Guo; Huang, Guo-Yin; Liu, Qing

    2004-06-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase) mediated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was originally identified as the powerful host defense machinery against microorganism in phagocytes. But recent reports indicated that some non-phagocytic cells also have the NADPH oxidase activity, and the ROS produced by it may act as cell signal molecule. But as far as today, whether the NADPH oxidase also plays similar role in phagocyte has not been paid much attention. Utilizing the undifferentiated HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells as a model, the aim of the present study was to determine whether NADPH oxidase plays a role on ROS generation in undifferentiated HL-60, and the ROS mediated by it was essential for cell's survival. For the first time, we verified that the release of ROS in undifferentiated HL-60 was significantly increased by the stimulation with Calcium ionophore or opsonized zymosan, which are known to trigger respiration burst in phagocytes by NADPH oxidase pathway. Diphenylene iodonium (DPI) or apocynin (APO), two inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, significantly suppressed the increasing of ROS caused by opsonized zymosan. Cell survival assay and fluorescence double dyeing with acridine orange and ethidium bromide showed that DPI and APO, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) concentration-dependently decreased the viability of undifferentiated HL-60 cells, whereas exogenous H2O2 can rescue the cells from death obviously. Our results suggested that the ROS, generated by NADPH oxidase play an essential role in the survival of undifferentiated HL-60 cells.

  18. Inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) Synthetase Attenuates Neutrophil Recruitment and Exerts Antiinflammatory Effects

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, Csaba; Lim, Lina H.K.; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Getting, Stephen J.; Zingarelli, Basilia; Flower, Roderick J.; Salzman, Andrew L.; Perretti, Mauro

    1997-01-01

    A cytotoxic cycle triggered by DNA single-strand breakage and poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase activation has been shown to contribute to the cellular injury during various forms of oxidant stress in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) in the process of neutrophil recruitment and in development of local and systemic inflammation. In pharmacological studies, PARS was inhibited by 3-aminobenzamide (10–20 mg/kg) in rats and mice. In other sets of studies, inflammatory responses in PARS−/− mice were compared with the responses in corresponding wild-type controls. Inhibition of PARS reduced neutrophil recruitment and reduced the extent of edema in zymosan- and carrageenan-triggered models of local inflammation. Moreover, inhibition of PARS prevented neutrophil recruitment, and reduced organ injury in rodent models of inflammation and multiple organ failure elicited by intraperitoneal injection of zymosan. Inhibition of PARS also reduced the extent of neutrophil emigration across murine mesenteric postcapillary venules. This reduction was due to an increased rate of adherent neutrophil detachment from the endothelium, promoting their reentry into the circulation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PARS inhibition reduces local and systemic inflammation. Part of the antiinflammatory effects of PARS inhibition is due to reduced neutrophil recruitment, which may be related to maintained endothelial integrity. PMID:9314553

  19. Inhibition of neutrophil and monocyte recruitment by endogenous and exogenous lipocortin 1

    PubMed Central

    Getting, Stephen J; Flower, Roderick J; Perretti, Mauro

    1997-01-01

    The role played by endogenous lipocortin 1 in the anti-migratory action exerted by dexamethasone (Dex) on monocyte recruitment in an in vivo model of acute inflammation was investigated by use of several neutralizing polyclonal antibodies raised against lipocortin 1 or a lipocortin 1-derived N-terminus peptide (peptide Ac2-26). The efficacy of peptide Ac2-26 in inhibiting monocyte and polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) recruitment was also tested.Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of zymosan A (1 mg) produced a time-dependent cell accumulation into mouse peritoneal cavities which followed a typical profile of acute inflammation: PMN influx was maximal at 4 h post-zymosan (between 15 and 20×106 cells per mouse), and this was followed by an accumulation of monocytes which peaked at the 24 h time-point (between 10 and 15×106 cells per mouse).Dex administration to mice reduced zymosan-induced 4 h PMN infiltration and 24 h monocyte accumulation with similar efficacy: approximately 50% of inhibition of recruitment of both cell types was achieved at the dose of 30 μg per mouse (∼1 mg kg−1, subcutaneously (s.c.)). Maximal inhibitions of 64% and 67% on PMN and monocyte recruitment, respectively, were measured after a dose of 100 μg per mouse (∼3 mg kg−1, s.c.).Dex (30 μg s.c.) inhibited monocyte (53%) and PMN (69%) accumulation in response to zymosan application in mice which had been treated with a non-immune sheep serum (50 μl s.c.). In contrast, the steroid was no longer active in reducing cell accumulation in mice which had been passively immunized against full length human recombinant lipocortin 1 (serum LCS3), or against lipocortin 1 N-terminus peptide.Treatment of mice with vinblastine (1 mg kg−1, intravenously (i.v.)) produced a remarkable leucopenia as assessed 24 h after administration. This was accompanied by a 60% reduction in 4 h-PMN influx, and by a 27% reduction in 24 h-monocyte accumulation, measured after zymosan

  20. Influence of local anesthetics upon human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function in vitro. Reduction of lysosomal enzyme release and superoxide anion production

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Cationic local anesthetics have been reported to influence cellular responses to surface stimuli by interfering with the function of microtubules and microfilaments. Since unimpaired microtubule and microfilament functions are required by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in order to respond normally to surface stimulation, we have studied effects of the local anesthetic, tetracaine on the function and morphology of these cells in vitro. Tetracaine (0.25--1.0 mM) significantly reduced extracellular release of the lysosomal enzymes, beta-glucuronidase and lysozyme from polymorphonuclear leukocytes exposed to serum-treated zymosan (a particulate stimulus), zymosan- treated serum (a soluble stimulus), and to the surface-active lectin, concanavalin A. Tetracaine also significantly reduced superoixde anion production (superoxide dismutase-inhibitable cytochrome c reduction) by these cells. Tetrancaine was not cytotoxic and its effects could be reversed completely by washing cells once with buffer. Electron microscope examination of tetracaine-treated cells revealed marked alterations of surface membranes. Microtubules and microfilaments appeared normal in "resting" polymorphonuclear leukocytes, but the increase in microtubules normally observed in stimulated cells was not seen after tetracaine treatment. These results suggest that tetracaine interferes with those interactions between immune reactants and the polymorphonuclear leukocyte cell surface which provoke exocytosis and increased oxidative metabolism. PMID:195003

  1. ROS production, intracellular HSP70 levels and their relationship in human neutrophils: effects of age.

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, Elena I; Boyko, Anna A; Semenkov, Victor F; Lutsenko, Gennady V; Grechikhina, Maria V; Kanevskiy, Leonid M; Azhikina, Tatyana L; Telford, William G; Sapozhnikov, Alexander M

    2014-12-15

    ROS production and intracellular HSP70 levels were measured in human neutrophils for three age groups: young (20-59 years), elders (60-89 years) and nonagenarians (90 years and older). Elders showed higher levels of spontaneous intracellular ROS content compared with young and nonagenarian groups, which had similar intracellular ROS levels. Zymosan-induced (non-spontaneous) extracellular ROS levels were also similar for young and nonagenarians but were lower in elders. However, spontaneous extracellular ROS production increased continuously with age. Correlation analysis revealed positive relationships between HSP70 levels and zymosan-stimulated ROS production in the elder group. This was consistent with a promoting role for HSP70 in ROS-associated neutrophils response to pathogens. No positive correlation between ROS production and intracellular HSP70 levels was found for groups of young people and nonagenarians. In contrast, significant negative correlations of some ROS and HSP70 characteriscics were found for neutrophils from young people and nonagenarians. The observed difference in ROS and HSP70 correlations in elders and nonagenarians might be associated with an increased risk of mortality in older individuals less than 90 years old.

  2. The effects of platelet activating factor and retinoic acid on the expression of ELAM-1 and ICAM-1 and the functions of neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Preincubation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) with platelet-activating factor (PAF) for 3.5 h increased the adhesion rate of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to PMVECs from 57.3% to 72.8% (p < 0.01). Preincubation of PMNs with PAF also increased PMN-PMVEC adhesion rate. All-trans retinoic acid (RA) blocked the adherence of untreated PMNs to PAF-pretreated PMVECs but not the adherence of PAF-pretreated PMNs to untreated PMVECs. PAF increased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selection (ELAM-1) on PMVECs, PMN chemotaxis to zymosan-activated serum and histamine, and PMN aggregation and the release of acid phosphatase from PMNs. Co-incubation of RA inhibited PAF-induced PMN aggregation, the release of acid phosphatase from PMNs, and PMN chemotaxis to zymosan-activated serum and histamine while the expression of ICAM-1 and ELAM-1 did not change. Our results suggest that RA can be used to ameliorate PMN-mediated inflammation. PMID:18475624

  3. Effects of Ex Vivo y-Tocopherol on Airway Macrophage ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Elevated inflammation and altered immune responses are features found in atopic asthmatic airways. Recent studies indicate y-tocopherol (GT) supplementation can suppress airway inflammation in allergic asthma. We studied the effects of in vitro GT supplementation on receptor-mediated phagocytosis and expression of cell surface molecules associated with innate and adaptive immunity on sputum-derived macrophages. Cells from nonsmoking healthy (n = 6)and mild house dust mite-sensitive allergic asthmatics (n =6) were treated ex vivo with GT (300 uM) or saline (control). Phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan A bioparticles (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and expression of surface molecules associated with innate and adaptive immunity were assessed using flow cytometry. GT caused significantly decreased (p < 0.05) internalization of attached zymosan bioparticles and decreased (p < 0.05) macrophage expression of CD206,CD36 and CD86 in allergic asthmatics but not in corntrols. Overall, GT caused down regulation of both innate and adaptive immune response elements, and atopic status appears to be an important factor. Recent studies on the effects of the fat-soluble steriod hormone vitamins D and E suggest that dietary suplementation with these vitamins may be helpful for the prevention or in the treatment of inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases, including atopic asthma.

  4. Exogenous nitric oxide can control SIRS and downregulate NFkappaB.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Francisco S; Barros, Marcello B; García-Criado, Francisco J; Gomez-Alonso, Alberto

    2005-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) participates in inflammation and affects almost all steps of its development. Several experimental studies have unveiled the beneficial effects of NO through modulation of the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS). In this sense, in the present work we attempted to evaluate the beneficial effects of exogenous NO and its levels of action (biochemical and cellular) in a model of SIRS induced by two sequential insults. Dacron graft implantation (first insult) and subsequent administration of Zymosan A (second insult) in Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: 1) No manipulation (Basal); 2) Laparotomy (L) + mineral oil (Sham); 3) L + Graft-Zymosan (GZ) (Control); and 4) L + GZ + NO (Assay). Determinations: Survival, TNF-alpha, SOA, ICAM-1, and NFkappaB. The model established (Control) induced a mortality rate of 20%. Also, it significantly increased the levels of TNF-alpha (P <0.001) and SOA (P <0.01), ICAM-1 expression, and NFkappaB levels (P <0.05). Treatment with NO reduced mortality to 0%, significantly decreasing TNF-alpha (P <0.001) and SOA (P <0.01) levels, ICAM-1 expression, and NFkappaB levels (P <0.05). The exogenous administration of NO before the two sequential insults controlled SIRS at biochemical level (TNF-alpha, SOA) and at cellular level (transcription) in a lasting manner. The cascade-like interrelationship of both levels and the study design do not allow us the pinpoint the key to its modulation.

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation: frequency and power dependence.

    PubMed

    Gapeyev, A B; Mikhailik, E N; Chemeris, N K

    2008-04-01

    Using a model of acute zymosan-induced footpad edema in NMRI mice, the frequency and power dependence of anti-inflammatory effect of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) was found. Single whole-body exposure of animals to EHF EMR at the intensity of 0.1 mW/cm(2) for 20 min at 1 h after zymosan injection reduced both the footpad edema and local hyperthermia on average by 20% at the frequencies of 42.2, 51.8, and 65 GHz. Some other frequencies from the frequency range of 37.5-70 GHz were less effective or not effective at all. At fixed frequency of 42.2 GHz and intensity of 0.1 mW/cm(2), the effect had bell-shaped dependence on exposure duration with a maximum at 20-40 min. Reduction of intensity to 0.01 mW/cm(2) resulted in a change of the effect dependence on exposure duration to a linear one. Combined action of cyclooxygenase inhibitor sodium diclofenac and EHF EMR exposure caused a partial additive effect of decrease in footpad edema. Combined action of antihistamine clemastine and EHF EMR exposure caused a dose-dependent abolishment of the anti-inflammatory effect of EHF EMR. The results obtained suggest that arachidonic acid metabolites and histamine are involved in realization of anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity EHF EMR. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Effects of in vitro lactoferricin and lactoferrin on the head kidney cells of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.).

    PubMed

    Henry, Morgane A; Alexis, Maria N

    2009-08-15

    Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of lactoferrin have been demonstrated in mammals and in fish. However, in vivo, lactoferrin is digested by gastric pepsin treatment into the N-terminal derived peptide named lactoferricin. This has been so far overlooked in fish in vitro studies. The aim of the present study was to assess in vitro the effects of both lactoferricin and lactoferrin on the head kidney cells of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) in order to determine their potential as dietary additives and to get some insight into their mode of action. In vitro lactoferricin decreased significantly the chemiluminescent response of head kidney cells but did not affect the zymosan-triggered chemiluminescence activity. On the other hand, a high concentration of lactoferrin directly stimulated chemiluminescence but reduced the zymosan-triggered chemiluminescence. The bactericidal activity of head kidney cells was also significantly diminished by pre-incubation with lactoferrin in a dose-dependent manner. Although no significant effect of lactoferricin or lactoferrin was evidenced on head kidney cellular viability, absent or negative effect on the priming of respiratory burst activity suggested that care should be taken when using lactoferrin in the diet of sea bass and high doses should be avoided. Hypotheses about the mechanisms of action of lactoferricin and lactoferrin are presented.

  7. A living cell quartz crystal microbalance biosensor for continuous monitoring of cytotoxic responses of macrophages to single-walled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) exist and new ENMs are being developed. A challenge to nanotoxicology and environmental health and safety is evaluating toxicity of ENMs before they become widely utilized. Cellular assays remain the predominant test platform yet these methods are limited by using discrete time endpoints and reliance on organic dyes, vulnerable to interference from ENMs. Label-free, continuous, rapid response systems with biologically meaningful endpoints are needed. We have developed a device to detect and monitor in real time responses of living cells to ENMs. The device, a living cell quartz crystal microbalance biosensor (QCMB), uses macrophages adherent to a quartz crystal. The communal response of macrophages to treatments is monitored continuously as changes in crystal oscillation frequency (Δf). We report the ability of this QCMB to distinguish benign from toxic exposures and reveal unique kinetic information about cellular responses to varying doses of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Results We analyzed macrophage responses to additions of Zymosan A, polystyrene beads (PBs) (benign substances) or SWCNT (3-150 μg/ml) in the QCMB over 18 hrs. In parallel, toxicity was monitored over 24/48 hrs using conventional viability assays and histological stains to detect apoptosis. In the QCMB, a stable unchanging oscillation frequency occurred when cells alone, Zymosan A alone, PBs alone or SWCNTs without cells at the highest dose alone were used. With living cells in the QCMB, when Zymosan A, PBs or SWCNTs were added, a significant decrease in frequency occurred from 1-6 hrs. For SWCNTs, this Δf was dose-dependent. From 6-18 hrs, benign substances or low dose SWCNT (3-30 μg/ml) treatments showed a reversal of the decrease of oscillation frequency, returning to or exceeding pre-treatment levels. Cell recovery was confirmed in conventional assays. The lag time to see the Δf reversal in QCMB plots was linearly SWCNT

  8. Neutrophil chemotaxis by Propionibacterium acnes lipase and its inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W L; Shalita, A R; Suntharalingam, K; Fikrig, S M

    1982-01-01

    The chemoattraction of Propionibacterium acnes lipase for neutrophils and the effect of lipase inhibitor and two antibiotic agents on the chemotaxis were evaluated. Of the various fractions tested, partially purified lipase (fraction 2c) was the most active cytotaxin produced by P. acnes. Serum mediators were not required for the generation of chemotaxis by lipase in vitro. Diisopropyl phosphofluoridate at low concentration (10(-4) mM) completely inhibited lipase activity as well as polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis generated by lipase. Tetracycline hydrochloride and erythromycin base at concentrations of 10(-1) mM and 1 mM, respectively, caused 100% inhibition of PMN migration toward lipase or zymosan-activated serum. The inhibiting activity of the antibiotics was directed against cells independently of any effect on lipase. Chemotaxis by P. acnes lipase suggests a wider role for this enzyme in the inflammatory process and the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Images PMID:7054130

  9. Inflammation Stimulates the Expression of PCSK9

    PubMed Central

    Feingold, Kenneth R.; Moser, Arthur H.; Shigenaga, Judy K.; Patzek, Sophie M.; Grunfeld, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation induces marked changes in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) plays an important role in regulating LDL receptor degradation. Here we demonstrate that LPS decreases hepatic LDL receptor protein but at the same time hepatic LDL receptor mRNA levels are not decreased. We therefore explored the effect of LPS on PCSK9 expression. LPS results in a marked increase in hepatic PCSK9 mRNA levels (4 hours-2.5 fold increase; 38 hours-12.5 fold increase). The increase in PCSK9 is a sensitive response with 1 ug LPS inducing a ½ maximal response. LPS also increased PCSK9 expression in the kidney. Finally, zymosan and turpentine, other treatments that induce inflammation, also stimulated hepatic expression of PCSK9. Thus, inflammation stimulates PCSK9 expression leading to increased LDL receptor degradation and decreasing LDL receptors thereby increasing serum LDL, which could have beneficial effects on host defense. PMID:18638454

  10. Polymorphonuclear cell motility, ankylosing spondylitis, and HLA B27.

    PubMed Central

    Pease, C T; Fordham, J N; Currey, H L

    1984-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) function was studied in 29 subjects with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Of these, 20 were HLA B27+ve and 9 B27-ve. There were 30 controls and, of these, 15 were B27+ve. Random and directed cell migration was measured by 2 techniques: migration through a micropore filter and migration under an agar film. The chemo-attractant was either case in-activated serum or zymosan-activated serum. By both techniques directed motility was increased in subjects with B27 or with AS when compared to the B27-ve controls. This suggests that the disease AS and the possession of B27 are both associated with increased PMN motility. PMID:6608924

  11. Rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes do not secrete endogenous pyrogens or interleukin 1 when stimulated by endotoxin, polyinosine:polycytosine, or muramyl dipeptide.

    PubMed

    Windle, B E; Murphy, P A; Cooperman, S

    1983-03-01

    Rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes were purified from rabbit blood by centrifugation on colloidal silica gradients followed by sedimentation in 4% Ficoll. The purified neutrophils had normal random motility, responded to chemotactic stimuli, phagocytosed zymosan particles, made superoxide, and phagocytosed and killed bacteria. However, they did not secret endogenous pyrogens either spontaneously or in response to stimulation with endotoxin, polyinosine:polycytosine, or muramyl dipeptide. Macrophages isolated on the same gradients secreted some pyrogen spontaneously and secreted considerably more in response to the same three stimuli. This evidence reinforces the idea that macrophages are the only source of endogenous pyrogens, and that pyrogens secreted by cell populations that are rich in neutrophils are to be attributed to the monocytes or macrophages that the cell populations contain.

  12. Rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes do not secrete endogenous pyrogens or interleukin 1 when stimulated by endotoxin, polyinosine:polycytosine, or muramyl dipeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Windle, B E; Murphy, P A; Cooperman, S

    1983-01-01

    Rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes were purified from rabbit blood by centrifugation on colloidal silica gradients followed by sedimentation in 4% Ficoll. The purified neutrophils had normal random motility, responded to chemotactic stimuli, phagocytosed zymosan particles, made superoxide, and phagocytosed and killed bacteria. However, they did not secret endogenous pyrogens either spontaneously or in response to stimulation with endotoxin, polyinosine:polycytosine, or muramyl dipeptide. Macrophages isolated on the same gradients secreted some pyrogen spontaneously and secreted considerably more in response to the same three stimuli. This evidence reinforces the idea that macrophages are the only source of endogenous pyrogens, and that pyrogens secreted by cell populations that are rich in neutrophils are to be attributed to the monocytes or macrophages that the cell populations contain. PMID:6601619

  13. Chemotactic properties and absence of the formyl peptide receptor in ferret (Mustela putorius furo) neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Makoto; Otsubo, Kouji; Kikuchi, Tomoko; Itou, Takuya; Sakai, Takeo

    2010-02-01

    This study describes a chemotaxis assay of ferret polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs). The optimal conditions for this chemotaxis assay were investigated for three chemoattractants: zymosan activated serum (ZAS), recombinant human interleukin-8 (rhIL-8) and N-formyl-Met-Leu- Phe (fMLF). In this study, ferret polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) reacted to ZAS and rhIL-8, but not fMLF. The optimal concentration of ZAS and rhIL-8 were 5% and 100 ng/ml, respectively. The optimal incubation time of each reagent was 60 min. Due to the lack of response shown from fMLF, the existence of formyl peptide receptors (FPR) on ferret PMNs was investigated by evaluating FPR binding using flow cytometry. The receptor was not detected, implying that ferret neutrophils may lack FPR. This study confirms the fundamental experimental conditions for ferret PMNs chemotaxis and elucidates new findings concerning FPR in ferret neutrophils. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibitory effect of nicergoline on superoxide generation by activated rat microglias measured using a simple chemiluminescence method.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Tanaka, M; Okamoto, K

    2001-01-05

    We evaluated the effect of nicergoline on superoxide production by rat microglias using a 2-methyl-6-(p-methoxyphenyl)-3, 7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-3-one-dependent chemiluminescence assay. Nicergoline dose-dependently inhibited superoxide production by microglias stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or opsonized zymosan, while it had no effect on superoxide production by a hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system. These results indicate that nicergoline does not have a scavenging effect, but has an inhibitory effect on superoxide generation by microglias. Although this drug is commonly used for treating chronic cerebral infarction, it may also have a protective effect on progression of Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease.

  15. TRPV2 has a pivotal role in macrophage particle binding and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Link, Tiffany M; Park, Una; Vonakis, Becky M; Raben, Daniel M; Soloski, Mark J; Caterina, Michael J

    2010-03-01

    Macrophage phagocytosis is critical for defense against pathogens. Whereas many steps of phagocytosis involve ionic flux, the underlying ion channels remain ill defined. Here we show that zymosan-, immunoglobulin G (IgG)- and complement-mediated particle binding and phagocytosis were impaired in macrophages lacking the cation channel TRPV2. TRPV2 was recruited to the nascent phagosome and depolarized the plasma membrane. Depolarization increased the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)), which triggered the partial actin depolymerization necessary for occupancy-elicited phagocytic receptor clustering. TRPV2-deficient macrophages were also defective in chemoattractant-elicited motility. Consequently, TRPV2-deficient mice showed accelerated mortality and greater organ bacterial load when challenged with Listeria monocytogenes. Our data demonstrate the participation of TRPV2 in early phagocytosis and its fundamental importance in innate immunity.

  16. Chemiluminescence of neutrophils from patients with Behçet's disease and its correlation with an increased proportion of uncommon serotypes of Streptococcus sanguis in the oral flora.

    PubMed

    Isogai, E; Ohno, S; Kotake, S; Isogai, H; Tsurumizu, T; Fujii, N; Yokota, K; Syuto, B; Yamaguchi, M; Matsuda, H

    1990-01-01

    Zymosan-induced chemiluminescence was investigated in whole blood and in neutrophils: in both, the peak count was frequently elevated in Behçet's disease, and was significantly higher than in healthy controls; similarly the peak time was shorter. There were more uncommon serotypes of Streptococcus sanguis in the oral flora of patients with Behçet's disease. Common serotypes were present in the flora of healthy controls, but not in patients with the disease. The percentage of Strep. sanguis in the oral flora was significantly correlated with the level of chemiluminescence response. Thus infection with uncommon serotypes of Strep. sanguis may play a role in the aetiology of Behçet's disease.

  17. The effects of low-dose X-irradiation on the oxidative burst in stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Schaue, D; Marples, B; Trott, K R

    2002-07-01

    Local irradiation with a dose of around 0.5 Gy is an effective treatment of acute necrotizing inflammations. The hypothesis that low doses of X-rays modulate the oxidative burst in activated macrophages, which plays a major role in the acute inflammatory process, was tested. Murine RAW 264.7 macrophages were stimulated with LPS/gammaIFN, PMA or zymosan and oxidative burst was measured using either DCFH-DA or by reduction of cytochrome-C. Radiation doses of 0.3-10 Gy were given shortly before or after stimulation. Low X-ray doses of <1 Gy significantly reduced the oxidative burst in activated macrophages, whereas higher doses had little effect on oxidative burst. The modulation of oxidative burst by low radiation doses may contribute to the therapeutic effectiveness of low-dose radiotherapy of acute necrotizing inflammations.

  18. The hallucinogenic diterpene salvinorin A inhibits leukotriene synthesis in experimental models of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Antonietta; Pace, Simona; Tedesco, Federica; Pagano, Ester; Guerra, Germano; Troisi, Fabiana; Werner, Markus; Roviezzo, Fiorentina; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Werz, Oliver; Izzo, Angelo A; Capasso, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid (AA) involved in a number of autoimmune/inflammatory disorders including asthma, allergic rhinitis and cardiovascular diseases. Salvinorin A (SA), a diterpene isolated from the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum, is a well-established analgesic compound, but its anti-inflammatory properties are under-researched and its effects on LT production is unknown to date. Here, we studied the possible effect of SA on LT production and verified its actions on experimental models of inflammation in which LTs play a prominent role. Peritoneal macrophages (PM) stimulated by calcium ionophore A23187 were chosen as in vitro system to evaluate the effect of SA on LT production. Zymosan-induced peritonitis in mice and carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats were selected as LT-related models to evaluate the effect of SA on inflammation as well as on LT biosynthesis. SA inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, A23187-induced LTB4 biosynthesis in isolated PM. In zymosan-induced peritonitis, SA inhibited cell infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity, vascular permeability and LTC4 production in the peritoneal cavity without decreasing the production of prostaglandin E2. In carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats, a more sophisticated model of acute inflammation related to LTs, SA significantly inhibited LTB4 production in the inflammatory exudates, along with reducing the phlogistic process in the lung. In conclusion, SA inhibited LT production and it was effective in experimental models of inflammation in which LTs play a pivotal role. SA might be considered as a lead compound for the development of drugs useful in LTs-related diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of nanostructured gold surfaces on monocyte activation and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Sara; Forsberg, Magnus; Hulander, Mats; Vazirisani, Forugh; Palmquist, Anders; Lausmaa, Jukka; Thomsen, Peter; Trobos, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The role of material surface properties in the direct interaction with bacteria and the indirect route via host defense cells is not fully understood. Recently, it was suggested that nanostructured implant surfaces possess antimicrobial properties. In the current study, the adhesion and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis and human monocyte adhesion and activation were studied separately and in coculture in different in vitro models using smooth gold and well-defined nanostructured gold surfaces. Two polystyrene surfaces were used as controls in the monocyte experiments. Fluorescent viability staining demonstrated a reduction in the viability of S. epidermidis close to the nanostructured gold surface, whereas the smooth gold correlated with more live biofilm. The results were supported by scanning electron microscopy observations, showing higher biofilm tower formations and more mature biofilms on smooth gold compared with nanostructured gold. Unstimulated monocytes on the different substrates demonstrated low activation, reduced gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and low cytokine secretion. In contrast, stimulation with opsonized zymosan or opsonized live S. epidermidis for 1 hour significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species, the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-10, as well as the secretion of TNF-α, demonstrating the ability of the cells to elicit a response and actively phagocytose prey. In addition, cells cultured on the smooth gold and the nanostructured gold displayed a different adhesion pattern and a more rapid oxidative burst than those cultured on polystyrene upon stimulation. We conclude that S. epidermidis decreased its viability initially when adhering to nanostructured surfaces compared with smooth gold surfaces, especially in the bacterial cell layers closest to the surface. In contrast, material surface properties neither strongly

  20. Water-soluble phenol TS-13 combats acute but not chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Menshchikova, Elena; Tkachev, Victor; Lemza, Anna; Sharkova, Tatyana; Kandalintseva, Natalya; Vavilin, Valentin; Safronova, Olga; Zenkov, Nikolay

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the synthetic water-soluble phenolic antioxidant TS-13 (sodium 3-(4'-methoxyphenyl)propyl thiosulfonate), an inducer of the redox-dependent Keap1/Nrf2/ARE signaling system, in experimental models of acute and chronic inflammation. Acute local inflammation was induced by intraplantar carrageenan injection into rat hind paws, and acute systemic inflammation was modeled by intravenous zymosan injection (in rats) or LPS-induced endotoxic shock (in mice). Chronic inflammation was investigated in rat models of air pouch and collagen-induced arthritis. The effects of TS-13 treatment were estimated by changes in the intensity of inflammation (paw edema, liver infiltration, animal survival, exudation, and clinical score of arthritis) and by the effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by leukocytes from peripheral blood and inflammatory exudates. We found the significant increase in expression of mRNA, content of protein and activity of a well-characterized Nrf2 target enzyme glutathione S-transferase P1, as well as nuclear extract protein binding to the ARE consensus sequence in liver of mice fed with diet containing TS-13. TS-13 markedly attenuated carrageenan-induced paw edema, reduced blood granulocyte number and volume density of liver infiltrates in the systemic zymosan-induced inflammation model, and increased mice survival after lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock. However, TS-13 administration did not influence cell and protein exudation into air pouches and suppressed clinical manifestation of collagen-induced polyarthritis only at early stages. Nevertheless, TS-13 inhibited the generation of ROS by leukocytes in all inflammation models. The data suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of Keap1/Nrf2/ARE system are more prominent against acute innate-mediated inflammation than chronic immune inflammation. This narrows the potential therapeutic efficacy of ARE inducers in inflammation treatment.

  1. BAY 41-2272, a soluble guanylate cyclase agonist, activates human mononuclear phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Soeiro-Pereira, PV; Falcai, A; Kubo, CA; Oliveira-Júnior, EB; Marques, OC; Antunes, E; Condino-Neto, A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Phagocyte function is critical for host defense against infections. Defects in phagocytic function lead to several primary immunodeficiencies characterized by early onset of recurrent and severe infections. In this work, we further investigated the effects of BAY 41-2272, a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) agonist, on the activation of human peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) and THP-1 cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH THP-1 cells and PBM viability was evaluated by methylthiazoletetrazolium assay; reactive oxygen species production by lucigenin chemiluminescence; gene and protein expression of NAPDH oxidase components by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively; phagocytosis and microbicidal activity by co-incubation, respectively, with zymosan and Escherichia coli; and cytokine release by elisa. KEY RESULTS BAY 41-2272, compared with the untreated group, increased spreading of monocytes by at least 35%, superoxide production by at least 50%, and gp91PHOX and p67PHOX gene expression 20 to 40 times, in both PBM and THP-1 cells. BAY 41-2272 also augmented phagocytosis of zymosan particles threefold compared with control, doubled microbicidal activity against E. coli and enhanced the release of TNF-α and IL-12p70 by both PBM and THP-1 cells. Finally, by inhibiting sGC with ODQ, we showed that BAY 41-2272-induced superoxide production and phagocytosis is not dependent exclusively on sGC activation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS In addition to its ability to induce vasorelaxation and its potential application for therapy of vascular diseases, BAY 41-2272 was shown to activate human mononuclear phagocytes. Hence, it is a novel pro-inflammatory drug that may be useful for controlling infections in the immunocompromised host. PMID:22044316

  2. TNF and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor interdependence mediates inflammation via CCL17

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Andrew D.; Khiew, Hsu-Wei; Christensen, Anne D.; Fleetwood, Andrew J.; Lacey, Derek C.; Smith, Julia E.; Förster, Irmgard

    2018-01-01

    TNF and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have proinflammatory activity and both contribute, for example, to rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis. We previously identified a new GM-CSF→JMJD3 demethylase→interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4)→CCL17 pathway that is active in monocytes/macrophages in vitro and important for inflammatory pain, as well as for arthritic pain and disease. Here we provide evidence for a nexus between TNF and this pathway, and for TNF and GM-CSF interdependency. We report that the initiation of zymosan-induced inflammatory pain and zymosan-induced arthritic pain and disease are TNF dependent. Once arthritic pain and disease are established, blockade of GM-CSF or CCL17, but not of TNF, is still able to ameliorate them. TNF is required for GM-CSF–driven inflammatory pain and for initiation of GM-CSF–driven arthritic pain and disease, but not once they are established. TNF-driven inflammatory pain and TNF-driven arthritic pain and disease are dependent on GM-CSF and mechanistically require the same downstream pathway involving GM-CSF→CCL17 formation via JMJD3-regulated IRF4 production, indicating that GM-CSF and CCL17 can mediate some of the proinflammatory and algesic actions of TNF. Given we found that TNF appears important only early in arthritic pain and disease progression, targeting a downstream mediator, such as CCL17, which appears to act throughout the course of disease, could be effective at ameliorating chronic inflammatory conditions where TNF is implicated. PMID:29563337

  3. Detailed characterization of a long-term rodent model of critical illness and recovery.

    PubMed

    Hill, Neil E; Saeed, Saima; Phadke, Rahul; Ellis, Matthew J; Chambers, Darren; Wilson, Duncan R; Castells, Josiane; Morel, Jerome; Freysennet, Damien G; Brett, Stephen J; Murphy, Kevin G; Singer, Mervyn

    2015-03-01

    To characterize a long-term model of recovery from critical illness, with particular emphasis on cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and muscle function. Randomized controlled animal study. University research laboratory. Male Wistar rats. Intraperitoneal injection of the fungal cell wall constituent, zymosan or n-saline. Following intervention, rats were followed for up to 2 weeks. Animals with zymosan peritonitis reached a clinical and biochemical nadir on day 2. Initial reductions were seen in body weight, total body protein and fat, and muscle mass. Leg muscle fiber diameter remained subnormal at 14 days with evidence of persisting myonecrosis, even though gene expression of regulators of muscle mass (e.g., MAFbx, MURF1, and myostatin) had peaked on days 2-4 but normalized by day 7. Treadmill exercise capacity, forelimb grip strength, and in vivo maximum tetanic force were also reduced. Food intake was minimal until day 4 but increased thereafter. This did not relate to appetite hormone levels with early (6 hr) rises in plasma insulin and leptin followed by persisting subnormal levels; ghrelin levels did not change. Serum interleukin-6 level peaked at 6 hours but had normalized by day 2, whereas interleukin-10 remained persistently elevated and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol persistently depressed. There was an early myocardial depression and rise in core temperature, yet reduced oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange ratio with a loss of diurnal rhythmicity that showed a gradual but incomplete recovery by day 7. This detailed physiological, metabolic, hormonal, functional, and histological muscle characterization of a model of critical illness and recovery reproduces many of the findings reported in human critical illness. It can be used to assess putative therapies that may attenuate loss, or enhance recovery, of muscle mass and function.

  4. Malondialdehyde-Acetaldehyde (MAA) Adducted Surfactant Protein Alters Macrophage Functions through Scavenger Receptor A

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Muna; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Wyatt, Todd A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Reactive aldehydes like acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde generated as a result of alcohol metabolism and cigarette smoke exposure lead to the formation of malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-adducted proteins (MAA adducts). These aldehydes can adduct to different proteins such as bovine serum album (BSA) and surfactant proteins A or D (SPA, SPD). Macrophages play an important role in innate immunity, but the effect of MAA adducts on macrophage function has not yet been examined. Because macrophage scavenger receptor A (SRA; CD204) mediates the uptake of modified proteins, we hypothesized that the effects of MAA modified proteins on macrophage function are primarily mediated through SRA. Methods and Results We tested this hypothesis by exposing SPD-MAA to macrophages and measuring functions. SPD-MAA treatment significantly stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α release in the macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. A significant reduction in phagocytosis of zymosan particles was also observed. SPD-MAA stimulated a significant dose-dependent increase in TNF-α and IL-6 release from peritoneal macrophages of WT mice. But a significantly less TNF-α and IL-6 were released from peritoneal macrophages of SRA−/− mice. We observed a significant reduction in phagocytosis of zymosan particles in peritoneal macrophages from WT mice treated with SPD-MAA. No further SPD-MAA-induced reduction was seen in peritoneal macrophages form SRA−/− mice. SPD-MAA treatment significantly increased SRA mRNA expression, but had no effect on surface receptor protein expression. Protein kinase C alpha inhibitor and NF-κB inhibitor significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine release in response to SPD-MAA. Conclusion In conclusion, our data demonstrate that SRA is important for MAA-adducted protein-mediated effect on macrophage functions. PMID:27783409

  5. Nociceptive and Inflammatory Mediator Upregulation in a Mouse Model of Chronic Prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Erica S.; Xie, Amy; La, Jun-Ho; Gebhart, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis, characterized by genitourinary pain in the pelvic region in the absence of an identifiable cause, is common in adult males. Surprisingly, the sensory innervation of the prostate and mediators that sensitize its innervation have received little attention. We thus characterized a mouse model of chronic prostatitis, focusing on the prostate innervation and how organ inflammation affects gene expression of putative nociceptive markers in prostate afferent somata in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and mediators in the prostate. Retrograde tracing (fast blue, FB) from the prostate revealed that thoracolumbar (TL) and lumbosacral (LS) DRG are the principal sources of somata of prostate afferents. Nociceptive markers (e.g., TRP, TREK and P2X channels) were upregulated in FB-labeled TL and LS somata for up to four weeks after inflaming the prostate (intra-prostate injection of zymosan). Prostatic inflammation was evident histologically, by monocyte infiltration and a significant increase in mast cell tryptase activity 14, 21 and 28 days after zymosan injection. Interleukin-10 and NGF were also significantly upregulated in the prostate throughout the four weeks of inflammation. Open field pain-related behaviors (e.g., rearing) were unchanged in prostate-inflamed mice, suggesting the absence of ongoing nociception, but withdrawal thresholds to lower abdominal pressure were significantly reduced. The increases in IL-10, mast cell tryptase and NGF in the inflamed prostate were cotemporaneous with reduced thresholds to probing of the abdomen and upregulation of nociceptive markers in DRG somata innervating the prostate. The results provide insight and direction for study of mechanisms underlying pain in chronic prostatitis. PMID:25915147

  6. Effect of exposure to diesel exhaust particles on the susceptibility of the lung to infection.

    PubMed

    Castranova, V; Ma, J Y; Yang, H M; Antonini, J M; Butterworth, L; Barger, M W; Roberts, J; Ma, J K

    2001-08-01

    There are at least three mechanisms by which alveolar macrophages play a critical role in protecting the lung from bacterial or viral infections: production of inflammatory cytokines that recruit and activate lung phagocytes, production of antimicrobial reactive oxidant species, and production of interferon (an antiviral agent). In this article we summarize data concerning the effect of exposure to diesel exhaust particles on these alveolar macrophage functions and the role of adsorbed organic chemicals compared to the carbonaceous core in the toxicity of diesel particles. In vitro exposure of rat alveolar macrophages to diesel exhaust particles decreased the ability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial product] to stimulate the production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Methanol extract exhibited this potential but methanol-washed diesel particles did not. Exposure of rats to diesel exhaust particles by intratracheal instillation also decreased LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-1 production from alveolar macrophages. In contrast, carbon black did not exhibit this inhibitory effect. Exposure of rats to diesel exhaust particles by inhalation decreased the ability of alveolar macrophages to produce antimicrobial reactive oxidant species in response to zymosan (a fungal component). In contrast, exposure to coal dust increased zymosan-stimulated oxidant production. In vivo exposure to diesel exhaust particles but not to carbon black decreased the ability of the lungs to clear bacteria. Inhalation exposure of mice to diesel exhaust particles but not to coal dust depressed the ability of the lung to produce the antiviral agent interferon and increased viral multiplication in the lung. These results support the hypothesis that exposure to diesel exhaust particles increases the susceptibility of the lung to infection by depressing the antimicrobial potential of alveolar macrophages. This inhibitory effect appears

  7. Effect of exposure to diesel exhaust particles on the susceptibility of the lung to infection.

    PubMed Central

    Castranova, V; Ma, J Y; Yang, H M; Antonini, J M; Butterworth, L; Barger, M W; Roberts, J; Ma, J K

    2001-01-01

    There are at least three mechanisms by which alveolar macrophages play a critical role in protecting the lung from bacterial or viral infections: production of inflammatory cytokines that recruit and activate lung phagocytes, production of antimicrobial reactive oxidant species, and production of interferon (an antiviral agent). In this article we summarize data concerning the effect of exposure to diesel exhaust particles on these alveolar macrophage functions and the role of adsorbed organic chemicals compared to the carbonaceous core in the toxicity of diesel particles. In vitro exposure of rat alveolar macrophages to diesel exhaust particles decreased the ability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial product] to stimulate the production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Methanol extract exhibited this potential but methanol-washed diesel particles did not. Exposure of rats to diesel exhaust particles by intratracheal instillation also decreased LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-1 production from alveolar macrophages. In contrast, carbon black did not exhibit this inhibitory effect. Exposure of rats to diesel exhaust particles by inhalation decreased the ability of alveolar macrophages to produce antimicrobial reactive oxidant species in response to zymosan (a fungal component). In contrast, exposure to coal dust increased zymosan-stimulated oxidant production. In vivo exposure to diesel exhaust particles but not to carbon black decreased the ability of the lungs to clear bacteria. Inhalation exposure of mice to diesel exhaust particles but not to coal dust depressed the ability of the lung to produce the antiviral agent interferon and increased viral multiplication in the lung. These results support the hypothesis that exposure to diesel exhaust particles increases the susceptibility of the lung to infection by depressing the antimicrobial potential of alveolar macrophages. This inhibitory effect appears

  8. Multiple lupus-associated ITGAM variants alter Mac-1 functions on neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yebin; Wu, Jianming; Kucik, Dennis F; White, Nathan B; Redden, David T; Szalai, Alexander J; Bullard, Daniel C; Edberg, Jeffrey C

    2013-11-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ITGAM locus (including the nonsynonymous SNPs rs1143679, rs1143678, and rs1143683) are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). ITGAM encodes the protein CD11b, a subunit of the β2 integrin Mac-1. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ITGAM genetic variation on the biologic functions of neutrophil Mac-1. Neutrophils from ITGAM-genotyped and -sequenced healthy donors were isolated for functional studies. The phagocytic capacity of neutrophil ITGAM variants was probed with complement-coated erythrocytes, serum-treated zymosan, heat-treated zymosan, and IgG-coated erythrocytes. The adhesion capacity of ITGAM variants, in adhering to either purified intercellular adhesion molecule 1 or tumor necrosis factor α-stimulated endothelial cells, was assessed in a flow chamber. Expression levels of total CD11b and activation of CD11b were assessed by flow cytometry. Mac-1-mediated neutrophil phagocytosis, determined in cultures with 2 different complement-coated particles, was significantly reduced in individuals with nonsynonymous variant alleles of ITGAM. This reduction in phagocytosis was related to variation at either rs1143679 (in the β-propeller region) or rs1143678/rs1143683 (highly linked SNPs in the cytoplasmic/calf-1 regions). Phagocytosis mediated by Fcγ receptors was also significantly reduced in donors with variant ITGAM alleles. Similarly, firm adhesion of neutrophils was significantly reduced in individuals with variant ITGAM alleles. These functional alterations were not attributable to differences in total receptor expression or activation. The nonsynonymous ITGAM variants rs1143679 and rs1143678/rs113683 contribute to altered Mac-1 function on neutrophils. These results underscore the need to consider multiple nonsynonymous SNPs when assessing the functional consequences of ITGAM variation on immune cell processes and the risk of SLE

  9. Nociceptive and inflammatory mediator upregulation in a mouse model of chronic prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Erica S; Xie, Amy; La, Jun-Ho; Gebhart, G F

    2015-08-01

    Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis, characterized by genitourinary pain in the pelvic region in the absence of an identifiable cause, is common in adult males. Surprisingly, the sensory innervation of the prostate and mediators that sensitize its innervation have received little attention. We thus characterized a mouse model of chronic prostatitis, focusing on the prostate innervation and how organ inflammation affects gene expression of putative nociceptive markers in prostate afferent somata in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and mediators in the prostate. Retrograde tracing (fast blue) from the prostate revealed that thoracolumbar and lumbosacral DRG are the principal sources of somata of prostate afferents. Nociceptive markers (eg, transient receptor potential, TREK, and P2X channels) were upregulated in fast blue-labeled thoracolumbar and lumbosacral somata for up to four weeks after inflaming the prostate (intraprostate injection of zymosan). Prostatic inflammation was evident histologically, by monocyte infiltration and a significant increase in mast cell tryptase activity 14, 21, and 28 days after zymosan injection. Interleukin 10 and NGF were also significantly upregulated in the prostate throughout the 4 weeks of inflammation. Open-field pain-related behaviors (eg, rearing) were unchanged in prostate-inflamed mice, suggesting the absence of ongoing nociception, but withdrawal thresholds to lower abdominal pressure were significantly reduced. The increases in IL-10, mast cell tryptase, and NGF in the inflamed prostate were cotemporaneous with reduced thresholds to probing of the abdomen and upregulation of nociceptive markers in DRG somata innervating the prostate. The results provide insight and direction for the study of mechanisms underlying pain in chronic prostatitis.

  10. Characterization and immunomodulatory effects of glucans from Pleurotus albidus, a promising species of mushroom for farming and biomass production.

    PubMed

    Castro-Alves, Victor Costa; Gomes, Daniel; Menolli, Nelson; Sforça, Maurício Luís; Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira do

    2017-02-01

    Polysaccharides from a number of mushroom species are recognized as functional food ingredients with potential health benefits, including immunomodulatory effects. In this study, polysaccharides extracted from the basidiome with cold water (BaCW), hot water (BaHW), and hot alkali (BaHA) solution, and exo- (MyEX) and endopolysaccharides (MyEN) from the submerged culture of Pleurotus albidus, a promising species for farming and biomass production, were analyzed for their chemical composition and structure and immunomodulatory effects on macrophages. Compositional (HPAEC-PAD and HPSEC-RID/MWD) and structural (FT-IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR) analyses identified BaCW and MyEX as β-(1,6)-branched β-(1,3)-glucans, BaHW and MyEN as α-(1,3)-(1,2)-branched α-(1,6)-glucans, and BaHA as a mixture of α-(1,6)- and β-(1,3)-glucans. BaCW and MyEX stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO), but not interleukin-6 (IL-6), and decreased phagocytosis of zymosan particles. In contrast, BaHW and MyEN induced TNF-α, NO and IL-6 production, and increased zymosan phagocytosis, while BaHA displayed intermediary effects in comparison the other polysaccharides. In conclusion, the basidiome and the submerged culture of P. albidus are sources of easily extractable α- and β-glucans with potential immunomodulatory effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Vimentin is an endogenous ligand for the pattern recognition receptor Dectin-1.

    PubMed

    Thiagarajan, Praveena S; Yakubenko, Valentin P; Elsori, Deena H; Yadav, Satya P; Willard, Belinda; Tan, Carmela D; Rodriguez, E René; Febbraio, Maria; Cathcart, Martha K

    2013-08-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of cholesterol deposition in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) within the arterial wall leading to impingement on the lumen of the vessel. In atherosclerotic lesions, MDM are the primary source of NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide anion (O₂⁻) inducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation leading to their unregulated uptake of oxidized LDL and foam cell formation. We recently discovered that zymosan potently activates monocyte NADPH oxidase via the non-toll pattern recognition receptor (PRR), Dectin-1. Other PRRs bind endogenous human ligands, yet no such ligands have been identified for Dectin-1. Our hypothesis was that inflammation generates endogenous ligands for Dectin-1 that activate O₂⁻ production and thereby contributes to atherogenesis. Human: anti-zymosan antibodies were used to identify similar, cross-reactive epitopes in human atherosclerotic tissue extracts. Immunoblot analysis revealed consistent antibody reactive protein bands on one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoreses. Vimentin was identified by mass spectrometry in the immunoreactive bands across different tissue samples. Direct binding of vimentin to Dectin-1 was observed using BIACORE. Further data revealed that vimentin induces O₂⁻ production by human monocytes. Analysis of human atherosclerotic lesions revealed that vimentin was detected extracellularly in the necrotic core and in areas of active inflammation. Vimentin also co-localized with Dectin-1 in macrophage-rich regions where O₂⁻ is produced. We conclude that vimentin is an endogenous, activating ligand for Dectin-1. Its presence in areas of artery wall inflammation and O₂⁻ production suggests that vimentin activates Dectin-1 and contributes to the oxidation of lipids and cholesterol accumulation in atherosclerosis.

  12. Site-specific mesenchymal control of inflammatory pain to yeast challenge in vulvodynia afflicted and pain-free women

    PubMed Central

    Foster, David C.; Falsetta, Megan L.; Woeller, Collynn F.; Pollock, Stephen J.; Song, Kunchang; Bonham, Adrienne; Haidaris, Constantine G.; Stodgell, Chris J.; Messing, Susan P.; Iadarola, Michael; Phipps, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast strains were derived from two regions of the lower genital tract of localized provoked vulvodynia (LPV) cases and pain-free controls. Sixteen strains were derived from four cases and four controls, age and race matched, following pre-sampling mechanical pain threshold assessments. Strains were challenged with six separate stimuli: live yeast species (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and S. cerevisiae), yeast extract (zymosan), or inactive vehicle. Production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were pro-inflammatory response measures. Highest IL-6 and PGE2 occurred with vestibular strains following C. albicans, C. glabrata, and zymosan challenges, resulting in the ability to significantly predict IL-6 and PGE2 production by genital tract location. Following C. albicans and C. glabrata challenge of all sixteen fibroblast strains, adjusting for dual sampling of subjects, PGE2 and IL-6 production significantly predicted the pre-sampling pain threshold from the genital tract site of sampling. At the same location of pain assessment and fibroblast sampling, in situ immunohistochemical (IHC)(+) fibroblasts for IL-6 and Cox-2 were quantified microscopically. The correlation between IL-6 production and IL-6 IHC(+) was statistically significant yet biological significance is unknown because of the small number of IHC(+) IL-6 fibroblasts identified. A low fibroblast IL-6 IHC(+) count may result from most IL-6 produced by fibroblasts existing in a secreted, extracellular state. Enhanced, site-specific, innate immune responsiveness to yeast pathogens by fibroblasts may be an early step in LPV pathogenesis. Fibroblast strain testing may offer an attractive/objective marker of LPV pathology in women with vulvodynia of inflammatory origin. PMID:25679469

  13. Hemiuroid trematode sporocysts are undetected by hemocytes of their intermediate host, the ark cockle Anadara trapezia: potential role of surface carbohydrates in successful parasitism.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Minami; Delamare-Deboutteville, Jerome; Dang, Cecile; Barnes, Andrew C

    2013-12-01

    In order to establish a successful relationship with their hosts, parasites must subvert or evade immune defences. Cockle Anadara trapezia and Sydney Rock oyster (SRO) Saccostrea glomerata live in the same location but only ark cockles are infected by sporocysts of hemiuroid trematode. This provides an opportunity to explore differing interactions between the parasite and the immune system of susceptible and refractive hosts. Rapid migration and encapsulation of sporocysts was observed by SRO hemocytes but not by cockle hemocytes. This migration/encapsulation was inhibited by N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine but not by the other sugars, implicating specific surface carbohydrates in immune detection. Effector responses of hemocytes were investigated in vitro in terms of production of reactive oxygen production (ROS). Hemocytes of both species strongly reacted to Zymosan, but only SRO hemocytes responded to live sporocysts. Neither species' hemocytes produced ROS in the presence of dead/fixed sporocysts, and there was no suppression of Zymosan-induced respiratory burst by sporocysts. This suggests that immune escape is mediated by avoiding encapsulation, perhaps through molecular mimicry. Membrane-shaving with proteases indicated that sporocyst surface proteins are not a key factors in hemocytic detection. Surface carbohydrates of SRO and cockle hemocytes and of sporocysts were profiled with a panel of biotinylated lectins. This revealed substantial differences between cockle and SRO hemocytes, but greater similarity between cockle hemocytes and sporocysts. Results suggest that surface carbohydrates play an integral role in hemocyte immunorecognition and that surface carbohydrate molecular mimicry is a potential strategy for immune evasion in cockles by hemiuroid trematode sporocysts. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The xanthine oxidase inhibitor Febuxostat reduces tissue uric acid content and inhibits injury-induced inflammation in the liver and lung

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Yang, Ke; Rock, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    Necrotic cell death in vivo induces a robust neutrophilic inflammatory response and the resulting inflammation can cause further tissue damage and disease. Dying cells induce this inflammation by releasing pro-inflammatory intracellular components, one of which is uric acid. Cells contain high levels of intracellular uric acid, which is produced when purines are oxidized by the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Here we test whether a non-nucleoside xanthine oxidase inhibitor, Febuxostat (FBX), can reduce intracellular uric acid levels and inhibit cell death-induced inflammation in two different murine tissue injury models; acid-induced acute lung injury and acetaminophen liver injury. Infiltration of inflammatory cells induced by acid injection into lungs or peritoneal administration of acetaminophen was evaluated by quantification with flow cytometry and tissue myeloperoxidase activity in the presence or absence of FBX treatment. Uric acid levels in serum and tissue were measured before giving the stimuli and during inflammation. The impact of FBX treatment on the peritoneal inflammation caused by the microbial stimulus, zymosan, was also analyzed to see whether FBX had a broad anti-inflammatory effect. We found that FBX reduced uric acid levels in acid-injured lung tissue and inhibited acute pulmonary inflammation triggered by lung injury. Similarly, FBX reduced uric acid levels in the liver and inhibited inflammation in response to acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury. In contrast, FBX did not reduce inflammation to zymosan, and therefore is not acting as a general anti-inflammatory agent. These results point to the potential of using agents like FBX to treat cell death-induced inflammation. PMID:25449036

  15. Pre-clinical pharmacology of ICI D2138, a potent orally-active non-redox inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase.

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, R. M.; Spruce, K. E.; Crawley, G. C.; Walker, E. R.; Foster, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    1. This paper describes the pre-clinical pharmacology of ICI D2138, a potent orally-active non-redox inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase which is undergoing clinical evaluation. 2. ICI D2138 potently inhibited leukotriene synthesis in murine peritoneal macrophages (IC50 = 3 nM) and human blood (IC50 = 20 nM). In human and dog blood, ICI D2138 did not inhibit thromboxane B2 synthesis at a concentration of 500 microM, thus the selectivity ratio (cyclo-oxygenase: 5-lipoxygenase) was greater than 20,000. In contrast, zileuton (a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor also undergoing clinical evaluation) exhibited a selectivity ratio of 15-100. 3. ICI D2138 potently and dose-dependently inhibited ex vivo leukotriene B4 (LTB4) synthesis by rat blood with ED50 values of 0.9, 4.0 and 80.0 mg kg-1 p.o. at 3, 10 and 20 h respectively after dosing. Similar activity was observed for inhibition of LTB4 production in a zymosan-inflamed rat air pouch model. Zileuton produced ED50 values of 5 and 20 mg kg-1 at 3 and 10 h respectively. 4. Oral administration of 1, 3 or 10 mg kg-1 ICI D2138 to dogs produced maximal inhibition of ex vivo LTB4 synthesis by blood for 5, 9 and 31 h respectively. A dose of 5 mg kg-1 p.o. of zileuton caused maximal inhibition of LTB4 for 24 h. 5. Oral administration of 10 mg kg-1 ICI D2138 caused total inhibition of LTB4 production in zymosan-inflamed rabbit knee joint. 6. Topical administration of ICI D2138 to rabbit skin caused a dose-related inhibition of arachidonic acid-induced plasma extravasation with an ID30 of 1.08 nmol per site.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1334748

  16. Measurement of intracellular nitric oxide (NO) production in shrimp haemocytes by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Xian, Jian-An; Guo, Hui; Li, Bin; Miao, Yu-Tao; Ye, Jian-Min; Zhang, Sheng-Peng; Pan, Xun-Bin; Ye, Chao-Xia; Wang, An-Li; Hao, Xuan-Ming

    2013-12-01

    A flow cytometric method to measure the production of intracellular nitric oxide (NO) was adapted for use with shrimp haemocytes. We applied fluorescent probe 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA) for NO detection in haemocytes from the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, and used flow cytometry to quantify fluorescence intensity in individual haemocyte. The optimized protocol for intracellular NO analysis consists to incubate haemocytes with DAF-FM DA at 10 μM for 60 min to determine the mean fluorescence intensity. Result showed that NO was also produced in the untreated shrimp haemocytes. NO level in granular cells and semigranular cells were much higher than that in hyaline cells. Defined by different characteristic of NO content, three subsets of haemocytes were observed. Zymosan A at dose of 10 or 100 particles per haemocyte triggered higher DAF-FM fluorescence intensity in granular and semigranular cells, than PMA that had no significant impact on all three cell types. These results indicate that granular and semigranular cells are the primary cells for NO generation. Cytochalasin B significantly inhibited the NO level induced by zymosan A. NG-Monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI) significantly suppressed the DAF-FM fluorescence in haemocytes, but apocynin could not modulate it, indicating that the DAF-FM fluorescence was closely related to the activity of NO-synthase pathway. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) improved the DAF-FM fluorescence in haemocytes, while the NO scavenger C-PTIO (2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide) significantly decreased the fluorescence, demonstrating that the fluorescence intensity of DAF-FM is mainly dependent on the intracellular NO level.

  17. Measuring Phagosome pH by Ratiometric Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paula; Guido, Daniele; Demaurex, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis is a fundamental process through which innate immune cells engulf bacteria, apoptotic cells or other foreign particles in order to kill or neutralize the ingested material, or to present it as antigens and initiate adaptive immune responses. The pH of phagosomes is a critical parameter regulating fission or fusion with endomembranes and activation of proteolytic enzymes, events that allow the phagocytic vacuole to mature into a degradative organelle. In addition, translocation of H+ is required for the production of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are essential for efficient killing and signaling to other host tissues. Many intracellular pathogens subvert phagocytic killing by limiting phagosomal acidification, highlighting the importance of pH in phagosome biology. Here we describe a ratiometric method for measuring phagosomal pH in neutrophils using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled zymosan as phagocytic targets, and live-cell imaging. The assay is based on the fluorescence properties of FITC, which is quenched by acidic pH when excited at 490 nm but not when excited at 440 nm, allowing quantification of a pH-dependent ratio, rather than absolute fluorescence, of a single dye. A detailed protocol for performing in situ dye calibration and conversion of ratio to real pH values is also provided. Single-dye ratiometric methods are generally considered superior to single wavelength or dual-dye pseudo-ratiometric protocols, as they are less sensitive to perturbations such as bleaching, focus changes, laser variations, and uneven labeling, which distort the measured signal. This method can be easily modified to measure pH in other phagocytic cell types, and zymosan can be replaced by any other amine-containing particle, from inert beads to living microorganisms. Finally, this method can be adapted to make use of other fluorescent probes sensitive to different pH ranges or other phagosomal activities, making it a generalized

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract and bioactive compounds identified from the fruits of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae).

    PubMed

    Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; Furtado, Allanny Alves; Bitencourt, Mariana Angélica Oliveira; Lima, Maira Conceição Jerônimo de Souza; Andrade, Rafael Caetano Lisbôa Castro de; Azevedo, Eduardo Pereira de; Soares, Thaciane da Cunha; Tomaz, José Carlos; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas

    2016-08-05

    Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae), popularly known as "mangabeira," has been used in folk medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, hypertension, dermatitis, diabetes, liver diseases and gastric disorders. Although the ethnobotany indicates that its fruits can be used for the treatment of ulcers and inflammatory disorders, only few studies have been conducted to prove such biological activities. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous extract of the fruits of H. speciosa Gomes as well as its bioactive compounds using in vivo experimental models. The bioactive compounds were identified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). The anti-inflammatory properties were investigated through in vivo tests, which comprised xylene-induced ear edema, carrageenan-induced peritonitis and zymosan-induced air pouch. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α were determined using ELISA. Rutin and chlorogenic acid were identified in the extract as the main secondary metabolites. In addition, the extract as well as rutin and chlorogenic acid significantly inhibited the xilol-induced ear edema and also reduced the cell migration in both carrageenan-induced peritonitis and zymosan-induced air pouch models. Reduced levels of cytokines were also observed. This is the first study that demonstrated the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract of H. speciosa fruits against different inflammatory agents in animal models, suggesting that its bioactive molecules, especially rutin and chlorogenic acid are, at least in part, responsible for such activity. These findings support the widespread use of Hancornia speciosa in popular medicine and demonstrate that its aqueous extract has therapeutical potential for the development of herbal drugs with anti-inflammatory properties.

  19. Neonatal vaginal irritation results in long-term visceral and somatic hypersensitivity and increased hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis output in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Angela N.; Zhang, Zhen; Fuentes, Isabella M.; Wang, Ruipeng; Ryals, Janelle M.; Christianson, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Experiencing early life stress or injury increases a woman's likelihood of developing vulvodynia and concomitant dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. To investigate the outcome of neonatal vaginal irritation (NVI), female mouse pups were administered intravaginal zymosan on postnatal days 8 and 10 and were assessed as adults for vaginal hypersensitivity by measuring the visceromotor response to vaginal balloon distension (VBD). Western blotting and calcium imaging were performed to measure transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in the vagina and innervating primary sensory neurons. Serum corticosterone (CORT), mast cell degranulation, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) expression were measured as indicators of peripheral HPA axis activation. Colorectal and hind paw sensitivity were measured to determine cross-sensitization resulting from NVI. Adult NVI mice had significantly larger visceromotor response during VBD than naive mice. TRPA1 protein expression was significantly elevated in the vagina, and calcium transients evoked by mustard oil (TRPA1 ligand) or capsaicin (TRPV1 ligand) were significantly decreased in dorsal root ganglion from NVI mice, despite displaying increased depolarization-evoked calcium transients. Serum CORT, vaginal mast cell degranulation, and CRF1 protein expression were all significantly increased in NVI mice, as were colorectal and hind paw mechanical and thermal sensitivity. Neonatal treatment with a CRF1 antagonist, NBI 35965, immediately before zymosan administration largely attenuated many of the effects of NVI. These results suggest that NVI produces chronic hypersensitivity of the vagina, as well as of adjacent visceral and distant somatic structures, driven in part by increased HPA axis activation. PMID:26098441

  20. Evolutionary Conservation of Divergent Pro-Inflammatory and Homeostatic Responses in Lamprey Phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Havixbeck, Jeffrey J.; Rieger, Aja M.; Wong, Michael E.; Wilkie, Michael P.; Barreda, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    In higher vertebrates, phagocytosis plays a critical role in development and immunity, based on the internalization and removal of apoptotic cells and invading pathogens, respectively. Previous studies describe the effective uptake of these particles by lower vertebrate and invertebrate phagocytes, and identify important molecular players that contribute to this internalization. However, it remains unclear if individual phagocytes mediate internalization processes in these ancient organisms, and how this impacts the balance of pro-inflammatory and homeostatic events within their infection sites. Herein we show that individual phagocytes of the jawless vertebrate Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey), like those of teleost fish and mice, display the capacity for divergent pro-inflammatory and homeostatic responses following internalization of zymosan and apoptotic cells, respectively. Professional phagocytes (macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils) were the primary contributors to the internalization of pro-inflammatory particles among goldfish (C. auratus) and lamprey (P. marinus) hematopoietic leukocytes. However, goldfish showed a greater ability for zymosan phagocytosis when compared to their jawless counterparts. Coupled to this increase was a significantly lower sensitivity of goldfish phagocytes to homeostatic signals derived from apoptotic cell internalization. Together, this translated into a significantly greater capacity for induction of antimicrobial respiratory burst responses compared to lamprey phagocytes, but also a decreased efficacy in apoptotic cell-driven leukocyte homeostatic mechanisms that attenuate this pro-inflammatory process. Overall, our results show the long-standing evolutionary contribution of intrinsic phagocyte mechanisms for the control of inflammation, and illustrate one effective evolutionary strategy for increased responsiveness against invading pathogens. In addition, they highlight the need for development of complementary regulatory

  1. Evolutionary conservation of divergent pro-inflammatory and homeostatic responses in Lamprey phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Havixbeck, Jeffrey J; Rieger, Aja M; Wong, Michael E; Wilkie, Michael P; Barreda, Daniel R

    2014-01-01

    In higher vertebrates, phagocytosis plays a critical role in development and immunity, based on the internalization and removal of apoptotic cells and invading pathogens, respectively. Previous studies describe the effective uptake of these particles by lower vertebrate and invertebrate phagocytes, and identify important molecular players that contribute to this internalization. However, it remains unclear if individual phagocytes mediate internalization processes in these ancient organisms, and how this impacts the balance of pro-inflammatory and homeostatic events within their infection sites. Herein we show that individual phagocytes of the jawless vertebrate Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey), like those of teleost fish and mice, display the capacity for divergent pro-inflammatory and homeostatic responses following internalization of zymosan and apoptotic cells, respectively. Professional phagocytes (macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils) were the primary contributors to the internalization of pro-inflammatory particles among goldfish (C. auratus) and lamprey (P. marinus) hematopoietic leukocytes. However, goldfish showed a greater ability for zymosan phagocytosis when compared to their jawless counterparts. Coupled to this increase was a significantly lower sensitivity of goldfish phagocytes to homeostatic signals derived from apoptotic cell internalization. Together, this translated into a significantly greater capacity for induction of antimicrobial respiratory burst responses compared to lamprey phagocytes, but also a decreased efficacy in apoptotic cell-driven leukocyte homeostatic mechanisms that attenuate this pro-inflammatory process. Overall, our results show the long-standing evolutionary contribution of intrinsic phagocyte mechanisms for the control of inflammation, and illustrate one effective evolutionary strategy for increased responsiveness against invading pathogens. In addition, they highlight the need for development of complementary regulatory

  2. Kinetic analysis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the liver of body-temperature-controlled mice using dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging and an empirical mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kenya; Assanai, Purapan; Takata, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Nozomi; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Nishiura, Motoko

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method for analyzing the kinetic behavior of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in the murine liver under control of body temperature using dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) and an empirical mathematical model (EMM). First, we investigated the influence of body temperature on the kinetic behavior of SPIONs in the liver by controlling body temperature using our temperature-control system. Second, we investigated the kinetic behavior of SPIONs in the liver when mice were injected with various doses of GdCl3, while keeping the body temperature at 36°C. Finally, we investigated it when mice were injected with various doses of zymosan, while keeping the body temperature at 36°C. We also investigated the effect of these substances on the number of Kupffer cells by immunohistochemical analysis using the specific surface antigen of Kupffer cells (CD68). To quantify the kinetic behavior of SPIONs in the liver, we calculated the upper limit of the relative enhancement (A), the rates of early contrast uptake (α) and washout or late contrast uptake (β), the parameter related to the slope of early uptake (q), the area under the curve (AUC), the maximum change of transverse relaxation rate (ΔR2) (ΔR2(max)), the time to ΔR2(max) (Tmax), and ΔR2 at the last time point (ΔR2(last)) from the time courses of ΔR2 using the EMM. The β and Tmax values significantly decreased and increased, respectively, with decreasing body temperature, suggesting that the phagocytic activity of Kupffer cells is significantly affected by body temperature. The AUC, ΔR2(max), and ΔR2(last) values decreased significantly with increasing dose of GdCl3, which was consistent with the change in the number of CD68-positive cells. They increased with increasing dose of zymosan, which was also consistent with the change in the number of CD68-positive cells. These results suggest that AUC, ΔR2(max), and ΔR2

  3. Enhancement of neutrophil function by in vivo filgrastim treatment for prophylaxis of sepsis in surgical intensive care patients.

    PubMed

    Weiss, M; Gross-Weege, W; Schneider, M; Neidhardt, H; Liebert, S; Mirow, N; Wernet, P

    1995-03-01

    To determine the kinetics of leukocyte counts and of oxygen radical production of neutrophils from postoperative/posttraumatic patients with or without infusion of filgrastim (recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, rhG-CSF) as prophylaxis against sepsis. Twenty postoperative/posttraumatic patients with a Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS) score greater than 30 were included in this study. In the 10 patients of the study group, filgrastim (1 microgram/kg/d) was infused continuously within the first 3 days and tapered to 0.5 microgram/kg/d on the following 4 days or until discharge from the surgical intensive care unit. Ten patients without administration of filgrastim served as controls. Oxygen radical production of isolated neutrophils of these patients was tested by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)- and zymosan-induced chemiluminescence from serial blood samples, taken until the 16th postoperative day. Compared with the first postoperative day, in vitro FMLP-induced neutrophil chemiluminescence was significantly increased during the following 4 postoperative days in the patients with filgrastim infusion; however, only during the first 2 postoperative days in the control group. The increase in the FMLP-induced neutrophil chemiluminescence was significantly greater (P < .05) in the study group than in the control group on the third and on the fourth postoperative day. Tapering of filgrastim by 0.5 microgram/kg/d in the study group resulted in a reduction of FMLP-induced neutrophil oxygen radical production within 48 hours. In contrast, zymosan-induced neutrophil chemiluminescence was not measurably affected in both groups. Leukocyte count of the study group significantly (P < .05) exceeded the leukocyte count of the control group from the third up to the 10th postoperative day. None of the patients treated with filgrastim developed sepsis; however, three patients within the control group did. Prolonged enhancement of

  4. Pyrogenic effect of respirable road dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawardena, Umesh; Tollemark, Linda; Tagesson, Christer; Leanderson, Per

    2009-02-01

    Because pyrogenic (fever-inducing) compounds on ambient particles may play an important role for particle toxicity, simple methods to measure pyrogens on particles are needed. Here we have used a modified in vitro pyrogen test (IPT) to study the release of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in whole human blood exposed to respirable road-dust particles (RRDP). Road dusts were collected from the roadside at six different streets in three Swedish cities and particles with a diameter less than 10 μm (RRDP) were prepared by a water sedimentation procedure followed by lyophilisation. RRDP (200 μl of 1 - 106 ng/ml) were mixed with 50 μl whole blood and incubated at 37 °C overnight before IL-1β was analysed with chemiluminescence ELISA in 384-well plates. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella minnesota), zymosan B and Curdlan (P-1,3-glucan) were used as positive controls. All RRDP samples had a pyrogenic effect and the most active sample produced 1.6 times more IL-1β than the least active. This formation was of the same magnitude as in samples with 10 ng LPS/ml and was larger than that evoked by zymosan B and Curdlan (by mass basis). The method was sensitive enough to determine formation of IL-1β in mixtures with 10 ng RRDP/ml or 0.01 ng LPS/ml. The endotoxin inhibitor, polymyxin B (10 μg/ml), strongly reduced the RRDP-induced formation of IL-1β at 1μg RRDP/ml (around 80 % inhibition), but had only marginal or no effects at higher RRDP-concentrations (10 and 100 μg /ml). In summary, all RRDP tested had a clear pyrogen effect in this in vitro model. Endotoxin on the particles but also other factors contributed to the pyrogenic effect. As opposed to the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay (which measures endotoxin alone), IPT measures a broad range of pyrogens that may be present on particulate matter. The IPT method thus affords a simple, sensitive and quantitative determination of the total pyrogenic potential of ambient particles.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of azadirachtin in mice.

    PubMed

    Soares, Darly G; Godin, Adriana M; Menezes, Raquel R; Nogueira, Rafaela D; Brito, Ana Mercy S; Melo, Ivo S F; Coura, Giovanna Maria E; Souza, Danielle G; Amaral, Flávio A; Paulino, Tony P; Coelho, Márcio M; Machado, Renes R

    2014-06-01

    Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) extracts have been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. However, the activities of azadirachtin, a limonoid and the major bioactive compound found in the extracts, have been poorly investigated in animal models. In the present study, we investigated the effects induced by azadirachtin in experimental models of pain and inflammation in mice. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and fibrovascular tissue growth induced by subcutaneous cotton pellet implantation were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of azadirachtin in mice. Zymosan-induced writhing and hot plate tests were employed to evaluate the antinociceptive activity. To explore putative mechanisms of action, the level of tumor necrosis factor-α in inflammatory tissue was measured and the effect induced by opioidergic and serotonergic antagonists was evaluated. Previous per os (p. o.) administration of azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) significantly reduced the acute paw edema induced by carrageenan. However, the concomitant increase of the paw concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α induced by this inflammatory stimulus was not reduced by azadirachtin. In addition to inhibiting the acute paw edema induced by carrageenan, azadirachtin (6, 60, and 120 mg/kg) inhibited the proliferative phase of the inflammatory response, as demonstrated by the reduced formation of fibrovascular tissue growth. Azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) also inhibited the nociceptive response in models of nociceptive (hot plate) and inflammatory (writhing induced by zymosan) pain. The activity of azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) in the model of nociceptive pain was attenuated by a nonselective opioid antagonist, naltrexone (10 mg/kg, i. p.), but not by a nonselective serotonergic antagonist, cyproheptadine. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the activity of azadirachtin in experimental models of nociceptive and inflammatory pain, and also in models of acute and chronic inflammation

  6. Effects of cyanobacteria Synechocystis spp. in the host-parasite model Crassostrea gasar-Perkinsus marinus.

    PubMed

    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando; Hégaret, Hélène; Sassi, Roberto; Farias, Natanael Dantas; Santana, Lucas Nunes; da Silva, Patricia Mirella

    2017-06-01

    Perkinsosis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites from the Perkinsus genus. In Brazil, two species, P. beihaiensis and P. marinus, are frequently found infecting native oysters (Crassostrea gasar and C. rhizophorae) from cultured and wild populations in several states of the Northeast region. The impacts of this disease in bivalves from Brazil, as well as the interactions with environmental factors, are poorly studied. In the present work, we evaluated the in vitro effects of the cyanobacteria Synechocystis spp. on trophozoites of P. marinus and haemocytes of C. gasar. Four cyanobacteria strains isolated from the Northeast Brazilian coast were used as whole cultures (WCs) and extracellular products (ECPs). Trophozoites of P. marinus were exposed for short (4h) and long (48h and 7days, the latter only for ECPs) periods, while haemocytes were exposed for a short period (4h). Cellular and immune parameters, i.e. cell viability, cell count, reactive oxygen species production (ROS) and phagocytosis of inert (latex beads) and biological particles (zymosan and trophozoites of P. marinus) were measured by flow cytometry. The viability of P. marinus trophozoites was improved in response to WCs of Synechocystis spp., which could be a beneficial effect of the cyanobacteria providing nutrients and reducing reactive oxygen species. Long-term exposure of trophozoites to ECPs of cyanobacteria did not modify in vitro cell proliferation nor viability. In contrast, C. gasar haemocytes showed a reduction in cell viability when exposed to WCs, but not to ECPs. However, ROS production was not altered. Haemocyte ability to engulf latex particles was reduced when exposed mainly to ECPs of cyanobacteria; while neither the WCs nor the ECPs modified phagocytosis of the biological particles, zymosan and P. marinus. Our results suggest a negative effect of cyanobacteria from the Synechocystis genus on host immune cells, in contrast to a more beneficial effect on the parasite cell, which

  7. beta 2-glycoprotein I (apolipoprotein H) modulates uptake and endocytosis associated chemiluminescence in rat Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Gomes, L F; Gonçalves, L M; Fonseca, F L A; Celli, C M; Videla, L A; Chaimovich, H; Junqueira, V B C

    2002-07-01

    beta 2-Glycoprotein I (beta 2 GPI) is known to influence macrophage uptake of particles with phosphatidylserine containing surfaces, as apoptotic thymocytes and unilamellar vesicles in vitro. Nevertheless, effects upon macrophage activation induced by this interaction are still unknown. beta 2 GPI influence upon the reactive species production by Kupffer cells was evaluated in order to investigate whether beta 2 GPI modulates the macrophage response to negatively charged surfaces. Chemiluminescence of isolated non-parenchymal rat liver cells was measured after phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan or phorbolymristate acetate (PMA) stimulation, in the presence and absence of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) containing 25 mol% phosphatidylserine (PS) or 50 mol% cardiolipin (CL) and complementary molar ratio of phosphatidylcholine (PC). beta 2 GPI decreased by 50% the chemiluminescence response induced by opsonized zymosan, with a 66% reduction of the initial light emission rate. PMA stimulated Kupffer cell chemiluminescence was insensitive to human or rat beta 2 GPI. Albumin (500 micrograms/ml) showed no effect upon chemiluminescence. beta 2 GPI increased PS/PC LUV uptake and degradation by Kupffer cells in a concentration-dependent manner, without leakage of the internal contents of the LUVs, as shown by fluorescence intensity enhancement. LUVs opsonized with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) from syphilitic patients increased light emission by Kupffer cells. Addition of beta 2 GPI to the assay reduced chemiluminescence due to opsonization with purified IgG antibodies from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or syphilis (Sy) patient sera. A marked net increase in chemiluminescence is observed in the presence of Sy aPL antibodies, whereas a decrease was found when SLE aPL were added to the assay, in the presence or absence of beta 2 GPI. At a concentration of 125 micrograms/ml, beta 2 GPI significantly reduced Kupffer cell Candida albicans phagocytosis index and killing

  8. Secretion of leukotriene C and other arachidonic acid metabolites by macrophages challenged with immunoglobulin E immune complexes

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Resident mouse peritoneal macrophages release the slow-reacting substance leukotriene C (LTC) on exposure to particulate IgE immune complexes. Because these cells lose their responsiveness to an IgE stimulus after 4 h in culture, maximum release of 20:4 metabolites is observed before this time. However, a similar diminution in 20:4 metabolism was not observed with a zymosan stimulus. Freshly explanted cells are deficient in intracellular glutathione (GSH) (12.4 +/- 0.4 pmol/micrograms cell protein), but GSH increases to a steady state value of 30-35 pmol/micrograms of cell protein between 3 and 9 h of culture. Because GSH is required for the synthesis of LTC and prostaglandin (PG)E2, cultures challenged immediately after explanation have a diminished capacity to synthesize these 20:4 metabolites and release prostacyclin as the major product. By 4-5 h in culture, macrophages form significant amounts of LTC and PGE2. Under optimum conditions of maximum responsiveness to an IgE stimulus and GSH content (after 4 h of culture), macrophages challenged with latex beads coated with IgE immune complexes synthesize 1.0 +/- 0.3 pmol of LTC/microgram cell protein (60 +/- 18 pmol/10(6) cells) in addition to prostacyclin (8.2 +/- 0.8 pmol/micrograms cell protein) and PGE2 (4.7 +/- 1.5 pmol/micrograms cell protein). These amounts are quantitatively similar to the arachidonic acid metabolites produced by macrophages challenged with IgG immune complex-coated latex beads or zymosan. These data demonstrate that macrophages produce large quantities of LTC and other 20:4 metabolites in response to particle-bound IgE and antigen, provided that the appropriate in vitro conditions are met. The macrophage might, therefore, be a major source of slow-reacting substance and other 20:4 metabolites generated during IgE-mediated reactions in vivo. PMID:6759607

  9. Modulation of airway epithelial cell functions by Pidotimod: NF-kB cytoplasmatic expression and its nuclear translocation are associated with an increased TLR-2 expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recurrent respiratory infections are one of the most important causes of morbidity in childhood. When immune functions are still largely immature, the airway epithelium plays a primary defensive role since, besides providing a physical barrier, it is also involved in the innate and the adaptive immune responses. A study was therefore designed to evaluate in vitro whether pidotimod, a synthetic dipeptide able to stimulate the inflammatory and immune effector cells, could activate bronchial epithelial cell functions involved in response to infections. Methods BEAS-2B cell line (human bronchial epithelial cells infected with a replication-defective Adenovirus 12-SV40 virus hybrid) were cultured in the presence of pidotimod, with or without tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or zymosan to assess: a) intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression, by flow cytometry; b) toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 expression and production, by immunofluorescence flow cytometry and western blotting; d) interleukin (IL)-8 release, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); e) activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation, by western blotting. Results The constitutive expression of ICAM-1 and IL-8 release were significant up-regulated by TNF-α (ICAM-1) and by TNF-α and zymosan (IL-8), but not by pidotimod. In contrast, an increased TLR-2 expression was found after exposure to pidotimod 10 and 100 μg/ml (p < 0.05) and to the association pidotimod 100 μg/ml + TNF-α (p < 0.05). Western blot analysis substantiated that the constitutive TLR-2 expression was significantly increased after exposure to all the stimuli. Finally, while a remarkable inhibition of TNF-α -induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed in the presence of pidotimod, both TNF-α and pidotimod were effective in inducing NF-kB protein expression in the cytoplasm and its nuclear translocation. Conclusion Through different

  10. Hypoxia Stress Modifies Na+/K+-ATPase, H+/K+-ATPase, Na+/NH4+-ATPase, and nkaα1 Isoform Expression in the Brain of Immune-Challenged Air-Breathing Fish

    PubMed Central

    Peter, MC Subhash; Simi, Satheesan

    2017-01-01

    Fishes are equipped to sense stressful stimuli and are able to respond to environmental stressor such as hypoxia with varying pattern of stress response. The functional attributes of brain to hypoxia stress in relation to ion transport and its interaction during immune challenge have not yet delineated in fish. We, therefore, explored the pattern of ion transporter functions and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of α1-subunit isoforms of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) in the brain segments, namely, prosencephalon (PC), mesencephalon (MC), and metencephalon (MeC) in an obligate air-breathing fish exposed either to hypoxia stress (30 minutes forced immersion in water) or challenged with zymosan treatment (25-200 ng g−1 for 24 hours) or both. Zymosan that produced nonspecific immune responses evoked differential regulation of NKA, H+/K+-ATPase (HKA), and Na+/NH4+-ATPase (NNA) in the varied brain segments. On the contrary, hypoxia stress that demanded activation of NKA in PC and MeC showed a reversed NKA activity pattern in MeC of immune-challenged fish. A compromised HKA and NNA regulation during hypoxia stress was found in immune-challenged fish, indicating the role of these brain ion transporters to hypoxia stress and immune challenges. The differential mRNA expression of α1-subunit isoforms of NKA, nkaα1a, nkaα1b, and nkaα1c, in hypoxia-stressed brain showed a shift in its expression pattern during hypoxia stress-immune interaction in PC and MC. Evidence is thus presented for the first time that ion transporters such as HKA and NNA along with NKA act as functional brain markers which respond differentially to both hypoxia stress and immune challenges. Taken together, the data further provide evidence for a differential Na+, K+, H+, and NH4+ ion signaling that exists in brain neuronal clusters during hypoxia stress-immune interaction as a result of modified regulations of NKA, HKA, and NNA transporter functions and nkaα1 isoform regulation. PMID:29238219

  11. Hypoxia Stress Modifies Na+/K+-ATPase, H+/K+-ATPase, [Formula: see text], and nkaα1 Isoform Expression in the Brain of Immune-Challenged Air-Breathing Fish.

    PubMed

    Peter, Mc Subhash; Simi, Satheesan

    2017-01-01

    Fishes are equipped to sense stressful stimuli and are able to respond to environmental stressor such as hypoxia with varying pattern of stress response. The functional attributes of brain to hypoxia stress in relation to ion transport and its interaction during immune challenge have not yet delineated in fish. We, therefore, explored the pattern of ion transporter functions and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of α1-subunit isoforms of Na + /K + -ATPase (NKA) in the brain segments, namely, prosencephalon (PC), mesencephalon (MC), and metencephalon (MeC) in an obligate air-breathing fish exposed either to hypoxia stress (30 minutes forced immersion in water) or challenged with zymosan treatment (25-200 ng g -1 for 24 hours) or both. Zymosan that produced nonspecific immune responses evoked differential regulation of NKA, H + /K + -ATPase (HKA), and [Formula: see text] (NNA) in the varied brain segments. On the contrary, hypoxia stress that demanded activation of NKA in PC and MeC showed a reversed NKA activity pattern in MeC of immune-challenged fish. A compromised HKA and NNA regulation during hypoxia stress was found in immune-challenged fish, indicating the role of these brain ion transporters to hypoxia stress and immune challenges. The differential mRNA expression of α1-subunit isoforms of NKA, nkaα1a , nkaα1b , and nkaα1c , in hypoxia-stressed brain showed a shift in its expression pattern during hypoxia stress-immune interaction in PC and MC. Evidence is thus presented for the first time that ion transporters such as HKA and NNA along with NKA act as functional brain markers which respond differentially to both hypoxia stress and immune challenges. Taken together, the data further provide evidence for a differential Na + , K + , H + , and [Formula: see text] ion signaling that exists in brain neuronal clusters during hypoxia stress-immune interaction as a result of modified regulations of NKA, HKA, and NNA transporter functions and nkaα1 isoform

  12. [Pharmacological analysis of anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Lushnikov, K V; Shumilina, Iu V; Chemeris, N K

    2006-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR, 42.0 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2) was compared with the action of the known anti-inflammatory drug sodium diclofenac and the antihistamine clemastine on acute inflammatory reaction in NMRI mice. The local inflammatory reaction was induced by intraplantar injection of zymosan into the left hind paw. Sodium diclofenac in doses of 2, 3, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg or clemastine in doses of 0.02, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally 30 min after the initiation of inflammation. The animals were whole-body exposed to EHF EMR for 20 min at 1 h after the initiation of inflammation. The inflammatory reaction was assessed over 3 - 8 h after the initiation by measuring the footpad edema and hyperthermia of the inflamed paw. Sodium diclofenac in doses of 5 - 20 mg/kg reduced the exudative edema on the average by 26% as compared to the control. Hyperthermia of the inflamed paw decreased to 60% as the dose of was increased diclofenac up to 20 mg/kg. EHF EMR reduced both the footpad edema and hyperthermia by about 20%, which was comparable with the effect of a single therapeutic dose of diclofenac (3 - 5 mg/kg). The combined action of diclofenac and the exposure to the EHF EMR caused a partial additive effect. Clemastine in doses of 0.02-0.4 mg/kg it did not cause any significant effects on the exudative edema, but in a dose of 0.6 mg/kg it reduced edema by 14 - 22% by 5 - 8 h after zymosan injection. Clemastine caused a dose-dependent increase in hyperthermia of inflamed paw at doses of 0.02-0.2 mg/kg and did not affect the hyperthermia at doses of 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg. The combined action of clemastine and EHF EMR exposure caused a dose-dependent abolishment of the anti-inflammatory effect of EHF EMR. The results obtained suggest that both arachidonic acid metabolites and histamine are involved in the realization of anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity

  13. Assessment of Traumatic Brain Injury by Increased 64Cu Uptake on 64CuCl2 PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Fangyu; Muzik, Otto; Gatson, Joshua; Kernie, Steven G.; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Copper is a nutritional trace element required for cell proliferation and wound repair. Methods To explore increased copper uptake as a biomarker for noninvasive assessment of traumatic brain injury (TBI), experimental TBI in C57BL/6 mice was induced by controlled cortical impact, and 64Cu uptake in the injured cortex was assessed with 64CuCl2 PET/CT. Results At 24 h after intravenous injection of the tracer, uptake was significantly higher in the injured cortex of TBI mice (1.15 ± 0.53 percentage injected dose per gram of tissue [%ID/g]) than in the uninjured cortex of mice without TBI (0.53 ± 0.07 %ID/g, P = 0.027) or the cortex of mice that received an intracortical injection of zymosan A (0.62 ± 0.22 %ID/g, P = 0.025). Furthermore, uptake in the traumatized cortex of untreated TBI mice (1.15 ± 0.53 %ID/g) did not significantly differ from that in minocycline-treated TBI mice (0.93 ± 0.30 %ID/g, P = 0.33). Conclusion Overall, the data suggest that increased 64Cu uptake in traumatized brain tissues holds potential as a new biomarker for noninvasive assessment of TBI with 64CuCl2 PET/CT. PMID:26112025

  14. Recovery of rat alveolar macrophages by bronchoalveolar lavage under normal and activated conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Rehn, B; Bruch, J; Zou, T; Hobusch, G

    1992-01-01

    When rat (female Wistar) lungs were lavaged (bronchoalveolar lavage, BAL) six times with physiological saline, approximately the same number of alveolar macrophages (AM) were found in the first and second BAL, whereas in the third fourth, fifth, and sixth BAL, the number of AM decreased exponentially. Morphometric counting of the number of AM in histological sections of lung tissue showed that only 14% of the AM population had been recovered by BAL. Although additives to the BAL fluid such as lidocaine and/or fetal calf serum increased the AM count in the first washing considerably, the total number of AM washed out remained unaltered. Addition of the phagocytosis stimulant zymosan increased the AM count in BAL by a factor of more than 2. On stimulation of the lungs with an inert dust (silicon carbide), the AM count in the BAL and the lung was only slightly increased 8 weeks after intratracheal instillation. In contrast, after exposure to fibrogenic and cytotoxic quartz, the AM count in BAL and lung was significantly increased, and the recovery of AM had also increased by a factor of approximately 2. The experiments show that it is the micromilieu of the alveoli and the condition of the AM (certain physiological activation states, such as phagocytic activity) that essentially determine the degree of recovery. PMID:1396444

  15. Varying Effects of Different β-Glucans on the Maturation of Porcine Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sonck, Eva; Devriendt, Bert; Goddeeris, Bruno; Cox, Eric

    2011-01-01

    β-Glucans are well known for their immunomodulatory capacities in humans and mice. For this reason, together with the European ban on growth-promoting antibiotics, β-glucans are intensively used in pig feed. However, as shown in the present study, there is much variation in the stimulatory capacities of β-glucans from different sources. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are the first cells that are encountered after an antigen is taken up by the intestinal epithelial cell barrier, we decided to investigate the effect of two concentrations (5 and 10 μg/ml) of five commercial β-glucan preparations, differing in structure and source, on porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). Although all β-glucans gave rise to a significant reduction of the phagocytic activity of DCs, only Macrogard induced a significant phenotypic maturation. In addition to Macrogard, zymosan, another β-glucan derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and curdlan also significantly improved the T-cell-stimulatory capacity of MoDCs. Most interesting, however, is the cytokine secretion profile of curdlan-stimulated MoDCs, since only curdlan induced significant higher expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12/IL-23p40. Since the cytokine profile of DCs influences the outcome of the ensuing immune response and thus may prove valuable in intestinal immunity, a careful choice is necessary when β-glucans are used as dietary supplement. PMID:21752950

  16. pH-sensitive niosomes: Effects on cytotoxicity and on inflammation and pain in murine models.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Federica; Del Favero, Elena; Rondelli, Valeria; Pieretti, Stefano; Bogni, Alessia; Ponti, Jessica; Rossi, François; Di Marzio, Luisa; Paolino, Donatella; Marianecci, Carlotta; Carafa, Maria

    2017-12-01

    pH-sensitive nonionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes) by polysorbate-20 (Tween-20) or polysorbate-20 derivatized by glycine (added as pH sensitive agent), were developed to deliver Ibuprofen (IBU) and Lidocaine (LID). For the physical-chemical characterization of vesicles (mean size, size distribution, zeta potential, vesicle morphology, bilayer properties and stability) dynamic light scattering (DLS), small angle X-ray scattering and fluorescence studies were performed. Potential cytotoxicity was evaluated on immortalized human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) and on immortalized mouse fibroblasts Balb/3T3. In vivo antinociceptive activity (formalin test) and anti-inflammatory activity tests (paw edema induced by zymosan) in murine models were performed on drug-loaded niosomes. pH-sensitive niosomes were stable in the presence of 0 and 10% fetal bovine serum, non-cytotoxic and able to modify IBU or LID pharmacological activity in vivo. The synthesis of stimuli responsive surfactant, as an alternative to add pH-sensitive molecules to niosomes, could represent a promising delivery strategy for anesthetic and anti-inflammatory drugs.

  17. Neutrophil adherence to isolated adult canine myocytes. Evidence for a CD18-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Entman, M L; Youker, K; Shappell, S B; Siegel, C; Rothlein, R; Dreyer, W J; Schmalstieg, F C; Smith, C W

    1990-05-01

    Cardiac myocytes were isolated from adult dogs and incubated with isolated canine neutrophils (PMN). Intercellular adhesion was low and unchanged by stimulation of the PMN with zymosan activated serum or platelet activating factor (PAF) at concentrations that significantly enhance PMN adhesion to protein-coated glass and canine endothelial cell monolayers. Intercellular adhesion was significantly increased only when both myocytes and PMN were stimulated (e.g., myocytes incubated with IL-1, tumor necrosis factor, or phorbol myristate acetate, and PMN were chemotactically stimulated). Inhibitors of protein synthesis diminished the IL-1 beta-induced effect by greater than 80%. The IL-1 beta, PAF-stimulated PMN-myocyte adhesion was associated with substantial H2O2 production. Under conditions with low PMN-myocyte adhesion (i.e., IL-1 beta alone, PAF alone, or no stimulus) H2O2 production was generally less than 5% of that occurring with high adhesion. An anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody (R15.7) inhibited stimulated PMN-myocyte adhesion by greater than 95% and reduced H2O2 production by greater than 90%. Control isotype-matched, binding, and nonbinding antibodies were without effect on adherence or H2O2 production. The results indicate that cytokine stimulation of adult myocytes induces expression of a ligand involved in CD18-dependent adherence of canine neutrophils.

  18. CXCL4 induces a unique transcriptome in monocyte-derived macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gleissner, Christian A.; Shaked, Iftach; Little, Kristina M.; Ley, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In atherosclerotic arteries, blood monocytes differentiate to macrophages in the presence of growth factors like macrophage colony-stimulation factor (MCSF) and chemokines like platelet factor 4 (CXCL4). To compare the gene expression signature of CXCL4-induced macrophages with MCSF-induced macrophages or macrophages polarized with IFN-γ/LPS (M1) or IL-4 (M2), we cultured primary human peripheral blood monocytes for six days. mRNA expression was measured by Affymetrix gene chips and differences were analyzed by Local Pooled Error test, Profile of Complex Functionality and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. 375 genes were differentially expressed between MCSF- and CXCL4-induced macrophages, 206 of them overexpressed in CXCL4 macrophages coding for genes implicated in the inflammatory/immune response, antigen processing/presentation, and lipid metabolism. CXCL4-induced macrophages overexpressed some M1 and M2 genes and the corresponding cytokines at the protein level, however, their transcriptome clustered with neither M1 nor M2 transcriptomes. They almost completely lost the ability to phagocytose zymosan beads. Genes linked to atherosclerosis were not consistently up- or downregulated. Scavenger receptors showed lower and cholesterol efflux transporters higher expression in CXCL4- than MCSF-induced macrophages, resulting in lower LDL content. We conclude that CXCL4 induces a unique macrophage transcriptome distinct from known macrophage types, defining a new macrophage differentiation that we propose to call M4. PMID:20335529

  19. CXC chemokine ligand 4 induces a unique transcriptome in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gleissner, Christian A; Shaked, Iftach; Little, Kristina M; Ley, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    In atherosclerotic arteries, blood monocytes differentiate to macrophages in the presence of growth factors, such as macrophage colony-stimulation factor (M-CSF), and chemokines, such as platelet factor 4 (CXCL4). To compare the gene expression signature of CXCL4-induced macrophages with M-CSF-induced macrophages or macrophages polarized with IFN-gamma/LPS (M1) or IL-4 (M2), we cultured primary human peripheral blood monocytes for 6 d. mRNA expression was measured by Affymetrix gene chips, and differences were analyzed by local pooled error test, profile of complex functionality, and gene set enrichment analysis. Three hundred seventy-five genes were differentially expressed between M-CSF- and CXCL4-induced macrophages; 206 of them overexpressed in CXCL4 macrophages coding for genes implicated in the inflammatory/immune response, Ag processing and presentation, and lipid metabolism. CXCL4-induced macrophages overexpressed some M1 and M2 genes and the corresponding cytokines at the protein level; however, their transcriptome clustered with neither M1 nor M2 transcriptomes. They almost completely lost the ability to phagocytose zymosan beads. Genes linked to atherosclerosis were not consistently upregulated or downregulated. Scavenger receptors showed lower and cholesterol efflux transporters showed higher expression in CXCL4- than M-CSF-induced macrophages, resulting in lower low-density lipoprotein content. We conclude that CXCL4 induces a unique macrophage transcriptome distinct from known macrophage types, defining a new macrophage differentiation that we propose to call M4.

  20. Distinct and complementary roles for Aspergillus fumigatus-specific Tr1 and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Bedke, Tanja; Iannitti, Rossana G; De Luca, Antonella; Giovannini, Gloria; Fallarino, Francesca; Berges, Carsten; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Einsele, Hermann; Romani, Luigina; Topp, Max S

    2014-01-01

    Unlike induced Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Foxp3+ iTreg) that have been shown to play an essential role in the development of protective immunity to the ubiquitous mold Aspergillus fumigatus, type-(1)-regulatory T cells (Tr1) cells have, thus far, not been implicated in this process. Here, we evaluated the role of Tr1 cells specific for an epitope derived from the cell wall glucanase Crf-1 of A. fumigatus (Crf-1/p41) in antifungal immunity. We identified Crf-1/p41-specific latent-associated peptide+ Tr1 cells in healthy humans and mice after vaccination with Crf-1/p41+zymosan. These cells produced high amounts of interleukin (IL)-10 and suppressed the expansion of antigen-specific T cells in vitro and in vivo. In mice, in vivo differentiation of Tr1 cells was dependent on the presence of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, c-Maf and IL-27. Moreover, in comparison to Tr1 cells, Foxp3+ iTreg that recognize the same epitope were induced in an interferon gamma-type inflammatory environment and more potently suppressed innate immune cell activities. Overall, our data show that Tr1 cells are involved in the maintenance of antifungal immune homeostasis, and most likely play a distinct, yet complementary, role compared with Foxp3+ iTreg. PMID:24820384

  1. Immunostimulant effects and potential application of β-glucans derived from marine yeast Debaryomyces hansenii in goat peripheral blood leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Medina-Córdova, Noé; Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Ascencio, Felipe; Castellanos, Thelma; Campa-Córdova, Angel I; Angulo, Carlos

    2018-05-12

    Debaryomyces hansenii has been described to be effective probiotic and immunostimulatory marine yeast in fish. Nonetheless, to the best of our knowledge, it has been not assayed in ruminants. This study attempts to describe the immunostimulatory effects of its β-glucan content through in vitro assays using goat peripheral blood leukocytes at 24 h of stimulation. The structural characterization of yeast glucans by proton nuclear magnetic resonance indicated structures containing (1-6)-branched (1-3)-β-D-glucan. In vitro assays using peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with β-glucans derived from three D. hansenii strains and zymosan revealed that β-glucans significantly increased cell immune parameters, such as phagocytic ability, reactive oxygen species production (respiratory burst), peroxidase activity and nitric oxide production. Antioxidant enzymes revealed an increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in leukocytes stimulated with yeast β-glucans. This study revealed that yeast β-glucans were able to activate dectin-1 mRNA gene expression in leukocytes. The TLR4 gene expression was up-regulated in leukocytes after stimulation with yeast β-glucans. In conclusion, β-glucans were able to modulate the immune system by promoting cell viability, phagocytic activity, antioxidant immune response and immune-related gene expression in leukocytes. Therefore, β-glucans derived from Debaryomyces hansenii should be considered a potential immunostimulant for goat production systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor RF-22c potently suppresses leukotriene biosynthesis in cellulo and blocks bronchoconstriction and inflammation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schaible, Anja M; Filosa, Rosanna; Krauth, Verena; Temml, Veronika; Pace, Simona; Garscha, Ulrike; Liening, Stefanie; Weinigel, Christina; Rummler, Silke; Schieferdecker, Sebastian; Nett, Markus; Peduto, Antonella; Collarile, Selene; Scuotto, Maria; Roviezzo, Fioretina; Spaziano, Giuseppe; de Rosa, Mario; Stuppner, Hermann; Schuster, Daniela; D'Agostino, Bruno; Werz, Oliver

    2016-07-15

    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalyzes the first two steps in leukotriene (LT) biosynthesis. Because LTs play pivotal roles in allergy and inflammation, 5-LO represents a valuable target for anti-inflammatory drugs. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism, the pharmacological profile, and the in vivo effectiveness of the novel 1,2-benzoquinone-featured 5-LO inhibitor RF-22c. Compound RF-22c potently inhibited 5-LO product synthesis in neutrophils and monocytes (IC50⩾22nM) and in cell-free assays (IC50⩾140nM) without affecting 12/15-LOs, cyclooxygenase (COX)-1/2, or arachidonic acid release, in a specific and reversible manner, supported by molecular docking data. Antioxidant or iron-chelating properties were not evident for RF-22c and 5-LO-regulatory cofactors like Ca(2+) mobilization, ERK-1/2 activation, and 5-LO nuclear membrane translocation and interaction with 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP) were unaffected. RF-22c (0.1mg/kg; i.p.) impaired (I) bronchoconstriction in ovalbumin-sensitized mice challenged with acetylcholine, (II) exudate formation in carrageenan-induced paw edema, and (III) zymosan-induced leukocyte infiltration in air pouches. Taken together, RF-22c is a highly selective and potent 5-LO inhibitor in intact human leukocytes with pronounced effectiveness in different models of inflammation that warrants further preclinical analysis of this agent as anti-inflammatory drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mucorales species activation of a serum leukotactic factor.

    PubMed Central

    Marx, R S; Forsyth, K R; Hentz, S K

    1982-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the focal accumulation of phagocytic leukocytes is an important feature of the host response in mucormycosis. To ascertain the basis for this influx of inflammatory cells, we evaluated the effect of members of the order Mucorales, including species from the genera Rhizopus, Absidia, and Mucor, on the chemotactic activity of normal human serum for neutrophils and monocytes. Both hyphae and spores produced concentration-dependent chemotaxigenesis in serum to a maximum level equivalent to that produced by zymosan activation of serum. Chemotactic activity was similar for live and heat-killed hyphae. No leukotactic activity was demonstrated in the absence of serum. The pretreatment of serum with anti-C3 antibody, heating at 56 degrees C, or 0.01 M EDTA abolished the activity. The pretreatment of serum with 0.01 M ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N-tetraacetic acid did not abolish the activity. These data provide evidence that the leukotactic activity of Mucorales species is generated through the alternative complement pathway. PMID:6759409

  4. Apoptosis induced by low-level laser in polymorphonuclear cells of acute joint inflammation: comparative analysis of two energy densities.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, Lúcia Mara Januário; da Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza; Gameiro, Jacy; de Paoli, Flávia

    2017-07-01

    Anti-inflammatory property of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been widely described in literature, although action mechanisms are not always clarified. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate apoptosis mechanisms in the LLLT anti-inflammatory effects on the arthritis experimental model in vivo at two different energy densities (3 and 30 Jcm -2 ). Arthritis was induced in mice by zymosan solution, animals were distributed into five groups, and morphological analysis, immunocytochemistry and gene expressions for apoptotic proteins were performed. Data showed an anti-inflammatory effect, DNA fragmentation in polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells and alteration in gene expression of proteins related to apoptosis pathways after LLLT. p53 gene expression increased at both energy densities, Bcl2 gene expression increased at 3 Jcm -2 , and Bcl2 tissue expression decreased at 30 Jcm -2 . In addition, apoptosis was restricted to PMN cells. Results suggest that apoptosis in PMN cells comprise part of LLLT anti-inflammatory mechanisms by disbalance promotion between expression of pro-apoptotic (Bax and p53) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) proteins, with pro-apoptotic gene expression selectively in PMN cells.

  5. Assessment of Traumatic Brain Injury by Increased 64Cu Uptake on 64CuCl2 PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fangyu; Muzik, Otto; Gatson, Joshua; Kernie, Steven G; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2015-08-01

    Copper is a nutritional trace element required for cell proliferation and wound repair. To explore increased copper uptake as a biomarker for noninvasive assessment of traumatic brain injury (TBI), experimental TBI in C57BL/6 mice was induced by controlled cortical impact, and (64)Cu uptake in the injured cortex was assessed with (64)CuCl2 PET/CT. At 24 h after intravenous injection of the tracer, uptake was significantly higher in the injured cortex of TBI mice (1.15 ± 0.53 percentage injected dose per gram of tissue [%ID/g]) than in the uninjured cortex of mice without TBI (0.53 ± 0.07 %ID/g, P = 0.027) or the cortex of mice that received an intracortical injection of zymosan A (0.62 ± 0.22 %ID/g, P = 0.025). Furthermore, uptake in the traumatized cortex of untreated TBI mice (1.15 ± 0.53 %ID/g) did not significantly differ from that in minocycline-treated TBI mice (0.93 ± 0.30 %ID/g, P = 0.33). Overall, the data suggest that increased (64)Cu uptake in traumatized brain tissues holds potential as a new biomarker for noninvasive assessment of TBI with (64)CuCl2 PET/CT. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  6. Re-evaluation of thin layer chromatography as an alternative method for the quantification of prostaglandins from rat Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Pestel, Sabine; Jungermann, Kurt; Schieferdecker, Henrike L

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to conventionally used immunoassays, thin layer chromatography (TLC)--by prelabeling of cells with radioactive arachidonic acid (AA)--allows to differentiate between cellularly built and added prostanoids and thus to investigate feedback effects of prostanoids on their own release. PGD2, TXB2 and PGE2 released from zymosan-stimulated Kupffer cells were separated with distinct RF-values, corresponding to those of the pure substances. Quantification of PGD2 and PGE2 gave comparable results with TLC and immunoassays, but measurement in the presence of added prostanoids was only possible with TLC. Moreover TLC was superior to immunoassays in having a longer linear range while being comparably sensitive. Cellularly built TXB2 in its radioactively labeled form was not detectable by TLC. Inhibition of TXB2 release by externally added AA or technical artifacts were excluded, suggesting that the cellular AA-pools used for prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis differ in their accessibility for added AA. Thus, TLC is a simple, sensitive and precise method for the quantification of cellularly built prostaglandins but not of thromboxane even in the presence of added prostanoids.

  7. The src-family protein-tyrosine kinase p59hck is located on the secretory granules in human neutrophils and translocates towards the phagosome during cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Möhn, H; Le Cabec, V; Fischer, S; Maridonneau-Parini, I

    1995-01-01

    The src-family protein-tyrosine kinase p59hck is mainly expressed in neutrophils; however, its functional role in these cells is unknown. Several other src-family members are localized on secretory vesicles and have been proposed to regulate intracellular traffic. We have established here the subcellular localization of p59hck in human neutrophils. Immunoblotting of subcellular fractions showed that approx. 60% of the p59hck per cell is localized on the secretory granules; the other 40% is distributed equally between non-granular membranes and the cytosol. Immunofluorescence of neutrophils and HL60 cells suggests that the p59hck-positive granules are azurophil granules. Granular p59hck is highly susceptible to degradation by an azurophil-granule proteinase. Different forms of p59hck occur in the three subcellular compartments: a 61 kDa form is mainly found in the granules, a 59 kDa form is predominant in the non-granular membranes, whereas cytosolic p59hck migrates as a doublet at 63 kDa. During the process of phagocytosis-linked degranulation, induced by serum-opsonized zymosan in neutrophils or HL60 cells, granular p59hck translocates towards the phagosome. The subcellular localization of p59hck suggests that the enzyme could be involved in the regulation of the degranulation process. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7626033

  8. The src-family protein-tyrosine kinase p59hck is located on the secretory granules in human neutrophils and translocates towards the phagosome during cell activation.

    PubMed

    Möhn, H; Le Cabec, V; Fischer, S; Maridonneau-Parini, I

    1995-07-15

    The src-family protein-tyrosine kinase p59hck is mainly expressed in neutrophils; however, its functional role in these cells is unknown. Several other src-family members are localized on secretory vesicles and have been proposed to regulate intracellular traffic. We have established here the subcellular localization of p59hck in human neutrophils. Immunoblotting of subcellular fractions showed that approx. 60% of the p59hck per cell is localized on the secretory granules; the other 40% is distributed equally between non-granular membranes and the cytosol. Immunofluorescence of neutrophils and HL60 cells suggests that the p59hck-positive granules are azurophil granules. Granular p59hck is highly susceptible to degradation by an azurophil-granule proteinase. Different forms of p59hck occur in the three subcellular compartments: a 61 kDa form is mainly found in the granules, a 59 kDa form is predominant in the non-granular membranes, whereas cytosolic p59hck migrates as a doublet at 63 kDa. During the process of phagocytosis-linked degranulation, induced by serum-opsonized zymosan in neutrophils or HL60 cells, granular p59hck translocates towards the phagosome. The subcellular localization of p59hck suggests that the enzyme could be involved in the regulation of the degranulation process.

  9. Nonreceptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases in Neutrophil Activation

    PubMed

    Welch; Mauran; Maridonneau-Parini

    1996-06-01

    Nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinases are involved in the regulation of almost all neutrophil responses such as adhesion, chemotaxis, priming, oxidative burst, and degranulation. Here, we show that phagocytosis is also regulated by protein-tyrosine kinase activity. Using various protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, we further demonstrate that opsonized zymosan-induced degranulation of specific and azurophil granules is regulated by protein-tyrosine kinase activity, whereas phorbol ester-induced degranulation is not. Several of the nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinases involving in neutrophil signal transduction are known, including Fgr, Hck, Lyn, Yes, and Syk. Among these, Hck and Fgr are localized on the azurophil and specific granules, suggesting the involvement of these two protein-tyrosine kinases in the regulation of degranulation. In this report, we characterize some of the molecular properties of Hck and Fgr. We discuss the methods generally used for the measurement of protein-tyrosine kinase activities in neutrophils highlighting precautions against proteolysis. In addition, we show that in subcellular fractions of retinoic acid-differentiated neutrophil-like NB4 cells, the 59- and 61-kDa forms of Hck are attached to the membranes of their respective compartments by different mechanisms. Finally, we discuss the functional roles of protein-tyrosine kinases in the regulation of neutrophil activation and speculate on the importance of their subcellular localization.

  10. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) and Vav1 Contribute to Dectin1-Dependent Phagocytosis of Candida albicans in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Strijbis, Karin; Tafesse, Fikadu G.; Fairn, Gregory D.; Witte, Martin D.; Dougan, Stephanie K.; Watson, Nicki; Spooner, Eric; Esteban, Alexandre; Vyas, Valmik K.; Fink, Gerald R.; Grinstein, Sergio; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2013-01-01

    Phagocytosis of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans by cells of the innate immune system is vital to prevent infection. Dectin-1 is the major phagocytic receptor involved in anti-fungal immunity. We identify two new interacting proteins of Dectin-1 in macrophages, Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) and Vav1. BTK and Vav1 are recruited to phagocytic cups containing C. albicans yeasts or hyphae but are absent from mature phagosomes. BTK and Vav1 localize to cuff regions surrounding the hyphae, while Dectin-1 lines the full length of the phagosome. BTK and Vav1 colocalize with the lipid PI(3,4,5)P3 and F-actin at the phagocytic cup, but not with diacylglycerol (DAG) which marks more mature phagosomal membranes. Using a selective BTK inhibitor, we show that BTK contributes to DAG synthesis at the phagocytic cup and the subsequent recruitment of PKCε. BTK- or Vav1-deficient peritoneal macrophages display a defect in both zymosan and C. albicans phagocytosis. Bone marrow-derived macrophages that lack BTK or Vav1 show reduced uptake of C. albicans, comparable to Dectin1-deficient cells. BTK- or Vav1-deficient mice are more susceptible to systemic C. albicans infection than wild type mice. This work identifies an important role for BTK and Vav1 in immune responses against C. albicans. PMID:23825946

  11. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) and Vav1 contribute to Dectin1-dependent phagocytosis of Candida albicans in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Strijbis, Karin; Tafesse, Fikadu G; Fairn, Gregory D; Witte, Martin D; Dougan, Stephanie K; Watson, Nicki; Spooner, Eric; Esteban, Alexandre; Vyas, Valmik K; Fink, Gerald R; Grinstein, Sergio; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2013-01-01

    Phagocytosis of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans by cells of the innate immune system is vital to prevent infection. Dectin-1 is the major phagocytic receptor involved in anti-fungal immunity. We identify two new interacting proteins of Dectin-1 in macrophages, Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) and Vav1. BTK and Vav1 are recruited to phagocytic cups containing C. albicans yeasts or hyphae but are absent from mature phagosomes. BTK and Vav1 localize to cuff regions surrounding the hyphae, while Dectin-1 lines the full length of the phagosome. BTK and Vav1 colocalize with the lipid PI(3,4,5)P3 and F-actin at the phagocytic cup, but not with diacylglycerol (DAG) which marks more mature phagosomal membranes. Using a selective BTK inhibitor, we show that BTK contributes to DAG synthesis at the phagocytic cup and the subsequent recruitment of PKCε. BTK- or Vav1-deficient peritoneal macrophages display a defect in both zymosan and C. albicans phagocytosis. Bone marrow-derived macrophages that lack BTK or Vav1 show reduced uptake of C. albicans, comparable to Dectin1-deficient cells. BTK- or Vav1-deficient mice are more susceptible to systemic C. albicans infection than wild type mice. This work identifies an important role for BTK and Vav1 in immune responses against C. albicans.

  12. Human CD68 promoter GFP transgenic mice allow analysis of monocyte to macrophage differentiation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Asif J.; McNeill, Eileen; Kapellos, Theodore S.; Regan-Komito, Daniel; Norman, Sophie; Burd, Sarah; Smart, Nicola; Machemer, Daniel E. W.; Stylianou, Elena; McShane, Helen; Channon, Keith M.; Chawla, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The recruitment of monocytes and their differentiation into macrophages at sites of inflammation are key events in determining the outcome of the inflammatory response and initiating the return to tissue homeostasis. To study monocyte trafficking and macrophage differentiation in vivo, we have generated a novel transgenic reporter mouse expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the human CD68 promoter. CD68-GFP mice express high levels of GFP in both monocyte and embryo-derived tissue resident macrophages in adult animals. The human CD68 promoter drives GFP expression in all CD115+ monocytes of adult blood, spleen, and bone marrow; we took advantage of this to directly compare the trafficking of bone marrow–derived CD68-GFP monocytes to that of CX3CR1GFP monocytes in vivo using a sterile zymosan peritonitis model. Unlike CX3CR1GFP monocytes, which downregulate GFP expression on differentiation into macrophages in this model, CD68-GFP monocytes retain high-level GFP expression for 72 hours after differentiation into macrophages, allowing continued cell tracking during resolution of inflammation. In summary, this novel CD68-GFP transgenic reporter mouse line represents a powerful resource for analyzing monocyte mobilization and monocyte trafficking as well as studying the fate of recruited monocytes in models of acute and chronic inflammation. PMID:25030063

  13. Stimulus specific effect of ibuprofen on chemiluminescence of sheep neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Tahamont, M.V.; Margiotta, M.; Gee, M.H.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have shown that pretreatment with ibuprofen inhibits free radical release from complement stimulated neutrophils. To further examine the effect of ibuprofen on neutrophil free radical release, they stimulated neutrophils with the synthetic peptide, FMLP, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), or zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP). Pure (>95%), viable (>95%) sheep neutrophils (2 x 10/sup 6/) were placed in HEPES buffer, luminol, drug or vehicle and stimulated in the luminometer with one of the stimuli. The chemiluminescence (CL) response was recorded and the drug treated samples were compared to vehicle treated controls. Ibuprofen had a dose dependent effect on CL in ZAPmore » stimulated neutrophils. At the highest dose (10/sup -2/M) these cells produced only 37 +/- 7% of the CL response observed in the control cells. In contrast, at the same dose, ibuprofen did not significantly attenuate CL seen in FMLP stimulated cells, with these cells producing 79 +/- 7% of the control cells; nor did ibuprofen effect PMA stimulated CL, as these cells produced a CL response that was 85 +/- 8% of the control cells. Ibuprofen appears to have a stimulus specific effect on free radical release in activated neutrophils. It is also apparent that ibuprofen inhibits complement stimulated free radical release by some mechanism independent of its cyclooxygenase inhibitory effect.« less

  14. Isolation, structural elucidation and immunomodulatory activity of fructans from aged garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Puthanapura M; Prashanth, Keelara V Harish; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2011-02-01

    Traditionally, garlic (Allium sativum) is known to be a significant immune booster. Aged garlic extract (AGE) possesses superior immunomodulatory effects than raw garlic; these effects are attributed to the transformed organosulfur compounds. AGE is also known to contain fructans; the amount of fructans in AGE represents a small fraction (0.22%) of the total fructans in raw garlic. In order to evaluate the biological activity of fructans present in AGE, both high molecular weight (>3.5 kDa; HF) and low molecular weight (<3 kDa; LF) fructans were isolated. The structures of purified HF and LF from AGE determined by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy revealed that both have (2→1) β-D-fructofuranosyl bonds linked to a terminal glucose at the non-reducing end and β-D-fructofuranosyl branching on its backbone. Biological activity of fructans was assessed by immunostimulatory activity using murine lymphocytes and peritoneal exudate cells (source of macrophages). Both HF and LF displayed mitogenic activity and activation of macrophages including phagocytosis. These activities were comparable to that of known polysaccharide immunomodulators such as zymosan and mannan. This study clearly demonstrates that garlic fructans also contribute to the immunomodulatory properties of AGE, and is the first such study on the biological effects of garlic fructans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inorganic arsenite alters macrophage generation from human peripheral blood monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Teruaki; Ohta, Takami; Fujiwara, Kitao

    2005-03-01

    Inorganic arsenite has caused severe inflammatory chronic poisoning in humans through the consumption of contaminated well water. In this study, we examined the effects of arsenite at nanomolar concentrations on the in vitro differentiation of human macrophages from peripheral blood monocytes. While arsenite was found to induce cell death in a culture system containing macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), macrophages induced by granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF) survived the treatment, but were morphologically, phenotypically, and functionally altered. In particular, arsenite-induced cells expressed higher levels of a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen, HLA-DR, and CD14. They were more effective at inducingmore » allogeneic or autologous T cell responses and responded more strongly to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by inflammatory cytokine release as compared to cells induced by GM-CSF alone. On the other hand, arsenite-induced cells expressed lower levels of CD11b and CD54 and phagocytosed latex beads or zymosan particles less efficiently. We also demonstrated that the optimum amount of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by nM arsenite might play an important role in this abnormal monocyte differentiation. This work may have implications in chronic arsenic poisoning because the total peripheral blood arsenic concentrations of these patients are at nM levels.« less

  16. Hawthorn extract inhibits human isolated neutrophil functions.

    PubMed

    Dalli, Ernesto; Milara, Javier; Cortijo, Julio; Morcillo, Esteban J; Cosín-Sales, Juan; Sotillo, José Francisco

    2008-06-01

    Hawthorn extract is a popular herbal medicine given as adjunctive treatment for chronic heart failure. In contrast to the cardiac properties of hawthorn extract, its anti-inflammatory effect has been scarcely investigated. This study examines the effects of a dry extract of leaves and flowers of Crataegus laevigata on various functional outputs of human neutrophils in vitro. Incubation of human neutrophils obtained from peripheral blood of healthy donors with C. laevigata extract (0.75-250 microg/ml) inhibited N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP)-induced superoxide anion generation, elastase release and chemotactic migration with potency values of 43.6, 21.9, and 31.6 microg/ml, respectively. By contrast, serum-opsonized zymosan-induced phagocytosis was unaltered by plant extract. C. laevigata extract (125 microg/ml) reduced FMLP-induced leukotriene B(4) production and lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-8. Extract inhibited FMLP-induced intracellular calcium signal with potency of 17.4 microg/ml. Extract also markedly inhibited the extracellular calcium entry into calcium-depleted neutrophils, and the thapsigargin-induced intracellular calcium response. In conclusion, C. laevigata extract inhibited various functional outputs of activated human neutrophils which may be relevant to the pathophysiology of cardiac failure.

  17. Scanning electron microscopy study of neutrophil membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes) and their role in anchoring, aggregation and phagocytosis. The effect of nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Galkina, Svetlana I.; Molotkovsky, Julian G.; Ullrich, Volker

    2005-04-01

    We have shown that human neutrophils develop dynamic thin and very long tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes) upon adhesion to fibronectin, if cell spreading was blocked by Na{sup +}-free medium or by 4-bromophenacyl bromide, N-ethylmaleimide, 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole and cytochalasin D (S. I. Galkina, G. F. Sud'ina and V. Ullrich (2001). Exp. Cell Res. 266, 222-228). In the present work we found that similar in size and behavior tubulovesicular extensions were formed on the neutrophil cell bodies upon adhesion to fibronectin-coated substrata in the presence of the nitric oxide donor diethylamine NONOate. In the presence of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-{omega}-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester,more » neutrophils were well spread and had no microextensions. Using scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrated that tubulovesicular extensions of neutrophils executed long-range adhesion and binding objects for phagocytosis, such as serum-opsonized zymosan particles and erythrocytes. Tubulovesicular extensions anchored neutrophils to substrata in a {beta}1 and {beta}2 integrin-independent, but L-selectin-dependent manner. BODIPY-sphingomyelin impaired development of tubulovesicular extension, and heparitinase 1 played a role in their destruction. Membrane tubulovesicular extensions are supposed to represent protrusions of an intracellular exocytotic traffic and serve as cellular sensory and adhesive organelles. Nitric oxide seems to play a role in regulation of tubulovesicular extensions formation, thus affecting neutrophil adhesive interactions and phagocytosis.« less

  18. SLAP deficiency enhances number and function of regulatory T cells preventing chronic autoimmune arthritis in SKG mice.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lisa K; Shaw, Laura A; Joetham, Anthony; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Gelfand, Erwin W; Dragone, Leonard L

    2011-02-15

    To test if manipulating TCR complex-mediated signaling (TCR signaling) could treat autoimmune disease, we generated the double SKG Src-like adapter protein (SLAP) knockout (DSSKO) mouse model. The SKG mutation in ZAP70 and SLAP have opposing functions on the regulation of TCR signaling. The combination of these two mutations alters TCR signaling in the context of a defined genetic background, uniform environmental conditions, and a well-characterized signaling disruption. In contrast to SKG mice, DSSKO mice do not develop zymosan-induced chronic autoimmune arthritis. This arthritis prevention is not due to significant alterations in thymocyte development or repertoire selection but instead enhanced numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and decreased numbers of Th17 cells skewing the ratio of Tregs to autoreactive effector T cells. Treg depletion and/or functional blockade led to the development of arthritis in DSSKO mice. In vitro suppression of effector T cell proliferation was also enhanced, demonstrating that DSSKO mice have increased numbers of Tregs with increased function. Understanding how TCR signals influence development, expansion, and function of Tregs in DSSKO mice could advance our ability to manipulate Treg biology to treat ultimately autoimmune disease.

  19. SLAP Deficiency Enhances Number and Function of Regulatory T Cells Preventing Chronic Autoimmune Arthritis in SKG Mice

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Lisa K.; Shaw, Laura A.; Joetham, Anthony; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Gelfand, Erwin W.; Dragone, Leonard L.

    2011-01-01

    To test if manipulating TCR complex-mediated signaling (TCR signaling) could treat autoimmune disease, we generated the double SKG Src-like adapter protein (SLAP) knockout (DSSKO) mouse model. The SKG mutation in ZAP70 and SLAP have opposing functions on the regulation of TCR signaling. The combination of these two mutations alters TCR signaling in the context of a defined genetic background, uniform environmental conditions, and a well-characterized signaling disruption. In contrast to SKG mice, DSSKO mice do not develop zymosan-induced chronic autoimmune arthritis. This arthritis prevention is not due to significant alterations in thymocyte development or repertoire selection but instead enhanced numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and decreased numbers of Th17 cells skewing the ratio of Tregs to autoreactive effector T cells. Treg depletion and/or functional blockade led to the development of arthritis in DSSKO mice. In vitro suppression of effector T cell proliferation was also enhanced, demonstrating that DSSKO mice have increased numbers of Tregs with increased function. Understanding how TCR signals influence development, expansion, and function of Tregs in DSSKO mice could advance our ability to manipulate Treg biology to treat ultimately autoimmune disease. PMID:21248251

  20. Immunosuppression via adenosine receptor activation by adenosine monophosphate released from apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Toshihiko; Urade, Yoshihiro; Nagata, Shigekazu

    2014-03-25

    Apoptosis is coupled with recruitment of macrophages for engulfment of dead cells, and with compensatory proliferation of neighboring cells. Yet, this death process is silent, and it does not cause inflammation. The molecular mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory nature of the apoptotic process remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the culture supernatant of apoptotic cells activated the macrophages to express anti-inflammatory genes such as Nr4a and Thbs1. A high level of AMP accumulated in the apoptotic cell supernatant in a Pannexin1-dependent manner. A nucleotidase inhibitor and A2a adenosine receptor antagonist inhibited the apoptotic supernatant-induced gene expression, suggesting AMP was metabolized to adenosine by an ecto-5'-nucleotidase expressed on macrophages, to activate the macrophage A2a adenosine receptor. Intraperitoneal injection of zymosan into Adora2a- or Panx1-deficient mice produced high, sustained levels of inflammatory mediators in the peritoneal lavage. These results indicated that AMP from apoptotic cells suppresses inflammation as a 'calm down' signal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02172.001.

  1. Immunosuppression via adenosine receptor activation by adenosine monophosphate released from apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Toshihiko; Urade, Yoshihiro; Nagata, Shigekazu

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is coupled with recruitment of macrophages for engulfment of dead cells, and with compensatory proliferation of neighboring cells. Yet, this death process is silent, and it does not cause inflammation. The molecular mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory nature of the apoptotic process remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the culture supernatant of apoptotic cells activated the macrophages to express anti-inflammatory genes such as Nr4a and Thbs1. A high level of AMP accumulated in the apoptotic cell supernatant in a Pannexin1-dependent manner. A nucleotidase inhibitor and A2a adenosine receptor antagonist inhibited the apoptotic supernatant-induced gene expression, suggesting AMP was metabolized to adenosine by an ecto-5’-nucleotidase expressed on macrophages, to activate the macrophage A2a adenosine receptor. Intraperitoneal injection of zymosan into Adora2a- or Panx1-deficient mice produced high, sustained levels of inflammatory mediators in the peritoneal lavage. These results indicated that AMP from apoptotic cells suppresses inflammation as a ‘calm down’ signal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02172.001 PMID:24668173

  2. Effects of low-dose hydrocortisone therapy on immune function in neonatal horses

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Kelsey A.; Barton, Michelle H.; Vandenplas, Michel L.; Hurley, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Low-dose hydrocortisone therapy modulates inflammatory responses in adults and improves outcomes in some septic adults and neonates, but its immunologic effects have not been evaluated in neonates. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of low-dose hydrocortisone (LDHC) therapy on ex vivo immune function in neonatal horses (foals). We hypothesized that LDHC treatment would dampen pro-inflammatory responses without impairing neutrophil function. Hydrocortisone (1.3 mg/kg/day i.v.) was administered to foals in a tapering 3.5 day course. Peripheral blood leukocytes were collected from foals before, during and after hydrocortisone treatment. A separate group of age-matched untreated foals served as controls. Endotoxin-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression of inflammatory cytokines was measured by real time quantitative RT-PCR. Neutrophils were incubated with labeled, killed S. aureus or E. coli for assessment of phagocytosis, and with phorbol myristate acetate, zymosan, or endotoxin for measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Neutrophil phagocytosis and ROS production were similar in both groups. Foals receiving hydrocortisone had significantly decreased endotoxin-induced expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1β. These data suggest that this LDHC treatment regimen ameliorates endotoxin-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in neonatal foals without impairing innate immune responses needed to combat bacterial infection. PMID:21430601

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of methyl ursolate obtained from a chemically derived crude extract of apple peels: potential use in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pádua, Tatiana A; de Abreu, Bianca S S C; Costa, Thadeu E M M; Nakamura, Marcos J; Valente, Lígia M M; Henriques, Maria das Graças; Siani, Antonio C; Rosas, Elaine C

    2014-11-01

    Ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid found in apple peels (Malus domestica, Borkh, Rosaceae), has a large spectrum of pharmacological effects. However, the vegetal matrix usually produces highly viscous and poorly soluble extracts that hamper the isolation of this compound. To overcome this problem, the crude EtOH-AcOEt extract of commercial apple peels was exhaustively treated with diazomethane, after which methyl ursolate (MU) was purified by column chromatography and characterized spectrometrically. The anti-inflammatory effects of UA and MU (50 mg/kg) were analyzed by zymosan-induced paw edema, pleurisy and in an experimental arthritis model. After 4 h of treatment with UA and MU, paw edema was reduced by 46 and 44 %, respectively. Both UA and MU inhibited protein extravasation into the thoracic cavity; tibio-femoral edema by 40 and 48 %, respectively; and leukocyte influx into the synovial cavity after 6 h by 52 and 73 %, respectively. Additionally, both UA and MU decreased the levels of mediators related to synovial inflammation, such as KC/CXCL-1 levels by 95 and 90 %, TNF-α levels by 76 and 71 %, and IL-1β levels by 57 and 53 %, respectively. Both the compounds were equally effective when assayed in different inflammatory models, including experimental arthritis. Hence, MU may be considered to be a useful anti-inflammatory derivative to overcome the inherent poor solubility of UA for formulating pharmaceutical products.

  4. Oral butyrate reduces oxidative stress in atherosclerotic lesion sites by a mechanism involving NADPH oxidase down-regulation in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Edenil C; Santos, Lana Claudinez Dos; Leonel, Alda J; de Oliveira, Jamil Silvano; Santos, Elândia Aparecida; Navia-Pelaez, Juliana M; da Silva, Josiane Fernandes; Mendes, Bárbara Pinheiro; Capettini, Luciano S A; Teixeira, Lilian G; Lemos, Virginia S; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I

    2016-08-01

    Butyrate is a 4-carbon fatty acid that has antiinflammatory and antioxidative properties. It has been demonstrated that butyrate is able to reduce atherosclerotic development in animal models by reducing inflammatory factors. However, the contribution of its antioxidative effects of butyrate on atherogenesis has not yet been studied. We investigated the influence of butyrate on oxidative status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) release and oxidative enzymes (NADPH oxidase and iNOS) in atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE(-/-) mice and in oxLDL-stimulated peritoneal macrophages and endothelial cells (EA.hy926). The lesion area in aorta was reduced while in the aortic valve, although lesion area was unaltered, superoxide production and protein nitrosylation were reduced in butyrate-supplemented mice. Peritoneal macrophages from the butyrate group presented a lower free radical release after zymosan stimulus. When endothelial cells were pretreated with butyrate before oxLDL stimulus, the CCL-2 and superoxide ion productions and NADPH oxidase subunit p22phox were reduced. In macrophage cultures, in addition to a reduction in ROS release, nitric oxide and iNOS expression were down-regulated. The data suggest that one mechanism related to the effect of butyrate on atherosclerotic development is the reduction of oxidative stress in the lesion site. The reduction of oxidative stress related to NADPH oxidase and iNOS expression levels associated to butyrate supplementation attenuates endothelium dysfunction and macrophage migration and activation in the lesion site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Anti-inflammatory properties of noopept (dipeptide nootropic agent GVS-111)].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, L P; Miramedova, M G; Alekseeva, S V; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaia, R U; Seredenin, S B

    2002-01-01

    It is established that single intravenous (0.5 and 5 mg/kg, p.o.) or single peroral (10, 50, 100 mg/kg) and prolonged peroral (5 mg/kg, over 10 days) administration of noopept produces a dose-dependent inhibition of the model inflammatory response to concanavaline A in CBA mice. Intravenously injected (5 mg/kg) noopept suppressed the acute nonimmune carrageenan-induced foot inflammation in rats by 62.2% within 3 h. The most pronounced antiinflammatory effect of dipeptide was observed on the model of adjuvant arthritis in rats, where the drug administered over 25 days in a daily dose of 0.5 mg/kg (i.m.) or 5 mg/kg (p.o.) significantly reduced the chronic immune inflammation (on the 12th day, by 94.0 and 74.1%, respectively). The in vitro experiments with neutrophilic leukocytes of F1(CBA.C57BL/6) mice treated with noopept in a single dose of 5 mg/kg (i.v.) showed a 5- to 6-fold suppression of the hemiluminescence stimulated by opsoinized zymosan or phorbolmyristate acetate. It is suggested that the antiinflammatory activity of noopept is probably related to its antioxidant properties.

  6. Phagocytosis-dependent activation of a TLR9–BTK–calcineurin–NFAT pathway co-ordinates innate immunity to Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Susanne; Shah, Anand; Mazon Moya, Maria; Marzola, Vanessa; Jensen, Barbara; Reed, Anna; Birrell, Mark A; Saijo, Shinobu; Mostowy, Serge; Shaunak, Sunil; Armstrong-James, Darius

    2015-01-01

    Transplant recipients on calcineurin inhibitors are at high risk of invasive fungal infection. Understanding how calcineurin inhibitors impair fungal immunity is a key priority for defining risk of infection. Here, we show that the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus impairs clearance of the major mould pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus from the airway, by inhibiting macrophage inflammatory responses. This leads to defective early neutrophil recruitment and fungal clearance. We confirm these findings in zebrafish, showing an evolutionarily conserved role for calcineurin signalling in neutrophil recruitment during inflammation. We find that calcineurin–NFAT activation is phagocytosis dependent and collaborates with NF-κB for TNF-α production. For yeast zymosan particles, activation of macrophage calcineurin–NFAT occurs via the phagocytic Dectin-1–spleen tyrosine kinase pathway, but for A. fumigatus, activation occurs via a phagosomal TLR9-dependent and Bruton's tyrosine kinase-dependent signalling pathway that is independent of MyD88. We confirm the collaboration between NFAT and NF-κB for TNF-α production in primary alveolar macrophages. These observations identify inhibition of a newly discovered macrophage TLR9–BTK–calcineurin–NFAT signalling pathway as a key immune defect that leads to organ transplant-related invasive aspergillosis. PMID:25637383

  7. [Peripheral blood cells luminol-dependent chemiluminescence at the different stages of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Elistratova, I V; Morozov, S G; Zakharova, I A; Tarasova, M V

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this work was to record the luminol-dependent spontaneous and induced chemiluminescence at the different stages of atopic dermatitis. Peripheral blood cells were obtained from adult patient with atopic dermatitis followed by the registration of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence on luminograph. Opsonized zymosan as well as yeasts Candida tropicalis have been used to induce the chemiluminescence. Spontaneous and induced chemiluminescence were slightly elevated at the mild atopic dermatitis but were decreased at the severe stage of disease. Statistically significant difference has been found between group with mild and severe atopic dermatitis, Skin contamination by yeasts Candida tropicalis causes the increased level of blood cells chemiluminescence at the first week of atopic relapse when the disease was mild. Severe stage of atopic dermatitis was coupled with statistically significant inhibition of both, spontaneous and induced chemiluminescence. Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of peripheral blood cells from adult atopic dermatitis patients may be stimulated at the mild stage and suppressed at severe stage of atopic dermatitis.

  8. Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens to Dendritic Cells via the DC-Specific-ICAM3-Grabbing-Nonintegrin Receptor Induces Strong T-Helper 1 Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Velasquez, Lis Noelia; Stüve, Philipp; Gentilini, Maria Virginia; Swallow, Maxine; Bartel, Judith; Lycke, Nils Yngve; Barkan, Daniel; Martina, Mariana; Lujan, Hugo D.; Kalay, Hakan; van Kooyk, Yvette; Sparwasser, Tim D.; Berod, Luciana

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a major global health problem and efforts to develop a more effective vaccine have been unsuccessful so far. Targeting antigens (Ags) to dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo has emerged as a new promising vaccine strategy. In this approach, Ags are delivered directly to DCs via antibodies that bind to endocytic cell-surface receptors. Here, we explored DC-specific-ICAM3-grabbing-nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) targeting as a potential vaccine against tuberculosis. For this, we made use of the hSIGN mouse model that expresses human DC-SIGN under the control of the murine CD11c promoter. We show that in vitro and in vivo delivery of anti-DC-SIGN antibodies conjugated to Ag85B and peptide 25 of Ag85B in combination with anti-CD40, the fungal cell wall component zymosan, and the cholera toxin-derived fusion protein CTA1-DD induces strong Ag-specific CD4+ T-cell responses. Improved anti-mycobacterial immunity was accompanied by increased frequencies of Ag-specific IFN-γ+ IL-2+ TNF-α+ polyfunctional CD4+ T cells in vaccinated mice compared with controls. Taken together, in this study we provide the proof of concept that the human DC-SIGN receptor can be efficiently exploited for vaccine purposes to promote immunity against mycobacterial infections. PMID:29662482

  9. Monocyte and macrophage-targeted NADPH oxidase mediates antifungal host defense and regulation of acute inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Melissa J.; Vethanayagam, R. Robert; Almyroudis, Nikolaos G.; Dennis, Carly G.; Khan, A. Nazmul H.; D’Auria, Anthony; Singel, Kelly L.; Davidson, Bruce A.; Knight, Paul R.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Hohl, Tobias M.; Mansour, Michael K.; Vyas, Jatin M.; Röhm, Marc; Urban, Constantin F.; Kelkka, Tiina; Holmdahl, Rikard; Segal, Brahm H.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease, an inherited disorder of the NADPH oxidase in which phagocytes are defective in the generation of superoxide anion and downstream reactive oxidant species, is characterized by severe bacterial and fungal infections and excessive inflammation. Although NADPH oxidase isoforms exist in several lineages, reactive oxidant generation is greatest in neutrophils, where NADPH oxidase has been deemed vital for pathogen killing. In contrast, the function and importance of NADPH oxidase in macrophages are less clear. Therefore, we evaluated susceptibility to pulmonary aspergillosis in globally NADPH oxidase-deficient mice versus transgenic mice with monocyte/macrophage-targeted NADPH oxidase activity. We found that the lethal inoculum was more than 100-fold greater in transgenic versus globally NADPH oxidase-deficient mice. Consistent with these in vivo results, NADPH oxidase in mouse alveolar macrophages limited germination of phagocytosed Aspergillus fumigatus spores. Finally, globally NADPH oxidase-deficient mice developed exuberant neutrophilic lung inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to zymosan, a fungal cell wall-derived product composed principally of particulate beta-glucans, whereas inflammation in transgenic and wildtype mice was mild and transient. Together, our studies identify a central role for monocyte/macrophage NADPH oxidase in controlling fungal infection and in limiting acute lung inflammation. PMID:23509361

  10. Influence of Rhodococcus equi on the respiratory burst of resident alveolar macrophages from horses

    SciTech Connect

    Brumbaugh, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is the etiologic agent of a devastating pneumonia of sporadic incidence in foals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of R. equi on the superoxide anion production, measured spectrophotometrically as the reduction of cytochrome C, and hexose monophosphate shunt activity, measured by /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ liberation from /sup 14/C-1-D-glucose, of alveolar macrophages from horses. Alveolar macrophages were harvested from 6 anesthetized, healthy, light-breed, adult horses by bronchoalveolar lavage. Following a randomized complete block design, the suspension of cells was divided into aliquots of 10/sup 6/ viable alveolar macrophages which were exposed to 1, 10more » or 100 g. of opsonized R. equi or opsonized zymosan A at 37 C for 2 hours. In this study the respiratory burst of equine alveolar macrophages was only evidenced by the hexose monophosphate shunt activity and superoxide anion was not coincidentally produced. Rhodococcus equi did not adversely affect that response. The insignificant superoxide anion production by the alveolar macrophages suggests that this may not be a significant oxygen metabolite in those cells.« less

  11. Phospholipid sources for adrenic acid mobilization in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Comparison with arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Guijas, Carlos; Astudillo, Alma M; Gil-de-Gómez, Luis; Rubio, Julio M; Balboa, María A; Balsinde, Jesús

    2012-11-01

    Cells metabolize arachidonic acid (AA) to adrenic acid (AdA) via 2-carbon elongation reactions. Like AA, AdA can be converted into multiple oxygenated metabolites, with important roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, in contrast to AA, there is virtually no information on how the cells regulate the availability of free AdA for conversion into bioactive products. We have used a comparative lipidomic approach with both gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to characterize changes in the levels of AA- and AdA-containing phospholipid species in RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. Incubation of the cells with AA results in an extensive conversion to AdA but both fatty acids do not compete with each other for esterification into phospholipids. AdA but not AA, shows preference for incorporation into phospholipids containing stearic acid at the sn-1 position. After stimulation of the cells with zymosan, both AA and AdA are released in large quantities, albeit AA is released to a greater extent. Finally, a variety of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol molecular species contribute to AA; however, AdA is liberated exclusively from phosphatidylcholine species. Collectively, these results identify significant differences in the cellular utilization of AA and AdA by the macrophages, suggesting non-redundant biological actions for these two fatty acids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Independent trafficking of flavocytochrome b558 and myeloperoxidase to phagosomes during phagocytosis visualised by energy-filtering and energy-dispersive spectroscopy-scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Keiichi

    2018-03-01

    When polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) phagocytose opsonised zymosan particles (OPZ), free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed in the phagosomes. ROS production is mediated by NADPH oxidase (Nox), which transfers electrons in converting oxygen to superoxide (O 2 - ). Nox-generated O 2 - is rapidly converted to other ROS. Free radical-forming secretory vesicles containing the Nox redox center flavocytochrome b558, a membrane protein, and azurophil granules with packaged myeloperoxidase (MPO) have been described. Presuming the probable fusion of these vesicular and granular organelles with phagosomes, the translation process of the enzymes was investigated using energy-filtering and energy-dispersive spectroscopy-scanning transmission electron microscopy. In this work, the primary method for imaging cerium (Ce) ions demonstrated the localisation of H 2 O 2 generated by phagocytosing PMNs. The MPO activity of the same PMNs was continuously monitored using 0.1% 3,3'-diaminobenzidine-tetrahydrochloride (DAB) and 0.01% H 2 O 2 . A detailed view of these vesicular and granular structures was created by overlaying each electron micrograph with pseudocolors: blue for Ce and green for nitrogen (N). © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. Poor Mobilization in T-Cell-Deficient Nude Mice is Explained by Defective Activation of Granulocytes and Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wysoczynski, Marcin; Adamiak, Mateusz; Suszynska, Malwina; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed; Ratajczak, Janina; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that both SCID mice and SCID patients poorly mobilize hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) in response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). This defect has been proposed to result from a lack of naturally occurring IgM immunoglobulins to trigger activation of the complement cascade (ComC) and release of C5 cleavage fragments crucial in the mobilization process. However, SCID individuals also have T-cell deficiency, and T cells have been shown to modulate trafficking of HSPCs. To learn more about the role of T lymphocytes, we performed mobilization studies in T-lymphocyte-deficient nude mice and found that these mice respond poorly to G-CSF and zymosan but are normal mobilizers in response to AMD3100. Since nude mice have normal levels of IgM immunoglobulins in peripheral blood and may activate the ComC, we focused on the potential involvement of Gr1+ granulocytes and monocytes, which show defective maturation in these animals. Using a nude mouse mobilization model, we found further support for the proposition that proper function of Gr1+ cells is crucial for optimal mobilization of HSPCs. PMID:27436627

  14. Poor Mobilization in T-Cell-Deficient Nude Mice Is Explained by Defective Activation of Granulocytes and Monocytes.

    PubMed

    Wysoczynski, Marcin; Adamiak, Mateusz; Suszynska, Malwina; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed; Ratajczak, Janina; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2017-01-24

    It has been reported that both SCID mice and SCID patients poorly mobilize hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) in response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). This defect has been proposed to result from a lack of naturally occurring IgM immunoglobulins to trigger activation of the complement cascade (ComC) and release of C5 cleavage fragments crucial in the mobilization process. However, SCID individuals also have T-cell deficiency, and T cells have been shown to modulate trafficking of HSPCs. To learn more about the role of T lymphocytes, we performed mobilization studies in T-lymphocyte-deficient nude mice and found that these mice respond poorly to G-CSF and zymosan but are normal mobilizers in response to AMD3100. Since nude mice have normal levels of IgM immunoglobulins in peripheral blood and may activate the ComC, we focused on the potential involvement of Gr1+ granulocytes and monocytes, which show defective maturation in these animals. Using a nude mouse mobilization model, we found further support for the proposition that proper function of Gr1+ cells is crucial for optimal mobilization of HSPCs.

  15. Blood eosinophils from asymptomatic allergics have a reduced capacity to produce oxygen-free radicals.

    PubMed

    Woschnagg, C; Rak, S; Venge, P

    1998-12-01

    The eosinophil granulocyte is an inflammatory cell that plays an active part in diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. This study aimed to investigate oxidative metabolism by blood eosinophils taken from allergic rhinitis patients, asthmatics, and nonallergic controls before and during the birch-pollen season. Twenty patients with allergy to birch pollen and seasonal symptoms of rhinitis, some of whom were also asthmatic, were followed before and during the birch-pollen season in Sweden. The cells were purified using a Percoll gradient and the MACS system. Eosinophil purity in all samples was > 95%. Oxidative metabolism was measured by a chemiluminescence (CL) assay, with luminol and lucigenin acting as enhancers, and PMA, serum-treated zymosan (STZ), interleukin (IL)-5, or RANTES as stimuli. The allergic subjects showed reduced luminol CL when activated before the season with PMA (P = 0.040) or STZ (P = 0.0055). This was not seen during pollen exposure. STZ-activated lucigenin CL was also reduced before the season (P = 0.0027). The reduction was most evident in the group with asymptomatic rhinitis. In terms of eosinophil stimulation, IL-5 and RANTES were equally effective in allergic and nonallergic subjects, both before and during the pollen season. Blood eosinophils from asymptomatic allergics may have a lower capacity to produce oxygen-free radicals than eosinophils from nonallergics.

  16. A role for fungal β-glucans and their receptor Dectin-1 in the induction of autoimmune arthritis in genetically susceptible mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Sakaguchi, Noriko; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Brown, Gordon D.; Tagami, Tomoyuki; Sakihama, Toshiko; Hirota, Keiji; Tanaka, Satoshi; Nomura, Takashi; Miki, Ichiro; Gordon, Siamon; Akira, Shizuo; Nakamura, Takashi; Sakaguchi, Shimon

    2005-01-01

    A combination of genetic and environmental factors can cause autoimmune disease in animals. SKG mice, which are genetically prone to develop autoimmune arthritis, fail to develop the disease under a microbially clean condition, despite active thymic production of arthritogenic autoimmune T cells and their persistence in the periphery. However, in the clean environment, a single intraperitoneal injection of zymosan, a crude fungal β-glucan, or purified β-glucans such as curdlan and laminarin can trigger severe chronic arthritis in SKG mice, but only transient arthritis in normal mice. Blockade of Dectin-1, a major β-glucan receptor, can prevent SKG arthritis triggered by β-glucans, which strongly activate dendritic cells in vitro in a Dectin-1–dependent but Toll-like receptor-independent manner. Furthermore, antibiotic treatment against fungi can prevent SKG arthritis in an arthritis-prone microbial environment. Multiple injections of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid double-stranded RNA also elicit mild arthritis in SKG mice. Thus, specific microbes, including fungi and viruses, may evoke autoimmune arthritis such as rheumatoid arthritis by stimulating innate immunity in individuals who harbor potentially arthritogenic autoimmune T cells as a result of genetic anomalies or variations. PMID:15781585

  17. Insight into the messenger role of reactive oxygen intermediates in immunostimulated hemocytes from the scallop Argopecten purpuratus.

    PubMed

    Oyanedel, Daniel; Gonzalez, Roxana; Brokordt, Katherina; Schmitt, Paulina; Mercado, Luis

    2016-12-01

    Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) are metabolites produced by aerobic cells which have been linked to oxidative stress. Evidence reported in vertebrates indicates that ROI can also act as messengers in a variety of cellular signaling pathways, including those involved in innate immunity. In a recent study, an inhibitor of NF-kB transcription factors was identified in the scallop Argopecten purpuratus, and its functional characterization suggested that it may regulate the expression of the big defensin antimicrobial peptide ApBD1. In order to give new insights into the messenger role of ROI in the immune response of bivalve mollusks, the effect of ROI production on gene transcription of ApBD1 was assessed in A. purpuratus. The results showed that 48 h-cultured hemocytes were able to display phagocytic activity and ROI production in response to the β-glucan zymosan. The immune stimulation also induced the transcription of ApBD1, which was upregulated in cultured hemocytes. After neutralizing the ROI produced by the stimulated hemocytes with the antioxidant trolox, the transcription of ApBD1 was reduced near to base levels. The results suggest a potential messenger role of intracellular ROI on the regulation of ApBD1 transcription during the immune response of scallops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Heritability of Nociception IV: Neuropathic pain assays are genetically distinct across methods of peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Young, Erin E.; Costigan, Michael; Herbert, Teri A.; Lariviere, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior genetic correlation analysis of 22 heritable behavioral measures of nociception and hypersensitivity in the mouse identified five genetically distinct pain types. In the present study, we reanalyzed that dataset and included the results of an additional nine assays of nociception and hypersensitivity to: 1) replicate the previously identified five pain types; 2) test whether any of the newly added pain assays represent novel genetically distinct pain types; 3) test the level of genetic relatedness among nine commonly employed neuropathic pain assays. Multivariate analysis of pairwise correlations between assays shows that the newly added zymosan-induced heat hypersensitivity assay does not conform to the two previously identified groups of heat hypersensitivity assays and cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis, the first organ-specific visceral pain model examined, is genetically distinct from other inflammatory assays. The four included mechanical hypersensitivity assays are genetically distinct, and do not comprise a single pain type as previously reported. Among the nine neuropathic pain assays including autotomy, chemotherapy, nerve ligation and spared nerve injury assays, at least four genetically distinct types of neuropathic sensory abnormalities were identified, corresponding to differences in nerve injury method. In addition, two itch assays and Comt genotype were compared to the expanded set of nociception and hypersensitivity assays. Comt genotype was strongly related only to spontaneous inflammatory nociception assays. These results indicate the priority for continued investigation of genetic mechanisms in several assays newly identified to represent genetically distinct pain types. PMID:24071598

  19. Effects of Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxic culture supernatant on bovine neutrophil aggregation.

    PubMed

    Conlon, P; Gervais, M; Chaudhari, S; Conlon, J

    1992-07-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica A1 leukotoxic culture supernatant was evaluated for its ability to cause aggregation of bovine peripheral neutrophils. Neutrophils were isolated by a hypotonic lysis method and incubated with zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP), leukotoxic culture supernatant, antileukotoxin serum, calcium and magnesium-free media, p-bromophenacyl bromide and protein kinase C inhibitors. Aggregation was evaluated by changes in infrared light transmittance. Leukotoxic culture supernatant caused neutrophils to aggregate, and this effect was significantly removed by preincubation with antileukotoxin serum. Aggregation to ZAP and leukotoxin was dependent on the presence of extra-cellular calcium. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol myristate acetate induced aggregation which was reduced by staurosporine; however, aggregation to leukotoxin did not involve protein kinase C activation. Phospholipase A2 inhibition did not alter the aggregation response to ZAP or to leukotoxin. The in vitro measurement of neutrophil aggregation induced by the leukotoxin of P. haemolytica reflects cytoskeletal and other activation events that may contribute to the intense inflammatory process which this organism induces in the lungs of cattle.

  20. Effects of Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxic culture supernatant on bovine neutrophil aggregation.

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, P; Gervais, M; Chaudhari, S; Conlon, J

    1992-01-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica A1 leukotoxic culture supernatant was evaluated for its ability to cause aggregation of bovine peripheral neutrophils. Neutrophils were isolated by a hypotonic lysis method and incubated with zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP), leukotoxic culture supernatant, antileukotoxin serum, calcium and magnesium-free media, p-bromophenacyl bromide and protein kinase C inhibitors. Aggregation was evaluated by changes in infrared light transmittance. Leukotoxic culture supernatant caused neutrophils to aggregate, and this effect was significantly removed by preincubation with antileukotoxin serum. Aggregation to ZAP and leukotoxin was dependent on the presence of extra-cellular calcium. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol myristate acetate induced aggregation which was reduced by staurosporine; however, aggregation to leukotoxin did not involve protein kinase C activation. Phospholipase A2 inhibition did not alter the aggregation response to ZAP or to leukotoxin. The in vitro measurement of neutrophil aggregation induced by the leukotoxin of P. haemolytica reflects cytoskeletal and other activation events that may contribute to the intense inflammatory process which this organism induces in the lungs of cattle. PMID:1423054

  1. Morphofunctional study of the haemocytes of the bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis with emphasis on the endolysosomal compartment.

    PubMed

    Cajaraville, M P; Pal, S G

    1995-10-01

    In the present work the haemocytes of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia) have been studied by light and electron microscopy in order to describe their main morphological features and to relate these to their roles in immune defence. The haemocytes belong to two definitive differentiated types, hyalinocytes and granulocytes. The former shows the presence of several fine pseudopodial protrusions, large nucleus with clumps of dense chromatin, scant cytoplasm, a well developed Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, several mitochondria (some with characteristic inclusions), coated pits and peripherally placed membrane-bound endocytic vesicles, considerable amounts of endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes. The granulocytes generally possess an organelle-free ectoplasmic zone, numerous membrane-delimited dense granules of various types, coated pits and vesicles, endocytic and phagocytic vesicles, multivesicular bodies, several peroxisome-like organelles, mitochondria with inclusions, scant endoplasmic reticulum and small Golgi apparatus. These cells show the presence of few lipid droplets and variable amounts of glycogen particles. Some of the substructural features of the granules are documented here to indicate their probable biogenesis, growth and relationship with the endolysosomal compartment. In addition, in vitro phagocytosis experiments demonstrate that both hyalinocytes and granulocytes uptake latex and zymosan particles, granulocytes being much more active in phagocytosis than hyalinocytes.

  2. Proton pump inhibitors protect mice from acute systemic inflammation and induce long-term cross-tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Balza, E; Piccioli, P; Carta, S; Lavieri, R; Gattorno, M; Semino, C; Castellani, P; Rubartelli, A

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of sepsis is increasing, representing a tremendous burden for health-care systems. Death in acute sepsis is attributed to hyperinflammatory responses, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We report here that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which block gastric acid secretion, selectively inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-activated human monocytes in vitro, in the absence of toxic effects. Remarkably, the oversecretion of IL-1β that represents a hallmark of monocytes from patients affected by cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome is also blocked. Based on these propaedeutic experiments, we tested the effects of high doses of PPIs in vivo in the mouse model of endotoxic shock. Our data show that a single administration of PPI protected mice from death (60% survival versus 5% of untreated mice) and decreased TNF-α and IL-1β systemic production. PPIs were efficacious even when administered after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. PPI-treated mice that survived developed a long-term cross-tolerance, becoming resistant to LPS- and zymosan-induced sepsis. In vitro, their macrophages displayed impaired TNF-α and IL-1β to different TLR ligands. PPIs also prevented sodium thioglycollate-induced peritoneal inflammation, indicating their efficacy also in a non-infectious setting independent of TLR stimulation. Lack of toxicity and therapeutic effectiveness make PPIs promising new drugs against sepsis and other severe inflammatory conditions. PMID:27441656

  3. Transfer of phagocytosed particles to the parasitophorous vacuole of Leishmania mexicana is a transient phenomenon preceding the acquisition of annexin I by the phagosome.

    PubMed

    Collins, H L; Schaible, U E; Ernst, J D; Russell, D G

    1997-01-01

    The eukaryotic intracellular pathogen Leishmania mexicana resides inside macrophages contained within a membrane bound parasitophorous vacuole which, as it matures, acquires the characteristics of a late endosomal compartment. This study reports the selectivity of fusion of this compartment with other particle containing vacuoles. Phagosomes containing zymosan or live Listeria monocytogenes rapidly fused with L. mexicana parasitophorous vacuoles, while those containing latex beads or heat killed L. monocytogenes failed to do so. Fusigenicity of phagosomes was not primarily dependent on the receptor utilized for ingestion, as opsonization with defined ligands could not overcome the exclusion of either latex beads or heat killed organisms. However modulation of intracellular pH by pharmacological agents such as chloroquine and ammonium chloride increased delivery of live Listeria and also induced transfer of previously excluded particles. The absence of fusion correlated with the acquisition of annexin I, a putative lysosomal targeting, molecule, on the phagosome membrane. We propose that the acquisition of cellular membrane constituents such as annexin I during phagosome maturation can ultimately direct the fusion pathway of the vesicles formed and have described a model system to further document changes in vesicle fusigenicity within cells.

  4. Human CD68 promoter GFP transgenic mice allow analysis of monocyte to macrophage differentiation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Asif J; McNeill, Eileen; Kapellos, Theodore S; Regan-Komito, Daniel; Norman, Sophie; Burd, Sarah; Smart, Nicola; Machemer, Daniel E W; Stylianou, Elena; McShane, Helen; Channon, Keith M; Chawla, Ajay; Greaves, David R

    2014-10-09

    The recruitment of monocytes and their differentiation into macrophages at sites of inflammation are key events in determining the outcome of the inflammatory response and initiating the return to tissue homeostasis. To study monocyte trafficking and macrophage differentiation in vivo, we have generated a novel transgenic reporter mouse expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the human CD68 promoter. CD68-GFP mice express high levels of GFP in both monocyte and embryo-derived tissue resident macrophages in adult animals. The human CD68 promoter drives GFP expression in all CD115(+) monocytes of adult blood, spleen, and bone marrow; we took advantage of this to directly compare the trafficking of bone marrow-derived CD68-GFP monocytes to that of CX3CR1(GFP) monocytes in vivo using a sterile zymosan peritonitis model. Unlike CX3CR1(GFP) monocytes, which downregulate GFP expression on differentiation into macrophages in this model, CD68-GFP monocytes retain high-level GFP expression for 72 hours after differentiation into macrophages, allowing continued cell tracking during resolution of inflammation. In summary, this novel CD68-GFP transgenic reporter mouse line represents a powerful resource for analyzing monocyte mobilization and monocyte trafficking as well as studying the fate of recruited monocytes in models of acute and chronic inflammation. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  5. The effect of mineral trioxide aggregate on phagocytic activity and production of reactive oxygen, nitrogen species and arginase activity by M1 and M2 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rezende, T M B; Vieira, L Q; Cardoso, F P; Oliveira, R R; de Oliveira Mendes, S T; Jorge, M L R; Ribeiro Sobrinho, A P

    2007-08-01

    To assess the influence of co-culture with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on phagocytosis and the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and nitrogen (NO) species and the arginase activity by M1 and M2 peritoneal macrophages. Cellular viability, adherence and phagocytosis of Saccharomyces boulardii were assayed in the presence of MTA. Macrophages were stimulated with zymosan for ROI assays and with Fusobacterium nucleatum and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and IFN-gamma for NO production and arginase activity, when in contact with capillaries containing MTA. Data were analysed by T, anova, Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. M2 macrophages displayed greater cellular viability in polypropylene tubes, greater ability to ingest yeast and smaller production of ROI and higher arginase activity when compared with M1 macrophages. Both macrophages, M1 and M2, presented similar cell adherence and NO production. The addition of bacterial preparations to macrophages interfered with NO and arginase productions. MTA did not interfere with any of the parameters measured. Phagocytosis and the ability of the two macrophage subtypes to eliminate microbes were not affected by MTA.

  6. Chemotaxis of basophils by lymphocyte-dependent and lymphocyte-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ward, P A; Dvorak, H F; Cohen, S; Yoshida, T; Data, R; Selvaggio, S S

    1975-05-01

    Guine pigs basophils obtained from blood or bone marrow have been studied for their chemotactic responsiveness. Chemotactic factors for basophils include a substance (lymphokine) present in culture fluids from antigen-stimulated lymphocytes, a material generated in zymosan-activated guinea pig serum, a C5 cleavage factor, and a bacterial factor. When compared with homologous neutrophils and monocytes, basophils respond most rapidly to a chemotactic stimulus. The lymphokine basophil chemotactic factor is physicochemically similar to the previously described monocyte chemotactic factor but appears to be distinct from it as well as MIF and neutrophil chemotactic factor present in the same fluids, Part of the evidence for this is the ability to detect basophil chemotactic factor in the absence of other lymphokine activities under appropriate experimental conditions. More evidence, specifically relating to the monocyte factor, is that monocytes can adsorb basophil chemotactic activity but not vice versa. This latter observation may have implications for the mechanism whereby the accumulation of basophils is controlled and limited in vivo. In addition, it was noted that specific antigen could also suppress basophil chemotaxis. Although the mechanism of this phenomenon is unclear, it could serve as a second means by which basophil accumulation may be controlled in the intact animal. Taken together, these observations provide further definition of the chemotactic behavior of basophils in general, and underscore some of the ways in which lymphocytes can influence basophils through lymphokine-dependent mechanisms.

  7. Effects of serum albumin on the degradation and cytotoxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yun; Tian, Rong; Yang, Zhen; Chen, Jianfa; Lu, Naihao

    2017-03-01

    Neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO - ) can oxidatively biodegrade carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The protein-SWCNTs interactions will play an important role in the degradation and cytotoxicity of nanotubes. Here, we investigated the binding of bovine serum albumin (BSA, a common and well-characterized model blood serum protein) to SWCNTs, and found that the hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions might be crucial factors in stabilizing the binding of SWCNTs with BSA. The binding of BSA could impair SWCNTs biodegradation in vitro through the competitive adsorption to nanotube. Both SWCNTs and BSA-SWCNTs were significantly degraded in zymosan-stimulated macrophages, and the degradation degree was more for BSA-SWCNTs. The mechanism for SWCNTs degradation in activated macrophages was further investigated to demonstrate the dominant participation of MPO and ONOO - -driven pathways. Moreover, binding of BSA to SWCNTs reduced cytotoxicity and degraded nanotubes induced less cytotoxicity than non-degraded nanotubes. The binding of BSA may be an important determinant for the biodegradation and cytotoxicity of SWCNTs in inflammatory cells, and therefore, provide a new route to mitigate the potential toxicity of nanotubes in future biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxy Fatty Acids (FAHFAs) With Anti-inflammatory Properties.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Ondrej; Brezinova, Marie; Rombaldova, Martina; Slavikova, Barbora; Posta, Martin; Beier, Petr; Janovska, Petra; Veleba, Jiri; Kopecky, Jan; Kudova, Eva; Pelikanova, Terezie; Kopecky, Jan

    2016-09-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ with both metabolic and endocrine functions. Dysregulation of all of these functions of WAT, together with low-grade inflammation of the tissue in obese individuals, contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of marine origin play an important role in the resolution of inflammation and exert beneficial metabolic effects. Using experiments in mice and overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes, we elucidated the structures of novel members of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids-lipokines derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linoleic acid, which were present in serum and WAT after n-3 PUFA supplementation. These compounds contained DHA esterified to 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HLA) or 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (HDHA), termed 9-DHAHLA, 13-DHAHLA, and 14-DHAHDHA, and were synthesized by adipocytes at concentrations comparable to those of protectins and resolvins derived from DHA in WAT. 13-DHAHLA exerted anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties while reducing macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharides and enhancing the phagocytosis of zymosan particles. Our results document the existence of novel lipid mediators, which are involved in the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects attributed to n-3 PUFAs, in both mice and humans. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  9. Niacin Promotes Cardiac Healing after Myocardial Infarction through Activation of the Myeloid Prostaglandin D2 Receptor Subtype 1

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Deping; Li, Juanjuan; Shen, Yujun; Liu, Guizhu; Zuo, Shengkai; Tao, Bo; Ji, Yong; Lu, Ankang; Lazarus, Michael; Breyer, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Niacin is a well established drug used to lower cholesterol and prevent cardiovascular disease events. However, niacin also causes cutaneous flushing side effects due to release of the proresolution mediator prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). Recent randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that addition of niacin with laropiprant [a PGD2 receptor subtype 1 (DP1) blocker] to statin-based therapies does not significantly decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease events, but increases the risk of serious adverse events. Here, we tested whether, and how, niacin beneficial effects on myocardial ischemia require the activation of the PGD2/DP1 axis. Myocardial infarction (MI) was reproduced by ligation of the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery in mice. We found that niacin increased PGD2 release in macrophages and shifted macrophages to M2 polarization both in vitro and in vivo by activation of DP1 and accelerated inflammation resolution in zymosan-induced peritonitis in mice. Moreover, niacin treatment facilitated wound healing and improved cardiac function after MI through DP1-mediated M2 bias and timely resolution of inflammation in infarcted hearts. In addition, we found that niacin intake also stimulated M2 polarization of peripheral monocytes in humans. Collectively, niacin promoted cardiac functional recovery after ischemic myocardial infarction through DP1-mediated M2 polarization and timely resolution of inflammation in hearts. These results indicated that DP1 inhibition may attenuate the cardiovascular benefits of niacin. PMID:28057839

  10. Pain Reduces Sexual Motivation in Female But Not Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Melissa A.; Leja, Alison; Foxen-Craft, Emily; Chan, Lindsey; MacIntyre, Leigh C.; Niaki, Tina; Chen, Mengsha; Mapplebeck, Josiane C.S.; Tabry, Vanessa; Topham, Lucas; Sukosd, Melissa; Binik, Yitzchak M.; Pfaus, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is often associated with sexual dysfunction, suggesting that pain can reduce libido. We find that inflammatory pain reduces sexual motivation, measured via mounting behavior and/or proximity in a paced mating paradigm, in female but not male laboratory mice. Pain was produced by injection of inflammogens zymosan A (0.5 mg/ml) or λ-carrageenan (2%) into genital or nongenital (hind paw, tail, cheek) regions. Sexual behavior was significantly reduced in female mice experiencing pain (in all combinations); male mice similarly treated displayed unimpeded sexual motivation. Pain-induced reductions in female sexual behavior were observed in the absence of sex differences in pain-related behavior, and could be rescued by the analgesic, pregabalin, and the libido-enhancing drugs, apomorphine and melanotan-II. These findings suggest that the well known context sensitivity of the human female libido can be explained by evolutionary rather than sociocultural factors, as female mice can be similarly affected. PMID:24760835

  11. Activation of normal neutrophils by anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Keogan, M T; Esnault, V L; Green, A J; Lockwood, C M; Brown, D L

    1992-01-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) are markers of systemic vasculitis for which a pathogenetic role has been postulated. We have examined the effect of these autoantibodies on the function of normal human neutrophils in vitro. In the presence of ANCA positive sera luminol-amplified chemiluminescence was significantly increased compared to the values seen in the presence of normal or anti-double stranded DNA positive sera (P < 0.01). Five of six ANCA positive F(ab)2 preparations also produced significant neutrophil activation as demonstrated by the chemiluminescence response. This response was totally abrogated by the addition of neutrophil cytoplasm extract, containing the ANCA antigen. Addition of inhibitors to the chemiluminescence system demonstrated that the chemiluminescence response was inhibited by azide and salicylhydroxamic acid and reduced by histidine, suggesting that the chemiluminescence response was due to activation of myeloperoxidase, with generation of singlet oxygen. The chemotactic response to f-Met-Leu-Phe, a bacterial chemotactic peptide, was significantly augmented in the presence of ANCA. Chemotaxis to zymosan-activated serum and chemokinesis was not affected. Phagocytosis was also unaffected. We propose that neutrophil activation and modulation of neutrophil migration by ANCA may be of pathogenetic significance in systemic vasculitis. PMID:1424279

  12. Immunoadjuvants enhance the febrile responses of rats to endogenous pyrogen.

    PubMed

    Stitt, J T; Shimada, S G

    1989-11-01

    The febrile responses of male Sprague-Dawley rats to a semipurified endogenous pyrogen produced from human monocytes were characterized by establishing fever dose-response curves. The animals were then injected intravenously with a number of substances that possessed the common properties of stimulating the phagocytic activity of the cells of the reticuloendothelial system and of acting as immunoadjuvants. The substances used were zymosan, lipopolysaccharide endotoxin, and muramyl dipeptide. Three days after any of these immunoadjuvants were injected, the fever sensitivity of the rats was remeasured. In each case, the slope of the fever dose-response curve tripled, and in some instances the response threshold for fever response was reduced by factors of three to eight. Furthermore, the maximum increase in body temperature produced by the endogenous pyrogen was more than doubled after immunoadjuvant treatment. By contrast latex beads, which are also phagocytized by the cells of the reticuloendothelial system but do not subsequently increase their phagocytic index nor do they enhance immune responses, had no effect on the fever sensitivity of rats in response to endogenous pyrogen. In the light of these findings, it is suggested that the febrile responses of rats to endogenous pyrogen are mediated in some manner by cells that possess some of the properties of reticuloendothelial cells. The location of these putative cells must be close to the circulation, because the immunoadjuvants used in this study were, for the most part, large molecular weight molecules that could not cross the blood-brain barrier easily.

  13. Structure-activity studies and therapeutic potential of host defense peptides of human thrombin.

    PubMed

    Kasetty, Gopinath; Papareddy, Praveen; Kalle, Martina; Rydengård, Victoria; Mörgelin, Matthias; Albiger, Barbara; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2011-06-01

    Peptides of the C-terminal region of human thrombin are released upon proteolysis and identified in human wounds. In this study, we wanted to investigate minimal determinants, as well as structural features, governing the antimicrobial and immunomodulating activity of this peptide region. Sequential amino acid deletions of the peptide GKYGFYTHVFRLKKWIQKVIDQFGE (GKY25), as well as substitutions at strategic and structurally relevant positions, were followed by analyses of antimicrobial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, and the fungus Candida albicans. Furthermore, peptide effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-, lipoteichoic acid-, or zymosan-induced macrophage activation were studied. The thrombin-derived peptides displayed length- and sequence-dependent antimicrobial as well as immunomodulating effects. A peptide length of at least 20 amino acids was required for effective anti-inflammatory effects in macrophage models, as well as optimal antimicrobial activity as judged by MIC assays. However, shorter (>12 amino acids) variants also displayed significant antimicrobial effects. A central K14 residue was important for optimal antimicrobial activity. Finally, one peptide variant, GKYGFYTHVFRLKKWIQKVI (GKY20) exhibiting improved selectivity, i.e., low toxicity and a preserved antimicrobial as well as anti-inflammatory effect, showed efficiency in mouse models of LPS shock and P. aeruginosa sepsis. The work defines structure-activity relationships of C-terminal host defense peptides of thrombin and delineates a strategy for selecting peptide epitopes of therapeutic interest.

  14. Pro-inflammatory activity in rats of thiocyanate, a metabolite of the hydrocyanic acid inhaled from tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Michael Wellesley; Jones, Mark

    2009-10-01

    To seek a mechanism linking tobacco smoking with the increased incidence and severity of rheumatoid arthritis, deduced from many retrospective surveys, by studying arthritis/fibrosis development in rats. Rats (>300) received low levels of sodium/potassium thiocyanate (10 or 25 mmol/l) in their drinking water to raise their blood thiocyanate levels, mimicking the elevated levels of blood, salivary and urinary thiocyanate found in smokers. Thiocyanate supplements increased the severity of experimental arthritis induced by tailbase injection of (1) Freund's complete adjuvants (mycobacteria plus various adjuvant-active oils), (2) collagen type-II with Freund's incomplete adjuvant (no mycobacteria), (3) the synthetic lipid amine, avridine in an oil and (4) the natural hydrocarbons squalene (C(30)H(50)) and pristane (C(19)H(40)). This pro-arthritic effect was independent of sex, rat strain or changing diet and housing facilities. Thiocyanate supplements also amplified the acute/persisting inflammatory responses to paw injections of pristane, zymosan and microcrystalline hydroxyapatite. Iodide salts also mimicked some of these effects of thiocyanate. Thiocyanate, a detoxication product of HCN present in tobacco smoke, increased (or even induced) inflammatory responses to several agents causing arthritis or fibrotic inflammation in rats. It, therefore, can act as a co-arthritigen, or 'virulence factor' and could be a therapeutic target to reduce arthritis expression and morbidity.

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Sensor IRE1α Enhances IL-23 Expression by Human Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Saioa; Fernández, José Javier; Terán-Cabanillas, Eli; Herrero, Carmen; Alonso, Sara; Azogil, Alicia; Montero, Olimpio; Iwawaki, Takao; Cubillos-Ruiz, Juan R; Fernández, Nieves; Crespo, Mariano Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) undergo bioenergetic changes that influence the immune response. We found that stimulation with PAMPs enhanced glycolysis in DCs, whereas oxidative phosphorylation remained unaltered. Glucose starvation and the hexokinase inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) modulated cytokine expression in stimulated DCs. Strikingly, IL23A was markedly induced upon 2-DG treatment, but not during glucose deprivation. Since 2-DG can also rapidly inhibit protein N-glycosylation, we postulated that this compound could induce IL-23 in DCs via activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Indeed, stimulation of DCs with PAMPs in the presence of 2-DG robustly activated inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α) signaling and to a lesser extent the PERK arm of the unfolded protein response. Additional ER stressors such as tunicamycin and thapsigargin also promoted IL-23 expression by PAMP-stimulated DCs. Pharmacological, biochemical, and genetic analyses using conditional knockout mice revealed that IL-23 induction in ER stressed DCs stimulated with PAMPs was IRE1α/X-box binding protein 1-dependent upon zymosan stimulation. Interestingly, we further evidenced PERK-mediated and CAAT/enhancer-binding protein β-dependent trans -activation of IL23A upon lipopolysaccharide treatment. Our findings uncover that the ER stress response can potently modulate cytokine expression in PAMP-stimulated human DCs.

  16. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Sensor IRE1α Enhances IL-23 Expression by Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, Saioa; Fernández, José Javier; Terán-Cabanillas, Eli; Herrero, Carmen; Alonso, Sara; Azogil, Alicia; Montero, Olimpio; Iwawaki, Takao; Cubillos-Ruiz, Juan R.; Fernández, Nieves; Crespo, Mariano Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) undergo bioenergetic changes that influence the immune response. We found that stimulation with PAMPs enhanced glycolysis in DCs, whereas oxidative phosphorylation remained unaltered. Glucose starvation and the hexokinase inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) modulated cytokine expression in stimulated DCs. Strikingly, IL23A was markedly induced upon 2-DG treatment, but not during glucose deprivation. Since 2-DG can also rapidly inhibit protein N-glycosylation, we postulated that this compound could induce IL-23 in DCs via activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Indeed, stimulation of DCs with PAMPs in the presence of 2-DG robustly activated inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α) signaling and to a lesser extent the PERK arm of the unfolded protein response. Additional ER stressors such as tunicamycin and thapsigargin also promoted IL-23 expression by PAMP-stimulated DCs. Pharmacological, biochemical, and genetic analyses using conditional knockout mice revealed that IL-23 induction in ER stressed DCs stimulated with PAMPs was IRE1α/X-box binding protein 1-dependent upon zymosan stimulation. Interestingly, we further evidenced PERK-mediated and CAAT/enhancer-binding protein β-dependent trans-activation of IL23A upon lipopolysaccharide treatment. Our findings uncover that the ER stress response can potently modulate cytokine expression in PAMP-stimulated human DCs. PMID:28674530

  17. Inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte function by Legionella pneumophila exoproducts.

    PubMed

    Sahney, N N; Lambe, B C; Summersgill, J T; Miller, R D

    1990-08-01

    Total exoproducts (relative molecular mass greater than 10,000) from wild-type strains of Legionella pneumophila markedly inhibited human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) superoxide anion generation, at sub-lethal concentrations, in response to four stimuli [1.7, 0, 0.6 and 3.4% of control for zymosan activated particles (ZAP), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore (A 23187), and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), respectively]. PMN chemotaxis towards fMLP and spontaneous migration, were also dramatically inhibited (2.8 and 2.9% of buffer-treated controls, respectively). In contrast, total exoproducts from the cas-1 strain of L. pneumophila, a protease-deficient mutant generated by ethyl methane sulfonate mutagenesis, failed to inhibit PMN superoxide production in response to ZAP and PMA and only partially inhibited PMN response to A 23187 and fMLP. PMN spontaneous migration was unaffected by treatment with total exoproducts from the mutant, while directed chemotaxis was partially inhibited (51.4%). These data demonstrated that L. pneumophila total exoproducts, primarily protease had significant inhibitory effects on normal PMN function and may play an important contributory role in the pathogenesis of legionnaire's disease.

  18. Regulation of endotoxin-induced inhibition of macrophage migration by fresh serum.

    PubMed Central

    Heilman, D H

    1977-01-01

    Purified endotoxin (LPS) caused macrophage migration inhibition (MMI) in capillary tube cultures of guinea pig peritoneal macrophages in medium prepared with 15% fresh-frozen guinea pig serum. The inactivation of serum by heating at 56 degrees C for 30 min or by zymosan absorption prevented LPS-induced MMI. LPS was fully inhibitory in fresh C4-deficient guinea pig serum. Heat treatment of normal serum at 50 to 52 degrees C for 30 min to inactivate the alternate complement (C) pathway prevented or significantly decreased LPS-induced MMI, but heating C4-deficient serum at 50 to 52 degrees C for 30 min prevented LPS-MMI in all instances. These results suggest that the reaction was effected via the alternate C pathway but that some inhibition of migration was permitted via the classical C pathway, presumably due to antibodies for LPS in some normal sera. Pretreatment of normal serum with cobra venom factor decreased or prevented LPS-MMI in most instances, but similar results were obtained with C4-deficient serum. Experiments with chelated sera were unsuccessful because of the immobilization of macrophages by 10 mM ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid and by 10 mM Mg-ethyleneglycol-bis (beta-aminoethyl)-N,N-tetraacetic acid. Low doses of concanavalin A and staphylococcal enterotoxin B and large doses of pokeweed mitogen caused MMI in "inactivated serum" medium, but MMI was enhanced in fresh serum. PMID:330407

  19. Human primary myeloid dendritic cells interact with the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus via the C-type lectin receptor Dectin-1.

    PubMed

    Hefter, Maike; Lother, Jasmin; Weiß, Esther; Schmitt, Anna Lena; Fliesser, Mirjam; Einsele, Hermann; Loeffler, Juergen

    2017-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen causing detrimental infections in immunocompromised individuals. Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells and recognize the A. fumigatus cell wall component β-1,3 glucan via Dectin-1, followed by DC maturation and cytokine release. Here, we demonstrate that human primary myeloid DCs (mDCs) interact with different morphotypes of A. fumigatus. Dectin-1 is expressed on mDCs and is down-regulated after contact with A. fumigatus, indicating that mDCs recognize A. fumigatus via this receptor. Blocking of Dectin-1, followed by stimulation with depleted zymosan diminished the up-regulation of the T-cell co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80, HLA-DR and CCR7 on mDCs and led to decreased release of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-10. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Characterization of the receptors for mycobacterial cord factor in Guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Toyonaga, Kenji; Miyake, Yasunobu; Yamasaki, Sho

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pig is a widely used animal for research and development of tuberculosis vaccines, since its pathological disease process is similar to that present in humans. We have previously reported that two C-type lectin receptors, Mincle (macrophage inducible C-type lectin, also called Clec4e) and MCL (macrophage C-type lectin, also called Clec4d), recognize the mycobacterial cord factor, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM). Here, we characterized the function of the guinea pig homologue of Mincle (gpMincle) and MCL (gpMCL). gpMincle directly bound to TDM and transduced an activating signal through ITAM-bearing adaptor molecule, FcRγ. Whereas, gpMCL lacked C-terminus and failed to bind to TDM. mRNA expression of gpMincle was detected in the spleen, lymph nodes and peritoneal macrophages and it was strongly up-regulated upon stimulation of zymosan and TDM. The surface expression of gpMincle was detected on activated macrophages by a newly established monoclonal antibody that also possesses a blocking activity. This antibody potently suppressed TNF production in BCG-infected macrophages. Collectively, gpMincle is the TDM receptor in the guinea pig and TDM-Mincle axis is involved in host immune responses against mycobacteria.

  1. Aliphatic alcohols in spirits inhibit phagocytosis by human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Pál, László; Árnyas, Ervin M; Bujdosó, Orsolya; Baranyi, Gergő; Rácz, Gábor; Ádány, Róza; McKee, Martin; Szűcs, Sándor

    2015-04-01

    A large volume of alcoholic beverages containing aliphatic alcohols is consumed worldwide. Previous studies have confirmed the presence of ethanol-induced immunosuppression in heavy drinkers, thereby increasing susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, the aliphatic alcohols contained in alcoholic beverages might also impair immune cell function, thereby contributing to a further decrease in microbicidal activity. Previous research has shown that aliphatic alcohols inhibit phagocytosis by granulocytes but their effect on human monocytes has not been studied. This is important as they play a crucial role in engulfment and killing of pathogenic microorganisms and a decrease in their phagocytic activity could lead to impaired antimicrobial defence in heavy drinkers. The aim of this study was to measure monocyte phagocytosis following their treatment with those aliphatic alcohols detected in alcoholic beverages. Monocytes were separated from human peripheral blood and phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan particles by monocytes treated with ethanol and aliphatic alcohols individually and in combination was determined. It was shown that these alcohols could suppress the phagocytic activity of monocytes in a concentration-dependent manner and when combined with ethanol, they caused a further decrease in phagocytosis. Due to their additive effects, it is possible that they may inhibit phagocytosis in a clinically meaningful way in alcoholics and episodic heavy drinkers thereby contribute to their increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, further research is needed to address this question.

  2. Beta-glucan enhances the response to SVCV infection in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    M Medina-Gali, Regla; Ortega-Villaizan, María Del Mar; Mercado, Luis; Novoa, Beatriz; Coll, Julio; Perez, Luis

    2018-07-01

    The antiviral effects of beta-glucan, an immunostimulatory agent were studied in zebrafish both in vitro and in vivo. Here we show that zebrafish ZF4 cells as well as whole fish primed with yeast β-glucan zymosan exhibited increased cytokine expression and elevated response to spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) infection. In vitro, previous treatment of β-glucan enhanced ZF4 cell viability against SVCV infection which is associated to the activation of interferon signaling pathway and inflammatory cytokines gene expression. In vivo, the SVCV-infected fish primed with β-glucan had a higher survival rate (≈73%) than the control SVCV-infected group (≈33%). Additionally, up-regulation of the expression of a set of genes involved in innate immune response was detected in zebrafish intraperitoneally injected of β-glucan: il1b, il6, il8, il10 and tnfa transcripts showed increased expression that appear to be rapid (2 days) but not long-lived (less than 2 weeks). The present study is, to our knowledge, the first to combine cell culture and in vivo approaches to describe host response to β-glucan stimulation and viral infection in zebrafish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Killing of Listeria monocytogens by conventional and germfree rat sera.

    PubMed Central

    Czuprynski, C J; Balish, E

    1981-01-01

    Serum from both germfree and conventional rats, but not plasma or plasma serum, killed Listeria monocytogenes in vitro by a calcium-dependent mechanism that was independent of either complement or lysozyme and was not inhibited by the addition of iron. The listericidin was purified by passing either rat serum or platelet lysate through a nitrocellulose filter (0.2 micrometer) and eluting the activity from the filter with 0.02 N HCl. The partially purified listericidin was heat stable (56 degrees C for 30 min), removed by absorption with zymosan or bentonite, sensitive to treatment with trypsin or pronase, and inhibited by the addition of citrate (0.045 M), suggesting that the serum listericidin is a cationic protein. The development of serum listericidal activity, which could be important in the innate resistance of rats to L. monocytogenes, was dependent on both age and microbial status. Although some discrepancies exist between the serum listericidin and previous descriptions of serum beta-lysin, we believe that the rat serum listericidin is a similar cationic protein. PMID:6792076

  4. Features of anti-inflammatory effects of modulated extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Gapeyev, Andrew B; Mikhailik, Elena N; Chemeris, Nikolay K

    2009-09-01

    Using a model of acute zymosan-induced paw edema in NMRI mice, we test the hypothesis that anti-inflammatory effects of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) can be essentially modified by application of pulse modulation with certain frequencies. It has been revealed that a single exposure of animals to continuous EHF EMR for 20 min reduced the exudative edema of inflamed paw on average by 19% at intensities of 0.1-0.7 mW/cm(2) and frequencies from the range of 42.2-42.6 GHz. At fixed effective carrier frequency of 42.2 GHz, the anti-inflammatory effect of EHF EMR did not depend on modulation frequencies, that is, application of different modulation frequencies from the range of 0.03-100 Hz did not lead to considerable changes in the effect level. On the contrary, at "ineffective" carrier frequencies of 43.0 and 61.22 GHz, the use of modulation frequencies of 0.07-0.1 and 20-30 Hz has allowed us to restore the effect up to a maximal level. The results obtained show the critical dependence of anti-inflammatory action of low-intensity EHF EMR on carrier and modulation frequencies. Within the framework of this study, the possibility of changing the level of expected biological effect of modulated EMR by a special selection of combination of carrier and modulation frequencies is confirmed.

  5. [Dependence of anti-inflammatory effects of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency on exposure parameters].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Mikhaĭlik, E N; Rubanik, A V; Cheremis, N K

    2007-01-01

    A pronounced anti-inflammatory effect of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency was shown for the first time in a model of zymosan-induced footpad edema in mice. Exposure to radiation of specific parameters (35, 27 GHz, peak power 20 kW, pulse widths 400-600 ns, pulse repetition frequency 5-500 Hz) decreased the exudative edema and local hyperthermia by 20% compared to the control. The kinetics and the magnitude of the anti-inflammatory effect were comparable with those induced by sodium diclofenac at a dose of 3 mg/kg. It was found that the anti-inflammatory effect linearly increased with increasing pulse width at a fixed pulse repetition frequency and had threshold dependence on the average incident power density of the radiation at a fixed pulse width. When animals were whole-body exposed in the far-field zone of radiator, the optimal exposure duration was 20 min. Increasing the average incident power density upon local exposure of the inflamed paw accelerated both the development of the anti-inflammatory effect and the reactivation time. The results obtained will undoubtedly be of great importance in the hygienic standardization of pulsed electromagnetic radiation and in further studies of the mechanisms of its biological action.

  6. Inactivation of complement by Loxosceles reclusa spider venom.

    PubMed

    Gebel, H M; Finke, J H; Elgert, K D; Cambell, B J; Barrett, J T

    1979-07-01

    Zymosan depletion of serum complement in guinea pigs rendered them highly resistant to lesion by Loxosceles reclusa spider venom. Guinea pigs deficient in C4 of the complement system are as sensitive to the venom as normal guinea pigs. The injection of 35 micrograms of whole recluse venom intradermally into guinea pigs lowered their complement level by 35.7%. Brown recluse spider venom in concentrations as slight as 0.02 micrograms protein/ml can totally inactivate one CH50 of guinea pig complement in vitro. Bee, scorpion, and other spider venoms had no influence on the hemolytic titer of complement. Fractionation of recluse spider venom by Sephadex G-200 filtration separated the complement-inactivating property of the venom into three major regions which could be distinguished on the basis of heat stability as well as size. None was neutralized by antivenom. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of venom resolved the complement inactivators into five fractions. Complement inactivated by whole venom or the Sephadex fractions could be restored to hemolytic activity by supplements of fresh serum but not by heat-inactivated serum, pure C3, pure C5, or C3 and C5 in combination.

  7. The role of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-2 ion channels in innate and adaptive immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Santoni, Giorgio; Farfariello, Valerio; Liberati, Sonia; Morelli, Maria B.; Nabissi, Massimo; Santoni, Matteo; Amantini, Consuelo

    2013-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid type-2 (TRPV2), belonging to the transient receptor potential channel family, is a specialized ion channel expressed in human and other mammalian immune cells. This channel has been found to be expressed in CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells, where its cytosolic Ca2+ activity is crucial for stem/progenitor cell cycle progression, growth, and differentiation. In innate immune cells, TRPV2 is expressed in granulocytes, macrophages, and monocytes where it stimulates fMet-Leu-Phe migration, zymosan-, immunoglobulin G-, and complement-mediated phagocytosis, and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 production. In mast cells, activation of TRPV2 allows intracellular Ca2+ ions flux, thus stimulating protein kinase A-dependent degranulation. In addition, TRPV2 is highly expressed in CD56+ natural killer cells. TRPV2 orchestrates Ca2+ signal in T cell activation, proliferation, and effector functions. Moreover, messenger RNA for TRPV2 are expressed in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Finally, TRPV2 is expressed in CD19+ B lymphocytes where it regulates Ca2+ release during B cell development and activation. Overall, the specific expression of TRPV2 in immune cells suggests a role in immune-mediated diseases and offers new potential targets for immunomodulation. PMID:23420671

  8. Correlation Between Metabolic Syndrome, Periodontitis and Reactive Oxygen Species Production. A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Patini, Romeo; Gallenzi, Patrizia; Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Cordaro, Massimo; Cantiani, Monica; Amalfitano, Adriana; Arcovito, Alessandro; Callà, Cinzia; Mingrone, Gertrude; Nocca, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk of periodontitis even if the mechanism is unknown. Since both MetS and periodontitis are characterized by an alteration of inflammation status, the aim of this pilot study was to determine if differences in ROS metabolism of phagocytes isolated from (A) patients with MetS, (B) patients with both MetS and mild periodontitis, (C) healthy subjects and (D) normal weight subjects with mild periodontitis, were present. ROS metabolism was studied by a Chemiluminescence (CL) technique: the system was made up of luminol (100 nmol/L) and cells (1 × 10 5 ) in the presence or absence of stimulus constituted by opsonized zymosan (0.5 mg). The final volume (1.0 mL) was obtained using modified KRP buffer. ROS production was measured at 25°C for 2 h, using an LB 953 luminometer (Berthold, EG & G Co, Germany). All the experiments were performed in triplicate. All results are mean ± standard deviation (SD). The group of means was compared by the analysis of variance "(ANOVA)". A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results showed that basal ROS production (both from PMNs and from PBMs) of groups A, B and D was increased with respect to that obtained from group C ( p <0.05). These results are congruent with literature data, although the actual clinical relevance of the phenomenon remains to be evaluated.

  9. Influence of dichloromethylene bisphosphonate on the in vitro phagocytosis of hydroxyapatite particles by rat peritoneal exudate cells: an electron microscopic and chemiluminescence study.

    PubMed Central

    Hyvönen, P M; Kowolik, M J

    1992-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and standard chemiluminescence assays were used to investigate the in vivo effect of dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (clodronate) on the phagocytosis of pure hydroxyapatite particles by rat peritoneal macrophages and the production of chemiluminescence by the peritoneal exudate cells. Hydroxyapatite (control) and a hydroxyapatite/clodronate suspension (28 mumol clodronate per gram of hydroxyapatite, experimental) were injected into the peritoneum of rats, the clodronate dose being 10 micrograms/kg. Macrophages were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours after injection and the particle phagocytosis was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Hydroxyapatite alone was completely phagocytosed by 24 hours and hydroxyapatite reacted with clodronate was completely phagocytosed by 48 hours. From 48 hours onwards hydroxyapatite particle dissolution was observed in the phagosomes of cells in the two groups. At 48 hours the chemiluminescence produced by the peritoneal exudate cells was also measured. Clodronate and clodronate/hydroxyapatite enhanced cell activity on subsequent challenge with phorbol myristate acetate or zymosan. Clodronate seemed to exhibit an inhibitory effect on the phagocytic activity and an enhancement of the chemiluminescence production by the cells in this model, indicating that it was modifying the inflammatory cell response. Images PMID:1532298

  10. Correlation Between Metabolic Syndrome, Periodontitis and Reactive Oxygen Species Production. A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Patini, Romeo; Gallenzi, Patrizia; Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Cordaro, Massimo; Cantiani, Monica; Amalfitano, Adriana; Arcovito, Alessandro; Callà, Cinzia; Mingrone, Gertrude; Nocca, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk of periodontitis even if the mechanism is unknown. Since both MetS and periodontitis are characterized by an alteration of inflammation status, the aim of this pilot study was to determine if differences in ROS metabolism of phagocytes isolated from (A) patients with MetS, (B) patients with both MetS and mild periodontitis, (C) healthy subjects and (D) normal weight subjects with mild periodontitis, were present. Methods: ROS metabolism was studied by a Chemiluminescence (CL) technique: the system was made up of luminol (100 nmol/L) and cells (1 × 105) in the presence or absence of stimulus constituted by opsonized zymosan (0.5 mg). The final volume (1.0 mL) was obtained using modified KRP buffer. ROS production was measured at 25°C for 2 h, using an LB 953 luminometer (Berthold, EG & G Co, Germany). All the experiments were performed in triplicate. Statistical Analysis: All results are mean ± standard deviation (SD). The group of means was compared by the analysis of variance "(ANOVA)". A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Results showed that basal ROS production (both from PMNs and from PBMs) of groups A, B and D was increased with respect to that obtained from group C (p <0.05). Conclusion: These results are congruent with literature data, although the actual clinical relevance of the phenomenon remains to be evaluated. PMID:29290840

  11. Complement-induced histamine release from human basophils. III. Effect of pharmacologic agents.

    PubMed

    Hook, W A; Siraganian, R P

    1977-02-01

    Human serum activated with zymosan generates a factor (C5a) that releases histamine from autologous basophils. Previously we have presented evidence that this mechanism for C5a-induced release differs from IgE-mediated reactions. The effect of several pharmacologic agents known to alter IgE-mediated release was studied to determine whether they have a similar action on serum-induced release. Deuterium oxide (D2O), which enhances allergic release, inhibited in a concentration-dependent fashion the serum-induced reaction at incubation temperatures of 25 and 32 degrees C. The colchicine-induced inhibition was not reversed by D2O. Cytochalasin B, which gives a variable enhancement of IgE-mediated release, had a marked enhancing effect on the serum-induced reaction in all subjects tested. The following agents known to inhibit the IgE-mediated reaction also inhibited serum-induced release at 25 degrees C: colchicine, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, aminophylline, isoproterenol, cholera toxin, chlorphenesin, diethylcarbamazine, and 2-deoxy-D-glucose. These results suggest that the serum-induced release is modulated by intracellular cyclic AMP, requires energy, and is enhanced by the disruption of microfilaments. The lack of an effect by D2O would suggest that microtubular stabilization is not required. The data can be interpreted to indicate that IgE- and C5a-mediated reactions diverge at a late stage in the histamine release pathway.

  12. Linkage specificity and role of properdin in activation of the alternative complement pathway by fungal glycans.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sarika; Specht, Charles A; Haibin, Huang; Ostroff, Gary R; Ram, Sanjay; Rice, Peter A; Levitz, Stuart M

    2011-01-01

    Fungal cell walls are predominantly composed of glucans, mannans, and chitin. Recognition of these glycans by the innate immune system is a critical component of host defenses against the mycoses. Complement, an important arm of innate immunity, plays a significant role in fungal pathogenesis, especially the alternative pathway (AP). Here we determine that the glycan monosaccharide composition and glycosidic linkages affect AP activation and C3 deposition. Furthermore, properdin, a positive regulator of the AP, contributes to these functions. AP activation by glycan particles that varied in composition and linkage was measured by C3a generation in serum treated with 10 mM EGTA and 10 mM Mg(2+) (Mg-EGTA-treated serum) (AP specific; properdin functional) or Mg-EGTA-treated serum that lacked functional properdin. Particles that contained either β1→3 or β1→6 glucans or both generated large and similar amounts of C3a when the AP was intact. Blocking properdin function resulted in 5- to 10-fold-less C3a production by particulate β1→3 glucans. However, particulate β1→6 glucans generated C3a via the AP only in the presence of intact properdin. Interestingly, zymosan and glucan-mannan particles (GMP), which contain both β-glucans and mannans, also required properdin to generate C3a. The β1→4 glycans chitin and chitosan minimally activated C3 even when properdin was functional. Finally, properdin binding to glucan particles (GP) and zymosan in serum required active C3. Properdin colocalized with bound C3, suggesting that in the presence of serum, properdin bound indirectly to glycans through C3 convertases. These findings provide a better understanding of how properdin facilitates AP activation by fungi through interaction with the cell wall components. Invasive fungal infections have increased in incidence with the widespread use of immunosuppressive therapy and invasive procedures. Activation of the complement system contributes to innate immunity against

  13. Production of interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-10 accompanies T helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokine responses to a major thyroid self-antigen, thyroglobulin, in health and autoimmune thyroid disease

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, C H; Hegedüs, L; Rieneck, K; Moeller, A C; Leslie, R G Q; Bendtzen, K

    2007-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ exert detrimental effects in organ-specific autoimmune disease, while both destructive and protective roles have been demonstrated for interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4 and IL-5. We examined the production of these cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), Graves' disease (GD) and healthy controls, upon exposure to a thyroid self-antigen, human thyroglobulin (Tg), in the presence of autologous serum. Initially, TNF-α and IL-2 were produced in all three groups, accompanied by IL-10. Release of IFN-γ, IL-4 and, notably, IL-5 ensued. Both patient groups exhibited increased TNF-α, IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-10 responses, and PBMC from HT patients secreted lower amounts of IL-5 than male, but not female, controls. Enhanced TNF-α production by HT cells also occurred in the presence of pooled normal sera, indicating a dependency on intrinsic cellular factors. Conversely, higher production of TNF-α and IL-5 occurred in the presence of autologous sera than in the presence of pooled normal sera in both patient groups, indicating a dependency on serum constituents. Complement appeared to promote the production of IL-2 and particularly IL-5, the levels of which were reduced by neutralization of complement by heat- or zymosan treatment. The production of IFN-γ and IL-2 of the three groups together correlated directly with the serum anti-Tg activity. Moreover, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-5 and IL-10 responses were markedly inhibited by partial denaturation of Tg by boiling. We hypothesize that autoantibodies and complement may promote mixed Th1/Th2 cell cytokine responses by enhancing the uptake of autoantigens by antigen-presenting cells. PMID:17223970

  14. Lipid effects on neutrophil calcium signaling induced by opsonized particles: platelet activating factor is only part of the story.

    PubMed

    Wanten, Geert; Kusters, Anneke; van Emst-de Vries, Sjenet E; Tool, Anton; Roos, Dirk; Naber, Ton; Willems, Peter

    2004-08-01

    Total parenteral nutrition is frequently used in clinical practice to improve the nutritional status of patients. However, the risk for infectious complications remains a drawback in which immune-modulating effects of the lipid component may play a role. To characterize these lipid effects we investigated neutrophil activation by opsonized yeast particles under influence of lipid emulsions derived from fish oil (VLCT), olive oil (LCT-MUFA), soybean oil (LCT), and a physical mixture of coconut and soybean oil (LCT-MCT). Serum-treated zymosan (STZ) evoked a biphasic increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) with an initial slow rise that turned into a second fast rise until a plateau was reached. LCT-MCT (5 mM) pretreatment markedly increased the rate of [Ca2+]c rise during the initial phase, abolished the second phase and lowered the plateau. These effects of LCT-MCT were mimicked by the protein kinase C (PKC) activating phorbol ester PMA. LCT, LCT-MUFA and VLCT, on the other hand, decreased the rate of [Ca2+]c rise during both phases and lowered the plateau. The platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist WEB 2086 inhibited the second phase, demonstrating that PAF acts as an intercellular messenger in STZ-induced Ca2+ mobilization, but did not interfere with the stimulatory effect of LCT-MCT or PMA on the initial rate of [Ca2+]c rise. Structurally different lipids act only in part through PAF to distinctively modulate neutrophil calcium signaling in response to activation by opsonized particles. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Regulation of Src homology 2-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 during activation of human neutrophils. Role of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Brumell, J H; Chan, C K; Butler, J; Borregaard, N; Siminovitch, K A; Grinstein, S; Downey, G P

    1997-01-10

    The tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins induced in neutrophils by soluble and particulate stimuli is thought to be crucial for initiating antimicrobial responses. Although activation of tyrosine kinases is thought to mediate this event, the role of tyrosine phosphatases in the initiation and modulation of neutrophil responses remains largely undefined. We investigated the role of Src homology 2-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1; also known as protein tyrosine phosphatase 1C (PTP1C), hematopoetic cell phosphatase, PTP-N6, and SHPTP-1), a phosphatase expressed primarily in hemopoietic cells, in the activation of human neutrophils. SHP-1 mRNA and protein were detected in these cells, and the enzyme was found to be predominantly localized to the cytosol in unstimulated cells. Following stimulation with neutrophil agonists such as phorbol ester, chemotactic peptide, or opsonized zymosan, a fraction of the phosphatase redistributed to the cytoskeleton. Agonist treatment also induced significant decreases (30-60%) in SHP-1 activity, which correlated temporally with increases in the cellular phosphotyrosine content. Phosphorylation of SHP-1 on serine residues was associated with the inhibition of its enzymatic activity, suggesting a causal relationship. Accordingly, both the agonist-evoked phosphorylation of SHP-1 and the inhibition of its catalytic activity were blocked by treatment with bisindolylmaleimide I, a potent and specific inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Immunoprecipitated SHP-1 was found to be phosphorylated efficiently by purified PKC in vitro. Such phosphorylation also caused a decrease in the phosphatase activity of SHP-1. Together, these data suggest that inhibition of SHP-1 by PKC-mediated serine phosphorylation plays a role in facilitating the accumulation of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins following neutrophil stimulation. These findings provide a new link between the PKC and tyrosine phosphorylation branches of the

  16. Dual Ca2+ requirement for optimal lipid peroxidation of low density lipoprotein by activated human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Tallant, A; Cathcart, M K

    1993-04-01

    The oxidative modification of LDL seems a key event in atherogenesis and may participate in inflammatory tissue injury. Our previous studies suggested that the process of LDL oxidation by activated human monocytes/macrophages required O2- and activity of intracellular lipoxygenase. Herein, we studied the mechanisms involved in this oxidative modification of LDL. In this study, we used the human monocytoid cell line U937 to examine the role of Ca2+ in U937 cell-mediated lipid peroxidation of LDL. U937 cells were activated by opsonized zymosan. Removal of Ca2+ from cell culture medium by EGTA inhibited U937 cell-mediated peroxidation of LDL lipids. Therefore, Ca2+ influx and mobilization were examined for their influence on U937 cell-mediated LDL lipid peroxidation. Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine and verapamil blocked both Ca2+ influx and LDL lipid peroxidation by activated U937 cells. The inhibitory effects of nifedipine and verapamil were dose dependent. TMB-8 and ryanodine, agents known to prevent Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, also caused a dose-dependent inhibition of LDL lipid peroxidation by activated U937 cells while exhibiting no effect on Ca2+ influx. Thus, both Ca2+ influx through functional calcium channels and Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores participate in the oxidative modification of LDL by activated U937 cells. 45Ca2+ uptake experiments revealed profound Ca2+ influx during the early stages of U937 cell activation, however, the Ca2+ ionophore 4-bromo A23187 was unable to induce activation of U937 cells and peroxidation of LDL lipids. Release of intracellular Ca2+ by thapsigargin only caused a suboptimal peroxidation of LDL lipids. Our results indicate that although increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels provided by both influx and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization are required, other intracellular signals may be involved for optimal peroxidation of LDL lipids by activated human monocytes.

  17. The effect of supportive E. coli mastitis treatment on PMN chemiluminescence and subpopulations of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, H; Krumrych, W; Gehrke, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this field study was to assess the impact of a single i.m. injection of lysozyme dimer and flunixin meglumine in combination with intramammary and systemic antibiotic on chemiluminescence of PMN (polymorphonuclear leucocytes) and subpopulations of lymphocyte T in blood of cows with E. coli mastitis. Examinations were performed on 30 dairy cows affected with naturally occurring acute form of E. coli mastitis. Cows were randomly divided into three groups according to the method of treatment. The first group was treated with approved intramammary antibiotic product, the same antibiotic in i.m. injection and one injection of flunixin meglumine on the first day of therapy. Next group was treated with the same antibiotic and additionally one injection of lysozyme dimer on the first day of therapy. The third one was treated only with an antibiotic and served as a control group. Blood samples were taken before treatment and on days 3 and 7. In samples haematology indices were determined, spontaneous and opsonised zymosan stimulated CL and PMA measurements were performed and the subpopulations of T lymphocyte (CD2(+), CD4(+), CD8(+)) were assayed in whole blood. There was no effect of the applied supportive treatment on the value of morphological blood indices. A significant influence of the time of sample collection on the level of CL and dynamics of lymphocytes T subpopulation was demonstrated. A single injection of flunixin meglumine or lysozyme dimer on the day of the beginning of treatment of E. coli mastitis, does not affect the level of neutrophil chemiluminescence and the percentage of T lymphocytes in the blood of mastitic cows in the analysed period of time.

  18. Procain and diethylaminoethanol influence on the release of free oxygen radicals by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, in rabbits and humans.

    PubMed

    Dolganiuc, A; Radu, D; Olinescu, A; Vrăbiescu, A

    1998-01-01

    The investigations were conducted on 3 groups of New Zealand rabbits: 1) controls; 2) injected with procain, i.m. 15 mg/kg body weight, daily, for 30 days; 3) injected with diethylaminoethanol (DEAE), 15 mg/kg body weight, daily, for 35 days. The study was made also on human leukocytes, isolated from the peripheral blood of 10 clinically healthy subjects (adults), procain and DEAE action being investigated in vitro. The free oxygen radicals (FOR) released by PMN leukocytes were evaluated by chemiluminescence, in vitro. Addition of procain or DEAE had no effect on the release of FOR by PMN leukocytes of control rabbits. In the experiment made on rabbits treated with procain or DEAE, the release of FOR by PMN leukocytes was much more reduced, as compared to controls. In the rabbits treated with procain, the intensity of the emitted light was 2.27 mV, in those treated with DEAE, 3.46 mV, while in the controls, the mean value was 6.74 mV. In the in vitro experiments performed on human PMN cells stimulated with opsonized zymosan (OZ), addition of procain or DEAE had an inhibiting effect on the FOR release. As compared to control, the means of the FOR values decreased from 59 to 41.2 mV in case of procain addition and from 67.7 to 50 mV in case of DEAE addition. The fact that the inflammation is associated with accumulation of free radicals, suggests the opportunity to test these substances, especially DEAE, as antioxidant agents.

  19. Differential susceptibility of Dectin-1 isoforms to functional inactivation by neutrophil and fungal proteases.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, James S; Thompson, Aiysha; Stott, Matthew; Benny, Ankita; Lewis, Natalie A; Taylor, Philip R; Forton, Julian; Herrick, Sarah; Orr, Selinda J; McGreal, Eamon P

    2018-06-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) experience chronic or recurrent bacterial and fungal lung infections. Many patients with CF cannot effectively clear Aspergillus from their lungs. This may result in IgE sensitization and the development of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive infections, such as Aspergillus bronchitis. Lung disease in patients with CF is associated with neutrophil-dominated inflammation and elevated levels of the serine protease, neutrophil elastase (NE). Various C-type lectin-like receptors (CLRs), including Dectin-1 and Dectin-2, are involved in the immune response to Aspergillus. Here, we show that purified NE cleaves Dectin-1 in an isoform-specific manner. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with CF, which contains high NE activity, induces Dectin-1 cleavage. Similarly, filtrate from a protease-producing strain of Aspergillus fumigatus induces isoform-specific cleavage of Dectin-1. Dectin-1 knockout (KO) cells and NE-treated cells demonstrated reduced phagocytosis of zymosan, a fungal cell wall preparation. In addition, NE cleaves 2 other CLRs, Dectin-2 and Mincle, and fungal-induced cytokine production was reduced in Dectin-1 KO cells, Dectin-2 KO cells, and NE-treated cells. Thus, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 cleavage by NE and/or A. fumigatus-derived proteases results in an aberrant antifungal immune response that likely contributes to disease pathology in patients with CF.-Griffiths, J. S., Thompson, A., Stott, M., Benny, A., Lewis, N. A., Taylor, P. R., Forton, J., Herrick, S., Orr, S. J., McGreal, E. P. Differential susceptibility of Dectin-1 isoforms to functional inactivation by neutrophil and fungal proteases.

  20. Proresolving actions of a new resolvin D1 analog mimetic qualifies as an immunoresolvent.

    PubMed

    Orr, Sarah K; Colas, Romain A; Dalli, Jesmond; Chiang, Nan; Serhan, Charles N

    2015-05-01

    Resolution of inflammation is an active process driven by several new families of endogenous lipid mediators collectively coined specialized proresolving mediators (SPM). Here, we report a synthetic analog of resolvin D1 (RvD1) and aspirin-triggered RvD1, benzo-diacetylenic-17R-RvD1-methyl ester (BDA-RvD1), which was prepared using fewer steps than required for total organic synthesis of natural SPM. BDA-RvD1 was resistant to further metabolism by human recombinant 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase, a major inactivation pathway for RvD1. In ischemia-reperfusion-initiated second organ injury, BDA-RvD1 intravenously (1 μg) reduced neutrophil infiltration into the lungs by 58 ± 9% and was significantly more potent than native RvD1. BDA-RvD1 at 100 ng/mouse also shortened the resolution interval, Ri, of Escherichia coli peritonitis with a similar potency as RvD1, by ~57%, from Ri 10.5 h to 4.5 h. With isolated human phagocytes, BDA-RvD1 at picomolar concentrations (10(-12) M) stimulated phagocytosis of zymosan A particles. BDA-RvD1 activated human recombinant G protein-coupled receptor 32/DRV1, an RvD1 receptor, in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that, both in vivo in mice and with isolated human cells, BDA-RvD1 shares defining proresolving actions of RvD1, including inhibiting leukocyte infiltration and stimulating phagocytosis. Moreover, they provide evidence for a new analog mimetic and example of an immunoresolvent, namely an agent that stimulates active resolution of inflammation, for a potential new therapeutic class. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Proresolving actions of a new resolvin D1 analog mimetic qualifies as an immunoresolvent

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Sarah K.; Colas, Romain A.; Dalli, Jesmond; Chiang, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Resolution of inflammation is an active process driven by several new families of endogenous lipid mediators collectively coined specialized proresolving mediators (SPM). Here, we report a synthetic analog of resolvin D1 (RvD1) and aspirin-triggered RvD1, benzo-diacetylenic-17R-RvD1-methyl ester (BDA-RvD1), which was prepared using fewer steps than required for total organic synthesis of natural SPM. BDA-RvD1 was resistant to further metabolism by human recombinant 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase, a major inactivation pathway for RvD1. In ischemia-reperfusion-initiated second organ injury, BDA-RvD1 intravenously (1 μg) reduced neutrophil infiltration into the lungs by 58 ± 9% and was significantly more potent than native RvD1. BDA-RvD1 at 100 ng/mouse also shortened the resolution interval, Ri, of Escherichia coli peritonitis with a similar potency as RvD1, by ∼57%, from Ri 10.5 h to 4.5 h. With isolated human phagocytes, BDA-RvD1 at picomolar concentrations (10−12 M) stimulated phagocytosis of zymosan A particles. BDA-RvD1 activated human recombinant G protein-coupled receptor 32/DRV1, an RvD1 receptor, in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that, both in vivo in mice and with isolated human cells, BDA-RvD1 shares defining proresolving actions of RvD1, including inhibiting leukocyte infiltration and stimulating phagocytosis. Moreover, they provide evidence for a new analog mimetic and example of an immunoresolvent, namely an agent that stimulates active resolution of inflammation, for a potential new therapeutic class. PMID:25770181

  2. BRP-187: A potent inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis that acts through impeding the dynamic 5-lipoxygenase/5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) complex assembly.

    PubMed

    Garscha, Ulrike; Voelker, Susanna; Pace, Simona; Gerstmeier, Jana; Emini, Besa; Liening, Stefanie; Rossi, Antonietta; Weinigel, Christina; Rummler, Silke; Schubert, Ulrich S; Scriba, Gerhard K E; Çelikoğlu, Erşan; Çalışkan, Burcu; Banoglu, Erden; Sautebin, Lidia; Werz, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    The pro-inflammatory leukotrienes (LTs) are formed from arachidonic acid (AA) in activated leukocytes, where 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) translocates to the nuclear envelope to assemble a functional complex with the integral nuclear membrane protein 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP). FLAP, a MAPEG family member, facilitates AA transfer to 5-LO for efficient conversion, and LT biosynthesis critically depends on FLAP. Here we show that the novel LT biosynthesis inhibitor BRP-187 prevents the 5-LO/FLAP interaction at the nuclear envelope of human leukocytes without blocking 5-LO nuclear redistribution. BRP-187 inhibited 5-LO product formation in human monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by lipopolysaccharide plus N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (IC 50 =7-10nM), and upon activation by ionophore A23187 (IC 50 =10-60nM). Excess of exogenous AA markedly impaired the potency of BRP-187. Direct 5-LO inhibition in cell-free assays was evident only at >35-fold higher concentrations, which was reversible and not improved under reducing conditions. BRP-187 prevented A23187-induced 5-LO/FLAP complex assembly in leukocytes but failed to block 5-LO nuclear translocation, features that were shared with the FLAP inhibitor MK886. Whereas AA release, cyclooxygenases and related LOs were unaffected, BRP-187 also potently inhibited microsomal prostaglandin E 2 synthase-1 (IC 50 =0.2μM), another MAPEG member. In vivo, BRP-187 (10mg/kg) exhibited significant effectiveness in zymosan-induced murine peritonitis, suppressing LT levels in peritoneal exudates as well as vascular permeability and neutrophil infiltration. Together, BRP-187 potently inhibits LT biosynthesis in vitro and in vivo, which seemingly is caused by preventing the 5-LO/FLAP complex assembly and warrants further preclinical evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacological profile and efficiency in vivo of diflapolin, the first dual inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein and soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Garscha, Ulrike; Romp, Erik; Pace, Simona; Rossi, Antonietta; Temml, Veronika; Schuster, Daniela; König, Stefanie; Gerstmeier, Jana; Liening, Stefanie; Werner, Markus; Atze, Heiner; Wittmann, Sandra; Weinigel, Christina; Rummler, Silke; Scriba, Gerhard K; Sautebin, Lidia; Werz, Oliver

    2017-08-24

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized to diverse bioactive lipid mediators. Whereas the 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) facilitates AA conversion by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) to pro-inflammatory leukotrienes (LTs), the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) degrades anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Accordingly, dual FLAP/sEH inhibition might be advantageous drugs for intervention of inflammation. We present the in vivo pharmacological profile and efficiency of N-[4-(benzothiazol-2-ylmethoxy)-2-methylphenyl]-N'-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea (diflapolin) that dually targets FLAP and sEH. Diflapolin inhibited 5-LOX product formation in intact human monocytes and neutrophils with IC 50  = 30 and 170 nM, respectively, and suppressed the activity of isolated sEH (IC 50  = 20 nM). Characteristic for FLAP inhibitors, diflapolin (I) failed to inhibit isolated 5-LOX, (II) blocked 5-LOX product formation in HEK cells only when 5-LOX/FLAP was co-expressed, (III) lost potency in intact cells when exogenous AA was supplied, and (IV) prevented 5-LOX/FLAP complex assembly in leukocytes. Diflapolin showed target specificity, as other enzymes related to AA metabolism (i.e., COX1/2, 12/15-LOX, LTA 4 H, LTC 4 S, mPGES 1 , and cPLA 2 ) were not inhibited. In the zymosan-induced mouse peritonitis model, diflapolin impaired vascular permeability, inhibited cysteinyl-LTs and LTB 4 formation, and suppressed neutrophil infiltration. Diflapolin is a highly active dual FLAP/sEH inhibitor in vitro and in vivo with target specificity to treat inflammation-related diseases.

  4. Characterization of novel bangle lectin from Photorhabdus asymbiotica with dual sugar-binding specificity and its effect on host immunity

    PubMed Central

    Jančaříková, Gita; Demo, Gabriel; Hyršl, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Photorhabdus asymbiotica is one of the three recognized species of the Photorhabdus genus, which consists of gram-negative bioluminescent bacteria belonging to the family Morganellaceae. These bacteria live in a symbiotic relationship with nematodes from the genus Heterorhabditis, together forming a complex that is highly pathogenic for insects. Unlike other Photorhabdus species, which are strictly entomopathogenic, P. asymbiotica is unique in its ability to act as an emerging human pathogen. Analysis of the P. asymbiotica genome identified a novel fucose-binding lectin designated PHL with a strong sequence similarity to the recently described P. luminescens lectin PLL. Recombinant PHL exhibited high affinity for fucosylated carbohydrates and the unusual disaccharide 3,6-O-Me2-Glcβ1–4(2,3-O-Me2)Rhaα-O-(p-C6H4)-OCH2CH2NH2 from Mycobacterium leprae. Based on its crystal structure, PHL forms a seven-bladed β-propeller assembling into a homo-dimer with an inter-subunit disulfide bridge. Investigating complexes with different ligands revealed the existence of two sets of binding sites per monomer—the first type prefers l-fucose and its derivatives, whereas the second type can bind d-galactose. Based on the sequence analysis, PHL could contain up to twelve binding sites per monomer. PHL was shown to interact with all types of red blood cells and insect haemocytes. Interestingly, PHL inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species induced by zymosan A in human blood and antimicrobial activity both in human blood, serum and insect haemolymph. Concurrently, PHL increased the constitutive level of oxidants in the blood and induced melanisation in haemolymph. Our results suggest that PHL might play a crucial role in the interaction of P. asymbiotica with both human and insect hosts. PMID:28806750

  5. Ceruloplasmin and cardiovascular disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, P. L.; Mazumder, B.; Ehrenwald, E.; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.

    2000-01-01

    Transition metal ion-mediated oxidation is a commonly used model system for studies of the chemical, structural, and functional modifications of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The physiological relevance of studies using free metal ions is unclear and has led to an exploration of free metal ion-independent mechanisms of oxidation. We and others have investigated the role of human ceruloplasmin (Cp) in oxidative processes because it the principal copper-containing protein in serum. There is an abundance of epidemiological data that suggests that serum Cp may be an important risk factor predicting myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. Biochemical studies have shown that Cp is a potent catalyst of LDL oxidation in vitro. The pro-oxidant activity of Cp requires an intact structure, and a single copper atom at the surface of the protein, near His(426), is required for LDL oxidation. Under conditions where inhibitory protein (such as albumin) is present, LDL oxidation by Cp is optimal in the presence of superoxide, which reduces the surface copper atom of Cp. Cultured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells also oxidize LDL in the presence of Cp. Superoxide release by these cells is a critical factor regulating the rate of oxidation. Cultured monocytic cells, when activated by zymosan, can oxidize LDL, but these cells are unique in their secretion of Cp. Inhibitor studies using Cp-specific antibodies and antisense oligonucleotides show that Cp is a major contributor to LDL oxidation by these cells. The role of Cp in lipoprotein oxidation and atherosclerotic lesion progression in vivo has not been directly assessed and is an important area for future studies.

  6. The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Malfait, A. M.; Gallily, R.; Sumariwalla, P. F.; Malik, A. S.; Andreakos, E.; Mechoulam, R.; Feldmann, M.

    2000-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive component of cannabis, was explored in murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was elicited by immunizing DBA/1 mice with type II collagen (CII) in complete Freund's adjuvant. The CII used was either bovine or murine, resulting in classical acute CIA or in chronic relapsing CIA, respectively. CBD was administered after onset of clinical symptoms, and in both models of arthritis the treatment effectively blocked progression of arthritis. CBD was equally effective when administered i.p. or orally. The dose dependency showed a bell-shaped curve, with an optimal effect at 5 mg/kg per day i.p. or 25 mg/kg per day orally. Clinical improvement was associated with protection of the joints against severe damage. Ex vivo, draining lymph node cells from CBD-treated mice showed a diminished CII-specific proliferation and IFN-γ production, as well as a decreased release of tumor necrosis factor by knee synovial cells. In vitro effects of CBD included a dose-dependent suppression of lymphocyte proliferation, both mitogen-stimulated and antigen-specific, and the blockade of the Zymosan-triggered reactive oxygen burst by peritoneal granulocytes. It also was found that CBD administration was capable of blocking the lipopolysaccharide-induced rise in serum tumor necrosis factor in C57/BL mice. Taken together, these data show that CBD, through its combined immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions, has a potent anti-arthritic effect in CIA. PMID:10920191

  7. In vitro immunomodulatory activity, cytotoxicity and chemistry of some central European polypores.

    PubMed

    Doskocil, Ivo; Havlik, Jaroslav; Verlotta, Roberta; Tauchen, Jan; Vesela, Lucia; Macakova, Katerina; Opletal, Lubomir; Kokoska, Ladislav; Rada, Vojtech

    2016-11-01

    Context Some mushrooms of the order Polyporales are known for their immunomodulatory actions. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the in vitro phagocytic and cytotoxic effects of extracts from polyporales native to Central Europe. Materials and methods The effects of ethanol extracts from 27 polypore species on opsonized zymosan-induced phagocytosis of isolated human neutrophils were tested by a chemiluminescence method. Colon epithelial cell lines, Caco-2 and HT-29, were used for cytotoxicity assays, and extracts were chemically characterized in terms of total phenolic and β-glucan content. Results We observed phagocytosis or respiratory burst enhancing activity in 17 extracts, of which five species, namely Aurantiporus fissilis (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) H. Jahn ex Ryvarden, Trametes gibbosa (Pers.) Fr., Piptoporus betulinus (Bull.) P. Karst, Neolentinus lepideus (Fr.) Redhead & Ginns, Polyporus squamosus (Huds.) Fr., significantly increased phagocytosis in granulocytes by 205, 181, 158, 155 and 141%, respectively. The β-glucan content of the three most potent extracts was 58, 42 and 74 mg/g, respectively, and the polyphenol content was 155.6, 133.5 and 155.2 μmol of gallic acid equivalent/g, respectively. Some extracts showed cytotoxic activity, with higher cytotoxicity in Caco-2 than in HT-29 cells. Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (Jacq.) P. Karst. extract was cytotoxic to both cell lines, with IC 50 values of 81 and 31 μg/mL, respectively. Discussion and conclusion The most promising extracts were from N. lepideus and Polyporus squamosus, which are edible species and may be considered safe. Our findings support their use as culinary preparations or food supplements for various immunological gut disorders.

  8. Polyanion-Induced Self Association of Complement Factor H1

    PubMed Central

    Pangburn, Michael K.; Rawal, Nenoo; Cortes, Claudio; Alam, M. Nurul; Ferreira, Viviana P.; Atkinson, Mark A. L.

    2008-01-01

    Factor H is the primary soluble regulator of activation of the alternative pathway of complement. It prevents activation of complement on host cells and tissues upon association with C3b and surface polyanions such as sialic acids, heparin and other glycosaminoglycans. Here we show that interaction with polyanions causes self-association forming tetramers of the 155,000 Da glycosylated protein. Monomeric human factor H is an extended flexible protein that exhibits an apparent size of 330,000 Da, relative to globular standards, during gel filtration chromatography in the absence of polyanions. In the presence of dextran sulfate (5,000 Da) or heparin an intermediate species of apparent m.w. 700,000 and a limit species of m.w. 1,400,000 were observed by gel filtration. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis by analytical ultracentrifugation indicated a monomer Mr of 163,000 in the absence of polyanions and a Mr of 607,000, corresponding to a tetramer, in the presence of less than a 2-fold molar excess of dextran sulfate. Increasing concentrations of dextran sulfate increased binding of factor H to zymosan-C3b 4.5-fold. This was accompanied by an increase in both the decay accelerating and cofactor activity of factor H on these cells. An expressed fragment encompassing the C-terminal polyanion binding site (complement control protein domains 18–20) also exhibited polyanion-induced self association, suggesting that the C-terminal ends of factor H mediate self-association. The results suggest that recognition of polyanionic markers on host cells and tissues by factor H, and the resulting regulation of complement activation, may involve formation of dimers and tetramers of factor H. PMID:19124749

  9. Associations between Viral Infection History Symptoms, Granulocyte Reactive Oxygen Species Activity, and Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease in Untreated Women at Onset: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study of Tatarstan Women

    PubMed Central

    Arleevskaya, Marina I.; Shafigullina, Albina Z.; Filina, Yulia V.; Lemerle, Julie; Renaudineau, Yves

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of infectious episodes at early stages of rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) development, 59 untreated eRA patients, 77 first-degree relatives, from a longitudinal Tatarstan women cohort, were included, and compared to 67 healthy women without rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in their family history. At inclusion, informations were collected regarding both the type and incidence of infectious symptom episodes in the preceding year, and granulocyte reactive oxygen species (ROS) were studied at the basal level and after stimulation with serum-treated zymosan (STZ). In the eRA group, clinical [disease activity score (DAS28), health assessment questionnaire] and biological parameters associated with inflammation (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein) or with RA [rheumatoid factor, anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP2) antibodies] were evaluated. An elevated incidence of infection events in the previous year characterized the eRA and relative groups. In addition, a history of herpes simplex virus (HSV) episodes was associated with disease activity, while an elevated incidence of anti-CCP2 autoantibody characterized eRA patients with a history of viral upper respiratory tract infection symptoms (V-URI). Granulocyte ROS activity in eRA patients was quantitatively [STZ peak and its area under the curve (AUC)] and qualitatively (STZ time of peak) altered, positively correlated with disease activity, and parameters were associated with viral symptoms including HSV exacerbation/recurrence, and V-URI. In conclusion, our study provides arguments to consider a history of increased viral infection symptoms in RA at the early stage and such involvement needs to be studied further. PMID:29259607

  10. Associations between Viral Infection History Symptoms, Granulocyte Reactive Oxygen Species Activity, and Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease in Untreated Women at Onset: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study of Tatarstan Women.

    PubMed

    Arleevskaya, Marina I; Shafigullina, Albina Z; Filina, Yulia V; Lemerle, Julie; Renaudineau, Yves

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of infectious episodes at early stages of rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) development, 59 untreated eRA patients, 77 first-degree relatives, from a longitudinal Tatarstan women cohort, were included, and compared to 67 healthy women without rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in their family history. At inclusion, informations were collected regarding both the type and incidence of infectious symptom episodes in the preceding year, and granulocyte reactive oxygen species (ROS) were studied at the basal level and after stimulation with serum-treated zymosan (STZ). In the eRA group, clinical [disease activity score (DAS28), health assessment questionnaire] and biological parameters associated with inflammation (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein) or with RA [rheumatoid factor, anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP2) antibodies] were evaluated. An elevated incidence of infection events in the previous year characterized the eRA and relative groups. In addition, a history of herpes simplex virus (HSV) episodes was associated with disease activity, while an elevated incidence of anti-CCP2 autoantibody characterized eRA patients with a history of viral upper respiratory tract infection symptoms (V-URI). Granulocyte ROS activity in eRA patients was quantitatively [STZ peak and its area under the curve (AUC)] and qualitatively (STZ time of peak) altered, positively correlated with disease activity, and parameters were associated with viral symptoms including HSV exacerbation/recurrence, and V-URI. In conclusion, our study provides arguments to consider a history of increased viral infection symptoms in RA at the early stage and such involvement needs to be studied further.

  11. Secretion of S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12 by Neutrophils Involves Reactive Oxygen Species and Potassium Efflux.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Mélanie R; Chapeton-Montes, Julie Andrea; Posvandzic, Alma; Pagé, Nathalie; Gilbert, Caroline; Tessier, Philippe A

    2015-01-01

    S100A8/A9 (calprotectin) and S100A12 proinflammatory mediators are found at inflammatory sites and in the serum of patients with inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. These cytoplasmic proteins are secreted by neutrophils at sites of inflammation via alternative secretion pathways of which little is known. This study examined the nature of the stimuli leading to S100A8/A9 and S100A12 secretion as well as the mechanism involved in this alternative secretion pathway. Chemotactic agents, cytokines, and particulate molecules were used to stimulate human neutrophils. MSU crystals, PMA, and H2O2 induced the release of S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12 homodimers, as well as S100A8/A9 heterodimer. High concentrations of S100A8/A9 and S100A12 were secreted in response to nanoparticles like MSU, silica, TiO2, fullerene, and single-wall carbon nanotubes as well as in response to microbe-derived molecules, such as zymosan or HKCA. However, neutrophils exposed to the chemotactic factors fMLP failed to secrete S100A8/A9 or S100A12. Secretion of S100A8/A9 was dependent on the production of reactive oxygen species and required K(+) exchanges through the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel. Altogether, these findings suggest that S100A12 and S100A8/A9 are secreted independently either via distinct mechanisms of secretion or following the activation of different signal transduction pathways.

  12. Secretion of S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12 by Neutrophils Involves Reactive Oxygen Species and Potassium Efflux

    PubMed Central

    Tardif, Mélanie R.; Chapeton-Montes, Julie Andrea; Posvandzic, Alma; Pagé, Nathalie; Gilbert, Caroline; Tessier, Philippe A.

    2015-01-01

    S100A8/A9 (calprotectin) and S100A12 proinflammatory mediators are found at inflammatory sites and in the serum of patients with inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. These cytoplasmic proteins are secreted by neutrophils at sites of inflammation via alternative secretion pathways of which little is known. This study examined the nature of the stimuli leading to S100A8/A9 and S100A12 secretion as well as the mechanism involved in this alternative secretion pathway. Chemotactic agents, cytokines, and particulate molecules were used to stimulate human neutrophils. MSU crystals, PMA, and H2O2 induced the release of S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12 homodimers, as well as S100A8/A9 heterodimer. High concentrations of S100A8/A9 and S100A12 were secreted in response to nanoparticles like MSU, silica, TiO2, fullerene, and single-wall carbon nanotubes as well as in response to microbe-derived molecules, such as zymosan or HKCA. However, neutrophils exposed to the chemotactic factors fMLP failed to secrete S100A8/A9 or S100A12. Secretion of S100A8/A9 was dependent on the production of reactive oxygen species and required K+ exchanges through the ATP-sensitive K+ channel. Altogether, these findings suggest that S100A12 and S100A8/A9 are secreted independently either via distinct mechanisms of secretion or following the activation of different signal transduction pathways. PMID:27057553

  13. Altered Innate and Lymphocytic Immune Responses in Mouse Splenocytes Post-Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, ShenAn; Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.; Actor, Jeffrey K.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight is known to affect immune responses of astronauts and animals, decreasing lymphocytic responses to mitogenic stimuli, delayed typed hypersensitivity reactions, and T-cell activation. Despite changes in immune suppression, there are no reports of consistent adverse clinical events post flight. To further investigate the spectrum of affected immune responses, murine splenocytes were stimulated immediately post-shuttle flight (14 days on STS-135) with T-cell stimulators or toll-like receptor agonists. Comparisons were made to ground control splenocytes from age-matched mice. Cell phenotypes were assessed, as well as activation markers and associated cytokine production. The CD4+ population decreased with no concurrent decrease in CD8+ cells from shuttle mice post flight compared to ground controls. Regarding antigen presenting cell populations, the number of CD11c+ cells were slightly elevated post flight, compared to ground controls, with increased MHC Class I expression (I-A(sup b)) and no change in Class II expression (H-2K(sup b)). CD86+ populations were also significantly diminished. However, the decreased markers did not correlate with activity. Stimulation of splenocytes post flight showed significant increase in bead uptake, increased Class I expression, increased TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in response to TLR-2 (zymosan) and TLR-4 (LPS) agonists. While most activated (ConA or anti-CD3/anti-CD28) CD4+ cells showed markedly diminished responses (reduced IL-2 production), non-specific T cell responses to superantigen (SEA/SEB) increased post flight as determined by expression of early activation markers. Production of additional cytokines was also dysregulated postflight. Overall, persistent immune changes during space flight could represent unique clinical risks for exploration class missions. The consequences of pathogenic encounter remain an important concern that should be addressed.

  14. Prostacyclin regulates spinal nociceptive processing through cyclic adenosine monophosphate-induced translocation of glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Schuh, Claus Dieter; Brenneis, Christian; Zhang, Dong Dong; Angioni, Carlo; Schreiber, Yannick; Ferreiros-Bouzas, Nerea; Pierre, Sandra; Henke, Marina; Linke, Bona; Nüsing, Rolf; Scholich, Klaus; Geisslinger, Gerd

    2014-02-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) is known to be an important mediator of peripheral pain sensation (nociception) whereas little is known about its role in central sensitization. The levels of the stable PGI2-metabolite 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) and of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured in the dorsal horn with the use of mass spectrometry after peripheral inflammation. Expression of the prostanoid receptors was determined by immunohistology. Effects of prostacyclin receptor (IP) activation on spinal neurons were investigated with biochemical assays (cyclic adenosine monophosphate-, glutamate release-measurement, Western blot analysis) in embryonic cultures and adult spinal cord. The specific IP antagonist Cay10441 was applied intrathecally after zymosan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in vivo. Peripheral inflammation caused a significant increase of the stable PGI2 metabolite 6-keto-PGF1α in the dorsal horn of wild-type mice (n = 5). IP was located on spinal neurons and did not colocalize with the prostaglandin E2 receptors EP2 or EP4. The selective IP-agonist cicaprost increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate synthesis in spinal cultures from wild-type but not from IP-deficient mice (n = 5-10). The combination of fluorescence-resonance-energy transfer-based cyclic adenosine monophosphate imaging and calcium imaging showed a cicaprost-induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate synthesis in spinal cord neurons (n = 5-6). Fittingly, IP activation increased glutamate release from acute spinal cord sections of adult mice (n = 13-58). Cicaprost, but not agonists for EP2 and EP4, induced protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of the GluR1 subunit and its translocation to the membrane. Accordingly, intrathecal administration of the IP receptor antagonist Cay10441 had an antinociceptive effect (n = 8-11). Spinal prostacyclin synthesis during early inflammation causes the recruitment of GluR1 receptors to membrane fractions, thereby augmenting the onset of central

  15. Characterization of inflammatory markers associated with systemic lupus erythematosus patients undergoing treatment.

    PubMed

    Timóteo, Rodolfo Pessato; Micheli, Douglas Cobo; Teodoro, Reginaldo Botelho; Freire, Marlene; Bertoncello, Dernival; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido; Tavares-Murta, Beatriz Martins

    To characterize the inflammatory profiles of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving standard treatment compared to healthy controls. Peripheral venous blood was collected from systemic lupus erythematosus patients (n=14) and controls (n=18) at enrollment. Blood samples were used for quantification, by flow cytometry, of CD11b (integrin) and Chemokine receptor CXCR2 expression surface antigen in neutrophils and lymphocytes, while cytokines were assayed in serum samples. Purified neutrophils were assayed by their ability to phagocytize human plasma-opsonized zymosan. Patients had a median (interquartile range) disease activity index of 1.0 (0-2.0) characteristic of patients in remission. Interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 serum concentrations were significantly higher in the patient group compared to controls and the phagocytic index of circulating neutrophils was significantly reduced in patients compared to controls. The levels of interleukin-2, interleukin-5, interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha did not significantly differ between patients and controls. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the integrin expression levels were reduced in lymphocytes (but not in neutrophils) obtained from systemic lupus erythematosus patients, while surface expression of the chemokine receptor 2 was similar in both neutrophils and lymphocytes. Systemic lupus erythematosus patients receiving standard treatment presented with elevated systemic levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10, reduced neutrophil phagocytic capacity, and reduced lymphocyte expression of integrin even when symptoms were in remission. These alterations to innate immune components may put these individuals at a greater risk for acquiring infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus infection by aptamers directly radiolabeled with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Sara Roberta; Rodrigues Corrêa, Cristiane; Branco de Barros, André Luís; Serakides, Rogéria; Fernandes, Simone Odília; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro

    2015-03-01

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides that have high affinity and specificity for their molecular targets which are emerging as a new class of molecules for radiopharmaceuticals development. In this study, aptamers selected to Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated for bacterial infection identification. Anti S. aureus aptamers were labeled with (99m)Tc by the direct method. The radiolabel yield and complex stability were assessed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Three groups of Swiss mice containing 6 animals each were used. The first group was infected intramuscularly in the right thigh with S. aureus. The second group was infected in the same way with C. albicans and the third group was injected with zymosan to induce aseptic inflammation. After 24 h, radiolabeled aptamers (22.2 MBq) were injected by the tail vein. The mice were euthanized 4 h post injection and tissue sample activities measured in a gamma counter. The (99m)Tc labeled aptamers were stable in saline, plasma and cystein excess. Radiolabeled aptamers showed increased uptake in the kidneys for all groups indicating a main renal excretion, which is consistent with the hydrophilic nature and small size of aptamers. The radiopharmaceutical showed rapid blood clearance indicated by a reduced dose (% ID/g) in the blood. The biodistribution showed that aptamers were able to identify the infection foci caused by S. aureus displaying a target/non-target ratio of 4.0±0.5. This ratio for mice infected with C. albicans was 2.0±0.4 while for mice with aseptic inflammation was 1.2±0.2. Histology confirmed the presence of infection in groups 1 and 2, and inflammation in group 3. The biodistibution study demonstrated a statistically higher uptake in the S. aureus foci relative to inflammation and C. albicans infected areas. These results highlight the potential of aptamers labeled directly with (99m)Tc for bacterial infection diagnosis by scintigraphy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of fish oil supplementation and strength training on some functional aspects of immune cells in healthy elderly women.

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Nahhas Rodacki, Cintia; Rodacki, André Luiz Felix; Coelho, Isabela; Pequito, Daniele; Krause, Maressa; Bonatto, Sandro; Naliwaiko, Katya; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio

    2015-07-14

    Immune function changes with ageing and is influenced by physical activity (strength training, ST) and diet (fish oil, FO). The present study investigated the effect of FO and ST on the immune system of elderly women. Forty-five women (64 (sd 1.4) years) were assigned to ST for 90 d (ST; n 15), ST plus 2 g/d FO for 90 d (ST90; n 15) or 2 g/d FO for 60 d followed by ST plus FO for 90 d (ST150; n 15). Training was performed three times per week, for 12 weeks. A number of innate (zymosan phagocytosis, lysosomal volume, superoxide anion, peroxide of hydrogen) and adaptive (cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), CD8, TNF-α, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 produced by lymphocytes) immune parameters were assessed before supplementation (base), before (pre-) and after (post-) training. ST induced no immune changes. FO supplementation caused increased phagocytosis (48 %), lysosomal volume (100 %) and the production of superoxide anion (32 %) and H₂O₂(70 %) in the ST90. Additional FO supplementation (ST150) caused no additive influence on the immune system, as ST150 and ST90 did not differ, but caused greater changes when compared to the ST (P< 0·05). FO increased CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in the ST150, which remained unchanged when training was introduced. The combination of ST and FO reduced TNF-α in the ST150 from base to post-test. FO supplementation (ST150, base-pre) when combined with exercise (ST150, pre-post) increased IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 production. The immune parameters improved in response to FO supplementation; however, ST alone did not enhance the immune system.

  18. Prevention of neutrophil extravasation by α2-adrenoceptor-mediated endothelial stabilization.

    PubMed

    Herrera-García, Ada María; Domínguez-Luis, María Jesús; Arce-Franco, María; Armas-González, Estefanía; Álvarez de La Rosa, Diego; Machado, José David; Pec, Martina K; Feria, Manuel; Barreiro, Olga; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Díaz-González, Federico

    2014-09-15

    Adrenergic receptors are expressed on the surface of inflammation-mediating cells, but their potential role in the regulation of the inflammatory response is still poorly understood. The objectives of this work were to study the effects of α2-adrenergic agonists on the inflammatory response in vivo and to determine their mechanism of action. In two mouse models of inflammation, zymosan air pouch and thioglycolate-induced peritonitis models, the i.m. treatment with xylazine or UK14304, two α2-adrenergic agonists, reduced neutrophil migration by 60%. The α2-adrenergic antagonist RX821002 abrogated this effect. In flow cytometry experiments, the basal surface expression of L-selectin and CD11b was modified neither in murine nor in human neutrophils upon α2-agonist treatment. Similar experiments in HUVEC showed that UK14304 prevented the activation-dependent upregulation of ICAM-1. In contrast, UK14304 augmented electrical resistance and reduced macromolecular transport through a confluent HUVEC monolayer. In flow chamber experiments, under postcapillary venule-like flow conditions, the pretreatment of HUVECs, but not neutrophils, with α2-agonists decreased transendothelial migration, without affecting neutrophil rolling. Interestingly, α2-agonists prevented the TNF-α-mediated decrease in expression of the adherens junctional molecules, VE-cadherin, β-catenin, and plakoglobin, and reduced the ICAM-1-mediated phosphorylation of VE-cadherin by immunofluorescence and confocal analysis and Western blot analysis, respectively. These findings indicate that α2-adrenoceptors trigger signals that protect the integrity of endothelial adherens junctions during the inflammatory response, thus pointing at the vascular endothelium as a therapeutic target for the management of inflammatory processes in humans. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  19. Effects of high-fat diet on somatic growth, metabolic parameters and function of peritoneal macrophages of young rats submitted to a maternal low-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Alheiros-Lira, Maria Cláudia; Jurema-Santos, Gabriela Carvalho; da-Silva, Helyson Tomaz; da-Silva, Amanda Cabral; Moreno Senna, Sueli; Ferreira E Silva, Wylla Tatiana; Ferraz, José Candido; Leandro, Carol Góis

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a post-weaning high-fat (HF) diet on somatic growth, food consumption, metabolic parameters, phagocytic rate and nitric oxide (NO) production of peritoneal macrophages in young rats submitted to a maternal low-protein (LP) diet. Male Wistar rats (aged 60 d) were divided in two groups (n 22/each) according to their maternal diet during gestation and lactation: control (C, dams fed 17 % casein) and LP (dams fed 8 % casein). At weaning, half of the groups were fed HF diet and two more groups were formed (HF and low protein-high fat (LP-HF)). Somatic growth, food and energy intake, fat depots, serum glucose, cholesterol and leptin concentrations were evaluated. Phagocytic rate and NO production were analysed in peritoneal macrophages under stimulation of zymosan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)+interferon γ (IFN-γ), respectively. The maternal LP diet altered the somatic parameters of growth and development of pups. LP and LP-HF pups showed a higher body weight gain and food intake than C pups. HF and LP-HF pups showed increased retroperitoneal and epididymal fat depots, serum level of TAG and total cholesterol compared with C and LP pups. After LPS+IFN-γ stimulation, LP and LP-HF pups showed reduced NO production when compared with their pairs. Increased phagocytic activity and NO production were seen in LP but not LP-HF peritoneal macrophages. However, peritoneal macrophages of LP pups were hyporesponsive to LPS+IFN-γ induced NO release, even after a post-weaning HF diet. Our data demonstrated that there was an immunomodulation related to dietary fatty acids after the maternal LP diet-induced metabolic programming.

  20. Parenteral medium-chain triglyceride-induced neutrophil activation is not mediated by a Pertussis Toxin sensitive receptor.

    PubMed

    Versleijen, Michelle W J; van Esterik, Joantine C J; Roelofs, Hennie M J; van Emst-de Vries, Sjenet E; Willems, Peter H G M; Wanten, Geert J A

    2009-02-01

    Lipid-induced immune modulation might contribute to the increased infection rate that is observed in patients using parenteral nutrition. We previously showed that emulsions containing medium-chain triglycerides (LCT/MCTs or pure MCTs), but not pure long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), impair neutrophil functions, modulate cell-signaling and induce neutrophil activation in vitro. It has recently been shown that medium-chain fatty acids are ligands for GPR84, a pertussis toxin (PT)-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). This finding urged us to investigate whether MCT-induced neutrophil activation is mediated by PT-sensitive GPCRs. Neutrophils isolated from blood of healthy volunteers were pre-incubated with PT (0.5-1 microg/mL, 1.5 h) and analyzed for the effect of this pre-incubation on LCT/MCT (2.5 mmol/L)-dependent modulation of serum-treated zymosan (STZ)-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and on LCT/MCT (5 mmol/L)-induced expression of cell surface adhesion (CD11b) and degranulation (CD66b) markers and oxygen radical (ROS) production. PT did not inhibit the effects of LCT/MCT on the STZ-induced increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration. LCT/MCT increased ROS production to 146% of unstimulated cells. However, pre-incubation with PT did not inhibit the LCT/MCT-induced ROS production. Furthermore, the LCT/MCT-induced increase in CD11b and CD66b expression (196% and 235% of unstimulated cells, respectively) was not inhibited by pre-incubation with PT. LCT/MCT-induced neutrophil activation does not involve the action of a PT-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptor.

  1. Pro-resolving actions and stereoselective biosynthesis of 18S E-series resolvins in human leukocytes and murine inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sungwhan F.; Pillai, Padmini S.; Recchiuti, Antonio; Yang, Rong; Serhan, Charles N.

    2011-01-01

    E-series resolvins are antiinflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators derived from the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) that actively clear inflammation to promote tissue homeostasis. Aspirin, in addition to exerting antithrombotic actions, also triggers the biosynthesis of these specialized pro-resolving mediators. Here, we used metabolomic profiling to investigate the biosynthesis of E-series resolvins with specific chiral chemistry in serum from human subjects and present evidence for new 18S series resolvins. Aspirin increased endogenous formation of 18S-hydroxyeicosapentaenoate (18S-HEPE) compared with 18R-HEPE, a known resolvin precursor. Human recombinant 5-lipoxygenase used both enantiomers as substrates, and recombinant LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H) converted chiral 5S(6)-epoxide–containing intermediates to resolvin E1 and 18S-resolvin E1 (RvE1 and 18S-RvE1, respectively). 18S-RvE1 bound to the leukocyte GPCRs ChemR23 and BLT1 with increased affinity and potency compared with the R-epimer, but was more rapidly inactivated than RvE1 by dehydrogenase. Like RvE1, 18S-RvE1 enhanced macrophage phagocytosis of zymosan, E. coli, and apoptotic neutrophils and reduced both neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokines in murine peritonitis. These results demonstrate two parallel stereospecific pathways in the biosynthesis of E-series resolvins, 18R- and 18S-, which are antiinflammatory, pro-resolving, and non-phlogistic and may contribute to the beneficial actions of aspirin and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:21206090

  2. Interaction between Salmonella typhimurium and phagocytic cells in pigs. Phagocytosis, oxidative burst and killing in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes.

    PubMed

    Riber, U; Lind, P

    1999-02-22

    Interactions between Salmonella typhimurium and peripheral blood leucocytes from healthy, Salmonella-free pigs were investigated in vitro. Both granulocytes and monocytes phagocytized FITC-labelled heat-killed Salmonella bacteria as shown by flow cytometry. Phagocytosis in whole blood and isolated leucocytes was measured as acquired fluorescence in the leukocytes and was both time and dose related. Living, serum-opsonized Salmonella bacteria induced a dose-dependent oxidative burst in PMNs and monocytes as measured by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LC). When opsonized in normal serum the Salmonella bacteria, in the range of 2-5 x 10(7) cfu, induced a LC response in monocytes comparable to the level of responses induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and opsonized zymosan, and the Salmonella-induced response was only marginally reduced by superoxide dismutase (SOD). Intracellular killing of Salmonella by monocytes was assessed from plate colony counts of lysed monocytes and showed that Salmonella typhimurium was able to survive and proliferate in adherent monocytes in vitro despite a reduction in intracellular cfu during the first hour's incubation in cells from some pigs. Experiments with the exhaustion of oxidative burst in non-adherent monocytes were performed by prestimulation with PMA, heat-killed Salmonella or buffer. Prestimulation with PMA led to a strong reduction in oxidative burst induced by living opsonized Salmonella bacteria, whereas prestimulation with heat-killed bacteria gave rise to an enhanced response. In these experiments intracellular killing of the added living Salmonella gave variable results, in that monocytes from two out of three pigs showed no essential change in intracellular bactericidal activity, but with cells from one pig a less pronounced bactericidal activity was found after prestimulation with PMA.

  3. MPLA inhibits release of cytotoxic mediators from human neutrophils while preserving efficient bacterial killing.

    PubMed

    Ruchaud-Sparagano, Marie-Hélène; Mills, Ross; Scott, Jonathan; Simpson, A John

    2014-10-01

    Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) is a lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derivative associated with neutrophil-dependent anti-inflammatory outcomes in animal models of sepsis. Little is known about the effect of MPLA on neutrophil function. This study sought to test the hypothesis that MPLA would reduce release of cytotoxic mediators from neutrophils without impairing bacterial clearance. Neutrophils were isolated from whole blood of healthy volunteers. The effects of MPLA and LPS on autologous serum-opsonised Pseudomonas aeruginosa killing by neutrophils and phagocytosis of autologous serum-opsonised zymosan were examined. Neutrophil oxidative burst, chemotaxis, enzyme and cytokine release as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression were assessed following exposure to LPS or MPLA. LPS, but not MPLA, induced significant release of superoxide and myeloperoxidase from neutrophils. However, MPLA did not impair neutrophil capacity to ingest microbial particles and kill P. aeruginosa efficiently. MPLA was directly chemotactic for neutrophils, involving TLR4, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and tyrosine and alkaline phosphatases. LPS, but not MPLA, impaired N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl phenylalanine-directed migration of neutrophils, increased surface expression of TLR4, increased interleukin-8 release and strongly activated the myeloid differentiation primary response 88 pathway. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibition significantly augmented IL-8 release from MPLA-treated neutrophils. The addition of MPLA to LPS-preincubated neutrophils led to a significant reduction in LPS-mediated superoxide release and TLR4 surface expression. Collectively, these findings suggest that MPLA directs efficient chemotaxis and bacterial killing in human neutrophils without inducing extracellular release of cytotoxic mediators and suggest that MPLA warrants further attention as a potential therapeutic in human sepsis.

  4. Cot/tpl2-MKK1/2-Erk1/2 controls mTORC1-mediated mRNA translation in Toll-like receptor–activated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    López-Pelaéz, Marta; Fumagalli, Stefano; Sanz, Carlos; Herrero, Clara; Guerra, Susana; Fernandez, Margarita; Alemany, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Cot/tpl2 is the only MAP3K that activates MKK1/2-Erk1/2 in Toll-like receptor–activated macrophages. Here we show that Cot/tpl2 regulates RSK, S6 ribosomal protein, and 4E-BP phosphorylation after stimulation of bone marrow–derived macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), poly I:C, or zymosan. The dissociation of the 4E-BP–eIF4E complex, a key event in the cap-dependent mRNA translation initiation, is dramatically reduced in LPS-stimulated Cot/tpl2-knockout (KO) macrophages versus LPS-stimulated wild-type (Wt) macrophages. Accordingly, after LPS activation, increased cap-dependent translation is observed in Wt macrophages but not in Cot/tpl2 KO macrophages. In agreement with these data, Cot/tpl2 increases the polysomal recruitment of the 5´ TOP eEF1α and eEF2 mRNAs, as well as of inflammatory mediator gene–encoding mRNAs, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and KC in LPS-stimulated macrophages. In addition, Cot/tpl2 deficiency also reduces total TNFα, IL-6, and KC mRNA expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages, which is concomitant with a decrease in their mRNA half-lives. Macrophages require rapid fine control of translation to provide an accurate and not self-damaging response to host infection, and our data show that Cot/tpl2 controls inflammatory mediator gene–encoding mRNA translation in Toll-like receptor–activated macrophages. PMID:22675026

  5. Cot/tpl2 activity is required for TLR-induced activation of the Akt p70 S6k pathway in macrophages: Implications for NO synthase 2 expression.

    PubMed

    López-Peláez, Marta; Soria-Castro, Irene; Boscá, Lisardo; Fernández, Margarita; Alemany, Susana

    2011-06-01

    LPS stimulation activates IKK and different MAP kinase pathways, as well as the PI3K-Akt-mTOR-p70 S6k pathway, a negative regulator of these MyD88-dependent intracellular signals. Here, we show that Cot/tpl2, a MAP3K responsible for the activation of the MKK1-Erk1/2, controls P-Ser473 Akt and P-Thr389 p70 S6k phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Analysis of the intracellular signalling in Cot/tpl2 KO macrophages versus WT macrophages reveals lower IκBα recovery and higher phosphorylation of JNK and p38α after 1 h of LPS stimulation. Moreover, Cot/tpl2 deficiency increases LPS-induced NO synthase 2 (NOS2) expression in macrophages. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway abolishes the differences in IκBα and NOS2 expression between Cot/tpl2 KO and WT macrophages following LPS administration. Furthermore, in zymosan- and polyI:C-stimulated macrophages, Cot/tpl2 mediates P-Ser473 Akt phosphorylation, increases IκBα levels and decreases NOS2 expression. In conclusion, these data reveal a novel role for the Cot/tpl2 pathway in mediating TLR activation of the Akt-mTOR-p70 S6k pathway, allowing Cot/tpl2 to fine-control the activation state of other signalling pathways. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Cot/tpl2-MKK1/2-Erk1/2 controls mTORC1-mediated mRNA translation in Toll-like receptor-activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    López-Pelaéz, Marta; Fumagalli, Stefano; Sanz, Carlos; Herrero, Clara; Guerra, Susana; Fernandez, Margarita; Alemany, Susana

    2012-08-01

    Cot/tpl2 is the only MAP3K that activates MKK1/2-Erk1/2 in Toll-like receptor-activated macrophages. Here we show that Cot/tpl2 regulates RSK, S6 ribosomal protein, and 4E-BP phosphorylation after stimulation of bone marrow-derived macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), poly I:C, or zymosan. The dissociation of the 4E-BP-eIF4E complex, a key event in the cap-dependent mRNA translation initiation, is dramatically reduced in LPS-stimulated Cot/tpl2-knockout (KO) macrophages versus LPS-stimulated wild-type (Wt) macrophages. Accordingly, after LPS activation, increased cap-dependent translation is observed in Wt macrophages but not in Cot/tpl2 KO macrophages. In agreement with these data, Cot/tpl2 increases the polysomal recruitment of the 5´ TOP eEF1α and eEF2 mRNAs, as well as of inflammatory mediator gene-encoding mRNAs, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and KC in LPS-stimulated macrophages. In addition, Cot/tpl2 deficiency also reduces total TNFα, IL-6, and KC mRNA expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages, which is concomitant with a decrease in their mRNA half-lives. Macrophages require rapid fine control of translation to provide an accurate and not self-damaging response to host infection, and our data show that Cot/tpl2 controls inflammatory mediator gene-encoding mRNA translation in Toll-like receptor-activated macrophages.

  7. Enhanced superoxide anion production in activated peritoneal macrophages from English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) exposed to PACs

    SciTech Connect

    Clemons, E.; Arkoosh, M.; Casillas, E.

    In fish, as in mammals, macrophages play a vital role in the destruction of infective organisms. The purpose of this study was to determine if peritoneal macrophages (M{O}s) from English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), a marine benthic fish, have an altered ability to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) after exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). ROIs are the principle product of M{O}s used to destroy engulfed organisms. Assay conditions, including the concentration of M{O}s, type of in vitro stimulant, tissue culture media, and incubation time were optimized to measure the production of superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{minus}), the progenitor ROI, inmore » English sole M{O}s. English sole were injected with an organic solvent extract of a PAH-contaminated sediment, equivalent to 20g sediment/kg fish, via their dorsal lymphatic sinus, and peritoneal M{O}s were harvested on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 post injection. Activated peritoneal M{O}s from English sole injected with the sediment extract produced significantly more superoxide radicals after stimulation in vitro with either opsonized zymosan (OZ) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) than the vehicle injected or control fish. Specifically, activated peritoneal M{O}s stimulated with PMA in vitro produced greater amounts (compared to controls) of O{sub 2}{minus} on days 7 and 14 after exposure, whereas the same cells stimulated with OZ showed heightened production only on day 7 after exposure. No differences in the basal amounts of O{sub 2}{minus} production from activated peritoneal M{O}s between the treatment groups were observed. This study shows that exposure of English sole to PACs altered production of O{sub 2}{minus} by macrophages, however, the consequence to the immunocompetence of exposed fish remains to be elucidated.« less

  8. Investigation of microgravity effects on basic imune functions on the cellular level - The TRIPLELUX-B experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unruh, Eckehardt; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich

    Hemocytes are the primary defence of the Blue Mussel against invading microorganisms and foreign particles. The hemocytes of mussels as part of the immune system of invertebrates has not been studied so far in space. The choice of the phagocytes from invertebrates is justified by the claim to study the universal validity of innate immune responses. The hemocytes of mussels have a lot in common with macrophages of higher organisms. They are able to detect the presence of microorganisms and kill these microorganisms by phagocytosis. The phagocy-tosis related production of ROS will be stimulated with opsonised zymosan. The hemocytes will be stored frozen and reconstituted in-flight for the experiment. The signals of the im-muno cellular responses are translated into luminescence as a rapid optical reporter system. The primary aim of Triplelux B is to investigate under space flight conditions the effect of microgravity on the ability of isolated Blue Mussel hemocytes to perform phagocytosis. As a secondery objectiv, the results expected will allow to conclude whether the observed responses are caused by microgravity and/or radiation (change in permeability, endpoints in genotoxicity: DNA unwinding). The TRIPLELUX-B Experiment contributes to risk assessment concerning immunotoxicity under space flight conditions. The components of the fully automated AEC (Advanced Experimental Containment) will be demonstrated. The AEC of the TRIPLELUX-B experiment will contribute to a real time operational monitoring for immunotoxicity testing for earth. Blue mussels have been used repeatedly for monitoring imunotoxicity and genotoxicity in coastal waters. Based on the AEC an automatet measuring device will allow "real time monitoring" providing observations of immunotoxicity in coastal and inland waters.

  9. Cell function and viability in glucose polymer peritoneal dialysis fluids.

    PubMed

    Liberek, T; Topley, N; Mistry, C D; Coles, G A; Morgan, T; Quirk, R A; Williams, J D

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the biocompatibility profile of a new peritoneal dialysis fluid containing glucose polymer (GPF). Viability and function of peripheral neutrophils (PMN) from healthy donors and cultured human peritoneal mesothelial cells were assessed in vitro after exposure to dialysis fluids. Phagocytosis, leukotriene B4 synthesis, and respiratory burst activation were measured following stimulation with serum-treated zymosan (STZ) or opsonized Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). Bacterial growth in the fluids was also investigated. In vivo pH equilibration of GPF and subsequent respiratory burst activation following incubation in spent dialysate were studied. For all the host defense parameters measured, commercial dialysis fluids (Dianeal; 1.36% and 3.86% glucose) and GPF (pH 5.2) were significantly more inhibitory than the control buffer (pH 7.3). Mesothelial cell viability was reduced by all the fluids tested irrespective of pH. Glucose polymer fluid was significantly more inhibitory than Dianeal 1.36% for STZ phagocytosis and respiratory burst activation. In contrast, it was less suppressive than Dianeal 3.86% for LTB4 synthesis. For all parameters tested, except LTB4 generation, there was a marked effect of pH, with GPF being significantly more inhibitory at pH 5.2 than at pH 7.3. None of the fluids tested supported the growth of S. epidermidis, although the viable counts in GFP were significantly higher than in Dianeal. Fluid inhibition of PMN respiratory burst activation and cytotoxicity were reduced in a time-dependent manner following increasing dwell time in vivo. GPF does not appear to be significantly different from Dianeal as far as host defense parameters are concerned. However, the cell viability and bacterial survival data suggest some possibly negative aspects of this fluid formation.

  10. Influence of oxytetracycline on carprofen pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics in calves.

    PubMed

    Brentnall, C; Cheng, Z; McKellar, Q A; Lees, P

    2013-08-01

    A tissue cage model of inflammation in calves was used to determine the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of individual carprofen enantiomers, following the administration of the racemate. RS(±) carprofen was administered subcutaneously both alone and in combination with intramuscularly administered oxytetracycline in a four-period crossover study. Oxytetracycline did not influence the pharmacokinetics of R(-) and S(+) carprofen enantiomers, except for a lower maximum concentration (Cmax ) of S(+) carprofen in serum after co-administration with oxytetracycline. S(+) enantiomer means for area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC0-96 h were 136.9 and 128.3 μg·h/mL and means for the terminal half-life (T(1/2) k10 ) were = 12.9 and 17.3 h for carprofen alone and in combination with oxytetracycline, respectively. S(+) carprofen AUC0-96 h in both carprofen treatments and T(1/2) k10 for carprofen alone were lower (P < 0.05) than R(-) carprofen values, indicating a small degree of enantioselectivity in the disposition of the enantiomers. Carprofen inhibition of serum thromboxane B2 ex vivo was small and significant only at a few sampling times, whereas in vivo exudate prostaglandin (PG)E2 synthesis inhibition was greater and achieved overall significance between 36 and 72 h (P < 0.05). Inhibition of PGE2 correlated with mean time to achieve maximum concentrations in exudate of 54 and 42 h for both carprofen treatments for R(-) and S(+) enantiomers, respectively. Carprofen reduction of zymosan-induced intradermal swelling was not statistically significant. These data provide a basis for the rational use of carprofen with oxytetracycline in calves and indicate that no alteration to carprofen dosage is required when the drugs are co-administered. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Lipoxins and novel 15-epi-lipoxin analogs display potent anti-inflammatory actions after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Bannenberg, Gerard; Moussignac, Rose-Laure; Gronert, Karsten; Devchand, Pallavi R; Schmidt, Birgitta A; Guilford, William J; Bauman, John G; Subramanyam, Babu; Perez, H Daniel; Parkinson, John F; Serhan, Charles N

    2004-09-01

    1. Lipoxins (LX) and aspirin-triggered 15-epi-lipoxins (ATL) exert potent anti-inflammatory actions. In the present study, we determined the anti-inflammatory efficacy of endogenous LXA(4) and LXB(4), the stable ATL analog ATLa2, and a series of novel 3-oxa-ATL analogs (ZK-996, ZK-990, ZK-994, and ZK-142) after intravenous, oral, and topical administration in mice. 2. LXA(4), LXB(4), ATLa2, and ZK-994 were orally active, exhibiting potent systemic inhibition of zymosan A-induced peritonitis at very low doses (50 ng kg(-1)-50 microg kg(-1)). 3. Intravenous ZK-994 and ZK-142 (500 microg kg(-1)) potently attenuated hind limb ischemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury, with 32+/-12 and 53+/-5% inhibition (P<0.05), respectively, of neutrophil accumulation in lungs. The same dose of ATLa2 had no significant protective action. 4. Topical application of ATLa2, ZK-994, and ZK-142 ( approximately 20 microg cm(-2)) prevented vascular leakage and neutrophil infiltration in LTB(4)/PGE(2)-stimulated ear skin inflammation. While ATLa2 and ZK-142 displayed approximately equal anti-inflammatory efficacy in this model, ZK-994 displayed a slower onset of action. 5. In summary, native LXA(4) and LXB(4), and analogs ATLa2, ZK-142, and ZK-994 retain broad anti-inflammatory effects after intravenous, oral, and topical administration. The 3-oxa-ATL analogs, which have enhanced metabolic and chemical stability and a superior pharmacokinetic profile, provide new opportunities to explore the actions and therapeutic potential for LX and ATL.

  12. NAMPT-Mediated Salvage Synthesis of NAD+ Controls Morphofunctional Changes of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Gerda; Oerlemans, Frank T. J. J.; Willemse, Marieke; Wijers, Mietske; Fransen, Jack A. M.; Wieringa, Bé

    2014-01-01

    Functional morphodynamic behavior of differentiated macrophages is strongly controlled by actin cytoskeleton rearrangements, a process in which also metabolic cofactors ATP and NAD(H) (i.e. NAD+ and NADH) and NADP(H) (i.e. NADP+ and NADPH) play an essential role. Whereas the link to intracellular ATP availability has been studied extensively, much less is known about the relationship between actin cytoskeleton dynamics and intracellular redox state and NAD+-supply. Here, we focus on the role of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), found in extracellular form as a cytokine and growth factor, and in intracellular form as one of the key enzymes for the production of NAD+ in macrophages. Inhibition of NAD+ salvage synthesis by the NAMPT-specific drug FK866 caused a decrease in cytosolic NAD+ levels in RAW 264.7 and Maf-DKO macrophages and led to significant downregulation of the glycolytic flux without directly affecting cell viability, proliferation, ATP production capacity or mitochondrial respiratory activity. Concomitant with these differential metabolic changes, the capacity for phagocytic ingestion of particles and also substrate adhesion of macrophages were altered. Depletion of cytoplasmic NAD+ induced cell-morphological changes and impaired early adhesion in phagocytosis of zymosan particles as well as spreading performance. Restoration of NAD+ levels by NAD+, NMN, or NADP+ supplementation reversed the inhibitory effects of FK866. We conclude that direct coupling to local, actin-based, cytoskeletal dynamics is an important aspect of NAD+’s cytosolic role in the regulation of morphofunctional characteristics of macrophages. PMID:24824795

  13. S-Glutathionylation Regulates Inflammatory Activities of S100A9*

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Su Yin; Raftery, Mark J.; Goyette, Jesse; Geczy, Carolyn L.

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species generated by activated neutrophils can cause oxidative stress and tissue damage. S100A8 (A8) and S100A9 (A9), abundant in neutrophil cytoplasm, are exquisitely sensitive to oxidation, which may alter their functions. Murine A8 is a neutrophil chemoattractant, but it suppresses leukocyte transmigration in the microcirculation when S-nitrosylated. Glutathione (GSH) modulates intracellular redox, and S-glutathionylation can protect susceptible proteins from oxidative damage and regulate function. We characterized S-glutathionylation of A9; GSSG and GSNO generated S-glutathionylated A8 (A8-SSG) and A9 (A9-SSG) in vitro, whereas only A9-SSG was detected in cytosol of neutrophils activated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) but not with fMLP or opsonized zymosan. S-Glutathionylation exposed more hydrophobic regions in Zn2+-bound A9 but did not alter Zn2+ binding affinity. A9-SSG had reduced capacity to form heterocomplexes with A8, but the arachidonic acid binding capacities of A8/A9 and A8/A9-SSG were similar. A9 and A8/A9 bind endothelial cells; S-glutathionylation reduced binding. We found little effect of A9 or A9-SSG on neutrophil CD11b/CD18 expression or neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells. However, A9, A9-SSG and A8/A9 promoted neutrophil adhesion to fibronectin but, in the presence of A8, A9-mediated adhesion was abrogated by glutathionylation. S-Glutathionylation of A9 may protect its oxidation to higher oligomers and reduce neutrophil binding to the extracellular matrix. This may regulate the magnitude of neutrophil migration in the extravasculature, and together with the functional changes we reported for S-nitrosylated A8, particular oxidative modifications of these proteins may limit tissue damage in acute inflammation. PMID:20223829

  14. Hyperforin is a modulator of inducible nitric oxide synthase and phagocytosis in microglia and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Birgit; Wolff, Horst; Elstner, Erich F; Heilmann, Jörg

    2010-06-01

    Upon activation, microglia, the immunocompetent cells in the brain, get highly phagocytic and release pro-inflammatory mediators like nitric oxide (NO). Excessive NO production is pivotal in neurodegenerative disorders, and there is evidence that abnormalities in NO production and inflammatory responses may at least support a range of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. Although extracts of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) have been used for centuries in traditional medicine, notably for the treatment of depression, there is still considerable lack in scientific knowledge about the impact on microglia. We used N11 and BV2 mouse microglia, as well as RAW 264.7 macrophages to investigate the effects of St. John's wort extract and constituents thereof on NO production Moreover, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy were employed to analyze the influence on phagocytosis, transcription factor activation states, and cell motility. We found that extracts of St. John's wort efficiently suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced NO release and identified hyperforin as the responsible compound, being effective at concentrations between 0.25 and 0.75 microM. The reduced NO production was mediated by diminished inducible nitric oxide synthase expression on the mRNA and protein level. In addition, at similar concentrations, hyperforin reduced zymosan phygocytosis to 20-40% and putatively acted by downregulating the CD206 macrophage mannose receptor and modulation of cell motility. We found that the observed effects correlate with a suppression of the activated state of Nf-kappaB and phospho-CREB, while c-JUN, STAT1, and HIF-1alpha activity and cyclooxygenase-2 expression remained unaffected by hyperforin. These results reveal that hyperforin influences pro-inflammatory and immunological responses of microglia that are involved in the progression of neuropathologic disorders.

  15. Riboflavin deprivation inhibits macrophage viability and activity - a study on the RAW 264.7 cell line.

    PubMed

    Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Buchala, Beata; Plytycz, Barbara

    2013-08-28

    Riboflavin, or vitamin B2, as a precursor of the coenzymes FAD and FMN, has an indirect influence on many metabolic processes and determines the proper functioning of several systems, including the immune system. In the human population, plasma riboflavin concentration varies from 3·1 nM (in a moderate deficiency, e.g. in pregnant women) to 10·4 nM (in healthy adults) and 300 nM (in cases of riboflavin supplementation). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of riboflavin concentration on the activity and viability of macrophages, i.e. on one of the immunocompetent cell populations. The study was performed on the murine monocyte/macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line cultured in medium with various riboflavin concentrations (3·1, 10·4, 300 and 531 nM). The results show that riboflavin deprivation has negative effects on both the activity and viability of macrophages and reduces their ability to generate an immune response. Signs of riboflavin deficiency developed in RAW 264.7 cells within 4 d of culture in the medium with a low riboflavin concentration (3·1 nM). In particular, the low riboflavin content reduced the proliferation rate and enhanced apoptotic cell death connected with the release of lactate dehydrogenase. The riboflavin deprivation impaired cell adhesion, completely inhibited the respiratory burst and slightly impaired phagocytosis of the zymosan particles. In conclusion, macrophages are sensitive to riboflavin deficiency; thus, a low riboflavin intake in the diet may affect the immune system and may consequently decrease proper host immune defence.

  16. Lipid homeostasis and inflammatory activation are disturbed in classically activated macrophages with peroxisomal β-oxidation deficiency.

    PubMed

    Geric, Ivana; Tyurina, Yulia Y; Krysko, Olga; Krysko, Dmitri V; De Schryver, Evelyn; Kagan, Valerian E; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Baes, Myriam; Verheijden, Simon

    2018-03-01

    Macrophage activation is characterized by pronounced metabolic adaptation. Classically activated macrophages show decreased rates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation and acquire a glycolytic state together with their pro-inflammatory phenotype. In contrast, alternatively activated macrophages require oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for their anti-inflammatory function. Although it is evident that mitochondrial metabolism is regulated during macrophage polarization and essential for macrophage function, little is known on the regulation and role of peroxisomal β-oxidation during macrophage activation. In this study, we show that peroxisomal β-oxidation is strongly decreased in classically activated bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and mildly induced in alternatively activated BMDM. To examine the role of peroxisomal β-oxidation in macrophages, we used Mfp2 -/- BMDM lacking the key enzyme of this pathway. Impairment of peroxisomal β-oxidation in Mfp2 -/- BMDM did not cause lipid accumulation but rather an altered distribution of lipid species with very-long-chain fatty acids accumulating in the triglyceride and phospholipid fraction. These lipid alterations in Mfp2 -/- macrophages led to decreased inflammatory activation of Mfp2 -/- BMDM and peritoneal macrophages evidenced by impaired production of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, but did not affect anti-inflammatory polarization. The disturbed inflammatory responses of Mfp2 -/- macrophages did not affect immune cell infiltration, as mice with selective elimination of MFP2 from myeloid cells showed normal monocyte and neutrophil influx upon challenge with zymosan. Together, these data demonstrate that peroxisomal β-oxidation is involved in fine-tuning the phenotype of macrophages, probably by influencing the dynamic lipid profile during macrophage polarization. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Motility and Adhesiveness in Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C. Wayne; Hollers, James C.; Patrick, Richard A.; Hassett, Clare

    1979-01-01

    Human peripheral blood neutrophils (PMN) obtained from healthy adults were examined in vitro with techniques adapted to assess the effects of chemotactic factors (CF) on cellular configuration and adhesiveness. The results were compared with those that use certain conventional techniques for assessing chemotaxis and chemokinesis. Exposure of PMN to N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-phenylalanine (f-Met-Phe), zymosan-activated serum, bacterial chemotactic factor, or a low molecular weight chemotactic factor from activated serum (C5a) in the absence of a gradient resulted in a change in cellular shape from a spherical to a polarized configuration in a high percentage of cells. This occurred rapidly in suspension, under conditions designed to exclude a role for cell adhesiveness, and was reversible upon removal of the CF. Restimulation of cells with the CF resulted in reappearance of the polarized configuration to the same extent as on initial stimulation with one exception: f-Met-Phe pretreated cells failed to respond to f-Met-Phe, though they responded fully to the other CF. Each CF caused a significant increase in PMN attachment to protein-coated glass. This enhanced adhesiveness was not reversible upon removal of the CF when the cells were treated under conditions shown to produce chemotactic deactivation. Cells treated under these conditions also exhibited significantly reduced motility on glass and in micropore filters in the absence of a gradient of CF. Bacterial chemotactic factor, even at high concentrations, failed to produce deactivation and did not cause a sustained enhancement of adhesiveness. Images PMID:372238

  18. Studying longterm effects of micro gravity on basic immune functions - The development of an application based on the measuring of phagocytosis activity of Blue Mussel hemocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unruh, Eckehardt

    The immunsystem of astronauts exposed to microgravity is declining. Whether this effect is caused by microgravity or in combination with cosmic radiation is so far not clear. The immune system of vertebrates has several defence strategies but the basic immune response (Phagocytosis) is present as well in invertebrates. Phagocytotic cells are drawn by chemotaxis to the origin of an infection. By adhesion, ingestion and phagosome formation foreign particles, bacteria etc are transported inside of a cell were they are destroyed by native powerful biocides. Related to this biocide production is the formation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). ROS can be measured by luminescence. The effects of microgravity will be simultaneously tested by exposure of phagocytotic hemocytes on orbit under microgravity, artificial gravity and, on ground under natural gravity. To address this purpose defined pools of Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis) hemocytes will be launched frozen to the ISS. References for all batches will stay on ground. Shortly after arrival and then in three-month intervals batches of the same pool will be thawed and reconstituted. The phagocytosis related production of ROS will be stimulated with opsonized Zymosan. Luminescence will be measured and the data will be sent to ground. The experiment is scheduled for the Columbus Biolab early 2009. In preparation of this flight experiments the following procedures were investigated and the results will be presented: - a protocol for the cryoconservation and reconstituton of blue mussel hemocytes. - preliminary results of phagocytosis activity by reconstituted hemocytes after cryo-conservation and hemocytes without cryo-conservation treatment. The TRIPLELUX-B Experiment contributes to risk assessment concerning longterm immunotoxicity under space flight conditions. The immune system of invertebrates has not been studied so far in space. The choice of the phagocytes from invertebrates is justified by the claim to study the

  19. Multiple roles of filopodial dynamics in particle capture and phagocytosis and phenotypes of Cdc42 and Myo10 deletion

    PubMed Central

    Horsthemke, Markus; Bachg, Anne C.; Groll, Katharina; Moyzio, Sven; Müther, Barbara; Hemkemeyer, Sandra A.; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Sixt, Michael; Tacke, Sebastian; Bähler, Martin; Hanley, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Macrophage filopodia, finger-like membrane protrusions, were first implicated in phagocytosis more than 100 years ago, but little is still known about the involvement of these actin-dependent structures in particle clearance. Using spinning disk confocal microscopy to image filopodial dynamics in mouse resident Lifeact-EGFP macrophages, we show that filopodia, or filopodia-like structures, support pathogen clearance by multiple means. Filopodia supported the phagocytic uptake of bacterial (Escherichia coli) particles by (i) capturing along the filopodial shaft and surfing toward the cell body, the most common mode of capture; (ii) capturing via the tip followed by retraction; (iii) combinations of surfing and retraction; or (iv) sweeping actions. In addition, filopodia supported the uptake of zymosan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) particles by (i) providing fixation, (ii) capturing at the tip and filopodia-guided actin anterograde flow with phagocytic cup formation, and (iii) the rapid growth of new protrusions. To explore the role of filopodia-inducing Cdc42, we generated myeloid-restricted Cdc42 knock-out mice. Cdc42-deficient macrophages exhibited rapid phagocytic cup kinetics, but reduced particle clearance, which could be explained by the marked rounded-up morphology of these cells. Macrophages lacking Myo10, thought to act downstream of Cdc42, had normal morphology, motility, and phagocytic cup formation, but displayed markedly reduced filopodia formation. In conclusion, live-cell imaging revealed multiple mechanisms involving macrophage filopodia in particle capture and engulfment. Cdc42 is not critical for filopodia or phagocytic cup formation, but plays a key role in driving macrophage lamellipodial spreading. PMID:28289096

  20. Fluorescence-quenching of a Liposomal-encapsulated Near-infrared Fluorophore as a Tool for In Vivo Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rabenhold, Markus; Steiniger, Frank; Fahr, Alfred; Hilger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Optical imaging offers a wide range of diagnostic modalities and has attracted a lot of interest as a tool for biomedical imaging. Despite the enormous number of imaging techniques currently available and the progress in instrumentation, there is still a need for highly sensitive probes that are suitable for in vivo imaging. One typical problem of available preclinical fluorescent probes is their rapid clearance in vivo, which reduces their imaging sensitivity. To circumvent rapid clearance, increase number of dye molecules at the target site, and thereby reduce background autofluorescence, encapsulation of the near-infrared fluorescent dye, DY-676-COOH in liposomes and verification of its potential for in vivo imaging of inflammation was done. DY-676 is known for its ability to self-quench at high concentrations. We first determined the concentration suitable for self-quenching, and then encapsulated this quenching concentration into the aqueous interior of PEGylated liposomes. To substantiate the quenching and activation potential of the liposomes we use a harsh freezing method which leads to damage of liposomal membranes without affecting the encapsulated dye. The liposomes characterized by a high level of fluorescence quenching were termed Lip-Q. We show by experiments with different cell lines that uptake of Lip-Q is predominantly by phagocytosis which in turn enabled the characterization of its potential as a tool for in vivo imaging of inflammation in mice models. Furthermore, we use a zymosan-induced edema model in mice to substantiate the potential of Lip-Q in optical imaging of inflammation in vivo. Considering possible uptake due to inflammation-induced enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, an always-on liposome formulation with low, non-quenched concentration of DY-676-COOH (termed Lip-dQ) and the free DY-676-COOH were compared with Lip-Q in animal trials. PMID:25591069

  1. Liposomal encapsulation of a near-infrared fluorophore enhances fluorescence quenching and reliable whole body optical imaging upon activation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tansi, Felista L; Rüger, Ronny; Rabenhold, Markus; Steiniger, Frank; Fahr, Alfred; Kaiser, Werner A; Hilger, Ingrid

    2013-11-11

    In the past decade, there has been significant progress in the development of water soluble near-infrared fluorochromes for use in a wide range of imaging applications. Fluorochromes with high photo and thermal stability, sensitivity, adequate pharmacological properties and absorption/emission maxima within the near infrared window (650-900 nm) are highly desired for in vivo imaging, since biological tissues show very low absorption and auto-fluorescence at this spectrum window. Taking these properties into consideration, a myriad of promising near infrared fluorescent probes has been developed recently. However, a hallmark of most of these probes is a rapid clearance in vivo, which hampers their application. It is hypothesized that encapsulation of the near infrared fluorescent dye DY-676-COOH, which undergoes fluorescence quenching at high concentrations, in the aqueous interior of liposomes will result in protection and fluorescence quenching, which upon degradation by phagocytes in vivo will lead to fluorescence activation and enable imaging of inflammation. Liposomes prepared with high concentrations of DY-676-COOH reveal strong fluorescence quenching. It is demonstrated that the non-targeted PEGylated fluorescence-activatable liposomes are taken up predominantly by phagocytosis and degraded in lysosomes. Furthermore, in zymosan-induced edema models in mice, the liposomes are taken up by monocytes and macrophages which migrate to the sites of inflammation. Opposed to free DY-676-COOH, prolonged stability and retention of liposomal-DY-676-COOH is reflected in a significant increase in fluorescence intensity of edema. Thus, protected delivery and fluorescence quenching make the DY-676-COOH-loaded liposomes a highly promising contrast agent for in vivo optical imaging of inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Innovative application of classic and newer techniques for the characterization of haemocytes in the New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris).

    PubMed

    Grandiosa, Roffi; Mérien, Fabrice; Pillay, Krish; Alfaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Haemocytes play an important role in innate immune responses within invertebrate organisms. However, identification and quantification of different types of haemocytes can be extremely challenging, and has led to numerous inconsistencies and misinterpretations within the literature. As a step to rectify this issue, we present a comprehensive and detailed approach to characterize haemocytes using a combination of classical (cytochemical and phagocytosis assays with optical microscopy) and novel (flow cytometry with Sysmex XN-1000 and Muse(®) Cell analyser) techniques. The Sysmex XN-1000 is an innovative fluorescent flow cytometric analyser that can effectively detect, identify and count haemocytes, while the Muse(®) Cell analyser provides accurate and rapid haemocyte cell counts and viability. To illustrate this approach, we present the first report on morphological and functional features of New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocyte cells. Two types of haemocytes were identified in this study, including type I (monocyte-like) and type II (lymphocyte-like) cells. Granular cells, which have been reported in other molluscan species, were not detected in H. iris. Cell types were categorized based on shape, size, internal structures and function. The lymphocyte-like haemocytes were the most abundant hemocytes in the haemolymph samples, and they had large nuclei and basic cytoplasms. Monocyte-like cells generally were larger cells compared to lymphocyte-like cells, and had low nucleus-cytoplasm ratios. Monocyte-like cells showed higher phagocytic activity when encountering Zymosan A particles compared to lymphocyte-like cells. The present study provides a comprehensive and accurate new approach to identify and quantify haemocyte cells for future comparative studies on the immune system of abalone and other molluscan species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of β-Glucan Recognition Site on C-Type Lectin, Dectin 1

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Takashi; Ikeda, Yoshihiko; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Aketagawa, Jun; Tanaka, Shigenori; Ohno, Naohito

    2004-01-01

    Dectin 1 is a mammalian cell surface receptor for (1→3)-β-d-glucans. Since (1→3)-β-d-glucans are commonly present on fungal cell walls, it has been suggested that dectin 1 is important for recognizing fungal invasion. In this study we tried to deduce the amino acid residues in dectin 1 responsible for β-glucan recognition. HEK293 cells transfected with mouse dectin 1 cDNA could bind to a gel-forming (1→3)-β-d-glucan, schizophyllan (SPG). The binding of SPG to a dectin 1 transfectant was inhibited by pretreatment with other β-glucans having a (1→3)-β-d-glucosyl linkage but not by pretreatment with α-glucans. Dectin 1 has a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) consisting of six cysteine residues that are highly conserved in C-type lectins. We prepared 32 point mutants with mutations in the CRD and analyzed their binding to SPG. Mutations at Trp221 and His223 resulted in decreased binding to β-glucan. Monoclonal antibody 4B2, a dectin- 1 monoclonal antibody which had a blocking effect on the β-glucan interaction, completely failed to bind the dectin-1 mutant W221A. A mutant with mutations in Trp221 and His223 did not have a collaborative effect on Toll-like receptor 2-mediated cellular activation in response to zymosan. These amino acid residues are distinct from residues in other sugar-recognizing peptide sequences of typical C-type lectins. These results suggest that the amino acid sequence W221-I222-H223 is critical for formation of a β-glucan binding site in the CRD of dectin 1. PMID:15213161

  4. C-Type Lectin Receptor MCL Facilitates Mincle Expression and Signaling through Complex Formation.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yasunobu; Masatsugu, Oh-hora; Yamasaki, Sho

    2015-06-01

    C-type lectin receptors expressed in APCs are recently defined pattern recognition receptors that play a crucial role in immune responses against pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Among pathogen-associated molecular patterns, cord factor (trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate [TDM]) is the most potent immunostimulatory component of the mycobacterial cell wall. Two C-type lectin receptors, macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) and macrophage C-type lectin (MCL), are required for immune responses against TDM. Previous studies indicate that MCL is required for TDM-induced Mincle expression. However, the mechanism by which MCL induces Mincle expression has not been fully understood. In this study, we demonstrate that MCL interacts with Mincle to promote its surface expression. After LPS or zymosan stimulation, MCL-deficient bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) had a lower level of Mincle protein expression, although mRNA expression was comparable with wild-type BMDCs. Meanwhile, BMDCs from MCL transgenic mice showed an enhanced level of Mincle expression on the cell surface. MCL was associated with Mincle through the stalk region and this region was necessary and sufficient for the enhancement of Mincle expression. This interaction appeared to be mediated by the hydrophobic repeat of MCL, as substitution of four hydrophobic residues within the stalk region with serine (MCL(4S)) abolished the function to enhance the surface expression of Mincle. MCL(4S) mutant failed to restore the defective TDM responses in MCL-deficient BMDCs. These results suggest that MCL positively regulates Mincle expression through protein-protein interaction via its stalk region, thereby magnifying Mincle-mediated signaling. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Combined genetic and pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 and P2X3 attenuates colorectal hypersensitivity and afferent sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Kiyatkin, Michael E.; Feng, Bin; Schwartz, Erica S.

    2013-01-01

    The ligand-gated channels transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and P2X3 have been reported to facilitate colorectal afferent neuron sensitization, thus contributing to organ hypersensitivity and pain. In the present study, we hypothesized that TRPV1 and P2X3 cooperate to modulate colorectal nociception and afferent sensitivity. To test this hypothesis, we employed TRPV1-P2X3 double knockout (TPDKO) mice and channel-selective pharmacological antagonists and evaluated combined channel contributions to behavioral responses to colorectal distension (CRD) and afferent fiber responses to colorectal stretch. Baseline responses to CRD were unexpectedly greater in TPDKO compared with control mice, but zymosan-produced CRD hypersensitivity was absent in TPDKO mice. Relative to control mice, proportions of mechanosensitive and -insensitive pelvic nerve afferent classes were not different in TPDKO mice. Responses of mucosal and serosal class afferents to mechanical probing were unaffected, whereas responses of muscular (but not muscular/mucosal) afferents to stretch were significantly attenuated in TPDKO mice; sensitization of both muscular and muscular/mucosal afferents by inflammatory soup was also significantly attenuated. In pharmacological studies, the TRPV1 antagonist A889425 and P2X3 antagonist TNP-ATP, alone and in combination, applied onto stretch-sensitive afferent endings attenuated responses to stretch; combined antagonism produced greater attenuation. In the aggregate, these observations suggest that 1) genetic manipulation of TRPV1 and P2X3 leads to reduction in colorectal mechanosensation peripherally and compensatory changes and/or disinhibition of other channels centrally, 2) combined pharmacological antagonism produces more robust attenuation of mechanosensation peripherally than does antagonism of either channel alone, and 3) the relative importance of these channels appears to be enhanced in colorectal hypersensitivity. PMID:23989007

  6. A sulphonamido-indanone derivative CGP 28237 (ZK 34228), a novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent without gastro-intestinal ulcerogenicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, I; Schweizer, A; Glatt, M; Werner, H

    1987-01-01

    CGP 28237 (5-methylsulphonylamino-6-phenoxy-1-indanone) belongs to a series of structurally novel indanones. The compound is a weak acid (pK = 6.98), but it does not contain a carboxylic group. CGP 28237 exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity in developing and established adjuvant arthritis in rats (ED40 approximately 0.5 mg/kg p.o.) and good activity in carrageenin oedema (ED40 approximately 3 mg/kg p.o.). It inhibits yeast-induced fever in rats with ED50 values of 1, 2 and 10 mg/kg p.o. at 1, 3 and 5 hours after drug administration. The antinociceptive activity in mice (phenyl-p-benzoquinone writhing) and rats (acetic-acid writhing) is weak. CGP 28237 has been shown to be non-ulcerogenic in rats under acute and chronic test conditions: it does not cause mucosal lesions in the stomach at 2 X 400 mg/kg p.o., it does not enhance gastro-intestinal blood loss during 10 days' oral treatment with 400 mg/kg p.o., and it did not induce gastro-intestinal lesions in a 4-week toxicity study up to 1000 mg/kg p.o. Although CGP 28237 is not a cyclooxygenase inhibitor in bovine seminal vesicle microsomes, it inhibits prostaglandin synthesis in zymosan-stimulated murine macrophages (IC50 approximately 3 X 10(-6) mol/l) and protects rabbits against arachidonic acid-induced lung embolism with 10 mg/kg p.o. CGP 28237 may represent a novel anti-inflammatory drug with excellent gastro-intestinal tolerability.

  7. The control of neutrophil chemotaxis by inhibitors of cathepsin G and chymotrypsin.

    PubMed

    Lomas, D A; Stone, S R; Llewellyn-Jones, C; Keogan, M T; Wang, Z M; Rubin, H; Carrell, R W; Stockley, R A

    1995-10-06

    Neutrophil chemotaxis plays an important role in the inflammatory response and when excessive or persistent may augment tissue damage. The effects of inhibitors indicated the involvement of one or more serine proteinases in human neutrophil migration and shape change in response to a chemoattractant. Monospecific antibodies, chloromethylketone inhibitors, and reactive-site mutants of alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin were used to probe the specificity of the proteinases involved in chemotaxis. Antibodies specific for cathepsin G inhibited chemotaxis. Moreover, rapid inhibitors of cathepsin G and alpha-chymotrypsin suppressed neutrophil chemotaxis to the chemoattractants N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP) and zymosan-activated serum in multiple blind well assays and to fMLP in migration assays under agarose. The concentrations of antichymotrypsin mutants that reduced chemotaxis by 50% would inactivate free cathepsin G with a half-life of 1.5-3 s, whereas the concentrations of chloromethylketones required to produce a similar inhibition of chemotaxis would inactivate cathepsin G with a half-life of 345 s. These data suggest different modes of action for these two classes of inhibitors. Indeed the chloromethylketone inhibitors of cathepsin G (Z-Gly-Leu-Phe-CMK) and to a lesser extent of chymotrypsin (Cbz-Gly-Gly-Phe-CMK) mediated their effect by preventing a shape change in the purified neutrophils exposed to fMLP. Antichymotrypsin did not affect shape change in response to fMLP even at concentrations that were able to reduce neutrophil chemotaxis by 50%. These results support the involvement of cell surface proteinases in the control of cell migration and show that antichymotrypsin and chloromethylketones have differing modes of action. This opens the possibility for the rational design of anti-inflammatory agents targeted at neutrophil membrane enzymes.

  8. Transfer of arachidonate from phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol in guinea pig alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Nijssen, J.G.; Oosting, R.S.; Nkamp, F.Pv.

    1986-10-01

    Guinea pig alveolar macrophages were labeled by incubation with either arachidonate or linoleate. Arachidonate labeled phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and triglycerides (TG) equally well, with each lipid containing about 30% of total cellular radioactivity. In comparison to arachidonate, linoleate was recovered significantly less in PE (7%) and more in TG (47%). To investigate whether redistributions of acyl chains among lipid classes took place, the macrophages were incubated with 1-acyl-2-(1-/sup 14/C)arachidonoyl PC or 1-acyl-2-(1-/sup 14/C)linoleoyl PC. After harvesting, the cells incubated with 1-acyl-2-(1-/sup 14/C)linoleoyl PC contained 86% of the recovered cellular radioactivity in PC, with only small amounts of label beingmore » transferred to PE and TG (3 and 6%, respectively). More extensive redistributions were observed with arachidonate-labeled PC. In this case, only 60% of cellular radioactivity was still associated with PC, while 22 and 12%, respectively, had been transferred to PE and TG. Arachidonate transfer from PC to PE was unaffected by an excess of free arachidonate which inhibited this transfer to TG for over 90%, indicating that different mechanisms or arachidonoyl CoA pools were involved in the transfer of arachidonate from PC to PE and TG. Cells prelabeled with 1-acyl-2-(1-/sup 14/C)arachidonoyl PC released /sup 14/C-label into the medium upon further incubation. This release was slightly stimulated by zymosan and threefold higher in the presence of the Ca2+-ionophore A23187. Labeling of macrophages with intact phospholipid molecules appears to be a suitable method for studying acyl chain redistribution and release reactions.« less

  9. Characterization of novel bangle lectin from Photorhabdus asymbiotica with dual sugar-binding specificity and its effect on host immunity.

    PubMed

    Jančaříková, Gita; Houser, Josef; Dobeš, Pavel; Demo, Gabriel; Hyršl, Pavel; Wimmerová, Michaela

    2017-08-01

    Photorhabdus asymbiotica is one of the three recognized species of the Photorhabdus genus, which consists of gram-negative bioluminescent bacteria belonging to the family Morganellaceae. These bacteria live in a symbiotic relationship with nematodes from the genus Heterorhabditis, together forming a complex that is highly pathogenic for insects. Unlike other Photorhabdus species, which are strictly entomopathogenic, P. asymbiotica is unique in its ability to act as an emerging human pathogen. Analysis of the P. asymbiotica genome identified a novel fucose-binding lectin designated PHL with a strong sequence similarity to the recently described P. luminescens lectin PLL. Recombinant PHL exhibited high affinity for fucosylated carbohydrates and the unusual disaccharide 3,6-O-Me2-Glcβ1-4(2,3-O-Me2)Rhaα-O-(p-C6H4)-OCH2CH2NH2 from Mycobacterium leprae. Based on its crystal structure, PHL forms a seven-bladed β-propeller assembling into a homo-dimer with an inter-subunit disulfide bridge. Investigating complexes with different ligands revealed the existence of two sets of binding sites per monomer-the first type prefers l-fucose and its derivatives, whereas the second type can bind d-galactose. Based on the sequence analysis, PHL could contain up to twelve binding sites per monomer. PHL was shown to interact with all types of red blood cells and insect haemocytes. Interestingly, PHL inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species induced by zymosan A in human blood and antimicrobial activity both in human blood, serum and insect haemolymph. Concurrently, PHL increased the constitutive level of oxidants in the blood and induced melanisation in haemolymph. Our results suggest that PHL might play a crucial role in the interaction of P. asymbiotica with both human and insect hosts.

  10. Synergic production of neutrophil chemotactic activity by colonic epithelial cells and eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Dent, Gordon; Loweth, Sam C; Hasan, Anwar Matar; Leslie, Fiona M

    2014-10-01

    The presence of eosinophils in the lumen and mucosa of the intestine is characteristic of both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). There is evidence of eosinophil activation in the intestine during acute inflammatory episodes of these diseases; these episodes are also characterized by an influx of neutrophils, which have the potential to cause extensive tissue damage. We undertook a study to determine whether eosinophils in contact with colonic epithelial cells produce factors that may attract neutrophils in response to immunological stimulation. Neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA) and concentrations of three neutrophil-attracting CXC chemokines - CXCL1 (Groα), CXCL5 (Ena78) and CXCL8 (IL8) - were measured in supernatants of T84 colonic epithelial cells and blood eosinophils or eosinophil-like myeloid leukaemia cells (AML14.3D10), alone or in combination. Cells were stimulated with serum-opsonized zymosan (OZ) particles. NCA (P<0.005) and CXCL5 levels (P<0.05) in the supernatants of OZ-stimulated epithelial/eosinophil co-cultures were significantly higher than in the supernatants of either cell type alone. Release of CXCL1 (P<0.05) and CXCL8 (P<0.01) from OZ-stimulated co-culture supernatants was significantly higher than from OZ-stimulated eosinophils but not higher than from OZ-stimulated epithelial cells. Eosinophils and colonic epithelial cells exhibit synergy in production of neutrophil chemoattractants in response to immunological stimulation. This may represent a mechanism for exaggerated recruitment of neutrophils to the intestine in response to acute infection in conditions that are characterized by the presence of eosinophils in the bowel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Sterigmatomyces halophilus β-glucan improves the immune response and bacterial resistance in Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) peripheral blood leucocytes: In vitro study.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Guardiola, Francisco A; Sanchez, Veronica; Maldonado, Minerva; Angulo, Carlos

    2018-04-21

    β-Glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharides that are produced by bacteria, fungi and yeast. They are considered immunostimulants in fish acting on non-specific defense mechanism. Yeast-derived glucans from cell wall (Sterigmatomyces halophilus, β-Gluc/Sh) have been used for this purpose in this study. Therefore, an in vitro assay using peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) from Pacific red snapper was performed to evaluate the stimulant effects of β-Gluc/Sh and zymosan A (positive control) for 12 and 24 h and after bacterial challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila at 24 h. In addition, structural characterization of this marine yeast glucan was performed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealing structures containing (1-6)-branched (1-3)-β-D-glucan. PBLs responded positively to β-Gluc/Sh where cell viability was higher than 80%. After challenge, β-Gluc/Sh was able to inhibit cytotoxicity caused by A. hydrophila, highlighting that the PBLs incubated with β-Gluc/Sh significantly increased the non-specific immune response, such as phagocytic activity, respiratory burst, nitric oxide and peroxidase activities followed by an increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities after 12 and 24 h post-stimulation and after challenge with the pathogen. Regarding induction of antioxidant gene expression, it was more pronounced in stimulated β-Gluc/Sh leucocytes compared to other groups at all experimental times of the trial and after bacterial challenge. Indeed, our results clearly showed the ability of leucocytes to strongly react to β-Gluc/Sh with an increase in cytokine gene expression, particularly the IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-17 genes. These results confirm that S. halophilus yeast-derived β-glucan, isolated from an extreme marine environment, is beneficial for increasing innate immune response and enhancing resistance against A. hydrophila in vitro. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Corneal Expression of SLURP-1 by Age, Sex, Genetic Strain, and Ocular Surface Health

    PubMed Central

    Swamynathan, Sudha; Delp, Emili E.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.; Loughner, Chelsea L.; Raju, Leela; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although secreted Ly6/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor–related protein-1 (Slurp1) transcript is highly abundant in the mouse cornea, corresponding protein expression remains uncharacterized. Also, SLURP1 was undetected in previous tear proteomics studies, resulting in ambiguity about its baseline levels. Here, we examine mouse corneal Slurp1 expression in different sexes, age groups, strains, and health conditions, and quantify SLURP1 in human tears from healthy or inflamed ocular surfaces. Methods Expression of Slurp1 in embryonic day-13 (E13), E16, postnatal day-1 (PN1), PN10, PN20, and PN70 Balb/C, FVBN, C57Bl/6, and DBA/2J mouse corneas, Klf4Δ/ΔCE corneas with corneal epithelial–specific ablation of Klf4, migrating cells in wild-type corneal epithelial wound edge, and in corneas exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) poly(I:C), zymosan-A, or Pam3Csk4 was examined by QPCR, immunoblots, and immunofluorescent staining. Human SLURP1 levels were quantified by ELISA in tears from 34 men and women aged 18 to 80 years. Results Expression of Slurp1, comparable in different strains and sexes, was low in E13, E16, PN1, and PN10 mouse corneas, and increased rapidly after eyelid opening in a Klf4-dependent manner. We found Slurp1 was downregulated in corneas exposed to PAMPs, and in migrating cells at the wound edge. Human SLURP1 expression, comparable in different sexes and age groups, was significantly decreased in tears from inflamed ocular surfaces (0.34%) than those from healthy individuals (0.77%). Conclusions These data describe the influence of age, sex, genetic background, and ocular surface health on mouse corneal expression of Slurp1, establish the baseline for human tear SLURP1 expression, and identify SLURP1 as a useful diagnostic and/or therapeutic target for inflammatory ocular surface disorders. PMID:26670825

  13. In vitro immunomodulating properties of selected Sudanese medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Koko, W S; Mesaik, M Ahmed; Yousaf, S; Galal, M; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2008-06-19

    Ethanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, commonly used in Sudanese folk medicines against infectious diseases, were investigated for their immunomodulating activity using luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. Preliminary screenings on whole blood oxidative burst activity showed inhibitory activities of 14 plant extracts, while only one plant, Balanites aegyptiaca fruits exhibited a proinflammatory activity. Further investigation was conducted by monitoring their effects on oxidative burst of isolated polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and mononuclear cells (MNCs) by using two different phagocytosis activators (serum opsonizing zymosan-A and PMA). Results obtained showed that the fruits and barks of Acacia nilotica, and leaves and barks of Khaya senegalensis, possess average inhibitory effects in the range of 70.7, 67.1, 69.5 and 67.4% on both types of phagocytes (PMNs and MNCs), respectively, at a 6.25 microg/mL concentration. Moderate inhibitory activity (52.2%) was exerted by the aerial parts of Xanthium brasilicum, while the rest of the plants showed only a weak inhibitory activity. The inhibition of oxidative burst activity was found to be irreversible in most of the extracts, except for Peganum harmala, Tephrosia apollinea, Tinospora bakis, and Vernonia amygdalina. Interestingly, the fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca exhibited a moderate proinflammatory effect (37-40.4% increases in ROS level compared to the control) at 25-100 microg/mL concentration in the case of whole blood along with PMNs phagocyte activity. The Tinospora bakis extract showed proinflammatory response at a low concentration (6.25 microg/mL) during activation with PMA. None of these extracts affected PMNs viability (90-98%) upon 2 h incubation, except of the ethanolic extracts of Acacia nilotica fruits and Balanites aegyptiaca barks.

  14. Effect of detonation nanodiamonds on phagocyte activity.

    PubMed

    Karpukhin, Alexey V; Avkhacheva, Nadezhda V; Yakovlev, Ruslan Yu; Kulakova, Inna I; Yashin, Valeriy A; Lisichkin, Georgiy V; Safronova, Valentina G

    2011-07-01

    Detonation ND (nanodiamond) holds much promise for biological studies and medical applications. Properties like size of particles, inclination for modification of their surface and unambiguous biocompatibility are crucial. Of prime importance is interaction between ND and immune cells, which supervise foreign intrusion into an organism and eliminate it. Neutrophils are more reactive in inflammatory response implementing cytotoxical arsenal including ROS (reactive oxygen species). The aim of the work was to estimate the ability of two ND samples (produced by Diamond Center and PlasmaChem) to keep the vitality of neutrophils from the inflammatory site. The ability of cells to generate ROS in the presence of ND particles is considered as indicating their biocompatibility. IR spectra and size of particles in the samples were characterized. Acid modification of ND was carried out to get the luminescent form. In the biological aspect, ND demonstrated up or down action, depending on the concentration, time and conditions of activation of cells. Weak action of ND in whole blood was obtained possibly owing to the ND adsorbed plasma proteins, which mask active functional groups to interact with the cell membrane. ND did not influence the viability of isolated inflammatory neutrophils in low and moderate concentrations and suppressed it in high concentrations (≥1 g/l). Addition of ND to the cell suspension initiated concentration-dependent reaction to produce ROS similar to respiratory burst. ND up-regulated response to bacterial formylpeptide, but up- and down-modified (low or high concentrations, accordingly) response to such bacterial agents as OZ (opsonized zymosan), which neutrophils swallow up by oxygen-dependent phagocytosis. Localization of the particles on the cell surface as into the cells was identified by monitoring the intrinsic fluorescence of oxidized ND. The various mechanisms that could account for penetration of ND particles into the cell are discussed

  15. Inhibition of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function by components of human colostrum and mature milk.

    PubMed

    Pickering, L K; Cleary, T G; Caprioli, R M

    1983-04-01

    To compare the effect of human colostrum (days 1 to 3 postpartum) and mature milk (days 170 +/- 24 postpartum) on the function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL), Ficoll-Hypaque-separated PMNL from the blood of 60 healthy volunteers were incubated with whole colostrum, colostral lipid, and colostral aqueous phase from 30 mothers, or with mature whole milk and its separated components from 30 mothers, and tested for resting and zymosan-stimulated oxidative metabolism, functional activity, and the presence of Fc receptors. Stimulated oxygen consumption, quantitative nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction, [1-(14)C]glucose utilization, and Fc receptors were significantly (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) less in PMNL exposed to whole human colostrum or colostral lipid than in non-lipid-exposed cells or cells exposed to the aqueous phase of colostrum. In contrast, PMNL exposed to whole mature milk or to its lipid or aqueous phase caused no significant decrease in any of these parameters when compared to nonexposed cells. In assays of phagocytosis, colostral PMNL or blood PMNL exposed to colostral lipid had a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in their ability to ingest [methyl-(3)H]thymidine-labeled Staphylococcus aureus when compared to non-lipid-exposed PMNL. Blood PMNL exposed to lipid from mature milk had no decrease in ability to ingest S. aureus. Analysis of total lipid and total and individual fatty acid content revealed a uniform increase in all components in mature milk when compared to colostrum. Lipid or lipid-soluble material present in human colostrum but not mature milk causes inhibition of phagocytosis and respiratory burst-related activities of PMNL.

  16. Toxicological and immunomodulatory assessments of botryosphaeran (β-glucan) produced by Botryosphaeria rhodina RCYU 30101.

    PubMed

    Weng, Brian Bor-Chun; Lin, Yu-Chih; Hu, Chia-Wen; Kao, Ming-Yuan; Wang, Shih-Hao; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Lai, Tzu-Yuan; Kan, Lou-Sing; Chiou, Robin Yih-Yuan

    2011-04-01

    Toxicological and immunomodulatory activities of botryosphaeran (BR), a newly emerged β-glucan that comprises a β-(1 → 3) backbone and β-(1 → 6) branched glucose residues were assessed. BR was 1.82 × 10(6) Da (M.W.) estimated by reversely-linear equation constructed by regression of logarithms of standard polysaccharides and their retention times of gel permeation chromatography. Sprague-Dawley rats were daily gavage-administered with BR at doses of 0, 1.25, 12.5, and 125 mg/kg body weight (BW) for 28 d. Serum hematological and biochemical analysis of all treatment were all within normal ranges. Mitogen-stimulated lymphoblastogenesis of spleno-lymphocytes was enhanced by BR at doses of 1.25 and 12.5 mg/kg BW. Through in vitro comparative assessments, RAW 264.7 macrophage (RAW) cells were treated with BR and two commercial β-glucans, zymosan (ZY) and barley β-glucan (GB), to characterize their relative immunomodulatory properties. All three β-glucans stimulated phagocytosis on fluorescence-labeled Escherichia coli. At dose levels from 5 to 200 μg/mL for 24h, nitric oxide produced by BR- and ZY-treated cells were higher than those produced by GB-treated and control groups. BR, ZY but GB also stimulated RAW cells in producing TNF-α. The results demonstrate that BR is toxicologically accepted and features as a potent immunomodulator. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between age-dependent changes of bovine neutrophil functions and their intracellular Ca2+ concentrations.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, H; Nagahata, H; Hiroki, M; Noda, H

    1997-04-01

    Neutrophil functions and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) were evaluated in 15 Holstein cattle divided into the following 3 groups: 5 neonatal calves less than 1 week old (group 1), 5 young calves 2 to 4 weeks old (group 2) and 5 cows 2 to 3 years old (group 3). The ability of neutrophils to phagocytose Candida albicans (C. albicans) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in neonatal and young calves than in cows, whereas the phagocytosis by neutrophils of bovine IgG-coated yeasts (IgG-yeasts) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in neonatal and young calves than that in cows. The killing activity by neutrophils of C. albicans in neonatal and young calves was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that in cows. Luminol dependent chemiluminescent (LDCL) responses stimulated with opsonized zymosan (OPZ), heat-aggregated IgG (H-agg.IgG) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) were apparently lower in neonatal and young calves than in cows. No clearly different expressions of complement receptor type 3 (CR3) on neutrophils were observed among the 3 groups of cattle, although the values due to the binding of FITC-anti-bovine IgG to neutrophils in neonatal and young calves were lower than those in group 3. The OPZ-induced [Ca2+]i of neutrophils in neonatal and young calves were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those in cows, but they were lower in neonatal and young calves when stimulated with H-agg.IgG. These results indicate that CR3- and FcR-mediated phagocytic and killing activities of neutrophils in neonatal and young calves are different from those in cows. These phenomena may be associated with age-dependent changes in [Ca2+]i.

  18. Effect of short-term enteral feeding with eicosapentaenoic and gamma-linolenic acids on alveolar macrophage eicosanoid synthesis and bactericidal function in rats.

    PubMed

    Palombo, J D; DeMichele, S J; Boyce, P J; Lydon, E E; Liu, J W; Huang, Y S; Forse, R A; Mizgerd, J P; Bistrian, B R

    1999-09-01

    given the linoleic acid diet. Macrophages from rats given the eicosapentaenoic with gamma-linolenic acid diet released 35% or 24% more prostaglandin E1 than macrophages from rats given either the linoleic acid or the eicosapentaenoic acid diet, respectively. Macrophage superoxide generation, phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan, and killing of S. aureus were similar irrespective of dietary treatment. Short-term enteral feeding with an eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched or eicosapentaenoic with gamma-linolenic acid-enriched diet rapidly modulated the fatty acid composition of alveolar macrophage phospholipids, promoted a shift toward formation of less inflammatory eicosanoids by stimulated macrophages, but did not impair alveolar macrophage bactericidal function relative to responses observed after feeding a linoleic acid diet.

  19. In vivo activation of equine eosinophils and neutrophils by experimental Strongylus vulgaris infections.

    PubMed

    Dennis, V A; Klei, T R; Chapman, M R; Jeffers, G W

    1988-12-01

    Eosinophils and neutrophils from ponies with Strongylus vulgaris-induced eosinophilia (eosinophilic ponies; activated eosinophils and neutrophils) were assayed in vitro for chemotactic and chemokinetic responses to zymosan-activated serum (ZAS) using the filter system in Boyden chambers, for Fc and complement (C) receptors using the EA and EAC-rosette assays, respectively, and for phagocytic and bactericidal activities using opsonized Escherichia coli and the acridine orange method. The responses of activated eosinophils and neutrophils in the above assays were compared with those of eosinophils and neutrophils from S. vulgaris-naive ponies without eosinophilia (noneosinophilic ponies; nonactivated eosinophils and neutrophils). Differences in cell density following centrifugation in a continuous Percoll gradient were used to further characterize the heterogeneity of activated eosinophils and neutrophils. Activated and nonactivated eosinophils demonstrated similar chemotactic responses to ZAS while activated and nonactivated neutrophils demonstrated similar chemokinetic responses to ZAS. A higher percentage of activated eosinophils and neutrophils expressed Fc and C receptors compared with nonactivated cells (P less than 0.05). Generally, higher percentages of eosinophils and neutrophils expressed C than Fc receptors. However, the percentage of neutrophils with both receptors was higher than that of eosinophils. Phagocytosis and killing of E. coli by either type of eosinophil were not consistently observed. Both activated and nonactivated neutrophils phagocytized E. coli and significant differences between the two cell types were not observed. The bacterial activity, however, of activated neutrophils was significantly greater than that obtained using nonactivated neutrophils (P less than 0.05). Activated eosinophils and neutrophils were both separated into two distinct fractions based on differences in cell densities. A higher percentage of band 2 eosinophils

  20. Optic nerve regeneration in the mouse is a complex trait modulated by genetic background

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiaxing; Li, Ying; King, Rebecca; Struebing, Felix L.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The present study is designed to identify the influences of genetic background on optic nerve regeneration using the two parental strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J) and seven BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains. Methods To study regeneration in the optic nerve, Pten was knocked down in the retinal ganglion cells using adenoassociated virus (AAV) delivery of shRNA, and a mild inflammatory response was induced with an intravitreal injection of zymosan with CPT-cAMP. The axons of the retinal ganglion cells were damaged by optic nerve crush (ONC). Following a 12-day survival period, regenerating axons were labeled by cholera toxin B, and 2 days later, the regenerating axons within the optic nerve were examined. The number of axons at 0.5 mm and 1 mm from the crush site were counted. In addition, we measured the distance that five axons had grown down the nerve and the longest distance a single axon reached. Results The analysis revealed a considerable amount of differential axonal regeneration across the seven BXD strains and the parental strains. There was a statistically significant difference (p=0.014 Mann–Whitney U test) in the regenerative capacity in the number of axons reaching 0.5 mm from a low of 236.1±24.4 axons in the BXD102 mice to a high of 759.8±79.2 axons in the BXD29 mice. There were also statistically significant differences (p=0.014 Mann–Whitney U test) in the distance axons traveled. Looking at a minimum of five axons, the shortest distance was 787.2±46.5 µm in the BXD102 mice, and the maximum distance was 2025.5±223.3 µm in the BXD29 mice. Conclusions Differences in genetic background can have a profound effect on axonal regeneration causing a threefold increase in the number of regenerating axons at 0.5 mm from the crush site and a 2.5-fold increase in the distance traveled by at least five axons in the damaged optic nerve. PMID:29463955

  1. Unveiling the participation of avian kinin ornithokinin and its receptors in the chicken inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Garrido, Damien; Bailleul, Geoffrey; Trotereau, Angélina; Pinaud, Mélanie; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine; Chanteloup, Nathalie K; Schouler, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    Vasoactive peptides are key early mediators of inflammation released through activation of different enzymatic systems. The mammalian kinin-kallikrein (K-KLK) system produces bradykinin (BK) through proteolytic cleavage of a kininogen precursor by enzymes named kallikreins. BK acts through specific ubiquitous G-protein coupled receptors (B1R and B2R) to participate in physiological processes and inflammatory responses, such as activation of mononuclear phagocytes. In chickens, the BK-like nonapeptide ornithokinin (OK) has been shown to promote intracellular calcium increase in embryonic fibroblasts and to be vasodilatory in vivo. Also, one of its receptors (B2R) was already cloned. However, the participation of chicken K-KLK system components in the inflammatory response remains unknown and was therefore investigated. We first showed that B1R, B2R and kininogen 1 (KNG1) are expressed in unstimulated chicken tissues and macrophages. We next showed that chicken B1R and B2R are expressed at transcript and protein levels in chicken macrophages and are upregulated by E. coli LPS or avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) infection. Interestingly, exogenous OK induced internalization and degradation of OK receptors protein, notably B2R. Also, OK induced intracellular calcium increase and potentiated zymosan-induced ROS production and Dextran-FITC endocytosis by chicken macrophages. Exogenous OK itself did not promote APEC killing and had no pro-inflammatory effect. However, when combined with LPS or APEC, OK upregulated cytokine/chemokine gene expression and NO production by chicken macrophages. This effect was not blocked by canonical non-peptide B1R or B2R receptor antagonists but was GPCR- and PI3K/Akt-dependent. In vivo, pulmonary colibacillosis led to upregulation of OK receptors expression in chicken lungs and liver. Also, colibacillosis led to significant upregulation of OK precursor KNG1 expression in liver and in cultured hepatocytes (LMH). We therefore provide hitherto

  2. A report of a galactan from marine alga Gelidium crinale with in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Albertina A S; Benevides, Norma M B; de Freitas Pires, Alana; Fiúza, Felipe P; Queiroz, Maria G R; Morais, Thamires M F; Pereira, Maria G; Assreuy, Ana M S

    2013-04-01

    The sulfated galactan of the red marine alga Gelidium crinale (SG-Gc) was purified by ion exchange chromatography and tested by intravenous (i.v.) route in rodent experimental models of inflammation and nociception. The anti-inflammatory activity of SG-Gc (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/kg) was evaluated in the model of rat paw edema induced by different inflammatory stimuli, while SG-Gc (0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg) antinociceptive effect was assessed in models of nociception/hyperalgesia elicited by chemical (formalin test), thermal (hot plate), and mechanical (von Frey) stimuli in mice. In addition, the toxicity was evaluated after rat treatment with SG-Gc (1 mg/kg; i.v.) during 10 days, followed by analysis of the wet weight of animal's body/organs and hematological/biochemical parameters. Sulfated galactan of G. crinale inhibited the time course of dextran-induced paw edema, at all doses, showing maximal effect at 1 mg/kg (42%) and that induced by carrageenan at 0.01 (18%) and 1 mg/kg (20%), but was ineffective on the edema elicited by zymosan. At the highest dose, SG-Gc also inhibited the paw edema induced by histamine (49%), compound 48/80 (32%), and phospholipase A(2) (44%). Sulfated galactan of G. crinale inhibited both neurogenic and inflammatory phases of the formalin test, at all doses, and at 10 mg/kg, the animals flinch reaction in the von Frey test in the 1st and 3rd h by 19 and 26%, respectively. Additionally, SG-Gc treatment was well tolerated by animals. In conclusion, SG-Gc presents anti-inflammatory effect involving the inhibition of histamine and arachidonic acid metabolites and also antinociceptive activity, especially the inflammatory pain with participation of the opioid system. © 2011 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  3. Na+/H+ exchange activity during phagocytosis in human neutrophils: role of Fcgamma receptors and tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    In neutrophils, binding and phagocytosis facilitate subsequent intracellular killing of microorganisms. Activity of Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs) participates in these events, especially in regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) by compensating for the H+ load generated by the respiratory burst. Despite the importance of these functions, comparatively little is known regarding the nature and regulation of NHE(s) in neutrophils. The purpose of this study was to identify which NHE(s) are expressed in neutrophils and to elucidate the mechanisms regulating their activity during phagocytosis. Exposure of cells to the phagocytic stimulus opsonized zymosan (OpZ) induced a transient cytosolic acidification followed by a prolonged alkalinization. The latter was inhibited in Na+-free medium and by amiloride analogues and therefore was due to activation of Na+/H+ exchange. Reverse transcriptase PCR and cDNA sequencing demonstrated that mRNA for the NHE-1 but not for NHE-2, 3, or 4 isoforms of the exchanger was expressed. Immunoblotting of purified plasma membranes with isoform- specific antibodies confirmed the presence of NHE-1 protein in neutrophils. Since phagocytosis involves Fcgamma (FcgammaR) and complement receptors such as CR3 (a beta2 integrin) which are linked to pathways involving alterations in intracellular [Ca2+]i and tyrosine phosphorylation, we studied these pathways in relation to activation of NHE-1. Cross-linking of surface bound antibodies (mAb) directed against FcgammaRs (FcgammaRII > FcgammaRIII) but not beta2 integrins induced an amiloride-sensitive cytosolic alkalinization. However, anti-beta2 integrin mAb diminished OpZ-induced alkalinization suggesting that NHE- 1 activation involved cooperation between integrins and FcgammaRs. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and herbimycin blocked cytosolic alkalinization after OpZ or FcgammaR cross-linking suggesting that tyrosine phosphorylation was involved in NHE-I activation. An increase in [Ca2+]i was not

  4. Persistent Expression Changes of Fibrosis-Related Genes in the Lung Tissues of Rats Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Scully, Robert R.; Yeshitla, Samrawit A.; Wu, Honglu; Meyers, Valerie; James, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, potential reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% of very fine respirable dust (less than 3 micrometers). The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle and outpost would inevitably be contaminated with lunar dust that could pose a health risk. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the toxicity of Apollo moon dust in rodents to assess the health risk of dust exposures to humans. One of the particular interests in the study is to evaluate dust-induced changes of the expression of fibrosis-related genes, and to identify specific signaling pathways involved in lunar dustinduced toxicity. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.8, 21, and 61 milligrams per cubic meters of lunar dust. Five rats per group were euthanized at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after the last inhalation exposure. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected by lavaging with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). A zymosan-induced luminolbased chemiluminescence assay was used to assess the activity of BAL cells. The lavaged lung tissue was snap frozen in LN2 and total RNA was isolated using the Qigen RNeasy kit. The expression of 84 fibrosisrelated genes were analyzed using the RT2 Profiler PCR Array technique. The expression of 18 genes of interest were further measured using real-time PCR technique in all the samples. 10 out of 18 genes of interest showed persistently significant expression changes in the local lung tissue exposed to lunar dust, indicating a prolonged proinflammatory response. The expressions of several of these genes were dose- and time-dependent and were significantly correlated with other pathological parameters. The potential signaling pathways and upstream regulators were further analyzed using IPA pathway analysis tool based on the gene expression data. The data presented in this study, for the first time, explore the

  5. Neutrophil oxidative burst activation and the pattern of respiratory physiologic abnormalities in the fulminant post-traumatic adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rivkind, A I; Siegel, J H; Littleton, M; De Gaetano, A; Mamantov, T; Laghi, F; Stoklosa, J C

    1991-01-01

    The role of neutrophil oxidative burst activation (OBA) in the development of fulminant post-trauma adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was studied in 30 patients. Neutrophil (PMN) chemiluminescence (LE) was used as the index of OBA. Serially, for 8 days post-trauma, patient neutrophils (Pc) were studied in their own serum (Ps) normal serum (Ns), or Gey's solution (G). Ps was checked against normal neutrophils (Nc) for inhibition. LE was initiated by the addition of preopsonized zymosan to 1 x 10(6) PMN, the LE response monitored by luminometer, and the peak of the integral of LE recorded. Seven developed ARDS within the first 4 days; 12 patients developed sepsis (TS) but no ARDS, and 11 patients had uncomplicated trauma (TR). All ARDS showed increased LE (P less than 0.0001), at 48-96 hr. Patients without ARDS showed no significant increase in LE, although their mean injury severity (ISS) was the same. The ARDS LE response was mediated by activation of Pc [74%] with only a small but significant additional effect (6%) by ARDS serum (Ps): LE = 0.672 (Pc) + 0.24 [ARDS(Ps)] + 1343; N = 146, r2 0.733, P less than 0.0001. However, sera (Ps or Ns) was required, as incubation in G inhibited LE; [cells + s] greater than [cells + G], P less than 0.0001. LE is a biologic marker of ARDS, and the delay between injury and the LE indicated that initiation of ARDS may have therapeutic importance. Neutrophil activation in ARDS requires sera, but the ARDS effect appears mainly due to cells with only a small ARDS-specific serum-mediated role. The physiologic response to ARDS was evaluated by serial 8-hr studies of blood gases and pH; the respiratory index (RI) to pulmonary shunt (QS/QT) relationship, compliance (COMPL), and net fluid balance (DFLUID) PMN and platelet (PLAT) counts were also measured. Compared with TR and TS, the ARDS patients at 48-96 hr, showed increased RI, QS/QT, and DFluid requiring increased FiO2 and PEEP as COMPL and PLAT fell and LE rose. These changes

  6. Immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing for in-flight experiments under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Unruh, Eckehardt

    Life Sciences as Related to Space (F) Influence of Spaceflight Environment on Biological Systems (F44) Immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing for In-flight experiments under microgravity Sensing approaches for ecosystem and human health Author: Peter D. Hansen Technische Universit¨t Berlin, Faculty VI - Planen, Bauen, Umwelt, a Institute for Ecological Research and Technology, Department for Ecotoxicology, Berlin, Germany Peter-diedrich.hansen@tu-berlin.de Eckehardt Unruh Technische Universit¨t Berlin, Faculty VI - Planen, Bauen, Umwelt, Institute a for Ecological Research and Technology, Department for Ecotoxicology, Berlin, Germany An immune response by mussel hemocytes is the selective reaction to particles which are identified as foreign by its immune system shown by phagocytosis. Phagocytotic activity is based on the chemotaxis and adhesion, ingestion and phagosome formation. The attachment at the surface of the hemocytes and consequently the uptake of the particles or bacteria can be directly quantified in the format of a fluorescent assay. Another relevant endpoint of phagocytosis is oxidative burst measured by luminescence. Phagocytosis-related production of ROS will be stimulated with opsonised zymosan. The hemocytes will be stored frozen at -80oC and reconstituted in-flight for the experiment. The assay system of the TRIPLELUX-B Experiment has been performed with a well-defined quantification and evaluation of the immune function phagocytosis. The indicator cells are the hemocytes of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). The signals of the immuno cellular responses are translated into luminescence as a rapid optical reporter system. The results expected will determine whether the observed responses are caused by microgravity and/or radiation (change in permeability, endpoints in genotoxicity: DNA unwinding). The samples for genotoxicity will be processed after returning to earth. The immune system of invertebrates has not been studied so far in space. The

  7. CD11b+Gr-1dim Tolerogenic Dendritic Cell-Like Cells Are Expanded in Interstitial Lung Disease in SKG Mice.

    PubMed

    Sendo, Sho; Saegusa, Jun; Okano, Takaichi; Takahashi, Soshi; Akashi, Kengo; Morinobu, Akio

    2017-12-01

    SKG mice develop interstitial lung disease (ILD) resembling rheumatoid arthritis-associated ILD in humans. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism underlying the lung pathology by analyzing lung-infiltrating cells in SKG mice with ILD. We assessed the severity of zymosan A (ZyA)-induced ILD in SKG mice histologically, and we examined lung-infiltrating cells by flow cytometry. Total lung cells and isolated monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were cultured in vitro with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4. The proliferation of 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester-labeled naive T cells cocultured with isolated CD11b+Gr-1 dim cells and MDSCs was evaluated by flow cytometry. CD11b+Gr-1 dim cells were adoptively transferred to ZyA-treated SKG mice. MDSCs, Th17 cells, and group 1 and 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC1s and ILC3s) were increased in the lungs; the proportion of these cells varied with ILD severity. In this process, we found that a unique cell population, CD11b+Gr-1 dim cells, was expanded in the severely inflamed lungs. Approximately half of the CD11b+Gr-1 dim cells expressed CD11c. CD11b+Gr-1 dim cells were induced from monocytic MDSCs with GM-CSF in vitro and were considered tolerogenic because they suppressed T cell proliferation. These CD11b+Gr-1 dim cells have never been described previously, and we termed them CD11b+Gr-1 dim tolerogenic dendritic cell (DC)-like cells. Th17 cells, ILC1s, and ILC3s in the inflamed lung produced GM-CSF, which may have expanded CD11b+Gr-1 dim tolerogenic DC-like cells in vivo. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of CD11b+Gr-1 dim tolerogenic DC-like cells significantly suppressed progression of ILD in SKG mice. We identified unique suppressive myeloid cells that were differentiated from monocytic MDSCs in SKG mice with ILD, and we termed them CD11b+Gr-1 dim tolerogenic DC-like cells. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  8. PEGylated single-walled carbon nanotubes activate neutrophils to increase production of hypochlorous acid, the oxidant capable of degrading nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasova, Irina I., E-mail: irina.vlasova@yahoo.com; Vakhrusheva, Tatyana V.; Sokolov, Alexey V.

    Perspectives for the use of carbon nanotubes in biomedical applications depend largely on their ability to degrade in the body into products that can be easily cleared out. Carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (c-SWCNTs) were shown to be degraded by oxidants generated by peroxidases in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. In the present study we demonstrated that conjugation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to c-SWCNTs does not interfere with their degradation by peroxidase/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system or by hypochlorite. Comparison of different heme-containing proteins for their ability to degrade PEG-SWCNTs has led us to conclude that the myeloperoxidase (MPO) product hypochlorous acidmore » (HOCl) is the major oxidant that may be responsible for biodegradation of PEG-SWCNTs in vivo. MPO is secreted mainly by neutrophils upon activation. We hypothesize that SWCNTs may enhance neutrophil activation and therefore stimulate their own biodegradation due to MPO-generated HOCl. PEG-SWCNTs at concentrations similar to those commonly used in in vivo studies were found to activate isolated human neutrophils to produce HOCl. Both PEG-SWCNTs and c-SWCNTs enhanced HOCl generation from isolated neutrophils upon serum-opsonized zymosan stimulation. Both types of nanotubes were also found to activate neutrophils in whole blood samples. Intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of PEG-SWCNTs into mice induced an increase in percentage of circulating neutrophils and activation of neutrophils and macrophages in the peritoneal cavity, suggesting the evolution of an inflammatory response. Activated neutrophils can produce high local concentrations of HOCl, thereby creating the conditions favorable for degradation of the nanotubes. -- Highlights: ► Myeloperoxidase (MPO) product hypochlorous acid is able to degrade CNTs. ► PEGylated SWCNTs stimulate isolated neutrophils to produce hypochlorous acid. ► SWCNTs are capable of activating neutrophils in blood samples. ► Activation of

  9. In vitro cytotoxicity of Manville Code 100 glass fibers: Effect of fiber length on human alveolar macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Calhoun, William J; Ameredes, Bill T; Clark, Melissa P; Deye, Gregory J; Baron, Paul; Jones, William; Blake, Terri; Castranova, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Background Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs) are inorganic noncrystalline materials widely used in residential and industrial settings for insulation, filtration, and reinforcement purposes. SVFs conventionally include three major categories: fibrous glass, rock/slag/stone (mineral) wool, and ceramic fibers. Previous in vitro studies from our laboratory demonstrated length-dependent cytotoxic effects of glass fibers on rat alveolar macrophages which were possibly associated with incomplete phagocytosis of fibers ≥ 17 μm in length. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fiber length on primary human alveolar macrophages, which are larger in diameter than rat macrophages, using length-classified Manville Code 100 glass fibers (8, 10, 16, and 20 μm). It was hypothesized that complete engulfment of fibers by human alveolar macrophages could decrease fiber cytotoxicity; i.e. shorter fibers that can be completely engulfed might not be as cytotoxic as longer fibers. Human alveolar macrophages, obtained by segmental bronchoalveolar lavage of healthy, non-smoking volunteers, were treated with three different concentrations (determined by fiber number) of the sized fibers in vitro. Cytotoxicity was assessed by monitoring cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase release and loss of function as indicated by a decrease in zymosan-stimulated chemiluminescence. Results Microscopic analysis indicated that human alveolar macrophages completely engulfed glass fibers of the 20 μm length. All fiber length fractions tested exhibited equal cytotoxicity on a per fiber basis, i.e. increasing lactate dehydrogenase and decreasing chemiluminescence in the same concentration-dependent fashion. Conclusion The data suggest that due to the larger diameter of human alveolar macrophages, compared to rat alveolar macrophages, complete phagocytosis of longer fibers can occur with the human cells. Neither incomplete phagocytosis nor length-dependent toxicity was observed in fiber

  10. Further characterization of a highly attenuated Yersinia pestis CO92 mutant deleted for the genes encoding Braun lipoprotein and plasminogen activator protease in murine alveolar and primary human macrophages.

    PubMed

    van Lier, Christina J; Tiner, Bethany L; Chauhan, Sadhana; Motin, Vladimir L; Fitts, Eric C; Huante, Matthew B; Endsley, Janice J; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Sha, Jian; Chopra, Ashok K

    2015-03-01

    We recently characterized the Δlpp Δpla double in-frame deletion mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 molecularly, biologically, and immunologically. While Braun lipoprotein (Lpp) activates toll-like receptor-2 to initiate an inflammatory cascade, plasminogen activator (Pla) protease facilitates bacterial dissemination in the host. The Δlpp Δpla double mutant was highly attenuated in evoking bubonic and pneumonic plague, was rapidly cleared from mouse organs, and generated humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to provide subsequent protection to mice against a lethal challenge dose of wild-type (WT) CO92. Here, we further characterized the Δlpp Δpla double mutant in two murine macrophage cell lines as well as in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages to gauge its potential as a live-attenuated vaccine candidate. We first demonstrated that the Δpla single and the Δlpp Δpla double mutant were unable to survive efficiently in murine and human macrophages, unlike WT CO92. We observed that the levels of Pla and its associated protease activity were not affected in the Δlpp single mutant, and, likewise, deletion of the pla gene from WT CO92 did not alter Lpp levels. Further, our study revealed that both Lpp and Pla contributed to the intracellular survival of WT CO92 via different mechanisms. Importantly, the ability of the Δlpp Δpla double mutant to be phagocytized by macrophages, to stimulate production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, and to activate the nitric oxide killing pathways of the host cells remained unaltered when compared to the WT CO92-infected macrophages. Finally, macrophages infected with either the WT CO92 or the Δlpp Δpla double mutant were equally efficient in their uptake of zymosan particles as determined by flow cytometric analysis. Overall, our data indicated that although the Δlpp Δpla double mutant of Y. pestis CO92 was highly attenuated, it retained the ability to elicit innate and subsequent acquired immune

  11. Aqueous extract from Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae) leaves and its phenolic compounds have anti-inflammatory activity in murine models of edema, peritonitis and air-pouch inflammation.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Allanny A; Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; Lima, Maíra C J S; Bitencourt, Mariana A O; Estrela, Andréia Bergamo; Souza da Silva, Nayara; da Silva Siqueira, Emerson Michell; Tomaz, José Carlos; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Zucolotto, Silvana M; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus F

    2016-11-04

    Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr.) Roem. and Schult.(Convolvulaceae), popularly known as salsa or salsa-brava, is a plant of which the decoction of leaves is used in folk medicine to treat various inflammatory disorders such of dermatitis, scabies, symptoms of syphilis, skin ulcers and external wounds. However, little is known about possible compounds and mechanisms of action of the plant to support the activities reported by popular use. The study aimed to identify bioactive molecules present in the crude extract of I. asarifolia leaves and investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of this extract in different experimental in vivo models to improve the understanding on that activity. Aqueous extract of I. asarifolia leaves was prepared by decoction (1:10 m/v) and its chromatographic profile was obtained by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and liquid chromatography diode array detector coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS). The potential anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was assessed using the following in vivo models: xylene-induced ear edema (20, 30 and 40mg/kg), evaluating the degree of edema formation; carrageenan-induced peritonitis (10, 20 and 30mg/kg), evaluating leukocyte migration and cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α) at 4h; zymosan-induced air pouch inflammation (20, 30 and 40mg/kg), evaluating the kinetics of leukocyte migration by total and differential counts at 6, 24 and 48h. The same tests were conducted using pure compounds identified in the aqueous extract from I. asarifolia leaves in different doses for each experimental model. The compounds identified in the aqueous extract of I. asarifolia leaves by HPLC-DAD and LC-DAD-MS were rutin, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid. The extract significantly reduced ear edema induced by xylene (81%, 85% and 86% for doses of 20, 30 and 40mg/kg, respectively, p<0.001), as well as cell migration in experimental models of peritonitis (70%, 78

  12. Differential modulation of microglia superoxide anion and thromboxane B2 generation by the marine manzamines

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro MS; Hall, Mary L; Lynch, Sean M; Gunasekera, Sarath P; Sennett, Susan H; Pomponi, Shirley A

    2005-01-01

    Background Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and superoxide anion (O2-) are neuroinflammatory mediators that appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Because activated-microglia are the main source of TXB2 and O2- in these disorders, modulation of their synthesis has been hypothesized as a potential therapeutic approach for neuroinflammatory disorders. Marine natural products have become a source of novel agents that modulate eicosanoids and O2- generation from activated murine and human leukocytes. With the exception of manzamine C, all other manzamines tested are characterized by a complex pentacyclic diamine linked to C-1 of the β-carboline moiety. These marine-derived alkaloids have been reported to possess a diverse range of bioactivities including anticancer, immunostimulatory, insecticidal, antibacterial, antimalarial and antituberculosis activities. The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a structure-activity relationship study with manzamines (MZ) A, B, C, D, E and F on agonist-stimulated release of TXB2 and O2- from E. coli LPS-activated rat neonatal microglia in vitro. Results The manzamines differentially attenuated PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate)-stimulated TXB2 generation in the following order of decreasing potency: MZA (IC50 <0.016 μM) >MZD (IC50 = 0.23 μM) >MZB (IC50 = 1.6 μM) >MZC (IC50 = 2.98 μM) >MZE and F (IC50 >10 μM). In contrast, there was less effect on OPZ (opsonized zymosan)-stimulated TXB2 generation: MZB (IC50 = 1.44 μM) >MZA (IC50 = 3.16 μM) >MZC (IC50 = 3.34 μM) >MZD, MZE and MZF (IC50 >10 μM). Similarly, PMA-stimulated O2- generation was affected differentially as follows: MZD (apparent IC50<0.1 μM) >MZA (IC50 = 0.1 μM) >MZB (IC50 = 3.16 μM) >MZC (IC50 = 3.43 μM) >MZE and MZF (IC50 >10 μM). In contrast, OPZ-stimulated O2- generation was minimally affected: MZB (IC50 = 4.17 μM) >MZC (IC50 = 9.3 μM) >MZA, MZD, MZE and MZF (IC50 > 10 μM). From the structure