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  1. Olanzapine

    MedlinePlus

    Olanzapine is used to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... do not already have diabetes. If you have schizophrenia, you are more likely to develop diabetes than ...

  2. Olanzapine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Olanzapine extended-release injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  3. The effect of federal and state off-label marketing investigations on drug prescribing: The case of olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Studdert, David M; Sarpatwari, Ameet; Franklin, Jessica M; Landon, Joan; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, the federal government has frequently investigated and prosecuted pharmaceutical manufacturers for illegal promotion of drugs for indications not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ("off-label" uses). State governments can choose to coordinate with the federal investigation, or pursue their own independent state investigations. One of the largest-ever off-label prosecutions relates to the atypical antipsychotic drug olanzapine (Zyprexa). In a series of settlements between 2008 and 2010, Eli Lilly paid $1.4 billion to the federal government and over $290 million to state governments. We examined the effect of these settlements on off-label prescribing of this medication, taking advantage of geographical differences in states' involvement in the investigations and the timing of the settlements. However, we did not find a reduction in off-label prescribing; rather, there were no prescribing changes among states that joined the federal investigation, those that pursued independent state investigations, and states that pursued no investigations at all. Since the settlements of state investigations of off-label prescribing do not appear to significantly impact prescribing rates, policymakers should consider alternate ways of reducing the prevalence of non-evidence-based off-label use to complement their ongoing investigations.

  4. Olanzapine induced Q-Tc shortening.

    PubMed

    Shoja Shafti, Saeed; Fallah Jahromi, Parisa

    2014-12-01

    Prolongation of Q-Tc interval is commonly accepted as a surrogate marker for the ability of a drug to cause torsade de pointes. In the present study, safety of olanzapine versus risperidone was compared among a group of patients with schizophrenia to see the frequency of the electrocardiographic alterations induced by those atypical antipsychotics. Two hundred and sixty-eight female inpatients with schizophrenia entered in one of the two parallel groups to participate in an open study for random assignment to olanzapine (n = 148) or risperidone (n = 120). Standard 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) was taken from each patient at baseline, before initiation of treatment, and then at the end of management, just before discharge. The parameters that were assessed included heart rate (HR), P-R interval, QRS interval, Q-T interval (corrected = Q-Tc), ventricular activation time (VAT), ST segment, T wave, axis of QRS, and finally, interventricular conduction process. A total of 37.83% of cases in the olanzapine group and 30% in the risperidone group showed some Q-Tc changes; 13.51% and 24.32% of the patients in the olanzapine group showed prolongation and shortening of the Q-Tc, respectively, while changes in the risperidone group were restricted to only prolongation of Q-Tc. Comparison of means showed a significant increment in Q-Tc by risperidone (p = 0.02). Also, comparison of proportions in the olanzapine group showed significantly more cases with shortening of Q-Tc versus its prolongation (p = 0.01). No significant alterations with respect to other variables were evident. Olanzapine and risperidone had comparable potentiality for induction of Q-Tc changes, while production of further miscellaneous alterations in ECG was more observable in the olanzapine group compared with the risperidone group. Also shortening of Q-Tc was specific to olanzapine.

  5. Can olanzapine be implicated in causing serotonin syndrome?

    PubMed

    Haslett, Christopher David; Kumar, Shailesh

    2002-10-01

    The present paper describes a case of serotonin syndrome (SS), which developed in a patient with bipolar affective disorder after the addition of olanzapine to her regimen of lithium and citalopram. This appears to be the first report that implicates olanzapine with SS. Clinicians should be aware of the risk of SS when adding atypical antipsychotics, such as olanzapine, to serotonergic agents.

  6. [Electrocardiographic abnormalities in acute olanzapine poisonings].

    PubMed

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic used for many years in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Poisonings with this medicine can results with cardiotoxic effects in the form of ECG abnormalities. To evaluate the nature and incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with acute olanzapine poisoning. 23 adult (mean age 38.4 +/- 15.5 years) patients with acute olanzapine poisoning, including 10 men (30.4 +/- 8.1 years) and 11 women (45.7 +/- 17.2 years), where 1 man and 1 woman were poisoned twice. The toxic serum level of olanzapine (above 100 ng/mL) was confirmed in each patient. Evaluation of electrocardiograms performed in patients in the first day of hospitalization with automatic measurement of durations of PQ, QRS and QTc and the identification of arrhythmias and conduction disorders on the basis of visual analysis of the ECG waveforms. Statistical analysis of the results using the methods of descriptive statistics. The mean durations of PQ, QRS and QTc in the study group were as follows: 135 +/- 23 ms, 91 +/- 12 ms, and 453 +/- 48 ms, respectively. The most common ECG abnormalities were prolonged QTc and supraventricular tachycardia (including sinus tachycardia) - each 22%; less common were ST-T changes (17%) and supraventricular premature complexes (9%), and only in individual cases (4%) ventricular premature complexes, bundle branch block, sinus bradycardia and atrial fibrillation were present. In the course of acute olanzapine poisonings: (1) prolonged QTc interval is quite common, but rarely leads to torsade de pointes tachycardia; (2) fast supraventricular rhythms are also common, but rarely cause irregular tachyarrhythmias, eg. atrial fibrillation; (3) conduction disorders (atrioventricular blocks, bundle branch blocks) are not typical abnormalities; (4) the observed ECG abnormalities emphasize the need of continuous ECG monitoring in these patients.

  7. Acute olanzapine overdose in a toddler: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tanoshima, Reo; Chandranipapongse, Weerawadee; Colantonio, David; Stefan, Cristiana; Nulman, Irena

    2013-10-01

    We describe a 17-month-old female presented with an acute overdose of olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic. She displayed prolonged extrapyramidal symptoms as compared with that in previous reports and prolactin levels above the upper limits of normal ranges. This is the first report to measure serum prolactin levels in an olanzapine-overdosed toddler and the second to calculate olanzapine's elimination half-life.

  8. [Clinical course of acute poisoning with olanzapine].

    PubMed

    Balicka-Slusarczyk, Barbara; Szczeklik, Jerzy; Szpak, Dorota; Groszek, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Olanzapine is a new atypical antipsychotic drug acting on different receptors. A variety of pharmacologic effects are responsible for toxicity and the variety of clinical symptoms seen in overdose: tachycardia, agitation or aggression, dysarthria, extrapyramidal dystonic effects, sedation or coma, small pupils, blurred vision, respiratory depression, hypotension. A retrospective analysis of clinical course of eight acute olanzapine intoxication treated at the Department of Clinical Toxicology Jagiellonian University Medical College is presented. CNS symptoms manifested in fluctuations between somnolence/coma and agitation/aggression and miosis were observed in most of the patients. Increased CPK activity was stated in the most of patients. All of the patients recovered, poisoning severity according PSS was moderate and severe.

  9. [The clinical picture of acute olanzapine poisonings].

    PubMed

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Sein Anand, Jacek; Wilimowska, Jolanta; Jawień, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is a second generation antipsychotic of thienobenzodiazepin group, which is used in the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and others, mainly psychiatric. Its multireceptor action (antagonism to dopaminergic D1, D2, D4, serotoninergic 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, histaminergic H1, cholinergic M1-5, and a1--adrenergic receptors) results in multiple clinical symptoms in the course of acute poisoning. Evaluation of incidence and intensity of clinical symptoms in patients with of acute olanzapine intoxication. The pathophysiological mechanisms of particular symptoms are also described. 26 patients (mean age 37.7 +/- 15.3 years) hospitalized in 2005-2008 in toxicological centers in Krakow and Gdansk because of acute olanzapine poisoning (all patients had the toxic serum level of olanzapine above 100 ng/mL). The study group consisted of 11 men (29.3 +/- 8.5 years) and 13 women (44.9 +/- 16.4 years); 1 man and 1 woman were poisoned twice. Prospective analysis (using descriptive statistics) of data taken from medical anamnesis and results of physical examination, considering the following ones: consciousness disturbances (Glasgow Coma Scale, Matthew's scale, qualitative disturbances), vital signs (arterial blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, temperature), neurological findings (muscular tension, tendon reflexes, extrapyramidal symptoms, pupils) and others (oral and bronchial secretion, Poisoning Severity Score). The mean dose of ingested olanzapine in the study group was 352.5 +/- 220.0 mg, while the mean time since ingestion to hospital admission was 4.4 +/- 3.5 h. The half of the patients took other medicines together with olanzapine, and 23% consumed alcohol, as well. The following intensity of quantitative consciousness disturbances according to Matthew's scale were observed: grade 0 - 8%, I - 15%, II - 23%, III - 50%, and IV - 4%. The minimal and maximal values of blood pressure were: 102/63 +/- 16/14 and 163/ 97 +/- 27/18 mmHg, respectively; heart

  10. Abnormal olanzapine toxicokinetic profiles--population pharmacokinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Tylutki, Zofia; Jawień, Wojciech; Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Wilimowska, Jolanta; Anand, Jacek Sein

    2015-01-01

    Olanzapine is widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and it is becoming more frequently responsible for overdoses. Standard pharmacokinetic models do not fit to the toxic concentration data. The aim of present study is to investigate the reasons for an abnormal olanzapine plasma concentration time curve in the range of toxic concentrations. Two hypotheses were verified: entering the enterohepatic cycle, and drug deposition and its desorption from activated charcoal used for gastrointestinal decontamination. One-hundred thirty-five plasma concentration data from 21 patients hospitalized for acute olanzapine poisoning were analyzed with the use of the population pharmacokinetic approach. A non-linear mixed-effects modeling approach with Monolix 4.3.1 was employed. A model assuming gallbladder emptying at irregular intervals was developed. Also, a model that describes desorption of olanzapine from the charcoal surface, in which the dose is divided into two absorbed fractions, was constructed. The analysis has found gastrointestinal decontamination and previous olanzapine treatment, as the significant covariates for toxicokinetic parameters of olanzapine. Our study provides interesting models for investigation of toxic concentration of olanzapine, which may also be used as the basis for further model development for other drugs as well. The investigated population was not large enough to reliably confirm any of the proposed models. It would be well worth continuing this study with more substantial data. Also, any additional information about olanzapine metabolite concentration could be vital.

  11. The effect of ethinylestradiol-containing contraceptives on the serum concentration of olanzapine and N-desmethyl olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Haslemo, Tore; Refsum, Helge; Molden, Espen

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the potential interaction between olanzapine, a CYP1A2 substrate, and ethinylestradiol-containing contraceptives (ECC). The study was carried out at a routine therapeutic drug monitoring service. To identify patients who were co-administered ECC or other contraceptives, a questionnaire was sent to the physician who ordered serum monitoring of olanzapine for women aged 18-40 years during an 18 month period. The physicians were asked to provide information about contraceptive use and smoking habits. When questionnaires were returned by the physicians, the respective serum concentration data were included in the analysis. Patients were stratified into users of ECC, progestogen-based contraceptives (PBC) or no contraceptives. Dose-adjusted serum concentrations of olanzapine and the metabolite N-desmethyl olanzapine were compared between the subgroups. A total of 149 patients were included in the study (10 ECC users and 10 PBC users). In users of ECC, we found no differences in serum concentrations of olanzapine, but significantly lower concentrations of the CYP1A2-mediated metabolite N-desmethyl olanzapine compared with users of PBC (P = 0.019) and non-contraceptive users (P = 0.012). The present study confirms that ECC exhibit CYP1A2-inhibitory properties in terms of significantly lower exposure of N-desmethyl olanzapine. However, the inhibition does not provide clinically relevant changes in serum concentrations of olanzapine. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Comparison of Risperidone and Olanzapine in Bipolar and Schizoaffective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Masand, Prakash S.; Wang, Xiaohong; Gupta, Sanjay; Schwartz, Thomas L.; Virk, Subhdeep; Hameed, Ahmad

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare risperidone and olanzapine for efficacy, tolerability, need for concomitant mood stabilizers, and cost of treatment in bipolar and schizoaffective disorders. Method: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 36 consecutive outpatients with DSM-IV bipolar or schizoaffective disorder seen in 3 settings who received risperidone or olanzapine for at least 1 month between May and August 1997. Results: The mean ± SD doses were 3.7 ± 3.5 mg/day of risperidone and 12.0 ± 5.4 mg/day of olanzapine. Between-treatment differences in patient characteristics, psychiatric history, Clinical Global Impressions scale ratings, and duration of treatment were not significant. Similar proportions of patients in the 2 groups reported side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms, akathisia, tardive dyskinesia, and precipitation of mania by the respective drug. Patients in the olanzapine group received a significantly higher dose of concomitant lithium than those receiving risperidone (mean daily lithium doses: risperidone group, 750 ± 150 mg; olanzapine group, 1211 ± 186 mg; p = .006). The total daily acquisition cost per patient was $11.84 for olanzapine versus $5.81 for risperidone. Conclusion: Olanzapine and risperidone were equally efficacious and safe in the treatment of patients with bipolar or schizoaffective disorder, but treatment costs and dose of concomitant lithium were lower in risperidone-treated patients. PMID:15014747

  13. Synthesis of the olanzapine labeled by carbon-14.

    PubMed

    Saadatjoo, Naghi; Javaheri, Mohsen; Saemian, Nader; Amini, Mohsen

    2016-06-30

    Olanzapine is one of the most widely used antipsychotic drugs, which acts as an antagonist for multiple neurotransmitter receptor sites. 2-Methyl-4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-10H-thieno [2,3-b][1,5] benzodiazepine (Olanzapine) labeled with carbon-14 in the four positions has been synthesized as part of a three-step sequence from 2-amino-5-methylthiophene-3-carbonitrile-[carbonitrile-(14) C]. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A case report of somnambulism associated with olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Faridhosseini, Farhad; Zamani, Azar

    2012-01-01

    Somnambulism consists of a group of behaviors leading to unwanted movements during sleep or even sleepwalking. Medications applied for psychiatric disorders could increase the likelihood of somnambulism in adults. The following article is a case report of somnambulism seen in a patient with schizophrenia, which occurred after remission of an acute episode following treatment with olanzapine. When olanzapine dosage was decreased, no previous and similar symptoms were reported after 6 months of follow up.

  15. A Case Report of Somnambulism Associated With Olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    Faridhosseini, Farhad; Zamani, Azar

    2012-01-01

    Somnambulism consists of a group of behaviors leading to unwanted movements during sleep or even sleepwalking. Medications applied for psychiatric disorders could increase the likelihood of somnambulism in adults. The following article is a case report of somnambulism seen in a patient with schizophrenia, which occurred after remission of an acute episode following treatment with olanzapine. When olanzapine dosage was decreased, no previous and similar symptoms were reported after 6 months of follow up. PMID:24644473

  16. Black hairy tongue associated with olanzapine treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tamam, Lut; Annagur, Bilge Burcak

    2006-10-01

    Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug approved for acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder. Although relatively safe as compared to other classical antipsychotic medications, there are a number of uncommon adverse effects of olanzapine such as oral cavity lesions. In addition to the relatively common side effect of dry mouth, several articles have reported an association between olanzapine treatment and the development of oral lesions such as apthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, glossitis and oral ulceration. Although there are several cases in which the tongue was affected in conjunction with stomatitis or pharyngitis, we could not find a case report indicating a direct relationship between olanzapine use and a tongue lesion. We present here the case of a patient with bipolar disorder, who developed recurrent black hairy tongue on two different occasions following the addition of olanzapine to lithium treatment. In the present case, xerostomia (dry mouth), which is an adverse reaction of both olanzapine and lithium, may have played a role in the development of black hairy tongue. All agents with a possible side effect of xerostomia may predispose patients to black hairy tongue, especially when they are administered in combination. To preclude the development of this complication with such drugs, extra time and effort should be given to improving oral hygiene.

  17. Olanzapine vs. lithium in management of acute mania.

    PubMed

    Shafti, Saeed Shoja

    2010-05-01

    Among the available mood stabilizers, it appears that lithium may share an important role for treatment of acute mania. In a study from Sep. 2007 to Apr. 2008 at Razi Psychiatric Hospital we evaluated the efficiency of olanzapine vs. lithium. Forty (40) female inpatients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for acute mania were entered into a 3-week parallel group, double-blind study for random assignment to olanzapine or lithium carbonate in a 1:1 ratio. Primary outcome measurements were the changes in Manic State Rating Scale (MSRS) at baseline and weekly intervals up to the third week. Similarly, overall illness severity was rated using the Clinical Global Impression-Severity of illness scale (CGI-S) at baseline and at the end of the third week. Analysis of the data was accomplished by means of split-plot (mixed) and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t test. While both olanzapine and lithium were found to be significantly helpful in the improvement of manic symptoms (p<0.05), lithium was considerably more successful by the end of the third week (p<0.0002 and p<0.003, for frequency and intensity of the symptoms). CGI-S also showed important improvements with both olanzapine and lithium (p<0.043 and p<0.015 for olanzapine and lithium). Though both olanzapine and lithium were effective in the improvement of manic symptoms, lithium was more beneficial. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [The lipid metabolism abnormality in patients administered with olanzapine].

    PubMed

    Amano, Taku; Hosaka, Shigetoshi; Takami, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Chie; Oda, Kazue; Morikawa, Ryuichi

    2012-11-01

    The atypical antipsychotic medication olanzapine is a useful agent in acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders. It has beneficial effects on both positive and negative symptoms, an early onset of antipsychotic action and a favourable side effect profile. On the other hand, olanzapine has many reports of causing weight gain, glucose metabolism disturbances and lipidosis. We carried out blood tests (leptin, adiponectin, remnant-like lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C), total cholesterol, HbA1C, 75-OGTT and etc.) on patients with schizophrenia who had taken olanzapine. As a result, leptin, neutral lipid and RLP-C were significantly correlated by BMI. (The average blood test data and BMI revealed a normal range). Most analysis results of the lipoprotein fraction by a polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis method were normal patterns. Furthermore, the serum insulin concentrations from 75 g glucose tolerance (75 g-OGTT) 30 minutes later, in one third of patients receiving olanzapine, registered more than 100 microU/ml. The mechanism of the insulin secretion rise by olannzapine is unknown. Olanzapine may impair glucose tolerance due in part to increased insulin resistance. These findings do not necessarily imply that olanzapine is directly associated with a risk of impairment of weight gain, glucose metabolism disturbances and lipidosis. These results suggest that it is useful to promote diet cure and exercise therapy with patients with high BMI levels.

  19. Comparison of intramuscular olanzapine, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, oral risperidone solution, and intramuscular haloperidol in the management of acute agitation in an acute care psychiatric ward in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Yu; Huang, Si-Sheng; Lee, Bo-Shyan; Chiu, Nan-Ying

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare efficacy and safety among intramuscular olanzapine, intramuscular haloperidol, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, and oral risperidone solution for agitated patients with psychosis during the first 24 hours of treatment in an acute care psychiatric ward. Forty-two inpatients from an acute care psychiatric ward of a medical center in central Taiwan were enrolled. They were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 treatment groups (10-mg intramuscular olanzapine, 10-mg olanzapine oral disintegrating tablet, 3-mg oral risperidone solution, or 7.5-mg intramuscular haloperidol). Agitation was measured by using the excited component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC), the Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale, and the Clinical Global Impression--Severity Scale during the first 24 hours. There were significant differences in the PANSS-EC total scores for the 4 intervention groups at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes after the initiation of treatment. More significant differences were found early in the treatment. In the post hoc analysis, the patients who received intramuscular olanzapine or orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets showed significantly greater improvement in PANSS-EC scores than did patients who received intramuscular haloperidol at points 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes after injection. These findings suggest that intramuscular olanzapine, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, and oral risperidone solution are as effective treatments as intramuscular haloperidol for patients with acute agitation. Intramuscular olanzapine and disintegrating olanzapine tablets are more effective than intramuscular haloperidol in the early phase of the intervention. There is no significant difference in effectiveness among intramuscular olanzapine, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, and oral risperidone solution.

  20. Weight loss during therapy with olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Kozumplik, Oliver; Uzun, Suzana; Jakovljević, Miro

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this article is to report weight loss in patients with schizophrenia after switching from olanzapine standard oral tablet (SOT) to olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets (ODT). In the first case report, the patient was switched to olanzapine ODT in daily dosage of 20 mg, while in the second case report, the patient was switched to olanzapine ODT in daily dosage of 15 mg, and weight loss was similar (14 kg vs. 15 kg). Switching patients from olanzapine SOT to olanzapine ODT treatment resulted in significant weight loss that was maintained during 12 months in both case reports. Further controlled clinical investigations are necessary to evaluate change in weight during treatment with olanzapine ODT, and to improve our understanding of this change.

  1. The effect of olanzapine pretreatment on acute cocaine toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Heard, Kennon J; Cleveland, Nathan R; Krier, Shay

    2009-07-01

    Acute cocaine poisoning causes neuroexcitation and can be fatal. The toxic effects of cocaine can be attenuated by antagonists of serotonin, muscarinic cholinergic, and dopamine receptors. Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic medication, is an antagonist of these receptors. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of olanzapine pretreatment for attenuation of acute cocaine toxicity using a mouse model. Eighty male CF-1 mice were randomly assigned to olanzapine (1 mg/kg) or placebo pretreatment. Fifteen minutes later, all animals received 103 mg/kg intraperitoneal cocaine. Overall mortality was 11% for olanzapine-treated animals and 45% for placebo. Olanzapine also appeared to alter the characteristics of seizures due to cocaine. In this model of acute cocaine toxicity, olanzapine pretreatment attenuated acute cocaine toxicity. Olanzapine should be evaluated further as a potential treatment for acute cocaine poisoning.

  2. Preventing Olanzapine-Induced Weight Gain Using Betahistine: A Study in a Rat Model with Chronic Olanzapine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Pai, Nagesh; Deng, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Olanzapine is the one of first line antipsychotic drug for schizophrenia and other serious mental illness. However, it is associated with troublesome metabolic side-effects, particularly body weight gain and obesity. The antagonistic affinity to histamine H1 receptors (H1R) of antipsychotic drugs has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. Our previous study showed that a short term (2 weeks) combination treatment of betahistine (an H1R agonist and H3R antagonist) and olanzapine (O+B) reduced (−45%) body weight gain induced by olanzapine in drug-naïve rats. A key issue is that clinical patients suffering with schizophrenia, bipolar disease and other mental disorders often face chronic, even life-time, antipsychotic treatment, in which they have often had previous antipsychotic exposure. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic O+B co-treatment in controlling body weight in female rats with chronic and repeated exposure of olanzapine. The results showed that co-administration of olanzapine (3 mg/kg, t.i.d.) and betahistine (9.6 mg/kg, t.i.d.) significantly reduced (−51.4%) weight gain induced by olanzapine. Co-treatment of O+B also led to a decrease in feeding efficiency, liver and fat mass. Consistently, the olanzapine-only treatment increased hypothalamic H1R protein levels, as well as hypothalamic pAMPKα, AMPKα and NPY protein levels, while reducing the hypothalamic POMC, and UCP1 and PGC-1α protein levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The olanzapine induced changes in hypothalamic H1R, pAMPKα, BAT UCP1 and PGC-1α could be reversed by co-treatment of O+B. These results supported further clinical trials to test the effectiveness of co-treatment of O+B for controlling weight gain/obesity side-effects in schizophrenia with chronic antipsychotic treatment. PMID:25084453

  3. The Effect of Ranitidine on Olanzapine-Induced Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Fatemeh; Ghanepour, Alireza; Asadlo, Mahbob; Alizadeh, Amineh

    2013-01-01

    Induced weight gain is a disturbing side effect of Olanzapine that affects the quality of life in psychotic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Ranitidine in attenuating or preventing Olanzapine-induced weight gain. A parallel 2-arm clinical trial was done on 52 patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective and schizophreniform disorders who received Olanzapine for the first time. All these were first-episode admitted patients. They were randomly allocated to receive either Ranitidine or placebo. The trend of body mass index (BMI) was compared between groups over 16-week course of treatment. Mean weight was 62.3 (SD: 9.6) kg at baseline. Thirty-three subjects (63.5%) had positive family history of obesity. The average BMI increment was 1.1 for Ranitidine group and 2.4 for the placebo group. The multivariate analysis showed this effect to be independent of sex, family history of obesity, and baseline BMI value. The longitudinal modeling after controlling for baseline values failed to show the whole trend slope to be different. Although the slight change in trend's slope puts forward a hypothesis that combined use of Ranitidine and Olanzapine may attenuate the weight gain long run, this needs to be retested in future larger scale long-term studies. This trial is registered with IRCT.ir 201009112181N5. PMID:23984393

  4. The effect of ranitidine on olanzapine-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Fatemeh; Ghanepour, Alireza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Asadlo, Mahbob; Alizadeh, Amineh

    2013-01-01

    Induced weight gain is a disturbing side effect of Olanzapine that affects the quality of life in psychotic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Ranitidine in attenuating or preventing Olanzapine-induced weight gain. A parallel 2-arm clinical trial was done on 52 patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective and schizophreniform disorders who received Olanzapine for the first time. All these were first-episode admitted patients. They were randomly allocated to receive either Ranitidine or placebo. The trend of body mass index (BMI) was compared between groups over 16-week course of treatment. Mean weight was 62.3 (SD: 9.6) kg at baseline. Thirty-three subjects (63.5%) had positive family history of obesity. The average BMI increment was 1.1 for Ranitidine group and 2.4 for the placebo group. The multivariate analysis showed this effect to be independent of sex, family history of obesity, and baseline BMI value. The longitudinal modeling after controlling for baseline values failed to show the whole trend slope to be different. Although the slight change in trend's slope puts forward a hypothesis that combined use of Ranitidine and Olanzapine may attenuate the weight gain long run, this needs to be retested in future larger scale long-term studies. This trial is registered with IRCT.ir 201009112181N5.

  5. Olanzapine treatment for tics in an adult woman with severe tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Wen-Juh

    2012-12-01

    Olanzapine had been reported to be effective in the control of tics in a few adult female patients who had a short follow-up period. The author reports the successful outcome of long-term olanzapine treatment in an adult woman with severe Tourette syndrome. A 33-year-old woman who had severe motor and vocal tics (Modified Rush Videotape Rating Scale: 17/20) showed an excellent response to olanzapine 10 mg/day within 2 months. Her tic symptoms were well controlled with gradual reduction of her dose of olanzapine to 2.5 mg/day during the following 8 years. She was symptom-free without medications in the past 2 years. In addition, she had a normal menstrual cycle and became pregnant during the period of olanzapine treatment. Olanzapine may be the drug of first choice for treating severe Tourette syndrome in pubescent female adolescents and young women who wish to have children.

  6. Glucagon receptor knockout mice are protected against acute olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Laura N; Peppler, Willem T; Sutton, Charles D; Whitfield, Jamie; Charron, Maureen J; Wright, David C

    2017-08-01

    To determine if glucagon is involved in mediating the increase in blood glucose levels caused by the second-generation antipsychotic drug olanzapine. Whole body glucagon receptor deficient mice (Gcgr -/- ) or WT littermate controls were injected with olanzapine (5mg/kg BW IP) and changes in blood glucose measured over the following 120min. Separate cohorts of mice were treated with olanzapine and changes in pyruvate tolerance, insulin tolerance and whole body substrate oxidation were determined. Olanzapine treatment increased serum glucagon and lead to rapid increases in blood glucose concentrations in WT mice. Gcgr -/- mice were protected against olanzapine-induced increases in blood glucose but this was not explained by differences in terminal serum insulin concentrations, enhanced AKT phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue or liver or differences in RER. In both genotypes olanzapine induced an equivalent degree of insulin resistance as measured using an insulin tolerance test. Olanzapine treatment led to an exaggerated glucose response to a pyruvate challenge in WT but not Gcgr -/- mice and this was paralleled by reductions in the protein content of PEPCK and G6Pase in livers from Gcgr -/- mice. Gcgr -/- mice are protected against olanzapine-induced increases in blood glucose. This is likely a result of reductions in liver glucose output, perhaps secondary to decreases in PEPCK and G6Pase protein content. Our findings highlight the central role of the liver in mediating olanzapine-induced disturbances in glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Olanzapine causes hypothermia, inactivity, a deranged feeding pattern and weight gain in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Evers, S S; Calcagnoli, F; van Dijk, G; Scheurink, A J W

    2010-11-01

    Olanzapine is an a-typical antipsychotic drug antagonizing predominantly 5-HT and dopamine, but also histamine, muscarin, and α-adrenergic receptors. In humans, Olanzapine induces weight gain and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanisms of Olanzapine-induced weight gain are unclear. To study this we administered Olanzapine (5mg/kg) in female Wistar rats on a medium fat diet for 14 days via a permanent gastric catheter twice a day, just prior to the onset and at the middle of dark phase. Food and water intake, locomotor activity and body temperature were measured. Olanzapine acutely induced hypothermia, markedly decreased locomotor activity and increased body weight during 14 days of treatment. Olanzapine treatment did not result in an alteration of 24h food intake, but diurnal patterns of feeding behavior and body temperature were dramatically changed. We conclude that in female Wistar rats Olanzapine has an acute hypothermic effect, that the effect of Olanzapine on feeding behavior is secondary to the effect on activity, and that Olanzapine-induced weight gain is primarily the result of reduction in locomotor activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness and safety of oral olanzapine treatment transitioned from rapid-acting intramuscular olanzapine for agitation associated with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Hideaki; Taketsuna, Masanori; Kondo, Shinpei; Kajimoto, Kenta; Aoi, Etsuko; Tanji, Yuka

    2018-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral olanzapine treatment transitioned from rapid-acting intramuscular olanzapine (RAIM) in patients with acute agitation associated with schizophrenia in a real-world clinical setting. The postmarketing surveillance study with a 3-day observational period after the last RAIM administration was conducted (original study). Following this, an extended study was added for patients who received oral olanzapine after RAIM administration during the original study period, in order to additionally observe them for 7 days after initial RAIM administration. Effectiveness and safety from initial RAIM administration were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component score and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), respectively. The effectiveness and safety analysis set included a total of 521 and 522 patients, respectively. A majority of patients received 10 mg of RAIM (475/522 patients, 91.0%). The mean ± SD total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component score was 23.6±6.2 (n=318) at baseline (before initial RAIM administration), 17.4±6.8 (n=280) at 2 hours after initial administration, 16.2±6.8 (n=246) 2 days after final administration, 14.9±6.2 (n=248) 3 days after final administration, 13.8±5.9 (n=242) 4 days after final administration, 13.2±5.8 (n=221) 7 days after initial administration, and 13.4±6.2 (n=351) at final observation (with the last observation carried forward approach), showing that reduction in agitation seen with RAIM was sustained with oral dose of olanzapine. The most common TEAEs were dyslalia and somnolence (each event occurred in four patients), and abnormal hepatic function and constipation (occurred in three patients). One serious adverse event of sudden cardiac death occurred after transitioned to oral olanzapine with many other antipsychotic drugs. In the treatment of acute agitation associated with schizophrenia, RAIM could be generally transitioned to

  9. Grape

    MedlinePlus

    ... fruit, skin, leaves and seed of the grape plant are used as medicine. Grape seeds are by- ... haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), mexiletine (Mexitil), mirtazapine (Remeron), naproxen (Naprosyn), nortriptyline (Pamelor), olanzapine (Zyprexa), ondansetron (Zofran), propafenone ( ...

  10. Olanzapine versus Placebo in Adolescents with Schizophrenia; a 6-Week, Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryzhanovskaya, Ludmila; Schulz, Charles; McDougle, Christopher; Frazier, Jean; Dittman, Ralf; Robertson-Plouch, Carol; Bauer, Theresa; Xu, Wen; Wang, Wei; Carlson, Janice; Tohen, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of olanzapine in treating schizophrenia was tested through a placebo-controlled trial involving one hundred seven inpatient and outpatients adolescents. Patients who took olanzapine experienced significant symptom improvement.

  11. Protective effects of green tea on olanzapine-induced-metabolic syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Lookian, Fariba; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Atypical antipsychotics particularly olanzapine are associated with obesity and serious metabolic disturbances. As green tea (Camellia sinensis) is generally associated with beneficial effects on obesity and other metabolic disturbances, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of green tea aqueous extract (GTAE) on olanzapine induced weight gain and metabolic abnormalities in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups: control, olanzapine (5mg/kg/day, IP.), GTAE (25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day, IP.) plus olanzapine and GTAE (25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day, IP.). Treatments were continued for 11 days. Body weight gain, average food and water intake were measured during the experiment. Plasma lipid, glucose and leptin levels, mean systolic blood pressure and total locomotion were evaluated at the end of experiment. Olanzapine induced significant weight gain at the end of treatment (10.38% of body weight) when compared to control (3.13% of body weight) in male Wistar rats. Average food and water intake were increased by olanzapine treatment. 11days olanzapine administration led to hyperleptinemia, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. Olanzapine also increased mean systolic blood pressure and decreased total locomotion. GTAE decreased significantly body weight gain and average food and water intake, improved the changes in lipid profile as well as fasting blood glucose, and finally decreased hyperleptinemia and hypertension induced by olanzapine. Results of this study demonstrated that GTAE could exert protective effects against olanzapine induced obesity partially due to its lowering effect on leptin. GTAE improved other metabolic abnormalities including dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension induced by olanzapine in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Open-Label, Prospective Trial of Olanzapine in Adolescents with Subaverage Intelligence and Disruptive Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has been shown to be efficacious for treatment of psychotic and mood disorders in adults. This prospective, open-label study was conducted to examine the safety and usefulness of olanzapine in treating disruptive behavior disorders in adolescents with subaverage intelligence. Method: Sixteen…

  13. Treatment with olanzapine, risperidone or typical antipsychotic drugs in Asian patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chul; Wu, Kuang-Hsien; Habil, Hussain; Dyachkova, Yulia; Lee, Phil

    2006-05-01

    To examine clinical outcomes in Asian patients with schizophrenia receiving monotherapy with olanzapine, risperidone or typical antipsychotics in naturalistic settings. In this report, data from the first 12 months of the prospective, observational, 3-year Intercontinental Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes study are presented for patients from participating Asian countries (Korea, Taiwan and Malaysia) who were started on, or switched to, monotherapy with olanzapine (n = 484), risperidone (n = 287) or a typical antipsychotic drug (n = 127) at baseline. At 12 months, overall reduction in the score of Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness rating scale was greatest with olanzapine (p < 0.001 vs typical agents), followed by risperidone (p = 0.007 vs typical agents) treatment. Olanzapine treatment was found to have significantly better effects than typical agents on negative and depressive symptom scores, and significantly greater improvements than risperidone on negative and cognitive symptoms. The occurrence of extrapyramidal symptoms was least likely with olanzapine (p < 0.001 vs typical agents, and p = 0.012 vs risperidone), while the estimated odds of tardive dyskinesia were greatest in the typical treatment group (p = 0.046 vs olanzapine, and p = 0.082 vs risperidone). Mean weight increase was greater for olanzapine-treated patients compared with the other agents (p = 0.030 vs typical agents and p < 0.001 vs risperidone). The risk of menstrual disturbance was relatively high with risperidone when compared with olanzapine treatment (p < 0.001). The results of this observational study indicate that, in Asian patients with schizophrenia, olanzapine may offer benefits when compared with typical agents or risperidone. However, the significantly greater odds of weight gain should be considered in the clinical management of olanzapine-treated patients.

  14. Occupancy of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors by olanzapine and haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Robert M; Ansari, Mohammad Sib; Riccardi, Patrizia; Li, Rui; Jayathilake, Karuna; Dawant, Benoit; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2005-12-01

    There have been conflicting reports as to whether olanzapine produces lower occupancy of striatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor than typical antipsychotic drugs and preferential occupancy of extrastriatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors. We performed [(18)F] fallypride PET studies in six schizophrenic subjects treated with olanzapine and six schizophrenic subjects treated with haloperidol to examine the occupancy of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine receptors by these antipsychotic drugs. [(18)F] setoperone PET studies were performed in seven olanzapine-treated subjects to determine 5-HT(2A) receptor occupancy. Occupancy of dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors by olanzapine was not significantly different from that seen with haloperidol in the putamen, ventral striatum, medial thalamus, amygdala, or temporal cortex, that is, 67.5-78.2% occupancy; olanzapine produced no preferential occupancy of dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors in the ventral striatum, medial thalamus, amygdala, or temporal cortex. There was, however, significantly lower occupancy of substantia nigra/VTA dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors in olanzapine-treated compared to haloperidol-treated subjects, that is, 40.2 vs 59.3% (p=0.0014, corrected for multiple comparisons); in olanzapine-treated subjects, the substantia nigra/VTA was the only region with significantly lower dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor occupancy than the putamen, that is, 40.2 vs 69.2% (p<0.001, corrected for multiple comparison). Occupancy of 5-HT(2A) receptors was 85-93% in the olanzapine- treated subjects. The results of this study demonstrated that olanzapine does not produce preferential occupancy of extrastriatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors but does spare substantia nigra/VTA receptors. Sparing of substantia nigra/VTA dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor occupancy may contribute to the low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects in olanzapine-treated patients.

  15. Factors influencing acute weight change in patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine, haloperidol, or risperidone.

    PubMed

    Basson, B R; Kinon, B J; Taylor, C C; Szymanski, K A; Gilmore, J A; Tollefson, G D

    2001-04-01

    Clinical factors predicting weight change in patients with schizophrenia and related disorders during acute treatment with the antipsychotic drugs olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol were sought through retrospective analyses. Six-week body-weight data from 2 trials, study 1 comparing olanzapine and haloperidol (N = 1,369) and study 2 olanzapine and risperidone (N = 268), were analyzed. Effects of 8 clinically relevant covariates--therapy, clinical outcome (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale), baseline body mass index (BBMI), increased appetite, age, gender, race, and dose--on weight were compared. In study 1, olanzapine (vs. haloperidol) therapy, better clinical outcome, lower BBMI, and nonwhite race significantly affected weight gain. Effects of increased appetite and male gender on weight gain were significant for olanzapine but not for haloperidol. In study 2, better clinical outcome, lower BBMI, and younger age significantly affected weight gain. Increased appetite was more frequent during olanzapine treatment than during haloperidol, but not significantly different from risperidone. Significant differences in effect on weight change were found between olanzapine and haloperidol but not between olanzapine and risperidone. No evidence was found that lower antipsychotic drug doses were associated with lower weight gain. This report identifies predictive factors of acute weight change in patients with schizophrenia. Similar factors across antipsychotic drugs in predicting greater weight gain included better clinical outcome, low BBMI, and nonwhite race. Factors differing between conventional (haloperidol) and atypical (olanzapine) agents included increased appetite and gender. Choice of atypical antipsychotic drug (olanzapine vs. risperidone) was of minor importance with regard to influence on acute weight gain.

  16. Pharmaceutical studies on and clinical application of olanzapine suppositories prepared as a hospital preparation.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Kimura, Satoru; Takahashi, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Yuta; Miyazawa, Masayuki; Kushibiki, Satoko; Katamachi, Morio; Kizu, Junko

    2016-01-01

    A new formulation of olanzapine available for terminally ill patients is needed. Rectal administration using suppositories is an alternative for patients for whom administration via the oral route is not feasible. In the present study, we prepared olanzapine suppositories, and confirmed using pharmaceutical tests. Furthermore, we demonstrated the efficacy and safety of olanzapine suppositories in terminally ill patients. We prepared olanzapine suppositories using bases consisting of different compositions of Witepsol H-15, Witepsol S-55, and Witepsol E-75. The suppository release test was performed, and the olanzapine suppository with the best dissolution rate was selected. The suppository was assessed using the content uniformity test, content test in suppositories, hardness test, stability test, and clinical efficacy and safety. The dissolution rate at 360 min of olanzapine suppositories with Witepsol H-15 was the best (77.0 ± 3.3 %). The suppositories prepared had a uniform weight (2.47 ± 0.02 g) and content (2.11 ± 0.07 mg). The power required to break suppositories was 7.96 ± 0.55 kgf. When olanzapine suppositories were stored with protection from light, their contents were maintained regardless of whether the temperature was at 4 °C or room temperature. The numbers of patients administered 2.5 mg, 5 mg, and 10 mg of olanzapine suppositories were 4, 19, and 1. The percentages of patients with delirium or nausea and vomiting cured with olanzapine suppositories were 82 and 57 %, respectively. We suggest that olanzapine suppositories prepared in the hospital by pharmacists will improve the quality of life of terminally ill patients. UMIN000022172. May 2, 2016 retrospectively registered.

  17. Metabolic syndrome and drug discontinuation in schizophrenia: a randomized trial comparing aripiprazole olanzapine and haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Parabiaghi, A; Tettamanti, M; D'Avanzo, B; Barbato, A

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether the prescription of aripiprazole, compared with olanzapine and haloperidol, was associated with a lower frequency of metabolic syndrome (MS) and treatment discontinuation at 1 year. Patients were randomly assigned to be treated open-label and according to usual clinical practice with either aripiprazole, olanzapine, or haloperidol and followed up for 1 year. Three hundred out-patients with persistent schizophrenia were recruited in 35 mental health services. The intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis found no significant differences in the rate of MS between aripiprazole (37%), olanzapine (47%), and haloperidol (42%). Treatment discontinuation for any cause was higher for aripiprazole (52%) than for olanzapine (33%; OR, 0.41; P = 0.004), or haloperidol (37%; OR, 0.51; P = 0.030). No significant difference was found between olanzapine and haloperidol. Time to discontinuation for any cause was longer for olanzapine than for aripiprazole (HR, 0.55; P < 0.001). No significant differences were found between haloperidol and aripiprazole, or between olanzapine and haloperidol. The prescription of aripiprazole did not significantly reduce the rates of MS, but its treatment retention was worse. Aripiprazole cannot be considered the safest and most effective drug for maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in routine care, although it may have a place in antipsychotic therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Oral glucose tolerance test performance in olanzapine-treated schizophrenia-spectrum patients is predicted by BMI and triglycerides but not olanzapine dose or duration.

    PubMed

    Guina, Jeffrey; Roy, Sayon; Gupta, Ankur; Langleben, Daniel D; Elman, Igor

    2017-07-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is associated with glucoregulatory abnormalities, but the nature of this link is not fully elucidated. This is the first olanzapine oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) study to consider treatment dose and duration, and to compare complementary indices respectively assessing insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and resistance (homeostasis model assessment). Body mass index (BMI), body composition, plasma lipids, and oGTT were measured in olanzapine-treated nondiabetic patients with DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 35). While only one previously undiagnosed participant met diabetes criteria based on fasting plasma glucose alone (≥126 mg/dL), seven were diagnosed with oGTT (2-hr plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL). Multiple regression analyses revealed that the Matsuda index correlated with BMI (p < 0.0001) and plasma triglycerides (p = 0.01), but not with age, olanzapine dose, olanzapine treatment duration, or plasma cholesterol. Homeostasis model assessment and fasting plasma glucose correlated with triglycerides only (p < 0.0001 for both). Our data suggest that BMI and triglycerides may be implicated in olanzapine-related glucoregulatory abnormalities. The lack of correlation between glucoregulatory abnormalities and olanzapine dose or treatment duration suggests preexisting metabolic disturbances and/or disturbances arising early in the course of treatment. Clinicians prescribing antipsychotics should consider oGTT, especially in patients with obesity and/or hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Olanzapine treatment and metabolic dysfunction: a dose response study in female Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Weston-Green, Katrina; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2011-03-01

    Second generation antipsychotics are commonly prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia, however some can induce metabolic dysfunction side-effects such as weight gain, obesity and diabetes. Clinical reports suggest olanzapine alters satiety signals, although findings appear conflicting. Previous animal model studies have utilised a range of olanzapine dosages, however the dosage that better mimics the human scenario of olanzapine-induced weight gain is unclear. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally, three times daily with olanzapine (0.25mg/kg, 0.5mg/kg, 1.0mg/kg, 2.0mg/kg), self-administered in a sweet cookie dough pellet at eight-hourly intervals) or vehicle (n=12/group) for 14-days. Olanzapine orally self-administered in multiple doses (eight-hourly intervals) may circumvent a drop in plasma drug concentration and ensure the maintenance of a consistently high olanzapine level in the rat. Olanzapine increased body weight (0.5mg/kg, 1.0mg/kg, 2.0mg/kg), food intake (2.0mg/kg) and feeding efficiency (0.5-2.0mg/kg), with no effect on water intake. Subcutaneous inguinal (1.0mg/kg, 2.0mg/kg) and intra-abdominal perirenal fat were increased (2.0mg/kg), but not interscapula brown adipose tissue. Olanzapine increased circulating ghrelin and cholecystokinin, but had no effect on peptide YY((3-36)). Olanzapine decreased insulin (0.25-2.0mg/kg) and locomotor activity in the open field arena (0.5-2.0mg/kg). A low dosage of 0.25mg/kg olanzapine had no effect on most parameters measured. Olanzapine-induced weight gain is associated with hyperphagia, enhanced feeding efficiency and adiposity, decreased locomotor activity and altered satiety signaling. The animal model used in the present study of self-administered oral olanzapine treatment (t.i.d.) at a dosage range of 0.5-2.0mg/kg (but not 0.25mg/kg) mimics aspects of the clinic. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Olanzapine versus risperidone. A prospective comparison of clinical and economic outcomes in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Edgell, E T; Andersen, S W; Johnstone, B M; Dulisse, B; Revicki, D; Breier, A

    2000-12-01

    To compare the clinical and economic outcomes associated with olanzapine and risperidone treatment for schizophrenia. An international, multicentre, double-blind, prospective study. To facilitate economic comparisons, our sample was restricted to patients enrolled in US sites. 150 patients with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or schizophreniform disorder were randomised to therapy with either olanzapine 10 to 20 mg/day (n = 75) or risperidone 4 to 12 mg/day (n = 75) for a maximum of 28 weeks. In addition to tolerability and efficacy assessments, use of health services was assessed at baseline and prospectively, at 8-week intervals and at study completion. Clinically important response, defined as a 40% improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score, maintenance of response and rates of treatment-emergent extrapyramidal symptoms were compared between groups. Direct medical costs were estimated by assigning standardised prices to resource units. Median total, inpatient/outpatient service and medication acquisition costs were compared between treatment groups. The mean modal dosages for the olanzapine and risperidone treatment groups were 17.7 +/- 3.4 mg/day and 7.9 +/- 3.2 mg/day, respectively. Olanzapine-treated patients were more likely to maintain response compared with risperidone-treated patients (p = 0.048). In addition, a smaller proportion of olanzapine-treated patients required anticholinergic therapy compared with risperidone-treated patients (25.3 vs 45.3%; p = 0.016). Total per patient medical costs over the study interval were $US2843 (1997 values) [36%] lower in the olanzapine treatment group than in the risperidone treatment group (p = 0.342). Medication costs were significantly higher for olanzapine-treated patients ($US2513 vs $US1581; p < 0.001), but this difference was offset by a reduction of $US3774 (52%) in inpatient

  1. Olanzapine is effective for refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting irrespective of chemotherapy emetogenicity.

    PubMed

    Vig, Sierra; Seibert, Laurel; Green, Myke R

    2014-01-01

    The role of olanzapine added to a dopamine antagonist and benzodiazepine for the treatment of refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is incompletely characterized in all levels of chemotherapy emetogenicity. This retrospective study evaluated the efficacy of the addition of olanzapine in adults experiencing refractory CINV stratified by chemotherapy emetogenicity. Thirty-three adults who experienced CINV refractory to guideline-recommended prophylaxis and breakthrough antiemetics (dopamine antagonists and benzodiazepines) and received at least one dose of olanzapine 5-10 mg per os were evaluated. Failure was defined as >5 emesis events in 24 h or more than 10 cumulative doses of rescue antiemetics following first olanzapine dose per treatment cycle. Post hoc analyses investigated variables impacting olanzapine efficacy. The addition of olanzapine demonstrated an overall success rate of 70 %. This success rate did not differ between chemotherapy regimens of high versus low-to-moderate emetogenicity (p = 0.79), prophylaxis with serotonin antagonist plus corticosteroid and aprepitant versus serotonin antagonist alone (p = 0.77), or age over 50 versus ≤50 years (p > 0.99). A trend toward greater benefit was seen in women (p = 0.08). The addition of olanzapine to a dopamine antagonist and benzodiazepine demonstrated high efficacy rates for refractory CINV irrespective of chemotherapy emetogenicity. The high success rates among all groups suggests that incomplete resolution of CINV with prophylactic serotonin antagonists and breakthrough dopamine antagonists plus benzodiazepine may benefit from the addition of olanzapine regardless of gender, degree of chemotherapy emetogenicity, number of prophylactic antiemetics, or age. The trend toward greater control of emesis in women merits further investigation.

  2. Enhanced brain targeting efficacy of Olanzapine through solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Jawahar; Baskaran, Mahendran; Humtsoe, Lireni C; Vadivelan, R; Justin, A

    2017-03-01

    Olanzapine (OLZ) is a typical anti-psychotic drug, which is highly lipophilic in nature, belongs to Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class II category. Though OLZ is an effective agent in the treatment of Schizophrenia, but it exhibits poor bioavailability (57%) due to extensive first-pass metabolism resulted in high dose is required to achieve therapeutic concentration in brain. Emerging evidences are indicating that high dose administration of OLZ may cause Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in the psychotic patients. Hence, the present study is designed to develop Olanzapine solid lipid (OLZ-SLNs) using minimal dose of OLZ thereby enhancing the brain efficacy as well as to reduce the side effects associated with OLZ. OLZ-SLNs have been prepared by "solvent diffusion method" using lipids, such as glyceryl monostearate (GMS), tripalmitin (TP), Tween 80, and Stearyl amine as positive charge inducer. The prepared OLZ-SLNs were subjected to particle size analysis, zeta potential, and poly dispersity index measurement by using Malvern Zetasizer. Pharmacokinetics assessments of OLZ-SLNs were carried in conscious male Wistar rats through intravenous administration. Results have shown that average particle size and zeta potential of SLNs of GMS and TP were ranged from 165.1 ± 2.2 to 110.5 ± 0.5 and 35.29 ± 1.2 and 66.50 ± 0.7 mV, respectively. Relative bioavailability of OLZ in the brain was increased up to 23-fold and clearance was decreased when OLZ-SLNs while administrated intravenously. The area under the curve (AUC) and mean residence time (MRT) of OLZ-SLNs in brain were higher than OLZ suspension. These results indicate that SLNs are a promising drug delivery for OLZ. It may be an effective tool to enhance the bioavailability of OLZ in the brain with less dose administration, which could reduce the EPS associated with OLZ.

  3. Comparison of cost, dosage and clinical preference for risperidone and olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, J; Lichtenberg, P; Kaplan, Z

    2000-12-15

    Because risperidone and olanzapine have similar efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of schizophrenia, costs, physician experience, and preference become relevant considerations in making treatment decisions. The purpose of this paper is to compare daily treatment costs of risperidone and olanzapine, and to examine psychiatrists' clinical preferences. Dosage information was obtained from a national Ministry of Health registry and a national survey of psychiatrists. In addition, psychiatrists' clinical preference of antipsychotic medication and dosage for patient subtypes were examined by the national survey. Data from the registry and national survey estimated the mean daily dose of risperidone to be one-third that of olanzapine, irrespective of patient subtype. Taking into account drug costs and dosage requirements, the average daily retail price was US $6.85 for risperidone and US $13.60 for olanzapine. Psychiatrists preferred risperidone for first-episode psychosis and elderly psychosis, and olanzapine for patients sensitive to EPS. They rated the drugs equally effective on positive and negative symptoms, for chronic patients, for treatment-refractory patients and relapse prevention. Risperidone has a substantial cost advantage over olanzapine, and was preferred by psychiatrists for more indications.

  4. Olanzapine and sibutramine have opposing effects on the motivation for palatable food.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaal, Esther M; Janhunen, Sanna K; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; Baclesanu, Roxana; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H; La Fleur, Susanne E

    2012-04-01

    Both olanzapine and sibutramine target serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission and influence body weight, but in opposite ways. The second-generation antipsychotic olanzapine, an antagonist at serotonergic and noradrenergic receptors, frequently induces weight gain as a side-effect, whereas sibutramine, a noradrenaline/serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is known as a weight-reducing agent. To investigate whether altered motivation for palatable food influences the effect of these drugs on body weight, we determined their effects on responding for sucrose pellets under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement in rats. We found that a low dose of olanzapine selectively increased responding to sucrose, without affecting free-feeding intake of sucrose. In contrast, sibutramine dose-dependently reduced responding to sucrose and similarly reduced free-feeding intake. Furthermore, coadministration of a dose of sibutramine that failed to affect responding to sucrose when administered alone prevented the increase in motivation by the effective dose of olanzapine. These data show that increased motivation for palatable food is likely to be a significant contributor to olanzapine-induced weight gain. Moreover, the ability of sibutramine to reduce this motivation for palatable food may play an important role in the efficacy of sibutramine as an add-on treatment to counteract olanzapine-induced weight gain.

  5. Attitudes towards taking Medicine among those patients who either received Olanzapine or First Generation Antipsychotic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Chengappa, N.R.; Parepally, Haranath; Brar, Jaspreet S.; Gopalani, Aziz; Chalasani, Lokaranjit; Bear, Jonathan; Levine, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    This project evaluated the attitudes of psychiatric patients towards receiving either olanzapine or the first-generation antipsychotic agents. Newly admitted patients to a state psychiatric hospital who were either prescribed olanzapine (n=35) or other first-generation antipsychotic agents (n=34) were compared on measure of their personal attitudes toward receiving medicines using the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI). Subjects were evaluated prior to receiving olanzapine and 8 weeks later unless they were discharged or discontinued sooner. The olanzapine-treated group recorded significantly greater improvements on their positive attitude scores toward taking the medicine, and reduced negative attitude scores relative to the comparator group. These results remained statistically significant even after correction of baseline differences between the two groups for the positive attitudes and a statistical trend persisted for negative attitude scores too. During the subsequent 30 month follow-up, significantly fewer of the olanzapine treated subjects (5, 14.3%) were readmitted to the hospital compared with 13 (38.2%) of the comparator group. These data suggest switching patients to olanzapine may improve their attitudes towards taking medicines at least in the short-term. These preliminary data need affirmation or refutation in a controlled random-assignment longer-term clinical trial where specific measures of adherence are evaluated, and where the comparators are the other second generation antipsychotic agents. PMID:21206845

  6. Memantine Enhances the Effect of Olanzapine in Patients With Schizophrenia: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Ahmad; Pakseresht, Sirous; Haghdoost, Mohammad Reza; Hekmatkhah, Nasihat; Torkashvand, Maria; Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam

    2016-11-01

    Glutamate dysregulation may be involved in the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Memantine, a drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease, acts as a partial uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of memantine as an adjunctive treatment to olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, patients with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV clinical criteria were selected. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either memantine (week 1:10 mg/day; weeks 2-6:20 mg/day) plus olanzapine (15-20 mg/day) or olanzapine plus placebo. At baseline, no statistically significant difference regarding the mean total PANSS scores between treatment groups was found. Results showed that memantine significantly improved the positive and negative PANSS score in patients maintained on olanzapine after six weeks compared to olanzapine alone (P<0.001). Furthermore, female patients showed significantly better response than males, especially in positive PANSS score. No significant changes in extrapyramidal symptoms were observed.These findings indicate that olanzapine efficacy might be augmented with memantine. Furthermore, this effect is more remarkable in female patients with schizophrenia.

  7. HPLC determination of olanzapine and carbamazepine in their nicotinamide cocrystals and investigation of the dissolution profiles of cocrystal tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Renkoğlu, Pelin; Çelebier, Mustafa; Arıca-Yegin, Betül

    2015-05-01

    Cocrystals have recently gained importance in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, olanzapine and carbamazepine cocrystals were synthesized by using nicotinamide as cocrystal forming agent to achieve improvements in the physicochemical characteristics of the active ingredients. An HPLC method was developed to determine the amount, thus, the stoichiometric ratios of olanzapine and carbamazepine in the synthesized cocrystals. Olanzapine:nicotinamide and olanzapine tablet formulations were prepared and the developed HPLC method was applied successfully in order to compare the dissolution profiles of these formulations. An ACE 5 CN, 25 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm column was used and a gradient elution program was performed for simultaneous determination of olanzapine, carbamazepine and nicotinamide. Phosphate buffer (pH 5.0, 25 mM) and methanol was used in a ratio from 80:20 to 70:30 while the flow rate was 1 mL min(-1) for the elution of the compounds within 12 min. In conclusion, two different aims were achieved, the first one was to indicate the stoichiometric ratios of the active ingredients olanzapine and carbamazepine with nicotinamide in their cocrystals, and the second one was the comparison of the dissolution profiles of the olanzapine and olanzapine:nicotinamide cocrystal formulations. It was found that the cocrystal formulation with nicotinamide improved the dissolution profile of olanzapine.

  8. A fixed-dose randomized controlled trial of olanzapine for psychosis in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychosis is a common and debilitating side effect of long-term dopaminergic treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). While clozapine is an effective treatment, the need for blood monitoring has limited its first-line use.  Objective: Since olanzapine shows similar receptor affinity to clozapine, we hypothesized that it might be an effective alternative to clozapine for treatment of drug-induced psychosis (DIP) in PD, and that lower doses than usual might make it tolerable. Methods: In 1998-2003 we conducted a four-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, fixed-dose trial of olanzapine (0, 2.5mg, or 5mg) in 23 PD patients with DIP while allowing for clinically realistic dose adjustments of dopaminomimetic mid-study. The primary outcome measures were Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) ratings scored from videotaped interviews after study termination by an observer blinded to dose assignment and to interview timing, and CGI (Clinical Global Impression). The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale motor subscale (UPDRS) was the primary measure of tolerability. Results: Intention-to-treat analysis found no significant differences among treatment groups in study completion or serious adverse events. However, a disproportionate number of olanzapine vs. placebo subjects reported mild side effects (p<0.04), many citing motor worsening. Fourteen patients completed the study (seven on placebo, two on 2.5mg olanzapine, five on 5mg olanzapine). In study completers, analysis by repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant difference between olanzapine and placebo groups in BPRS psychosis reduction (p=0.536), parkinsonism (p=0.608), or any other measured parameters (CGI, MMSE, Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Depression score, PDQ‑39, Schwab-England ADL assessment, and sleep scores). Conclusion: This study adds to other evidence that olanzapine is ineffective in treating medication-induced psychosis in Parkinson disease. PMID:24627787

  9. Alterations to Melanocortinergic, GABAergic and Cannabinoid Neurotransmission Associated with Olanzapine-Induced Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Weston-Green, Katrina; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are used to treat schizophrenia but can cause serious metabolic side-effects, such as obesity and diabetes. This study examined the effects of low to high doses of olanzapine on appetite/metabolic regulatory signals in the hypothalamus and brainstem to elucidate the mechanisms underlying olanzapine-induced obesity. Methodology/Results Levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65, enzyme for GABA synthesis) mRNA expression, and cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) binding density (using [3H]SR-141716A) were examined in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) of female Sprague Dawley rats following 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg olanzapine or vehicle (3×/day, 14-days). Consistent with its weight gain liability, olanzapine significantly decreased anorexigenic POMC and increased orexigenic NPY mRNA expression in a dose-sensitive manner in the Arc. GAD65 mRNA expression increased and CB1R binding density decreased in the Arc and DVC. Alterations to neurotransmission signals in the brain significantly correlated with body weight and adiposity. The minimum dosage threshold required to induce weight gain in the rat was 0.5 mg/kg olanzapine. Conclusions Olanzapine-induced weight gain is associated with reduced appetite-inhibiting POMC and increased NPY. This study also supports a role for the CB1R and GABA in the mechanisms underlying weight gain side-effects, possibly by altering POMC transmission. Metabolic dysfunction can be modelled in the female rat using low, clinically-comparable olanzapine doses when administered in-line with the half-life of the drug. PMID:22438946

  10. Olanzapine and aripiprazole differentially affect glucose uptake and energy metabolism in human mononuclear blood cells.

    PubMed

    Stapel, Britta; Kotsiari, Alexandra; Scherr, Michaela; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bleich, Stefan; Frieling, Helge; Kahl, Kai G

    2017-05-01

    The use of antipsychotics carries the risk of metabolic side effects, such as weight gain and new onset type-2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms of the observed metabolic alterations are not fully understood. We compared the effects of two atypical antipsychotics, one known to favor weight gain (olanzapine), the other not (aripiprazole), on glucose metabolism. Primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and stimulated with olanzapine or aripiprazole for 72 h. Cellular glucose uptake was analyzed in vitro by 18F-FDG uptake. Further measurements comprised mRNA expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and 3, GLUT1 protein expression, DNA methylation of GLUT1 promoter region, and proteins involved in downstream glucometabolic processes. We observed a 2-fold increase in glucose uptake after stimulation with aripiprazole. In contrast, olanzapine stimulation decreased glucose uptake by 40%, accompanied by downregulation of the cellular energy sensor AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). GLUT1 protein expression increased, GLUT1 mRNA expression decreased, and GLUT1 promoter was hypermethylated with both antipsychotics. Pyruvat-dehydrogenase (PDH) complex activity decreased with olanzapine only. Our findings suggest that the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine and aripiprazole differentially affect energy metabolism in PBMC. The observed decrease in glucose uptake in olanzapine stimulated PBMC, accompanied by decreased PDH point to a worsening in cellular energy metabolism not compensated by AMKP upregulation. In contrast, aripiprazole stimulation lead to increased glucose uptake, while not affecting PDH complex expression. The observed differences may be involved in the different metabolic profiles observed in aripiprazole and olanzapine treated patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of olanzapine, sertindole and clozapine on MK-801 induced visual memory deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Oguz; Ulak, Güner; Celikyurt, Ipek Komsuoglu; Akar, Füruzan Yildiz; Erden, Faruk; Tanyeri, Pelin

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the effects of the second generation antipsychotics olanzapine, sertindole and clozapine on visual recognition memory using the novel object recognition (NOR) test in naive and MK-801-treated animals. The effects of drug treatment on locomotion and anxiety were also determined using the open field test. Male Balb-c mice were treated with olanzapine (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg; i.p.), sertindole (0.63, 1.3 and 2.5mg/kg; s.c.) or clozapine (0.5 and 1mg/kg; i.p.), and cognitive deficits were induced by MK-801 (0.2mg/kg; i.p.) administration. Olanzapine treatment decreased the ratio index in the NOR test, whereas sertindole and clozapine had no effect in naive mice. MK-801-induced cognitive impairment was reversed by treatment with olanzapine, sertindole or clozapine. While olanzapine, sertindole and clozapine had no effect on the anxiety of naive mice as determined by the open field test, MK-801 significantly increased the total distance traveled, time spent in the center zone and the velocity of the animals. MK-801-induced effects on locomotion and anxiety in the open field test were reversed by olanzapine, sertindole or clozapine treatment. The results of the present study demonstrated that olanzapine, sertindole and clozapine improved cognition in MK-801 treated mice, and indicate that these drugs have a potential to improve cognition in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential Effects of Olanzapine and Haloperidol on MK-801-induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae Chun; Seo, Mi Kyoung; Park, Sung Woo; Lee, Jung Goo; Kim, Young Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the differential effects of the antipsychotic drugs olanzapine and haloperidol on MK-801-induced memory impairment and neurogenesis in mice. Methods MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) was administered 20 minutes prior to behavioral testing over 9 days. Beginning on the sixth day of MK-801 treatment, either olanzapine (0.05 mg/kg) or haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg) was administered 40 minutes prior to MK-801 for the final 4 days. Spatial memory performance was measured using a Morris water maze (MWM) test for 9 days (four trials/day). Immunohistochemistry with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to identify newborn cells labeled in tissue sections from the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Results MK-801 administration over 9 days significantly impaired memory performance in the MWM test compared to untreated controls (p<0.05) and these deficits were blocked by treatment with olanzapine (p<0.05) but not haloperidol. The administration of MK-801 also resulted in a decrease in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus (28.6%; p<0.01), which was prevented by treatment with olanzapine (p<0.05) but not haloperidol. Conclusion These results suggest that olanzapine has a protective effect against cognitive impairments induced by MK-801 in mice via the stimulating effects of neurogenesis. PMID:27489382

  13. Differential weight restoration on olanzapine versus fluoxetine in identical twins with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Duvvuri, Vikas; Cromley, Taya; Klabunde, Megan; Boutelle, Kerri; Kaye, Walter H

    2012-03-01

    No studies have compared the response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and atypical antipsychotics in anorexia nervosa. This case study examines such a comparison. This report describes a case of 12-year-old identical twins with anorexia nervosa, one of whom was treated with olanzapine and the other with fluoxetine, while undergoing family therapy. Twin A treated with fluoxetine went from 75 to 84.4% ideal body weight, while Twin B treated with olanzapine went from 72 to 99.9% ideal body weight over the course of 9 months. This case supports the need for adequately powered, controlled clinical trials to test the efficacy of olanzapine in adolescents presenting with anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A role for hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase in the mediation of hyperphagia and weight gain induced by chronic treatment with olanzapine in female rats.

    PubMed

    Sejima, Ei; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Nishioku, Tsuyoshi; Koga, Mitsuhisa; Nakagama, Kengo; Dohgu, Shinya; Futagami, Kojiro; Kataoka, Yasufumi

    2011-10-01

    Olanzapine is known to be advantageous with respect to outcome and drug compliance in patients with schizophrenia. However, olanzapine has adverse effects, including a higher incidence of weight gain and metabolic disturbances, when compared with those of other antipsychotic agents. The mechanisms underlying these adverse events remain obscure. Female rats were orally administered olanzapine (2 mg/kg) or vehicle once a day for 2 weeks to ascertain if hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediates olanzapine-induced weight gain and hyperphagia. Body weight and food intake in each rat were evaluated every day and every two days, respectively. After the termination of drug treatment, we measured the protein levels of AMPK and phosphorylated AMPK in the hypothalamus using western blot analyses. Olanzapine significantly increased body weight and food intake. The phosphorylation levels of AMPK were significantly elevated by olanzapine. These results suggest that activation of hypothalamic AMPK may mediate hyperphagia and weight gain induced by chronic treatment with olanzapine.

  15. Neural changes associated with appetite information processing in schizophrenic patients after 16 weeks of olanzapine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Stip, E; Lungu, O V; Anselmo, K; Letourneau, G; Mendrek, A; Stip, B; Lipp, O; Lalonde, P; Bentaleb, L A

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that some atypical antipsychotics, including olanzapine, can produce unwanted metabolic side effects, weight gain and diabetes. However, neuronal correlates of change related to food information processing have not been investigated with these medications. We studied the effect of a pharmacological manipulation with an antipsychotic known to cause weight gain on metabolites, cognitive tasks and neural correlates related to food regulation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in conjunction with a task requiring visual processing of appetitive stimuli in schizophrenic patients and healthy controls before and after 16 weeks of antipsychotic medication with olanzapine. In patients, the psychological and neuronal changes associated following the treatment correlated with appetite control measures and metabolite levels in fasting blood samples. After 16 weeks of olanzapine treatment, the patients gained weight, increased their waist circumference, had fewer positive schizophrenia symptoms, a reduced ghrelin plasma concentration and an increased concentration of triglycerides, insulin and leptin. In premotor area, somatosensory cortices as well as bilaterally in the fusiform gyri, the olanzapine treatment increased the neural activity related to appetitive information in schizophrenic patients to similar levels relative to healthy individuals. However, a higher increase in sensitivity to appetitive stimuli after the treatment was observed in insular cortices, amygdala and cerebellum in schizophrenic patients as compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, these changes in neuronal activity correlated with changes in some metabolites and cognitive measurements related to appetite regulation. PMID:22714121

  16. Ziprasidone as an adjuvant for clozapine- or olanzapine-associated medical morbidity in chronic schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, David C.; Fan, Xiaoduo; Copeland, Paul M.; Sharma, Bikash; Borba, Christina P.; Forstbauer, Sharon I.; Miley, Kate; Boxill, Ryan; Freudenreich, Oliver; Cather, Corey; Evins, A. Eden; Goff, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study sought to examine the effect of ziprasidone on olanzapine or clozapine associated medical morbidity such as insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose, obesity and hyperlipidemia in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Method This was a six-week, open label trial of ziprasidone 160 mg/day added to a stable dose of olanzapine or clozapine in twenty-one schizophrenia or schizoaffective patients with diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, or insulin resistance. Results Ten olanzapine-treated subjects and eleven clozapine-treated subjects were enrolled in the study. There were no significant differences between the two groups at baseline for age, gender, education, ethnicity, BMI, cholesterol levels, or fasting glucose. At week six, there were no significant changes in weight, BMI, cholesterol levels, or fasting glucose. There was no significant difference in psychotic, negative or depressive symptoms. QTc significantly increased at week 2 but not at week 6. Conclusions The addition of 160 mg/day of ziprasidone was well tolerate but did not produce significant improvement in fasting glucose, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia or lead to weight loss in olanzapine- or clozapine-treated subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. PMID:19283774

  17. An efficacy analysis of olanzapine treatment data in schizophrenia patients with catatonic signs and symptoms.

    PubMed

    Martényi, F; Metcalfe, S; Schausberger, B; Dossenbach, M R

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-five patients suffering from schizophrenia, as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, were preselected from 7 clinical trials according to a priori criteria of catatonic signs and symptoms based on 3 Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) items: scores for PANSS item 19 (mannerism and posturing) and either item 4 (excitement) or item 21 (motor retardation) had to exceed or equal 4 at baseline. This particular patient population represents a severely psychotic sample: mean +/- SD PANSS total scores at baseline were 129.26 +/- 19.76. After I week of olanzapine treatment, mean PANSS total score was decreased significantly (-13.14; p < .001), as was mean PANSS total score after 6 weeks of olanzapine treatment (-45.16; p < .001); additionally, the positive subscale, negative subscale, and mood scores improved significantly. A significant improvement in the catatonic signs and symptoms composite score was also observed at week 6 (-4.96; p < .001). The mean +/- SD daily dose of olanzapine was 18.00 +/- 2.89 mg after 6 weeks of treatment. The present data analysis suggests the efficacy of olanzapine in the treatment of severely ill schizophrenic patients with nonspecified catatonic signs and symptoms.

  18. Effect of Olanzapine on Clinical and Polysomnography Profiles in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sukanto; Nizamie, S. Haque

    2018-01-01

    Acute and short-term administration of olanzapine has a favorable effect on sleep in schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to clarify the effect of olanzapine on polysomnographic profiles of schizophrenia patients during the acute phase of illness after controlling for previous drug exposure. Twenty-five drug-naïve or drug-free schizophrenia patients were assessed at baseline and after six weeks of olanzapine treatment on Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser (UKU) side-effect rating scale and a whole-night polysomnography; fifteen patients completed the study. There was a significant reduction in all psychopathological variables with maximum reduction in PANSS total, BPRS total, and PANSS positive scores. A significant increase in total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), nonrapid eye movement (NREM) stage 1 duration, stage 3 duration, stage 4 duration, and stage 4 percentage of TST, number of rapid eye movement (REM) periods, REM duration, and REM percentage of TST was observed. REM latency at baseline inversely predicted the reduction in BPRS total and PANSS total and positive scores. In summary, short-term treatment with olanzapine produced significant improvement in clinical and polysomnography profiles of patients with schizophrenia with shorter REM latency predicting a good clinical response. PMID:29675276

  19. Safety and effectiveness of olanzapine in monotherapy: a multivariate analysis of a naturalistic study.

    PubMed

    Ciudad, Antonio; Gutiérrez, Miguel; Cañas, Fernando; Gibert, Juan; Gascón, Josep; Carrasco, José-Luis; Bobes, Julio; Gómez, Juan-Carlos; Alvarez, Enrique

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated safety and effectiveness of olanzapine in monotherapy compared with conventional antipsychotics in treatment of acute inpatients with schizophrenia. This was a prospective, comparative, nonrandomized, open-label, multisite, observational study of Spanish inpatients with an acute episode of schizophrenia. Data included safety assessments with an extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) questionnaire and the report of spontaneous adverse events, plus clinical assessments with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S). A multivariate methodology was used to more adequately determine which factors can influence safety and effectiveness of olanzapine in monotherapy. 339 patients treated with olanzapine in monotherapy (OGm) and 385 patients treated with conventional antipsychotics (CG) were included in the analysis. Treatment-emergent EPS were significantly higher in the CG (p<0.0001). Response rate was significantly higher in the OGm (p=0.005). Logistic regression analyses revealed that the only variable significantly correlated with treatment-emergent EPS and clinical response was treatment strategy, with patients in OGm having 1.5 times the probability of obtaining a clinical response and patients in CG having 5 times the risk of developing EPS. In this naturalistic study olanzapine in monotherapy was better-tolerated and at least as effective as conventional antipsychotics.

  20. Implicit and explicit learning in schizophrenics treated with olanzapine and with classic neuroleptics.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Andreas; Schwarz, Jürgen; Schwarz, Benedikt; Ruf, Ilona; Kolter, Thomas; Czekalla, Joerg

    2002-03-01

    Novel and classic neuroleptics differ in their effects on limbic striatal/nucleus accumbens (NA) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine turnover, suggesting differential effects on implicit and explicit learning as well as on anhedonia. The present study investigates whether such differences can be demonstrated in a naturalistic sample of schizophrenic patients. Twenty-five inpatients diagnosed with DSM-IV schizophrenic psychosis and treated for at least 14 days with the novel neuroleptic olanzapine were compared with 25 schizophrenics taking classic neuroleptics and with 25 healthy controls, matched by age and education level. PFC/NA-dependent implicit learning was assessed by a serial reaction time task (SRTT) and compared with cerebellum-mediated classical eye-blink conditioning and explicit visuospatial memory. Anhedonia was measured with the Snaith-Hamilton-Pleasure Scale (SHAPS). Implicit (SRTT) and psychomotor speed, but not explicit (visuospatial) learning were superior in the olanzapine-treated group as compared to the patients on classic neuroleptics. Compared to healthy controls, olanzapine-treated schizophrenics showed similar implicit learning, but reduced explicit (visuospatial) memory performance. Acquisition of eyeblink conditioning was not different between the three groups. There was no difference with regard to anhedonia and SANS scores between the patients. Olanzapine seems to interfere less with unattended learning and motor speed than classical neuroleptics. In daily life, this may translate into better adaptation to a rapidly changing environment. The effects seem specific, as in explicit learning and eyeblink conditioning no difference to classic NL was found.

  1. A randomized, placebo-controlled study of zonisamide to prevent olanzapine-associated weight gain.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Susan L; Winstanley, Erin; Mori, Nicole; Martens, Brian; McCoy, Jessica; Moeller, Dianna; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Keck, Paul E

    2012-04-01

    Weight gain is commonly observed with olanzapine treatment. Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug associated with weight loss. This study examined the effectiveness of zonisamide in preventing weight gain in 42 patients beginning olanzapine for bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Each patient had a body mass index of 22 mg/kg or greater and was randomized to taking olanzapine with either zonisamide (n = 20) or placebo (n = 22) for 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure was change in body weight in kilograms from baseline. In the primary analysis using longitudinal regression, patients who received zonisamide had a significantly slower rate of weight gain and increase in body mass index than those who received placebo. The patients treated with zonisamide gained a mean (SD) of 0.9 (3.3) kg, whereas those treated with placebo gained a mean (SD) of 5.0 (5.5) kg; P = 0.01. None of the patients in the zonisamide group, compared with 7 patients (33%) in the placebo group, gained 7% of body weight or greater from baseline (Fisher exact test, P = 0.009). The zonisamide group, however, reported significantly more cognitive impairment as an adverse event than the placebo group (25% vs 0, respectively; P = 0.02). Zonisamide was effective for mitigating weight gain in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia initiating treatment with olanzapine but was associated with cognitive impairment as an adverse event.

  2. Leukocyte telomere length in Hispanic schizophrenia patients under treatment with olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Monroy-Jaramillo, Nancy; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth; Aviña-Cervantes, Luis Carlos; Roberts, David L; Velligan, Dawn I; Walss-Bass, Consuelo

    2017-07-01

    Different lines of evidence indicate that patients with schizophrenia (SZ) exhibit accelerated aging. Leukocyte telomere length (TL), an aging marker, is associated with age-related and chronic pathologies, including schizophrenia. We analyzed leukocyte TL in 170 SZ patients of Hispanic ancestry grouped based on antipsychotic treatment, compared to 126 matched controls. The group under treatment with atypical antipsychotics was further subdivided according to the risk of medication to cause metabolic syndrome (MetS). Our results show significant erosion in the TL of SZ patients under treatment with the atypical antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine, which cause high-risk for MetS, compared to healthy controls and patients under treatment with medium and low-risk antipsychotics. However, when the analysis was done separately for clozapine and olanzapine, a significant difference remained only for olanzapine. These findings suggest that atypical antipsychotics that cause high-risk for MetS, particularly olanzapine, may modulate leukocyte TL in SZ patients. Future research is required to elucidate if in fact atypical antipsychotics are involved in TL maintenance in SZ subjects and the mechanism by which this occurs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of Polymeric Excipients in the Stabilization of Olanzapine when Exposed to Aqueous Environments.

    PubMed

    Paisana, Maria; Wahl, Martin; Pinto, João

    2015-12-12

    Hydrate formation is a phase transition which can occur during manufacturing processes involving water. This work considers the prevention of hydration of anhydrous olanzapine and hydrate conversions in the presence of water and polymers (polyethyleneglycol; hydroxypropylcellulose; polyvinylpyrrolidone) in forming pellets by wet extrusion and spheronisation. Anhydrous olanzapine was added to water with or without those polymers prior to extrusion with microcrystalline cellulose. Assessment of olanzapine conversion was made by XRP-Diffraction; FTIR spectroscopy; calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy (SEM for crystal size and shape). The addition of water converted the anhydrous form into dihydrate B and higher hydrate; whereas polyethyleneglycol promoted a selective hydrate conversion into the higher hydrate olanzapine form. Both polyvinylpyrrolidone and hydroxypropylcellulose prevented the hydrate transformations of the anhydrous drug; the latter even in the presence of hydrate seeds. This may be explained by the higher H-bond ability; higher network association and higher hydrophobicity of hydroxypropylcellulose by comparison with polyethyleneglycol and polyvinylpyrrolidone; which could contribute to its higher affinity to the crystal surfaces of the hydrate nuclei/initial crystals and promoting steric hindrance to the incorporation of other drug molecules into the crystal lattice; thus, preventing the crystal growth. The addition of microcrystalline cellulose needed for the pellets production (final product) did not eliminate the protector effect of both hydroxypropylcellulose and polyvinylpyrrolidone during pellets' processing and dissolution evaluation.

  4. Efficacy of ranitidine in olanzapine-induced weight gain: a dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Varun S; Ram, Daya

    2016-12-01

    Weight gain has long been recognized as a side-effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs. Numerous new approaches have been tried for prevention of weight gain, the H2 blockers being one of them. The study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the efficacy of ranitidine in olanzapine-induced weight gain at two fixed doses of 150 and 300 mg day -1 . Seventy-five inpatients with an ICD-10-DCR diagnosis of schizophrenia as their first episode were randomized into three groups of 25 patients each, receiving 150 mg day -1 ranitidine, 300 mg day -1 ranitidine and third group receiving only olanzapine. Their weight and body mass index (BMI) were measured at baseline and at intervals of 4 and 8 weeks. All patients were comparable with respect to their weight and BMI at baseline. When a change in the weight and BMI was assessed at 4 and 8 weeks from baseline, no significant difference was observed between the three groups. Ranitidine at doses of 150 and 300 mg day -1 when combined with olanzapine was ineffective in attenuating olanzapine-induced weight gain. The likely reasons could be the use of low doses for a shorter period of time, or mechanisms other than H2 receptors might play an important role in weight gain. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Olanzapine Reverses MK-801-Induced Cognitive Deficits and Region-Specific Alterations of NMDA Receptor Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Jitao; Guo, Chunmei; Wang, Hongli; Sun, Yaxin; Wang, Han; Su, Yun-Ai; Li, Keqing; Si, Tianmei

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction constitutes an essential component in schizophrenia for its early presence in the pathophysiology of the disease and close relatedness to life quality of patients. To develop effective treatment of cognitive deficits, it is important to understand their neurobiological causes and to identify potential therapeutic targets. In this study, adopting repeated MK-801 treatment as an animal model of schizophrenia, we investigated whether antipsychotic drugs, olanzapine and haloperidol, can reverse MK-801-induced cognitive deficits and how the reversal processes recruited proteins involved in glutamate neurotransmission in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus. We found that low-dose chronic MK-801 treatment impaired object-in-context recognition memory and reversal learning in the Morris water maze, leaving reference memory relatively unaffected, and that these cognitive deficits can be partially reversed by olanzapine, not haloperidol, treatment. At the molecular level, chronic MK-801 treatment resulted in the reduction of multiple N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits in rat mPFC and olanzapine, not haloperidol, treatment restored the levels of GluN1 and phosphorylated GluN2B in this region. Taken together, MK-801-induced cognitive deficits may be associated with region-specific changes in NMDA receptor subunits and the reversal of specific NMDA receptor subunits may underlie the cognition-enhancing effects of olanzapine. PMID:29375333

  6. Reversal of olanzapine-induced weight gain in a patient with schizophrenia by switching to asenapine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Kosuke; Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2017-01-01

    Antipsychotics are effective for treating schizophrenia, but atypical antipsychotics can cause several adverse side effects including weight gain, hyperprolactinemia, and extrapyramidal symptoms. Moreover, weight gain increases the risk of metabolic diseases. We treated a case of olanzapine-induced weight gain in a 41-year-old man with schizophrenia by switching his medication from olanzapine to asenapine. The weight gain improved after switching the medication, from 80.3 to 75.0 kg, a weight loss of 6.6%, and there was no significant worsening of psychological symptoms or other adverse effects. Asenapine might be effective for treating patients with schizophrenia who experience olanzapine-induced weight gain.

  7. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Children and Adolescents Under Pharmacotherapy With Olanzapine in Daily Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Stefanie; Wewetzer, Christoph; Mehler-Wex, Claudia; Holtkamp, Kristian; Burger, Rainer; Reichert, Susanne; Taurines, Regina; Romanos, Marcel; Gerlach, Manfred; Egberts, Karin

    2017-06-01

    The relationship between daily dose, serum concentrations, and clinical outcomes of olanzapine as well as the influencing factors thereof in children and adolescents treated for different psychiatric disorders were investigated in daily clinical practice. In addition, it was examined whether the current recommended therapeutic range (TR) for adult patients with psychotic disorders is valid for minors. The Competence Network for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (www.tdm-kjp.com) routinely collects demographic and clinical outcome data as well as serum concentrations of children and adolescents treated with psychotropics. The therapeutic effect is documented using the Clinical Global Impression Scale subscale for Global Improvement. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are assessed using the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser-Side Effect Rating Scale. One hundred fifteen patients (mean age = 15.9 years; range = 10.4-18.8 years; 40.9% male) were included. The majority (72.1%) was cotreated with other psychotropic drugs. A positive medium linear relationship (r = 0.619; P < 0.001) between olanzapine dose (mean = 11.64 mg/d) and serum concentration (mean = 35.65 ng/mL) was found with a marked interindividual variability of serum concentrations. Neither relationship between olanzapine serum concentration and treatment response (clinical benefit documented in 80%) nor ADRs (documented in 53.3%, in 7.5% judged as severe) was detected. Most of the patients with psychotic and eating disorders (68.8% and 71.8%, respectively) had an olanzapine serum concentration within the TR suggested for adults. There are several limitations of this study because of the naturalistic design, and our results should therefore be interpreted with caution. As most of the patients showed a clinical benefit under olanzapine concentrations within the TR for adults and only a minority had severe ADRs, it is reasonable to conclude a similar TR for children, adolescents, and adults.

  8. Aripiprazole added to Overweight and Obese Olanzapine-treated Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, David C.; Fan, Xiaoduo; Copeland, Paul M.; Sharma, Bikash; Borba, Christina P; Boxill, Ryan; Freudenreich, Oliver; Cather, Corey; Evins, A. Eden; Goff, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    Olanzapine treatment has been associated with clinically meaningful weight increases, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. There are few options for olanzapine-responders who fail other antipsychotic agents. Aripiprazole is a potent (high-affinity) partial agonist at D2 and 5-HT1A receptors and a potent antagonist at 5-HT2A receptor and is associated with less weight gain than olanzapine. We report the results of a 10-week placebo controlled, double-blind crossover study that examined 15 mg/day aripiprazole's effects upon weight, lipids, glucose metabolism, and psychopathology in overweight and obese schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder subjects treated with a stable dose of olanzapine. During the 4 weeks of aripiprazole treatment there were significant decreases in weight (p = .003) and BMI (p = .004) compared to placebo. Total serum cholesterol (p = .208), HDL-cholesterol (p = .99), HDL-2 (p=.08), HDL-3 (p=.495) and LDL- cholesterol (p=.665) did not change significantly comparing aripiprazole treatment to placebo treatment. However, total serum triglycerides (p = .001), total VLDL-cholesterol (p=.01), VLDL 1- &2-cholesterol (p=.012) decreased significantly during the aripiprazole treatment phase. VLDL-3-cholesterol tended lower during aripiprazole, but the decrease was not significant (p=.062). There was a decrease in c-reactive protein comparing aripiprazole treatment to placebo though it did not reach significance (p=.087). The addition of aripiprazole to a stable dose of olanzapine was well tolerated and resulted in significant improvements on several outcome measures that predict risk for medical morbidity. PMID:19512978

  9. Hormonal and metabolic effects of olanzapine and clozapine related to body weight in rodents.

    PubMed

    Albaugh, Vance L; Henry, Cathy R; Bello, Nicholas T; Hajnal, Andras; Lynch, Susan L; Halle, Beth; Lynch, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    To characterize a model of atypical antipsychotic drug-induced obesity and evaluate its mechanism. Chronically, olanzapine or clozapine was self-administered via cookie dough to rodents (Sprague-Dawley or Wistar rats; C57Bl/6J or A/J mice). Chronic studies measured food intake, body weight, adiponectin, active ghrelin, leptin, insulin, tissue wet weights, glucose, clinical chemistry endpoints, and brain dopaminergic D2 receptor density. Acute studies examined food intake, ghrelin, leptin, and glucose tolerance. Olanzapine (1 to 8 mg/kg), but not clozapine, increased body weight in female rats only. Weight changes were detectable within 2 to 3 days and were associated with hyperphagia starting approximately 24 hours after the first dose. Chronic administration (12 to 29 days) led to adiposity, hyperleptinemia, and mild insulin resistance; no lipid abnormalities or changes in D2 receptor density were observed. Topiramate, which has reversed weight gain from atypical antipsychotics in humans, attenuated weight gain in rats. Acutely, olanzapine, but not clozapine, lowered plasma glucose and leptin. Increases in glucose, insulin, and leptin following a glucose challenge were also blunted. A model of olanzapine-induced obesity was characterized which shares characteristics of patients with atypical antipsychotic drug-induced obesity; these characteristics include hyperphagia, hyperleptinemia, insulin resistance, and weight gain attenuation by topiramate. This model may be a useful and inexpensive model of uncomplicated obesity amenable to rapid screening of weight loss drugs. Olanzapine-induced weight gain may be secondary to hyperphagia associated with acute lowering of plasma glucose and leptin, as well as the inability to increase plasma glucose and leptin following a glucose challenge.

  10. Hormonal and Metabolic Effects of Olanzapine and Clozapine Related to Body Weight in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Albaugh, Vance L.; Henry, Cathy R.; Bello, Nicholas T.; Hajnal, Andras; Lynch, Susan L.; Halle, Beth; Lynch, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize a model of atypical antipsychotic drug-induced obesity and evaluate its mechanism. Research Methods and Procedures Chronically, olanzapine or clozapine was self-administered via cookie dough to rodents (Sprague-Dawley or Wistar rats; C57Bl/6J or A/J mice). Chronic studies measured food intake, body weight, adiponectin, active ghrelin, leptin, insulin, tissue wet weights, glucose, clinical chemistry endpoints, and brain dopaminergic D2 receptor density. Acute studies examined food intake, ghrelin, leptin, and glucose tolerance. Results Olanzapine (1 to 8 mg/kg), but not clozapine, increased body weight in female rats only. Weight changes were detectable within 2 to 3 days and were associated with hyperphagia starting ~24 hours after the first dose. Chronic administration (12 to 29 days) led to adiposity, hyperleptinemia, and mild insulin resistance; no lipid abnormalities or changes in D2 receptor density were observed. Topiramate, which has reversed weight gain from atypical anti-psychotics in humans, attenuated weight gain in rats. Acutely, olanzapine, but not clozapine, lowered plasma glucose and leptin. Increases in glucose, insulin, and leptin following a glucose challenge were also blunted. Discussion A model of olanzapine-induced obesity was characterized which shares characteristics of patients with atypical antipsychotic drug-induced obesity; these characteristics include hyperphagia, hyperleptinemia, insulin resistance, and weight gain attenuation by topiramate. This model may be a useful and inexpensive model of uncomplicated obesity amenable to rapid screening of weight loss drugs. Olanzapine-induced weight gain may be secondary to hyperphagia associated with acute lowering of plasma glucose and leptin, as well as the inability to increase plasma glucose and leptin following a glucose challenge. PMID:16493121

  11. Post-Injection Delirium/Sedation Syndrome after Olanzapine Long-Acting Intramuscular Injection - Who is at Risk?

    PubMed

    Łukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina; Teżyk, Artur; Panieński, Paweł; Żaba, Czesław; Zielińska-Psuja, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    The post-injection olanzapine delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS) was observed in a 60-year-old Caucasian, schizophrenic, non-smoker and underweight [body mass index (BMI), 18.2 kg/m(2) ] women after the fourth intramuscular injection of 405 mg olanzapine pamoate. Clinical symptoms of PDSS were similar to those of acute oral olanzapine intoxication. The patient received supportive treatment and recovered fully. High olanzapine concentrations in serum, with maximum level of 698 ng/mL, were confirmed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The authors wonder whether a low BMI and advanced age may predispose patients to PDSS occurrence. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  12. Olanzapine Prevents the PCP-induced Reduction in the Neurite Outgrowth of Prefrontal Cortical Neurons via NRG1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingsheng; Yu, Yinghua; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that reducing neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity plays a critical role in the pathology of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) can induce symptoms of schizophrenia as well as reduce dendritic spine density and neurite growth. The antipsychotic drug olanzapine may improve these deficits. This study aimed to investigate: (1) if olanzapine prevents PCP-induced suppression of neurite outgrowth and synaptic protein expression; (2) if olanzapine affects the Akt-GSK3 signaling pathway; and (3) the role of neuregulin 1 (NRG1) in this process. Immunofluorescence revealed that PCP treatment for 24 hours reduces both neurite length (28.5%) and the number of neurite branches (35.6%) in primary prefrontal cortical neuron cultures. PCP reduced protein and mRNA expressions of synaptophysin (24.9% and 23.2%, respectively) and PSD95 (31.5% and 21.4%, respectively), and the protein expression of p-Akt (26.7%) and p-GSK3β (35.2%). Olanzapine co-treatment prevented these PCP-induced effects in normal neurons but not in neurons from NRG1-knockout mice. These results indicate that NRG1 mediates the preventive effects of olanzapine on the PCP-induced impairment of neurite outgrowth and synaptic protein expression. This study provides potential targets for interventions on improving the efficacy of olanzapine on preventing cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:26781398

  13. Reasons for continuing or discontinuing olanzapine in the treatment of schizophrenia from the perspectives of patients and clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Nyhuis, Allen W; Case, Michael G; Phillips, Glenn A; Schuh, Kory J; Hoffmann, Vicki Poole

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the reasons for discontinuing or continuing olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia, from the perspectives of the patients and their clinicians. Methods The Reasons for Antipsychotic Discontinuation/Continuation (RAD) is a pair of questionnaires assessing these reasons from the perspectives of patients and their clinicians. Outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 199) who were not acutely ill participated in a 22-week open-label study of olanzapine from November 2006 to September 2008. Reasons for continuing or discontinuing olanzapine (on a five-point scale), along with the single most important reason and the top primary reasons, were identified. Concordance between reasons given by patients and clinicians was assessed. Results The top primary reasons for continuing olanzapine were patients’ perceptions of improvement, improvement of positive symptoms, and improved functioning. The study discontinuation rate was low (30.2%), and only a subset of patients who discontinued reported reasons for medication discontinuation. The top primary reasons for discontinuing olanzapine were insufficient improvement or worsening of positive symptoms, adverse events, and insufficient improvement or worsening of negative symptoms. Ratings given by patients and clinicians were highly concordant. Conclusion The main reason for continuing or discontinuing olanzapine appears to be medication efficacy, especially for positive symptoms. Reasons for medication discontinuation differ somewhat from reasons for continuation, with a high level of concordance between patient and clinician responses. PMID:22114469

  14. Olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and weight gain associate with orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide signaling without concomitant AMPK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Fernø, Johan; Varela, Luis; Skrede, Silje; Vázquez, María Jesús; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Steen, Vidar M; López, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The success of antipsychotic drug treatment in patients with schizophrenia is limited by the propensity of these drugs to induce hyperphagia, weight gain and other metabolic disturbances, particularly evident for olanzapine and clozapine. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in antipsychotic-induced hyperphagia remain unclear. Here, we investigate the effect of olanzapine administration on the regulation of hypothalamic mechanisms controlling food intake, namely neuropeptide expression and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in rats. Our results show that subchronic exposure to olanzapine upregulates neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti related protein (AgRP) and downregulates proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). This effect was evident both in rats fed ad libitum and in pair-fed rats. Of note, despite weight gain and increased expression of orexigenic neuropeptides, subchronic administration of olanzapine decreased AMPK phosphorylation levels. This reduction in AMPK was not observed after acute administration of either olanzapine or clozapine. Overall, our data suggest that olanzapine-induced hyperphagia is mediated through appropriate changes in hypothalamic neuropeptides, and that this effect does not require concomitant AMPK activation. Our data shed new light on the hypothalamic mechanism underlying antipsychotic-induced hyperphagia and weight gain, and provide the basis for alternative targets to control energy balance.

  15. Olanzapine-Induced Hyperphagia and Weight Gain Associate with Orexigenic Hypothalamic Neuropeptide Signaling without Concomitant AMPK Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Fernø, Johan; Vázquez, María Jesús; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Steen, Vidar M.; López, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The success of antipsychotic drug treatment in patients with schizophrenia is limited by the propensity of these drugs to induce hyperphagia, weight gain and other metabolic disturbances, particularly evident for olanzapine and clozapine. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in antipsychotic-induced hyperphagia remain unclear. Here, we investigate the effect of olanzapine administration on the regulation of hypothalamic mechanisms controlling food intake, namely neuropeptide expression and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in rats. Our results show that subchronic exposure to olanzapine upregulates neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti related protein (AgRP) and downregulates proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). This effect was evident both in rats fed ad libitum and in pair-fed rats. Of note, despite weight gain and increased expression of orexigenic neuropeptides, subchronic administration of olanzapine decreased AMPK phosphorylation levels. This reduction in AMPK was not observed after acute administration of either olanzapine or clozapine. Overall, our data suggest that olanzapine-induced hyperphagia is mediated through appropriate changes in hypothalamic neuropeptides, and that this effect does not require concomitant AMPK activation. Our data shed new light on the hypothalamic mechanism underlying antipsychotic-induced hyperphagia and weight gain, and provide the basis for alternative targets to control energy balance. PMID:21695181

  16. Safety and tolerability of olanzapine compared with other antipsychotics in the treatment of elderly patients with schizophrenia: a naturalistic study.

    PubMed

    Ciudad, Antonio; Montes, José-Manuel; Olivares, José-Manuel; Gómez, Juan-Carlos

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the safety and tolerability of olanzapine in the treatment of elderly patients with schizophrenia. A total of 135 outpatients with schizophrenia > or =60 years of age were treated with olanzapine (n = 105) or another antipsychotic (n = 30) and followed up for 6 months. Safety measures included the recording of spontaneous adverse events and extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Clinical status and effectiveness of the medications were measured using the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness and the Global Assessment of Function (GAF) scales. Quality of life was assessed by means of the Spanish version of the EuroQol. The Awad scale was applied to evaluate patients' subjective attitude towards medication. The incidence of overall adverse events and EPS was non-significantly lower in patients treated with olanzapine than in patients treated with other antipsychotics. The use of anticholinergic drugs was significantly lower (P = 0.04) in patients treated with olanzapine. Both groups of patients experienced similar improvements in Clinical Global Impressions-Severity and GAF scores. Non-significantly greater improvement in the acceptance of medication occurred at endpoint in olanzapine-treated patients than in control patients as measured by the Awad scale. The improvement in the EuroQol quality of life scale achieved at the end of study did not differ between both treatment groups. Results from this naturalistic study showed that olanzapine was as safe and effective as other antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of elderly patients with schizophrenia.

  17. Effectiveness and cost of olanzapine and haloperidol in the treatment of schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rosenheck, Robert; Perlick, Deborah; Bingham, Stephen; Liu-Mares, Wen; Collins, Joseph; Warren, Stuart; Leslie, Douglas; Allan, Edward; Campbell, E Cabrina; Caroff, Stanley; Corwin, June; Davis, Lori; Douyon, Richard; Dunn, Lawrence; Evans, Denise; Frecska, Ede; Grabowski, John; Graeber, David; Herz, Lawrence; Kwon, Kong; Lawson, William; Mena, Felicitas; Sheikh, Javaid; Smelson, David; Smith-Gamble, Valerie

    2003-11-26

    Although olanzapine has been widely adopted as a treatment of choice for schizophrenia, its long-term effectiveness and costs have not been evaluated in a controlled trial in comparison with a standard antipsychotic drug. To evaluate the effectiveness and cost impact of olanzapine compared with haloperidol in the treatment of schizophrenia. Double-blind, randomized controlled trial with randomization conducted between June 1998 and June 2000 at 17 US Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers. Three hundred nine patients with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, serious symptoms, and serious dysfunction for the previous 2 years. Fifty-nine percent fully completed and 36% partially completed follow-up assessments. Patients were randomly assigned to receive flexibly dosed olanzapine, 5 to 20 mg/d, with prophylactic benztropine, 1 to 4 mg/d (n = 159); or haloperidol, 5 to 20 mg/d (n = 150), for 12 months. Standardized measures of symptoms, quality of life, neurocognitive status, and adverse effects of medication. Veterans Affairs administrative data and interviews concerning non-VA service use were used to estimate costs from the perspective of the VA health care system and society as a whole (ie, consumption of all resources on behalf of these patients). There were no significant differences between groups in study retention; positive, negative, or total symptoms of schizophrenia; quality of life; or extrapyramidal symptoms. Olanzapine was associated with reduced akathisia in the intention-to-treat analysis (P<.001) and with lower symptoms of tardive dyskinesia in a secondary analysis including only observations during blinded treatment with study drug. Small but significant advantages were also observed on measures of memory and motor function. Olanzapine was also associated with more frequent reports of weight gain and significantly greater VA costs, ranging from 3000

  18. A 24-WEEK, MULTICENTER, OPEN-LABEL, RANDOMIZED STUDY TO COMPARE CHANGES IN GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA RECEIVING TREATMENT WITH OLANZAPINE, QUETIAPINE AND RISPERIDONE

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, John W.; Ratner, Robert E.; Eriksson, Jan W.; Emsley, Robin; Meulien, Didier; Miller, Frank; Leonova-Edlund, Julia; Leong, Ronald W; Brecher, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objective This randomized, 24-week, flexible-dose study compared changes in glucose metabolism in patients with schizophrenia receiving initial exposure to olanzapine, quetiapine, or risperidone. Methods The hypothesized primary endpoint was change (baseline to Week 24) in area under the curve 0-2h plasma glucose during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); primary analysis: olanzapine versus quetiapine. Secondary endpoints included change in AUC 0-2h plasma insulin, insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and fasting lipids. Results Mean weight change (kg) over 24 weeks was +3.7 (quetiapine), +4.6 (olanzapine), and +3.6 (risperidone). Based on data from 395 patients (quetiapine n=115 [mean 607.0 mg/day], olanzapine n=146 [15.2 mg/day], and risperidone n=134 [5.2 mg/day]), change in AUC 0-2h glucose (mg/dL×h) at Week 24 was significantly lower for quetiapine versus olanzapine (t=1.98; DF=377; p=0.048). Increases in AUC 0-2h glucose were statistically significant with olanzapine (+21.9 mg/dL, 95% CI 11.5, 32.4) and risperidone (+18.8, CI 8.1, 29.4), but not quetiapine (+9.1, CI −2.3, 20.5). AUC 0-2h insulin increased statistically significantly with olanzapine, but not quetiapine or risperidone. Reductions in ISI were statistically significant with olanzapine and risperidone, but not quetiapine. Total cholesterol and LDL increased statistically significantly with olanzapine and quetiapine, but not risperidone. Statistically significant increases in triglycerides, cholesterol/HDL, and triglyceride/HDL ratios were observed with olanzapine only. Conclusion The results indicate a significant difference in the change in glucose tolerance during 6 months’ treatment with olanzapine versus quetiapine, with significant reductions on olanzapine and risperidone, but not quetiapine; these differential changes were largely explained by changes in insulin sensitivity. PMID:19358783

  19. Long-term weight loss observed with olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets in overweight patients with chronic schizophrenia. A 1 year open-label, prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Bharat; Luxton-Andrew, Heather

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the long-term weight loss outcomes during usual clinical practice after switching from olanzapine standard oral tablet (SOT) to olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets (ODT). In this open-label prospective study, 26 patients with schizophrenia who were clinically stable on olanzapine SOT treatment were switched to olanzapine ODT. All other aspects of treatment remained constant. Weight was recorded at 3, 6, and 12 months. Patients incurred an average weight loss of 2.7 +/- 0.7 kg (p = 0.001) after switching patients from olanzapine SOT to olanzapine ODT at 12 months. Peak weight loss was observed at 6 months; however, significant weight loss was achieved as early as 3 months. The majority (81.9%) of patients lost weight, while 18.1% had no weight change or weight gain. Body mass index (BMI) significantly decreased by 1.0 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2) (p = 0.001). Interestingly, patients treated with higher doses of olanzapine (> or = 20 mg) incurred a greater weight loss of their body weight (5.6%), compared to those treated with lower doses (< 20 mg), who lost 1.9% of their body weight (p = 0.04). This study demonstrated that, in usual clinical practice, switching patients from olanzapine SOT to olanzapine ODT treatment resulted in significant weight loss that was maintained over 12 months. 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A patient with schizophrenia presenting with post-lobotomy catatonia treated with olanzapine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Ryo; Kitazawa, Maiko; Ishibiki, Yoshiro; Narumi, Kenji; Ichimiya, Yosuke

    2017-05-01

    A 79-year-old Japanese woman with schizophrenia was hospitalized because of idiopathic duodenal stenosis. Three days after discontinuing ingestion, including the administration of psychotropic drugs, the patient demonstrated incoherent behaviour and strong general muscle tension, and was unable to engage in conversation. Computed tomography indicated bilateral regions of low density in the frontal lobes, subsequent to which she was diagnosed with post-lobotomy catatonia. Administration of olanzapine (10 mg/day) improved the patient's condition within a short period. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between the dysfunction of frontal circuits and catatonia; therefore, the observed catatonic episode might relate to the disconnection of nerve fibres in the prefrontal lobes induced by her lobotomy. Olanzapine was likely effective in treating catatonia because of its reported efficacy in improving frontal lobe function. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  1. Hypothalamic ghrelin signalling mediates olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and weight gain in female rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingsheng; He, Meng; Deng, Chao; Wang, Hongqin; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2014-05-01

    Excessive weight gain is a major metabolic side effect of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in the treatment of schizophrenia. Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone secreted mainly from the stomach, which can induce weight gain and hyperphagia through regulating neuropeptides at the hypothalamus. Accumulating evidence implicates a relationship between ghrelin signalling and SGA-induced hyperphagia and weight gain. We report that olanzapine (a SGA with high weight gain liability) potently and time-dependently up-regulate ghrelin and ghrelin signalling, leading to hyperphagia and weight gain in female Sprague-Dawley rats, an action reversed by i.c.v. injection of a ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) antagonist. These findings indicate a crucial role of ghrelin signalling in hyperphagia induced by olanzapine, supporting the notion that GHS-R1a antagonist may be useful for pharmacological treatment of SGA-induced weight gain resulted from hyperphagia.

  2. Metformin for olanzapine-induced weight gain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Jana, Amlan Kusum; Goyal, Nishant; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic that is useful in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder, but its use is associated with troublesome weight gain and metabolic syndrome. A variety of pharmacological agents has been studied in the efforts to reverse weight gain induced by olanzapine, but current evidence is insufficient to support any particular pharmacological approach. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of metformin for the treatment of olanzapine-induced weight gain. Systematic review of the literature revealed 12 studies that had assessed metformin for antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Of these, four studies (n= 105) met the review inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Meta-analysis was performed to see the effect size of the treatment on body weight, waist circumference and body-mass index (BMI). Weighted mean difference (WMD) for body weight was 5.02 (95% CI 3.93, 6.10) kg lower with metformin as compared with placebo at 12 weeks. For waist circumference, the test for heterogeneity was significant (P= 0.00002, I(2) = 85.1%). Therefore, a random effects model was used to calculate WMD, which was 1.42 (95% CI 0.29, 3.13) cm lower with metformin as compared with placebo at 12 weeks. For BMI, WMD was 1.82 (95% CI 1.44, 2.19) kg m(-2) lower with metformin as compared with placebo at 12 weeks. Existing data suggest that short term modest weight loss is possible with metformin in patients with olanzapine-induced weight gain. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Contextual and behavioral control of antipsychotic sensitization induced by haloperidol and olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Repeated administration of haloperidol and olanzapine causes a progressively enhanced disruption of conditioned avoidance response (CAR) and a progressively enhanced inhibition of phencyclidine (PCP)-induced hyperlocomotion in rats (termed antipsychotic sensitization). Both actions are thought to reflect intrinsic antipsychotic activity. The present study examined to the extent to which antipsychotic-induced sensitization in one model (e.g. CAR) can be transferred or maintained in another (e.g. PCP hyperlocomotion) as a means of investigating the contextual and behavioral controls of antipsychotic sensitization. Well-trained male Sprague-Dawley rats were first repeatedly tested in the CAR or PCP (3.2 mg/kg, sc) hyperlocomotion model under haloperidol or olanzapine for five consecutive days. Then they were switched to the other model and tested for the expression of sensitization. Finally, all rats were switched back to the original model and retested for the expression of sensitization. Repeated haloperidol or olanzapine treatment progressively disrupted avoidance responding and decreased PCP-induced hyperlocomotion, indicating a robust sensitization. When tested in a different model, rats previously treated with haloperidol or olanzapine did not show a stronger inhibition of CAR or PCP-induced hyperlocomotion than those treated with these drugs for the first time; however, they did show such an effect when tested in the original model in which they received repeated antipsychotic treatment. These findings suggest that the expression of antipsychotic sensitization is strongly influenced by the testing environment and/or selected behavioral response under certain experimental conditions. Distinct contextual cues and behavioral responses may enter an association with unconditional drug effects via a Pavlovian conditioning process. They may also serve as occasion-setters to modulate the expression of sensitized responses. Because antipsychotic sensitization mimics

  4. Treatment with olanzapine is associated with modulation of the default mode network in patients with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sambataro, Fabio; Blasi, Giuseppe; Fazio, Leonardo; Caforio, Grazia; Taurisano, Paolo; Romano, Raffaella; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Gelao, Barbara; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Popolizio, Teresa; Nardini, Marcello; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2010-03-01

    Earlier studies have shown widespread alterations of functional connectivity of various brain networks in schizophrenia, including the default mode network (DMN). The DMN has also an important role in the performance of cognitive tasks. Furthermore, treatment with second-generation antipsychotic drugs may ameliorate to some degree working memory (WM) deficits and related brain activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with olanzapine monotherapy on functional connectivity among brain regions of the DMN during WM. Seventeen patients underwent an 8-week prospective study and completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans at 4 and 8 weeks of treatment during the performance of the N-back WM task. To control for potential repetition effects, 19 healthy controls also underwent two fMRI scans at a similar time interval. We used spatial group-independent component analysis (ICA) to analyze fMRI data. Relative to controls, patients with schizophrenia had reduced connectivity strength within the DMN in posterior cingulate, whereas it was greater in precuneus and inferior parietal lobule. Treatment with olanzapine was associated with increases in DMN connectivity with ventromedial prefrontal cortex, but not in posterior regions of DMN. These results suggest that treatment with olanzapine is associated with the modulation of DMN connectivity in schizophrenia. In addition, our findings suggest critical functional differences in the regions of DMN.

  5. Treatment with Olanzapine is Associated with Modulation of the Default Mode Network in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sambataro, Fabio; Blasi, Giuseppe; Fazio, Leonardo; Caforio, Grazia; Taurisano, Paolo; Romano, Raffaella; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Gelao, Barbara; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Popolizio, Teresa; Nardini, Marcello; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown widespread alterations of functional connectivity of various brain networks in schizophrenia, including the default mode network (DMN). The DMN has also an important role in the performance of cognitive tasks. Furthermore, treatment with second-generation antipsychotic drugs may ameliorate to some degree working memory (WM) deficits and related brain activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with olanzapine monotherapy on functional connectivity among brain regions of the DMN during WM. Seventeen patients underwent an 8-week prospective study and completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans at 4 and 8 weeks of treatment during the performance of the N-back WM task. To control for potential repetition effects, 19 healthy controls also underwent two fMRI scans at a similar time interval. We used spatial group-independent component analysis (ICA) to analyze fMRI data. Relative to controls, patients with schizophrenia had reduced connectivity strength within the DMN in posterior cingulate, whereas it was greater in precuneus and inferior parietal lobule. Treatment with olanzapine was associated with increases in DMN connectivity with ventromedial prefrontal cortex, but not in posterior regions of DMN. These results suggest that treatment with olanzapine is associated with the modulation of DMN connectivity in schizophrenia. In addition, our findings suggest critical functional differences in the regions of DMN. PMID:19956088

  6. Changes in prefrontal and amygdala activity during olanzapine treatment in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Giuseppe; Popolizio, Teresa; Taurisano, Paolo; Caforio, Grazia; Romano, Raffaella; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Sambataro, Fabio; Rubino, Valeria; Latorre, Valeria; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Fazio, Leonardo; Nardini, Marcello; Weinberger, Daniel R; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2009-07-15

    Earlier imaging studies in schizophrenia have reported abnormal amygdala and prefrontal cortex activity during emotion processing. We investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during emotion processing changes in activity of the amygdala and of prefrontal cortex in patients with schizophrenia during 8 weeks of olanzapine treatment. Twelve previously drug-free/naive patients with schizophrenia were treated with olanzapine for 8 weeks and underwent two fMRI scans after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment during implicit and explicit emotional processing. Twelve healthy subjects were also scanned twice to control for potential repetition effects. Results showed a diagnosis by time interaction in left amygdala and a diagnosis by time by task interaction in right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. In particular, activity in left amygdala was greater in patients than in controls at the first scan during both explicit and implicit processing, while it was lower in patients at the second relative to the first scan. Furthermore, during implicit processing, right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activity was lower in patients than controls at the first scan, while it was greater in patients at the second relative to the first scan. These results suggest that longitudinal treatment with olanzapine may be associated with specific changes in activity of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex during emotional processing in schizophrenia.

  7. Quality of life and adverse effects of olanzapine versus risperidone therapy in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Katarina Melo; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Ribeiro, Susana Barbosa; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Guerra, Gerlane Coelho Bernardo; do Socorro Costa Feitosa Alves, Maria; de Araújo Júnior, Raimundo Fernandes; de Paula Soares Rachetti, Vanessa; Filgueira Júnior, Antônio; de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes

    2013-03-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to compare the effects of treatment with an atypical antipsychotic drug (olanzapine or risperidone) on quality of life (QoL) and to document adverse effects in 115 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia who attended the ambulatory service of Hospital Dr. João Machado, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and clinical variables were compared. The QoL Scale validated for Brazil (QLS-BR) was used to evaluate QoL, and adverse effects were assessed using the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test and Student's t test, with a significance level of 5 %. Patients in both drug groups showed severe impairment in the occupational domain of the QLS-BR. Global QLS-BR scores indicated impairment among risperidone users and severe impairment among olanzapine users. The most significant side effects were associated with risperidone, including asthenia/lassitude/fatigue, somnolence/sedation, paresthesia, change in visual accommodation, increased salivation, diarrhea, orthostatic posture, palpitations/tachycardia, erythema, photosensitivity, weight loss, galactorrhea, decreased sexual desire, erectile/orgasmic dysfunction, vaginal dryness, headache, and physical dependence. QoL was impaired in patients using olanzapine and in those using risperidone. Risperidone use was associated with psychic, neurological, and autonomous adverse effects and other side effects.

  8. Early prediction of olanzapine-induced weight gain for schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Lin, Shih-Chi; Huang, Yu-Hui; Wang, Fu-Chiang; Huang, Chun-Jen

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether weight changes at week 2 or other factors predicted weight gain at week 6 for schizophrenia patients receiving olanzapine. This study was the secondary analysis of a six-week trial for 94 patients receiving olanzapine (5 mg/d) plus trifluoperazine (5 mg/d), or olanzapine (10 mg/d) alone. Patients were included in analysis only if they had completed the 6-week trial (per protocol analysis). Weight gain was defined as a 7% or greater increase of the patient's baseline weight. The receiver operating characteristic curve was employed to determine the optimal cutoff points of statistically significant predictors. Eleven of the 67 patients completing the 6-week trial were classified as weight gainers. Weight change at week 2 was the statistically significant predictor for ultimate weight gain at week 6. A weight change of 1.0 kg at week 2 appeared to be the optimal cutoff point, with a sensitivity of 0.92, a specificity of 0.75, and an AUC of 0.85. Using weight change at week 2 to predict weight gain at week 6 is favorable in terms of both specificity and sensitivity. Weight change of 1.0 kg or more at 2 weeks is a reliable predictor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cost Savings Effects of Olanzapine as Long Term Treatment for Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuting

    2007-01-01

    Newer and more expensive drugs account for most of the recent rapid growth of spending on prescription drugs in the past nine years. But if more expensive drugs can reduce the use of other types of health care services, total health care costs might fall. In this paper, I investigate the “drug-offset” hypothesis for an atypical antipsychotic drug, olanzapine, compared to lithium, to treat bipolar disorder. I use a propensity-score method to match on observed variables. Then, using various identification strategies, namely interrupted time series, differencing strategies, and an instrument-variable approach, I find that olanzapine does not reduce spending on other types of medical care services, compared with lithium. Olanzapine users spend $330 per month more than lithium users on non-drug health care services after drug treatment and $470 more per month on total health care spending, contradicting the “drug-offset” hypothesis in this case. JEL classification: H51; I1; I18; C1; C2 PMID:18806303

  10. Healthcare costs associated with treatment of bipolar disorder using a mood stabilizer plus adjunctive aripiprazole, quetiapine, risperidone, olanzapine or ziprasidone.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yonghua; Kim, Edward; You, Min; Pikalov, Andrei; Tran, Quynh-Van

    2009-06-01

    Bipolar disorder has an associated economic burden due to its treatment, including medication and hospitalization costs as well as costs associated with treatment of comorbid conditions. This study compared healthcare costs in patients treated with a mood stabilizer and adjunctive aripiprazole versus adjunctive olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone or ziprasidone. A retrospective propensity score-matched cohort study was conducted in the LabRx integrated claims database from January 2003 to December 2006. Patients (18-65 years) with bipolar disorder and 180 days of pre-index enrolment without atypical treatment and 90 days post-index enrolment were eligible. Mood stabilizer therapy was initiated prior to index atypical prescription. Generalized gamma regressions were used to compare the total healthcare costs of adjunctive aripiprazole treatment and treatment with adjunctive olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone or ziprasidone. After controlling for differences in baseline characteristics and pre-index cost, psychiatric costs and subtotal psychiatric and general medical costs were higher for all adjunctive atypicals than adjunctive aripiprazole (p<0.001). Based on gamma regressions cost ratios, there was no significant difference in general medical costs between aripiprazole and ziprasidone, olanzapine, or quetiapine; risperidone general medical costs were 18% higher versus aripiprazole (p=0.041). Aripiprazole pharmacy costs were higher than quetiapine and risperidone (p<0.001) but not olanzapine or ziprasidone. Total healthcare costs were higher for ziprasidone, olanzapine, or risperidone (p<0.001) but not quetiapine. Methodological restriction of patients to those newly initiated on an atypical antipsychotic and incomplete medication history limit the generalizability of the findings. Adjunctive aripiprazole may have economic benefits over other atypicals in terms of lower psychiatric treatment costs than adjunctive olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone or ziprasidone

  11. An ionotropic but not a metabotropic glutamate agonist potentiates the pharmacological effects of olanzapine in the rat.

    PubMed

    Dall'Olio, Rossella; Rimondini, Roberto; Locchi, Federica; Voltattorni, Manuela; Gandolfi, Ottavio

    2005-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possible potentiating action of ionotropic or metabotropic (metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5) glutamate agonists on pharmacological effects induced in rats by the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine. The administration of doses of olanzapine, which did not affect spontaneous motility, inhibited behaviors induced by the selective stimulation of 5HT(2A) and D(2) receptors. In particular, 0.03 or 0.06 mg/kg of olanzapine was sufficient to reduce, respectively, head shakes induced by the 5HT(2A) agonist 1-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane (1 mg/kg) or hypermotility elicited by the D(2) stimulant quinpirole (0.15 mg/kg). Behavioral responses to a D(1)/D(2) agonist (apomorphine-induced stereotypies) were inhibited by doses of olanzapine that also influenced spontaneous behavior. The concomitant administration of D-cycloserine, an agonist at the glycine site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex, given at a dose (3 mg/kg) that did not affect behavior, increased the inhibitory effect of olanzapine on the responses produced by 5HT2A, D(2) and D(1)/D(2) receptor stimulation. The concomitant administration of 2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine, an agonist of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5, increased the inhibitory effect of olanzapine on the behaviors induced by the stimulation of D(2), but not 5HT2A or D(1)/D(2) receptors. As the effect on the serotonergic system seems important for the unusual pharmacological profile of atypical antipsychotics, the present results suggest that N-methyl-D-aspartate, but not metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 agonists could be seen as promising therapeutic agents for increasing the pharmacological effects of olanzapine.

  12. Haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine and aripiprazole in the management of delirium: A comparison of efficacy, safety, and side effects.

    PubMed

    Boettger, Soenke; Jenewein, Josef; Breitbart, William

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and side-effect profile of the typical antipsychotic haloperidol with that of the atypical antipsychotics risperidone, olanzapine, and aripiprazole in the management of delirium. The Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS), the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) scale, and a side-effect rating were recorded at baseline (T1), after 2-3 days (T2), and after 4-7 days (T3). Some 21 cases were case-matched by age, preexisting dementia, and baseline MDAS scores, and subsequently analyzed. The baseline characteristics of the medication groups were not different: The mean age of the patients ranged from 64.0 to 69.6 years, dementia was present in between 23.8 and 28.6%, and baseline MDAS scores were 19.9 (haloperidol), 18.6 (risperidone), 19.4 (olanzapine), and 18.0 (aripiprazole). The doses of medication at T3 were 5.5 mg haloperidol, 1.3 mg risperidone, 7.1 mg olanzapine, and 18.3 mg aripiprazole. Over one week, the decline in MDAS scores between medications was equal, and no differences between individual MDAS scores existed at T2 or T3. After one week, the MDAS scores were 6.8 (haloperidol), 7.1 (risperidone), 11.7 (olanzapine), and 8.3 (aripiprazole). At T2, delirium resolution occurred in 42.9-52.4% of cases and at T3 in 61.9-85.7%; no differences in assessments between medications existed. Recorded side effects were extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs) in haloperidol- and risperidone-managed patients (19 and 4.8%, respectively) and sedation with olanzapine (28.6%). Haloperidol, risperidone, aripiprazole, and olanzapine were equally effective in the management of delirium; however, they differed in terms of their side-effect profile. Extrapyramidal symptoms were most frequently recorded with haloperidol, and sedation occurred most frequently with olanzapine.

  13. Long-term administration of olanzapine induces adiposity and increases hepatic fatty acid desaturation protein in female C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Po-Hsun; Chang, Geng-Ruei; Chen, Chin-Pin; Lin, Yen-Ling; Chao, I-Shuan; Shen, Ting-Ting; Mao, Frank Chiahung

    2018-01-01

    Objective(s): Weight gain and metabolic disturbances such as dyslipidemia, are frequent side effects of second-generation antipsychotics, including olanzapine. This study examined the metabolic effects of chronic olanzapine exposure. In addition, we investigated the hepatic fatty acid effects of olanzapine in female C57BL/6J mice fed a normal diet. Materials and Methods: Female C57BL/6J mice orally received olanzapine or normal saline for 7 weeks. The effects of long-term olanzapine exposure on body weight changes, food efficiency, blood glucose, triglyceride (TG), insulin, and leptin levels were observed. Hepatic TG and abdominal fat mass were investigated, and fat cell morphology was analyzed through histopathological methods. The levels of protein markers of fatty acid regulation in the liver, namely fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), were measured. Results: Olanzapine treatment increased the food intake of the mice as well as their body weight. Biochemical analyses showed that olanzapine increased blood TG, insulin, leptin, and hepatic TG. The olanzapine group exhibited increased abdominal fat mass and fat cell enlargement in abdominal fat tissue. Western blotting of the mouse liver revealed significantly higher (1.6-fold) levels of SCD-1 in the olanzapine group relative to the control group; by contrast, FAS levels in the two groups did not differ significantly. Conclusion: Enhanced lipogenesis triggered by increased hepatic SCD-1 activity might be a probable peripheral mechanism of olanzapine-induced dyslipidemia. Some adverse metabolic effects of olanzapine may be related to the disturbance of lipid homeostasis in the liver. PMID:29922430

  14. Effectiveness and tolerability of open label olanzapine in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    McCracken, James T; Suddath, Robert; Chang, Susanna; Thakur, Sarika; Piacentini, John

    2008-10-01

    The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of open-label olanzapine on motor and vocal tics in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS). Secondary aims included assessing the response of TS-associated disruptive behaviors to olanzapine exposure. Twelve children and adolescents (mean age 11.3 +/- 2.4 years, range 7-14 years) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) TS were enrolled in a single-site, 6-week, open-label, prospective, flexible-dose design in outpatients receiving monotherapy with olanzapine. Standardized ratings of tic symptoms, disruptive behaviors, and aggression were obtained, along with adverse events and safety data. Over the 6-week trial, olanzapine administration was associated with a significant decrease in total tic severity as measured by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (30% reduction by week 6; effect size 0.49). A significant majority of subjects were rated as "much improved" or "very much improved" on the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement Scale (GCI-I) by both clinicians (67%; 8/12) and parents (64%; 7/11). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms showed significant improvements from baseline for both inattention (33% decrease) and hyperactive/impulsivity (50% decrease) scores (effect sizes 0.44 and 0.43, respectively). Aggression was also decreased as assessed by fewer numbers of aggressive episodes on the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). Little change in anxiety symptoms was noted. The most widely reported side effects were drowsiness/sedation and weight gain; adverse events were generally well tolerated. Mean weight gain of 4.1 +/- 2.0 kg was observed over the 6-week trial, a mean percent change of 8.4 +/- 4.4 (p < 0.001). Additional studies of the benefits of olanzapine treatment for tic control as well as the commonly associated co-morbid features of TS are indicated, especially if approaches to predict or minimize weight

  15. Cost-saving effects of olanzapine as long-term treatment for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuting

    2008-09-01

    Promoters of new medications often argue that using newer drug can reduce use of non-drug medical services and therefore reduce total healthcare spending. This cost-offset argument is plausible both in theory and in practice, but rigorous research on specific drugs or drug categories is needed to make targeted and efficient policy and management decisions. I examined the drug-offset hypothesis for bipolar disorder, an important yet under-studied clinical condition where effective medication treatments can service as substitutes for non-drug medical treatments. I compared two first line long-term treatments, a new atypical antipsychotic medication, olanzapine, and a traditional mood stabilizer, lithium. I used private sector insurance claims data collected from a nationally representative sample of U.S. health plans between January 1998 and December 2001. I first selected a cohort of patients with bipolar disorder who were continuously enrolled for at least two years. I then used a propensity-score method to match individuals taking each drug on observed variables that are known to affect medication choices. The central challenge for estimation is that drug treatments are not randomly assigned among patients with bipolar disorder. To identify a causal link between choice of drugs and non-drug medical spending, I employed three different advanced econometrics techniques to assess the robustness of findings; namely interrupted time series, differencing strategies, and an instrumental variables approach. I found that compared to similar lithium users, olanzapine users spent approximately $330 more on monthly average non-drug medical services during the first year after initiation of drug treatment. The higher spending for olanzapine users was accounted for by both higher rates of re-hospitalization and more outpatient visits. In addition, olanzapine cost $153 per month while lithium cost $16 per month. Including the direct cost of the drugs, compared to similar

  16. Topiramate for prevention of olanzapine associated weight gain and metabolic dysfunction in schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Narula, Preeta Kaur; Rehan, H S; Unni, K E S; Gupta, Neeraj

    2010-05-01

    Olanzapine associated weight gain (WG) is a major concern in patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of topiramate to prevent olanzapine induced WG in these cases. We also studied various metabolic parameters. In this 12-week, double-blind, parallel group study, seventy-two drug-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients were randomized to receive olanzapine+placebo (olanzapine group) or olanzapine+topiramate (100mg/day) (topiramate group). Weight, body mass index, fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (IR), leptin, lipids and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. The patients were clinically evaluated using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and were monitored for adverse effects. Topiramate resulted in a weight loss of 1.27+/-2.28 kg (p<0.01), decrease in leptin (p<0.001), glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride levels and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In the olanzapine group, there was a significant WG, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, increased IR, hyperleptinemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia (p<0.001).There was a greater clinical improvement (PANSS scores) (p<0.001) in the topiramate group. The adverse effects were well tolerated. Topiramate could prevent olanzapine induced weight gain and adverse metabolic effects. It also results in a greater clinical improvement when used with olanzapine in schizophrenia. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Attenuating effect of reboxetine on appetite and weight gain in olanzapine-treated schizophrenia patients: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Poyurovsky, Michael; Fuchs, Camil; Pashinian, Artashez; Levi, Aya; Faragian, Sarit; Maayan, Rachel; Gil-Ad, Irit

    2007-06-01

    Search for safe and effective strategies to diminish weight gain associated with second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) is imperative. In the present study, we sought to replicate our preliminary findings, which indicated that coadministration of the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor reboxetine attenuates olanzapine-induced weight gain. Fifty-nine patients hospitalized for first-episode DSM-IV schizophrenic disorder participated in this randomized double-blind study. Reboxetine (4 mg/day; 31 patients) or placebo (29 patients) was coadministered with olanzapine (10 mg/day) for 6 weeks. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Nine patients in each group prematurely discontinued the trial. Olanzapine/reboxetine-treated patients showed a significantly lower increase in body weight (mean = 3.31 kg, SD = 2.73) than their olanzapine/placebo-treated counterparts (mean = 4.91 kg, SD = 2.45). Significantly fewer olanzapine/reboxetine-treated patients gained at least 7% of their initial weight, the cutoff for clinically significant weight gain (6 [19.4%] of 31 patients vs 13 [46.4%] of 28 patients). Seven (22.6%) olanzapine/reboxetine-treated patients compared to only one patient (3.6%) in the olanzapine/placebo group revealed no weight change or even modest weight loss. Appetite increase was significantly lower in the olanzapine/reboxetine than olanzapine/placebo group and was correlated with attenuation of weight gain. Reboxetine addition was safe and well tolerated. The results confirm that coadministration of reboxetine promotes a clinically meaningful attenuation of olanzapine-induced weight gain in schizophrenia patients. If substantiated in long-term studies, along with behavioral management and diet counseling, reboxetine may have a clinical utility in controlling SGA-induced weight gain.

  18. An in vitro analysis of disintegration times of different formulations of olanzapine orodispersible tablet: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, David; Karagianis, Jamie; Treuer, Tamas; Raskin, Joel

    2013-12-01

    Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) are tablet or wafer forms of medication that disintegrate in the mouth, aided only by saliva. ODTs rely on different fast dissolve/disintegration manufacturing technologies. Disintegration time differences for several olanzapine ODT forms were investigated. Risperdal M-Tab(®) was included as a non-olanzapine ODT comparator. Eleven olanzapine ODT examples and orodispersible risperidone strengths were evaluated in vitro for formulation composition, manufacturing method, disintegration and dissolution characteristics, and formulation differences in comparison with freeze dried Zydis(®) ODT. Automated dissolution test equipment captured ODT dissolution rates by measuring real-time release of active ingredient. A high-speed video camera was used to capture tablet disintegration times in warm simulated saliva. The main outcome measure was the disintegration and dissolution characteristics of the ODT formulations. The ODT manufacturing method was associated with time to disintegrate; the fastest were freeze dried tablets, followed by soft compressed tablets and then hard/dense tablets. Olanzapine Zydis(®) was the only ODT that completely disintegrated in less than 4 s for all strengths (5, 10, 15, and 20 mg), followed by 5-mg Prolanz FAST(®) (12 s) and then risperidone ODT 4 mg (40 s). Reasons for slow dissolution of the olanzapine generics may include low product potency, excipient binding, excipient solubility, active ingredient particle size and incomplete disintegration. Differences in the formulation and manufacturing process of olanzapine ODTs appear to have a strong influence on the disintegration time of the active compound; differences that may potentially impact their use in clinical practice.

  19. Effects of nutritional intervention on body weight and body composition of obese psychiatric patients taking olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Skouroliakou, Maria; Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Kostara, Christina; Hannon, James C

    2009-01-01

    Weight gain is an established side effect of atypical antipsychotics in patients with severe mental illness (SMI). Previous studies have shown positive effects of nutritional interventions in weight loss. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a nutritional intervention on the body weight and body composition of patients with SMI taking olanzapine in Greece. Eighty-two patients with SMI treated with olanzapine (22 men, 60 women) and 58 healthy controls (12 men, 46 women) were followed for 3 mo. All patients with SMI were obese, with an average body mass index of 33.12 +/- 0.74 kg/m(2) and body weight of 94.61 +/- 2.50 kg. A nutritional program was designed for each participant based on anthropometric characteristics, health profile, and dietary needs. Pre- and postintervention anthropometric and body composition measurements were performed. Significant weight loss and fat loss were found in the healthy controls and patients with SMI from baseline to 3 mo (P < 0.05). However, the patients with SMI had a less significant decrease in waist circumference (P < 0.05) compared with healthy controls. The healthy male controls and male patients with SMI demonstrated greater decreases in body weight and waist circumference compared with female participants (P < 0.05). Patients with SMI appear to respond effectively to a nutritional program demonstrating significant decreases in body weight and body composition despite the use of olanzapine. Because gender differences may exist in weight loss, it is possible that gender should be taken into account for a more appropriate treatment of obesity in this population.

  20. Comparison of predictive equations for resting metabolic rate in obese psychiatric patients taking olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Skouroliakou, Maria; Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Kostara, Christina; Vasilopoulou, Melanie

    2009-02-01

    The prediction of resting metabolic rate (RMR) is important to determine the energy expenditure of obese patients with severe mental illnesses (SMIs). However, there is lack of research concerning the most accurate RMR predictive equations. The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of four RMR equations on patients with SMIs taking olanzapine. One hundred twenty-eight obese (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)) patients with SMIs (41 men and 87 women) treated with olanzapine were tested from 2005 to 2008. Measurements of anthropometric parameters (height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference) and body composition (using the BodPod) were performed at the beginning of the study. RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry. Comparisons between measured and estimated RMRs from four equations (Harris-Benedict adjusted and current body weights, Schofield, and Mifflin-St. Jeor) were performed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. Significant correlations were found between the measured and predicted RMRs with all four equations (P < 0.001), with the Mifflin-St. Jeor equation demonstrating the strongest correlation in men and women (r = 0.712, P < 0.001). In men and women, the Bland-Altman analysis revealed no significant bias in the RMR prediction using the Harris-Benedict adjusted body weight and the Mifflin equations (P > 0.05). However, in men and women, the Harris-Benedict current body weight and the Schofield equations showed significant overestimation error in the RMR prediction (P < 0.001). When estimating RMR in men and women with SMIs taking olanzapine, the Mifflin-St. Jeor and Harris-Benedict adjusted body weight equations appear to be the most appropriate for clinical use.

  1. Use of Orally Disintegrating Olanzapine During Electroconvulsive Therapy for Prevention of Postictal Agitation.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Adriana P; Janjua, A Umair; Tang, Yilang; Syre, Sharyn R; Job, Gregory; McDonald, William M

    2016-11-01

    A major medical problem for patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the occurrence of postictal agitation (PIA). This phenomenon is associated with confusion and disorientation that can have severe clinical implications for the safety of the patient and health care professionals. Many different pharmacological strategies have been used to prevent PIA. We present data on 40 patients who suffered from PIA after a course of ECT and evaluate the prophylactic use of orally disintegrating olanzapine in the prevention of PIA in subsequent ECT treatments.

  2. Antiepileptic effect of olanzapine in epilepsy patients with atypical depressive comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiangmiao; Zingano, Bianca; He, Shixu; Zhu, Xi; Peng, Anjiao; Duan, Jianan; Wolf, Peter; Chen, Lei

    2018-06-15

    Depression is relatively common among patients with epilepsy, but often with predominant atypical symptoms. Some antiepileptic drugs show positive psychotropic effects, but these are not always sufficient to stabilize mood in epilepsy patients. Antidepressants are recommended to treat atypical depression but are not always effective and present a certain risk of seizure provocation. Thus, new treatment options are welcome. Here, we describe three cases of refractory epilepsy with atypical depression in which olanzapine, contrary to its earlier reported proconvulsant effect, showed excellent antidepressant action and resulted in seizure control. Possible mechanisms of this action are discussed.

  3. Associations Among Obesity, Acute Weight Gain, and Response to Treatment with Olanzapine in Adolescent Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Correll, Christoph U.; Tohen, Mauricio; DelBello, Melissa P.; Ganocy, Stephen J.; Findling, Robert L.; Chang, Kiki

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between body weight and illness characteristics, including weight gain and therapeutic efficacy, in adolescents with schizophrenia. Methods Adolescents ages 13–17 years (n=107) with American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) schizophrenia enrolled in a 6 week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing olanzapine and placebo. Therapeutic response was assessed by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale for Children (BPRS-C). Secondary outcomes included the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) scale and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Obesity was defined as sex-/age-adjusted body mass index (BMI)≥95th percentile. Linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between weight gain and psychiatric symptom improvement; logistic regression was conducted to identify predictors of baseline obesity. Results Weight gain was significantly correlated with greater BPRS-C reduction among olanzapine-treated subjects (r=−0.31, p<0.01), whereas a trend was observed among placebo-treated subjects (r=−0.31, p=0.08). However, this relationship became nonsignificant when analyses were controlled for duration of olanzapine treatment (p=0.12), and a treatment by weight gain interaction did not emerge in a repeated-measures mixed model analysis that included time in the study (t=1.27, p=0.21). Additionally, weight gain ≥7% was not significantly associated with response or remission. Among 17 adolescents (16%) with obesity at study entry, obesity was not significantly associated with endpoint BPRS-C illness severity. However, girls (p=0.03), individuals hospitalized within the past year (p=0.02), and those with less severe overall (p=0.03) and negative symptoms (p=0.003) according to the CGI-S and PANSS negative subscale, respectively, were more likely to be obese at baseline. Conclusion Baseline obesity was

  4. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome developing after acute overdose with olanzapine and chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Morris, Enasio; Green, Digby; Graudins, Andis

    2009-03-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a relatively uncommon side effect that may develop after a recent increase in the therapeutic dose of an antipsychotic medication or the addition of a new agent in therapeutic doses. We report a case of NMS developing in a 36-year-old female patient 2 days following deliberate self-poisoning with 30 x 10-mg olanzapine tablets, 7 x 100-mg chlorpromazine tablets and an unknown amount of escitalopram. These were the patient's own medications. She had not been taking these for several weeks. The patient initially presented with sedation from her overdose which resolved over the next 24 hours. Following this, over the subsequent 24 hours, she became progressively confused, ataxic, hypertonic, ferbrile and tachycardic, with marked lead pipe rigidity of the limbs. Head CT, lumbar puncture and septic screen were all negative. She was treated with intravenous midazolam infusion, nasogastrically administered bromocriptine, external cooling and was mechanically ventilated. She gradually improved over a period of 10 days, with residual confusion lasting another week, and was discharged well with no deterioration from her premorbid neurologic state. To our knowledge, although there are numerous cases reported with therapeutic use, NMS has not been reported to develop following acute olanzapine overdose. Clinicians should be aware that this may be an uncommon side effect of antipsychotic medication.

  5. Urinary retention during combined treatment of postpsychotic depression with duloxetine and olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Englisch, Susanne; Fritzinger, Michael; Zink, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    Duloxetine, a dual-reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine, has been approved for the treatment of major depressive episodes and for female stress urinary incontinence. At present, only sparse experiences are available regarding antidepressive treatment in patients with a psychotic lifetime diagnose, whereas this group of patients often suffer from major depressive episodes. Here, we describe the first case of a male patient with postpsychotic depression who developed the severe side effect of urinary retention during antidepressive treatment with duloxetine combined with olanzapine. After remission of his psychotic episode, the patient presented with depressed mood, psychomotor inhibition, sleep disturbance, and suicidal ideas. Without changing the antipsychotic therapy, we implemented duloxetine (60 mg/d) and the patient significantly improved. However, he increasingly suffered from obstructive voiding difficulties and complained about a weak urinary stream and incomplete voiding leading to unacceptable dribbling. The urinary retention disappeared completely within 1 week after discontinuation of duloxetine. We switched to venlafaxine (150 mg/d) and were able to keep the depression in remission. This case report demonstrates for the first time the onset of urinary retention in postpsychotic depression and during combined treatment with duloxetine and olanzapine. We therefore suggest increased attention on voiding function in particular if several pharmacological agents are combined.

  6. A naturalistic comparison of the efficacy and safety of intramuscular olanzapine and intramuscular haloperidol in agitated elderly patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gen, Keishi; Takahashi, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was a comparative investigation of the clinical efficacy and safety of intramuscular (IM) olanzapine and IM haloperidol in agitated elderly patients with schizophrenia at 2 hours postdose. Methods: The subjects were 23 inpatients who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Their clinical symptoms were assessed using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Excited Component (PANSS-EC), PANSS and Agitation Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES), and their safety were assessed using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS), Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS), Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS) and laboratory tests. Results: The mean reduction from baseline on the PANSS-EC total score, the PANSS total score and the ACES score were significantly greater in the IM olanzapine injection group than in the IM haloperidol injection group. The mean changes from baseline on the AIMS score, the BARS score and the DIEPSS total score were significantly better in the IM olanzapine injection group than in the IM haloperidol injection group. No serious adverse events such as paralytic ileus, diabetic ketoacidosis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome or tardive dyskinesia occurred between the two groups. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest the possibility that agitated elderly patients may result in superior efficacy and safety after IM olanzapine without serious adverse events in comparison with IM haloperidol. PMID:24294484

  7. Polymorphisms of the 5-HT2A receptor gene and clinical response to olanzapine in paranoid schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Olajossy-Hilkesberger, Luiza; Godlewska, Beata; Schosser-Haupt, Alexandra; Olajossy, Marcin; Wojcierowski, Jacek; Landowski, Jerzy; Marmurowska-Michałowska, Halina; Kasper, Siegfried

    2011-01-01

    5-HT2A receptor is strongly implicated in the mode of action of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the 5-HT2A receptor gene's polymorphisms (His452Tyr and T102C) have an influence on the response to olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia. We studied 99 Caucasian schizophrenia patients treated with olanzapine. Psychopathology was measured before and after 6 weeks of treatment. Clinical improvement was quantified as change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores and subscores as shown by percentage improvement below the baseline score. The clinical response to antipsychotic treatment was defined as 30% improvement from baseline in PANSS scores. The His/Tyr polymorphism was significantly associated with a percentage improvement in PANSS positive symptom subscore (better response in His/His homozygotes; p<0.05) after treatment with olanzapine. As for the T102C polymorphism, a better response in terms of PANSS positive subscore improvement was observed for C/C homozygotes (p<0.01). A significant association of 5-HT2A genotype distribution of the T102C polymorphism with a categorical measure of response, but only in terms of PANSS positive symptom subscores, was observed (p<0.01). Variations in the 5-HT2A receptor gene may influence individual and particularly positive symptom response to olanzapine. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. MALDI-MS analysis and theoretical evaluation of olanzapine as a UV laser desorption ionization (LDI) matrix.

    PubMed

    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Ameer, Mariam; Ali, Arslan

    2017-01-05

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) being soft ionization technique, has become a method of choice for high-throughput analysis of proteins and peptides. In this study, we have explored the potential of atypical anti-psychotic drug olanzapine (OLZ) as a matrix for MALDI-MS analysis of peptides aided with the theoretical studies. Seven small peptides were employed as target analytes to check performance of olanzapine and compared with conventional MALDI matrix α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCCA). All peptides were successfully detected when olanzapine was used as a matrix. Moreover, peptides angiotensin Ι and angiotensin ΙΙ were detected with better S/N ratio and resolution with this method as compared to their analysis by HCCA. Computational studies were performed to determine the thermochemical properties of olanzapine in order to further evaluate its similarity to MALDI matrices which were found in good agreement with the data of existing MALDI matrices. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effects of Olanzapine, Risperidone and Haloperidol on Prepulse Inhibition in Schizophrenia Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Jonathan K.; Green, Michael F.; Sprock, Joyce; Light, Gregory A.; Widmark, Clifford; Reist, Christopher; Erhart, Stephen; Marder, Stephen R.; Mintz, Jim; Braff, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI), whereby the startle eyeblink response is inhibited by a relatively weak non-startling stimulus preceding the powerful startle eliciting stimulus, is a measure of sensorimotor gating and has been shown to be deficient in schizophrenia patients. There is considerable interest in whether conventional and/or atypical antipsychotic medications can “normalize” PPI deficits in schizophrenia patients. 51 schizophrenia patients participated in a randomized, double-blind controlled trial on the effects of three commonly-prescribed antipsychotic medications (risperidone, olanzapine, or haloperidol) on PPI, startle habituation, and startle reactivity. Patients were tested at baseline, Week 4 and Week 8. Mixed model regression analyses revealed that olanzapine significantly improved PPI from Week 4 to Week 8, and that at Week 8 patients receiving olanzapine produced significantly greater PPI than those receiving risperidone, but not haloperidol. There were no effects of medication on startle habituation or startle reactivity. These results support the conclusion that olanzapine effectively increased PPI in schizophrenia patients, but that risperidone and haloperidol had no such effects. The results are discussed in terms of animal models, neural substrates, and treatment implications. PMID:17662577

  10. Subjective response to antipsychotic treatment and compliance in schizophrenia. A naturalistic study comparing olanzapine, risperidone and haloperidol (EFESO Study)

    PubMed Central

    García-Cabeza, Ignacio; Gómez, Juan-Carlos; Sacristán, Jose A; Edgell, Eric; González de Chavez, Manuel

    2001-01-01

    Background In order to compare the effectiveness of different antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia it is very important to evaluate subjective response and compliance in patient cohorts treated according to routine clinical practice. Method Outpatients with schizophrenia entered this prospective, naturalistic study when they received a new prescription for an antipsychotic drug. Treatment assignment was based on purely clinical criteria, as the study did not include any experimental intervention. Patients treated with olanzapine, risperidone or haloperidol were included in the analysis. Subjective response was measured using the 10-item version of the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10), and treatment compliance was measured using a physician-rated 4 point categorical scale. Results A total of 2128 patients initiated treatment (as monotherapy) with olanzapine, 417 with risperidone, and 112 with haloperidol. Olanzapine-treated patients had significantly higher DAI-10 scores and significantly better treatment compliance compared to both risperidone- and haloperidol-treated patients. Risperidone-treated patients had a significantly higher DAI-10 score compared to haloperidol-treated patients. Conclusion Subjective response and compliance were superior in olanzapine-treated patients, compared to patients treated with risperidone and haloperidol, in routine clinical practice. Differences in subjective response were explained largely, but not completely, by differences in incidence of EPS. PMID:11835695

  11. Natural oils as skin permeation enhancers for transdermal delivery of olanzapine: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Geeta; Dhawan, Sanju; HariKumar, S L

    2012-03-01

    The feasibility of development of transdermal delivery system of olanzapine utilizing natural oils as permeation enhancers was investigated. Penetration enhancing potential of corn (maize) oil, groundnut oil and jojoba oil on in vitro permeation of olanzapine across rat skin was studied. The magnitude of flux enhancement factor with corn oil, groundnut oil and jojoba oil was 7.06, 5.31 and 1.9 respectively at 5mg/ml concentration in solvent system. On the basis of in vitro permeation studies, eudragit based matrix type transdermal patches of olanzapine were fabricated using optimized concentrations of natural oils as permeation enhancers. All transdermal patches were found to be uniform with respect to physical characteristics. The interaction studies carried out by comparing the results of ultraviolet, HPLC and FTIR analyses for the pure drug, polymers and mixture of drug and polymers indicated no chemical interaction between the drug and excipients. Corn oil containing unsaturated fatty acids was found to be promising natural permeation enhancer for transdermal delivery of olanzapine with greatest cumulative amount of drug permeated (1010.68 μg/cm²/h) up to 24 h and caused no skin irritation. The fabricated transdermal patches were found to be stable. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of the final optimized matrix patch (T2) were determined after transdermal application to rabbits. The calculated relative bioavailability of TDDS was 113.6 % as compared to oral administration of olanzapine. The therapeutic effectiveness of optimized transdermal system was confirmed by tranquillizing activity in rotarod and grip mice model.

  12. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    KOTLER, MOSHE; DILBAZ, NESRIN; ROSA, FERNANDA; PATERAKIS, PERIKLIS; MILANOVA, VIHRA; SMULEVICH, ANATOLY B.; LAHAYE, MARJOLEIN

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Methods: Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Results: Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0±12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8±5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Conclusion: Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine. PMID:26813484

  13. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Moshe; Dilbaz, Nesrin; Rosa, Fernanda; Paterakis, Periklis; Milanova, Vihra; Smulevich, Anatoly B; Lahaye, Marjolein; Schreiner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥ 20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤ 5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0 ± 12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥ 20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8 ± 5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥ 7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine.

  14. Treatment response to olanzapine and haloperidol and its association with dopamine D receptor occupancy in first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Zipursky, Robert B; Christensen, Bruce K; Daskalakis, Zafiris; Epstein, Irvin; Roy, Paul; Furimsky, Ivana; Sanger, Todd; Kapur, Shitij

    2005-07-01

    Response to typical antipsychotic medication has been associated with achieving a level of striatal dopamine D2 receptor occupancy in the range of 65% to 70%. We undertook this study to determine whether response to the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine occurs at lower levels of D2 receptor occupancy. Eighteen patients who presented with a first episode of psychosis were randomized to receive olanzapine 5 mg daily or haloperidol 2 mg daily in a double-blind design. We acquired positron emission tomography (PET) scans using the D2 ligand [11C]raclopride within the first 15 days of treatment to determine the percentage of D2 receptors occupied by the medication. According to response, dosage was then adjusted to a maximum dosage of 20 mg daily of either drug. PET scans were repeated after 10 to 12 weeks of treatment. At the first PET scan, the 8 olanzapine-treated patients had significantly lower D2 receptor occupancies (mean 63.4%, SD 7.3) than those observed in the 10 patients treated with haloperidol (mean 73.0%, SD 6.1). When patients were rescanned following dosage adjustment, mean D2 receptor occupancies were greater than 70% in both groups. D2 receptor occupancies did not differ significantly between the olanzapine-treated group (mean 72.0%, SD 5.7) and the haloperidol-treated group (mean 78.7%, SD 7.6). These results suggest that, in patients being treated for a first episode of psychosis, olanzapine has its antipsychotic effect at approximately the same levels of D2 receptor occupancy as are achieved with low dosages of haloperidol.

  15. Reboxetine Enhances the Olanzapine-Induced Antipsychotic-Like Effect, Cortical Dopamine Outflow and NMDA Receptor-Mediated Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Monica M; Jardemark, Kent; Malmerfelt, Anna; Björkholm, Carl; Svensson, Torgny H

    2010-01-01

    Preclinical data have shown that addition of the selective norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor reboxetine increases the antipsychotic-like effect of the D2/3 antagonist raclopride and, in parallel, enhances cortical dopamine output. Subsequent clinical results suggested that adding reboxetine to stable treatments with various antipsychotic drugs (APDs) may improve positive, negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated in rats the effects of adding reboxetine to the second-generation APD olanzapine on: (i) antipsychotic efficacy, using the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) test, (ii) extrapyramidal side effect (EPS) liability, using a catalepsy test, (iii) dopamine efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens, using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving animals and (iv) cortical N-methyl--aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated transmission, using intracellular electrophysiological recording in vitro. Reboxetine (6 mg/kg) enhanced the suppression of CAR induced by a suboptimal dose (1.25 mg/kg), but not an optimal (2.5 mg/kg) dose of olanzapine without any concomitant catalepsy. Addition of reboxetine to the low dose of olanzapine also markedly increased cortical dopamine outflow and facilitated prefrontal NMDA receptor-mediated transmission. Our data suggest that adjunctive treatment with a NET inhibitor may enhance the therapeutic effect of low-dose olanzapine in schizophrenia without increasing EPS liability and add an antidepressant action, thus in principle allowing for a dose reduction of olanzapine with a concomitant reduction of dose-related side effects, such as EPS and weight gain. PMID:20463659

  16. Effect of Environmental Cues on Behavioral Efficacy of Haloperidol, Olanzapine and Clozapine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; Liu, Xinfeng; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that context can powerfully modulate the inhibitory effect of an antipsychotic drug on phencyclidine (PCP)-induced hyperlocomotion (a behavioral test used to evaluate putative antipsychotic drugs). The present study investigated the experimental conditions under which environmental stimuli exert their influence through associative conditioning processes. Experiment 1 examined the extent to which prior antipsychotic treatment in the home cages affected a drug’s ability to inhibit PCP-induced hyperlocomotion in a novel motor activity test apparatus. Five days of repeated haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, sc) and olanzapine (2.0 mg/kg, sc) treatment in the home cages still potentiated their inhibition of PCP-induced hyperlocomotion (i.e. sensitization) assessed in a new environment, whereas the clozapine (10.0 mg/kg, sc) treatment enhanced the development of clozapine tolerance, indicating a lack of environmental modulation of antipsychotic efficacy. Experiment 2 assessed the impact of different numbers of antipsychotic administrations in either the home environment or test environment (e.g. 4, 2 or 0) on a drug’s ability to inhibit PCP-induced hyperlocomotion. Repeated administration of clozapine (5.0 mg/kg, sc) or olanzapine (1.0 mg/kg, sc) for 4 consecutive days, regardless of where these treatments occurred, caused a similar level of inhibition on PCP-induced hyperlocomotion. However, 4-day haloperidol (0.03 mg/kg, sc) treatment in the test apparatus caused a significant higher inhibition than 4-day home cage treatment. Thus, more exposures to the test environment under the influence of haloperidol (but not clozapine or olanzapine) cause a stronger inhibition than fewer exposures, indicating a strong environmental modulation. Collectively, these findings suggest that prior antipsychotic treatment in one environment could alter later antipsychotic-like response assessed in a different environment under certain test conditions. Therefore

  17. An evaluation of the use of olanzapine pamoate depot injection in seriously violent men with schizophrenia in a UK high-security hospital.

    PubMed

    Baruch, Nina; Das, Mrigendra; Sharda, Amit; Basu, Amlan; Bajorek, Tom; Ross, Callum C; Sengupta, Samrat; Larkin, Fintan; Young, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Oral olanzapine is a well-established treatment for patients suffering from schizophrenia. Advantages of depot olanzapine may include improved compliance. However, it is expensive, causes metabolic side effects, and carries a risk of postinjection syndrome. Clinical trials have shown olanzapine pamoate to be effective, but further work is needed in this area. This study was a retrospective service evaluation, carried out in a high-security hospital, where the majority of patients have complex, treatment resistant schizophrenia spectrum disorder and a very high propensity for violence. Compliance is a significant problem, both in the high-security setting and on discharge. There has been no previous published work that the authors are aware of evaluating the effects of olanzapine pamoate in this subgroup of patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of olanzapine pamoate, its effect on violence as well as its side effects, in a high-security setting for the first time. Anonymized patient records were used to identify the main outcome measure and clinical global improvement, and to ascertain secondary outcome measures which included seclusion hours, risk of violence and side effects. Metabolic parameters and number of incidents were also recorded. Eight patients were treated with olanzapine pamoate. Six showed an improvement in symptoms, with an associated decrease in violence and number of incidents. Four showed an associated decrease in seclusion hours. Two showed an increase in body mass index and two showed an increase in glucose. The findings of this study are important in showing that all patients who responded to olanzapine pamoate also showed a decrease in violent behaviour. The potential anti-aggression effects of olanzapine pamoate may represent a very promising area for further work. A depot antipsychotic medication that reduces violence could have significant implications for management of high-security patients.

  18. Olanzapine approved for the acute treatment of schizophrenia or manic/mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in adolescent patients

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Ann E; Sikich, Linmarie

    2010-01-01

    Background Severe and persistent mental illnesses in children and adolescents, such as early- onset schizophrenia spectrum (EOSS) disorders and pediatric bipolar disorder (pedBP), are increasingly recognized. Few treatments have demonstrated efficacy in rigorous clinical trials. Enduring response to current medications appears limited. Recently, olanzapine was approved for the treatment of adolescents with schizophrenia or acute manic/mixed episodes in pedBP. Methods PubMed searches were conducted for olanzapine combined with pharmacology, schizophrenia, or bipolar disorder. Searches related to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were limited to children and adolescents. The bibliographies of the retrieved articles were hand-checked for additional relevant studies. The epidemiology, phenomenology, and treatment of EOSS and pedBP, and olanzapine’s pharmacology are reviewed. Studies of olanzapine treatment in youth with EOSS and pedBP are examined. Results Olanzapine is efficacious for EOSS and pedBP. However, olanzapine is not more efficacious than risperidone, molindone, or haloperidol in EOSS and is less efficacious than clozapine in treatment-resistant EOSS. No comparative trials have been done in pedBP. Olanzapine is associated with weight gain, dyslipidemia, and transaminase elevations in youth. Extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and blood dyscrasias have also been reported but appear rare. Conclusions The authors conclude that olanzapine should be considered a second-line agent in EOSS and pedBP due to its risks for significant weight gain and lipid dysregulation. Awareness of the consistent weight and metabolic changes observed in olanzapine-treated youth focused attention on the potential long-term risks of atypical antipsychotics in youth. PMID:21127693

  19. Hypothalamic histamine H1 receptor-AMPK signaling time-dependently mediates olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and weight gain in female rats.

    PubMed

    He, Meng; Zhang, Qingsheng; Deng, Chao; Wang, Hongqin; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2014-04-01

    Although second-generation antipsychotics induce severe weight gain and obesity, there is a lack of detailed knowledge about the progressive development of antipsychotic-induced obesity. This study examined the hypothalamic histamine H1 receptor and AMP-activated protein kinase (H1R-AMPK) signaling at three distinctive stages of olanzapine-induced weight gain (day 1-12: early acceleration, day 13-28: middle new equilibrium, and day 29-36: late heavy weight maintenance). At the early acceleration stage, the rats were hyperphagic with an underlying mechanism of olanzapine-increased H1R mRNA expression and AMPK phosphorylation (pAMPK), in which pAMPK levels positively correlated with H1R mRNA expression and food intake. At the middle stage, when the rats were no longer hyperphagic, the changes in H1R-AMPK signaling vanished. At the late stage, olanzapine increased H1R mRNA expression but decreased pAMPK which were positively and negatively correlated with weight gain, respectively. These data suggest a time-dependent change of H1R-AMPK signaling, where olanzapine activates AMPK by blocking the H1Rs and causing hyperphagia in the acute phase. The chronic blockade of H1R may contribute to the late stage of olanzapine-induced heavy weight maintenance. However, pAMPK was no longer elevated and actually decreased. This indicates that AMPK acts as an energy sensor and negatively responds to the positive energy balance induced by olanzapine. Furthermore, we showed that an H1R agonist, 2-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) histamine, can significantly inhibit olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and AMPK activation in the mediobasal hypothalamus in a dose dependent manner. Therefore, lowering H1R-AMPK signaling is an effective treatment for the olanzapine-induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Change in level of productivity in the treatment of schizophrenia with olanzapine or other antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background When treating schizophrenia, improving patients' productivity level is a major goal considering schizophrenia is a leading cause of functional disability. Productivity level has been identified as the most preferred treatment outcome by patients with schizophrenia. However, little has been done to systematically investigate productivity levels in schizophrenia. We set out to better understand the change in productivity level among chronically ill patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine compared with other antipsychotic medications. We also assessed the links between productivity level and other clinical outcomes. Methods This post hoc analysis used data from 6 randomized, double-blind clinical trials of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, with each trial being of approximately 6 months duration. Change in productivity level was compared between olanzapine-treated patients (HGBG, n = 172; HGHJ, n = 277; HGJB, n = 171; HGLB, n = 281; HGGN, n = 159; HGDH, n = 131) and patients treated with other antipsychotic medications (separately vs. haloperidol [HGGN, n = 97; HGDH, n = 132], risperidone [HGBG, n = 167; HGGN, n = 158], quetiapine [HGJB, n = 175], ziprasidone [HGHJ, n = 271] and aripiprazole [HGLB, n = 285]). Productivity was defined as functional activities/work including working for pay, studying, housekeeping and volunteer work. Productivity level in the prior 3 months was assessed on a 5-point scale ranging from no useful functioning to functional activity/work 75% to 100% of the time. Results Chronically ill patients treated with olanzapine (OLZ) experienced significantly greater improvement in productivity when compared to patients treated with risperidone (RISP) (OLZ = 0.22 ± 1.19, RISP = -0.03 ± 1.17, p = 0.033) or ziprasidone (ZIP) (OLZ = 0.50 ± 1.38, ZIP = 0.25 ± 1.27, p = 0.026), but did not significantly differ from the quetiapine, aripiprazole or haloperidol treatment groups. Among first episode patients

  1. Olanzapine as the ideal "trip terminator"? Analysis of online reports relating to antipsychotics' use and misuse following occurrence of novel psychoactive substance-related psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Valeriani, Giuseppe; Corazza, Ornella; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Melcore, Claudia; Metastasio, Antonio; Bersani, Giuseppe; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2015-07-01

    The pharmacological self-management of novel psychoactive substance (NPS)-induced psychopathological consequences represents a fast growing phenomenon. This is facilitated by the frequent sharing of NPS intake experiences online and by the ease of access to a range of psychotropic medications from both the online and street market. Olanzapine is anecdotally reported by Web users to be the most frequent self-prescribed medication to cope with NPS-induced psychoses. Hence, we aimed here at better assessing olanzapine use/misuse for this purpose. Exploratory qualitative searches of 163 discussion fora/specialized websites have been carried out in four languages (English, German, Spanish, and Italian) in the time frame November 2012-2013. Most NPS-users allegedly self administer with olanzapine to manage related psychotic crises/"bad trips". This may be typically taken only for a few days, at a dosage range of 5-50 mg/day. Only a few research studies have formally assessed the effectiveness of olanzapine and indeed of other second-generation antipsychotics to treat NPS-induced psychosis. Olanzapine was suggested here from a range of pro drug websites as being the "ideal" molecule to terminate "bad trips". Health professionals should be informed about the risks related to olanzapine misuse. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Intramuscular olanzapine versus intramuscular aripiprazole for the treatment of agitation in patients with schizophrenia: A pragmatic double-blind randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kittipeerachon, Mantana; Chaichan, Warawat

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness and adverse effects of intramuscular (IM) olanzapine and IM aripiprazole for the treatment of agitated patients with schizophrenia in clinical practice. A 24-hour randomized double-blind study carried out at a psychiatric hospital in Thailand enrolled adult patients (18-65years old) with schizophrenia experiencing agitation. Patients received one dose of IM olanzapine or IM aripiprazole followed by routine oral psychotropic medications. Efficacy was primarily measured using the Excited Component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC). A total of 80 patients with a PANSS-EC score range of 22-35 entered the study, of whom 13% had a medical comorbidity and 40% a history of active substance abuse. The 40 patients receiving IM olanzapine showed greater improvement than the 40 patients receiving IM aripiprazole in PANSS-EC scores at 2h after the injection (p=0.002) but not at 24h. The two treatments were well tolerated. Patients receiving IM olanzapine experienced greater somnolence than those receiving IM aripiprazole. There were no clinically relevant changes in vital signs in either group. The results indicate that IM olanzapine and aripiprazole are similarly effective and well tolerated in the real-world treatment of agitation associated with schizophrenia over the first 24h. However, in the early hours, IM olanzapine may produce more sedation and reductions in agitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Olanzapine and haloperidol for the treatment of acute symptoms of mental disorders induced by amphetamine-type stimulants: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiaobin; Song, Yun; Yu, Xiaojie; Fan, Qiang; Tang, Jiyou; Chen, Xu

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare olanzapine and haloperidol efficacies in the treatment of acute psychiatric symptoms due to amphetamine-type stimulants (ATSs). The Zelen II design method was used; 124 patients with acute mental disorders due to amphetamine were randomly divided into olanzapine group (n = 63) and haloperidol group (n = 61). Then, a 4-week open-label medical therapy was performed. Clinical Global Impression Scale Item 2 was employed to evaluate the onset time; meanwhile, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was used at baseline and at posttreatment weeks 1, 2, and 4. Moreover, adverse reactions during the treatment were recorded. Onset time in the olanzapine group was significantly earlier than in the haloperidol group; BPRS scores in the olanzapine group were significantly lower than haloperidol group values at 1 and 2 weeks of treatment. The overall effective rates had no statistically significant difference. Short-term olanzapine and haloperidol treatments had equivalent efficacies in the treatment of acute symptoms of mental disorders due to ATSs; however, olanzapine administration resulted in relatively earlier disease onset, with less adverse reactions.

  4. LORETA functional imaging in antipsychotic-naive and olanzapine-, clozapine- and risperidone-treated patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tislerova, Barbora; Brunovsky, Martin; Horacek, Jiri; Novak, Tomas; Kopecek, Miloslav; Mohr, Pavel; Krajca, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our study was to detect changes in the distribution of electrical brain activity in schizophrenic patients who were antipsychotic naive and those who received treatment with clozapine, olanzapine or risperidone. We included 41 subjects with schizophrenia (antipsychotic naive = 11; clozapine = 8; olanzapine = 10; risperidone = 12) and 20 healthy controls. Low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography was computed from 19-channel electroencephalography for the frequency bands delta, theta, alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1, beta-2 and beta-3. We compared antipsychotic-naive subjects with healthy controls and medicated patients. (1) Comparing antipsychotic-naive subjects and controls we found a general increase in the slow delta and theta frequencies over the fronto-temporo-occipital cortex, particularly in the temporolimbic structures, an increase in alpha-1 and alpha-2 in the temporal cortex and an increase in beta-1 and beta-2 in the temporo-occipital and posterior limbic structures. (2) Comparing patients who received clozapine and those who were antipsychotic naive, we found an increase in delta and theta frequencies in the anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortex, and a decrease in alpha-1 and beta-2 in the occipital structures. (3) Comparing patients taking olanzapine with those who were antipsychotic naive, there was an increase in theta frequencies in the anterior cingulum, a decrease in alpha-1, beta-2 and beta-3 in the occipital cortex and posterior limbic structures, and a decrease in beta-3 in the frontotemporal cortex and anterior cingulum. (4) In patients taking risperidone, we found no significant changes from those who were antipsychotic naive. Our results in antipsychotic-naive patients are in agreement with existing functional findings. Changes in those taking clozapine and olanzapine versus those who were antipsychotic naive suggest a compensatory mechanism in the neurobiological substrate for schizophrenia. The lack of difference in

  5. Prophylactic use of olanzapine and quetiapine from pregnancy to the postpartum period in women with bipolar disorder: a case series.

    PubMed

    Uguz, Faruk

    2017-11-01

    The management of bipolar disorder in pregnant and postpartum women is one of the most difficult issues in clinical practice. Data on the efficacy of mood stabilizers, except lithium and antipsychotics, in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorders during pregnancy and postpartum period are very limited. This report presents results of prophylaxis with olanzapine and quetiapine with regard to affective episodes in pregnancy to the postpartum period.

  6. Placebo-controlled trial of atomoxetine for weight reduction in people with schizophrenia treated with clozapine or olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Ball, M Patricia; Warren, Kimberly R; Feldman, Stephanie; McMahon, Robert P; Kelly, Deanna L; Buchanan, Robert W

    2011-04-01

    In recent years, several pharmacological and psychosocial interventions have examined ways to prevent or treat weight gain in people receiving second-generation antipsychotics. While there has been some success, in general, results have not been compelling. Atomoxetine is a selective norepinepherine reuptake inhibitor found to be associated with appetite suppression. Therefore, we examined whether atomoxetine may be of benefit for those who have gained weight on either clozapine or olanzapine. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. All participants received the same psychosocial platform: a structured support and exercise group. People with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, on olanzapine or clozapine, who had gained at least 7% of their pre-clozapine or pre-olanzapine weight were eligible for a 24-week, randomized, parallel group, double-blind comparison of adjunctive atomoxetine or placebo. Thirty-seven participants (20 atomoxetine, 17 placebo) were randomized and 26 participants (14 atomoxetine, 12 placebo; 70.2%) completed the study. There were no significant group differences in baseline BMI (atomoxetine: 34.5±4.9; placebo: 35.7±7.0) or weight (atomoxetine: 102.2±15.7 kg; placebo: 104.3±17.5 kg). Both treatment groups showed modest, not significant, trends in weight loss, averaging about 2 kg. Gender or baseline antipsychotic treatment did not modify treatment effects on weight. Secondary outcomes included neuropsychological assessments, symptom assessments (BPRS, SANS) and safety assessments. Of these, only the group difference in Gordon distractibility test scores was statistically significant and favored treatment with atomoxetine. Atomoxetine is not effective for weight loss in this population, but both olanzapine and clozapine participants can lose weight with structured group support and exercise.

  7. A Study to Assess the Therapeutic Effect of Enalapril on Olanzapine Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Arivazhahan, Avinash; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady; Nayak, Veena; Kunder, Sushil Kiran

    2017-02-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is a complex of risk factors for the development of cardiovascular complications and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Pharmacological management of the condition is complex, as multiple drug groups have to be used, as the syndrome itself is multi faceted. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs) are chiefly used to manage the hypertensive component of the syndrome. However, recent studies have shown that these drugs may have a role in the non hypertensive aspects of the syndrome as well. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of enalapril on total body weight, random blood glucose and serum lipid profile in a rodent model of olanzapine induced MS. Three different dosages (1 mg/kg/day, 10 mg/kg/day and 20 mg/kg/day) of oral enalapril were administered (for three weeks) in albino wistar rats, which received prior intra peritoneal olanzapine (for three weeks), and compared against control (normal saline) and standard (olanzapine only and enalapril only) groups. Parameters like total body weight, random blood glucose and serum lipid profile were measured at baseline, at three weeks and at six weeks. Enalapril at 20 mg/kg/day was found to be effective in reversing the weight gain, hyperglycaemia and hypercholesterolaemia, without any changes in triglycerides, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL). 10 mg/kg/day of enalapril prevented any further rise in body weight, blood glucose, total cholesterol and serum triglycerides, after olanzapine was stopped. 1 mg/kg/day of enalapril was ineffective. High dose of enalapril may be considered as a component of therapeutic regimens to combat weight gain, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia seen in MS, in addition to its antihypertensive utility. Further rodent and clinical studies may be required to ascertain the same.

  8. Clozapine and Olanzapine Exhibit an Intrinsic Anxiolytic Property in Two Conditioned Fear Paradigms: Contrast with Haloperidol and Chlordiazepoxide

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Alexa; Li, Ming; Kapur, Shitij

    2008-01-01

    Psychotic fear and anxiety disturbances are seen at a relatively high frequency in patients with schizophrenia. Atypical antipsychotics are believed to show superior efficacy in reducing these symptoms. However, clinical and preclinical evidence regarding their anxiolytic efficacy has been mixed. In this study, we evaluated the possible anxiolytic property of two atypicals clozapine and olanzapine and compared them with typical haloperidol and chlordiazepoxide (a prototype of sedative-anxiolytic drug) in two preclinical models of fear. In Experiment 1, we used a fear-induced passive avoidance and conditioned place aversion paradigm and examined the effects of clozapine (20 mg/kg, sc), haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, sc) and chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg, ip). In Experiments 2 and 3, we used a two-way active avoidance conditioning paradigm and further compared the effects of clozapine (20 mg/kg, sc), haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, sc), chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg, ip) and three doses of olanzapine (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg, sc). Results show that clozapine and chlordiazepoxide, but not haloperidol, significantly attenuated the shock conditioning-induced place aversion, decreased the amount of defecations and the number of the 22 kHz vocalizations. Clozapine also reduced the shock conditioning-induced hyperthermia. Similar to clozapine, olanzapine also significantly decreased the amount of defecations and reduced the shock conditioning-induced hyperthermia, but it did not inhibit the 22 kHz vocalizations. This study demonstrates that clozapine and olanzapine possess an intrinsic anxiolytic property, which is not attributable to its superior anti-“psychotic” effect or its favorable effects on motor functions or learning and memory processes. These findings also suggest that the combined use of passive avoidance and active avoidance conditioning models can be useful in better differentiating typical and atypical antipsychotics as well as anxiolytics. PMID:18547622

  9. Dimensions of schizophrenia and their time course of response to a second generation antipsychotic olanzapine-A clinical study.

    PubMed

    Birur, Badari; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Janakiramaiah, N; Shelton, Richard C; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2016-12-01

    The pattern of symptom response to second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) has not been studied extensively. Understanding the time course of symptom response would help to rationally monitor patient progress. To determine the short-term differential time course of response of symptom dimensions of first episode schizophrenia viz., negative, positive symptoms and 5 factors of anergia, thought disturbance, activation, paranoid-belligerence and depression to treatment with SGA olanzapine. 57 drug naive patients with schizophrenia were treated for 4 weeks with olanzapine 10mg/day, increased to 20mg/day in 1 week. Weight was recorded and ratings with the Positive and Negative Syndrome scale (PANSS), the Simpson Angus Scale (SAS) were performed weekly. 43 patients completed 4 weeks of assessment. Scores on all of the dimensions improved. By the end of week 1, only positive syndrome, thought disturbance and paranoid-belligerence dimensions improved. Maximum improvement was seen with paranoid-belligerence by week 1, followed by positive syndrome in week 2, and depression at week 3. The percentage improvement in positive syndrome was significantly greater than negative. Over 4 weeks there was a mean weight gain of 2kg and there were significant extrapyramidal symptoms. Olanzapine produced reduction in all dimensions, but the pace of responding of individual dimensions differed. Longer-term studies comparing SGAs with first generation antipsychotics are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrical brain activity and response to olanzapine in schizophrenia: a study with LORETA images of P300.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Higuchi, Yuko; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Matsui, Mie; Kato, Kanade; Yuuki, Hiromi; Arai, Hirofumi; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2006-09-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in the distribution for the P300 generator, as demonstrated by Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) images, in patients with schizophrenia during treatment with olanzapine. Data were obtained from five right-handed patients treated with olanzapine for 6 months. Five right-handed normal volunteers also participated in the study. LORETA images of P300 in response to the odd-ball auditory discrimination task revealed a left dominant lateralized high current source density in the temporal lobes in all control subjects. Although this pattern of brain activation was not evident in patients at baseline, 6-month treatment with olanzapine recovered the left dominant pattern of the electrical density in the temporal regions, such as the Heschl gyrus, and improved performance on a test of verbal learning and memory. Scores of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale also improved during treatment. These results provide the first suggestion that enhancement of verbal memory and the functional status by treatment with some antipsychotic drugs may be associated with modulations of the anatomical configuration of electrical brain activity in patients with schizophrenia.

  11. Comparative effect of atypical and conventional antipsychotic drugs on neurocognition in first-episode psychosis: a randomized, double-blind trial of olanzapine versus low doses of haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Richard S E; Seidman, Larry J; Christensen, Bruce K; Hamer, Robert M; Sharma, Tonmoy; Sitskoorn, Margriet M; Lewine, Richard R J; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A; Gur, Ruben C; Tohen, Mauricio; Tollefson, Gary D; Sanger, Todd M; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2004-06-01

    The effect of antipsychotic medication on neurocognitive function remains controversial, especially since most previous work has compared the effects of novel antipsychotic medications with those of high doses of conventional medications. This study compares the neurocognitive effects of olanzapine and low doses of haloperidol in patients with first-episode psychosis. Patients with a first episode of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophreniform disorder (N=167) were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with olanzapine (mean modal dose= 9.63 mg/day) or haloperidol (mean modal dose=4.60 mg/day) for the 12-week acute phase of a 2-year study. The patients were assessed with a battery of neurocognitive tests at baseline and 12 weeks after beginning treatment. An unweighted neurocognitive composite score, composed of measures of verbal fluency, motor functions, working memory, verbal memory, and vigilance, improved significantly with both haloperidol and olanzapine treatment (effect sizes of 0.20 and 0.36, respectively, no significant difference between groups). A weighted composite score developed from a principal-component analysis of the same measures improved to a significantly greater degree with olanzapine, compared with haloperidol. Anticholinergic use, extrapyramidal symptoms, and estimated IQ had little effect on the statistical differentiation of the medications, although duration of illness had a modest effect. The correlations of cognitive improvement with changes in clinical characteristics and with side effects of treatment were significant for patients who received haloperidol but not for patients who received olanzapine. Olanzapine has a beneficial effect on neurocognitive function in patients with a first episode of psychosis. However, in a comparison of the effects of olanzapine and low doses of haloperidol, the difference in benefit is small.

  12. Effect of olanzapine for breast cancer patients resistant to triplet antiemetic therapy with nausea due to anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sato, Junya; Kashiwaba, Masahiro; Komatsu, Hideaki; Ishida, Kazushige; Nihei, Satoru; Kudo, Kenzo

    2016-05-01

    Triplet antiemetic therapy with neurokinin 1 receptor blocker, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor blocker and steroids is commonly used in patients who are highly emetic after chemotherapy. However, an alternative antiemetic therapy for patients who are resistant to triplet antiemetic therapy is not established. Olanzapine is recommended in the guidelines as an optional antiemetic drug. However, the effectiveness of adding olanzapine to triplet antiemetic therapy is unknown. In this study, the effectiveness and safety of adding olanzapine to triplet antiemetic therapy with aprepitant, palonosetron and dexamethasone as highly emetic anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy for primary breast cancer patients were prospectively investigated. Forty-five patients with breast cancer who experienced >Grade 1 nausea or any vomiting after the first cycle of chemotherapy using both epirubicin and cyclophosphamide were included. Low-dose olanzapine (2.5 mg/day) was administered orally from the first day of chemotherapy for 4 days, and the number of episodes of vomiting, scale of nausea, dietary intake and somnolence were compared with the symptoms after the first cycle. As the primary endpoint, the nausea grade was significantly improved by adding olanzapine (P < 0.05). As the secondary endpoints, mean nausea scale (3.2→1.9, Day 1; 3→1.3-1, Days 2-6) and dietary intake (33.6→53.8%, Day 1; 42.0→60.7-78.1%, Days 2-6) were improved by adding olanzapine. Only four patients withdrew due to somnolence and/or dizziness. This study demonstrated the effectiveness and tolerability of adding low-dose olanzapine for patients with insufficient nausea relief with triplet antiemetic therapy consisting of palonosetron, steroid and aprepitant. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Drug–drug conditioning between citalopram and haloperidol or olanzapine in a conditioned avoidance response model: implications for polypharmacy in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sparkman, Nathan L.; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often have anxiety and depression, and thus are treated with multiple psychotherapeutic medications. This practice of polypharmacy increases the possibility for drug–drug interactions. However, the pharmacological and behavioral mechanisms underlying drug–drug interactions in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. In the present study, we adopted a preclinical approach and examined a less known behavioral mechanism, drug–drug conditioning (DDC) between haloperidol (a typical antipsychotic) or olanzapine (atypical antipsychotic) and citalopram (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor). A rat two-way conditioned avoidance response paradigm was used to measure antipsychotic activity and determine how DDC may alter the antipsychotic efficacy in this model. Following acquisition of the avoidance response, rats were then randomly assigned to receive vehicle, citalopram (10.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, subcutaneously), olanzapine (1.0 mg/kg, subcutaneously), combined haloperidol with citalopram, or combined olanzapine with citalopram treatment for seven avoidance test sessions. In comparison with antipsychotic treatment alone, combined treatment with citalopram potentiated the antiavoidance effect of olanzapine or haloperidol (to a lesser extent) during the seven drug-test sessions. In addition, repeated pairing of citalopram with haloperidol or olanzapine caused citalopram to show a newly acquired avoidance-disruptive effect. This effect was context specific because citalopram paired with haloperidol or olanzapine outside the avoidance testing context (i.e. home cages) did not show such an effect. These findings indicate that concurrent antidepressant and antipsychotic treatments may engender a DDC process that follows the general Pavlovian associative conditioning principles. They also indicate that adjunctive citalopram treatment may enhance the antipsychotic efficacy of haloperidol and olanzapine in the

  14. Waist Circumference Is the Best Anthropometric Predictor for Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Patients with Schizophrenia Treated with Clozapine But Not Olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, David C.; Fan, Xiaoduo; Sharma, Bikash; Copeland, Paul M.; Borba, Christina P.C.; Freudenreich, Oliver; Cather, Corey; Evins, A. Eden; Goff, Donald C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate which anthropometric measure (human body measurement) best predicts insulin resistance measured by the insulin sensitivity index (SI) and the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in nondiabetic patients with schizophrenia patients treated with clozapine or olanzapine. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of nondiabetic subjects with schizophrenia being treated with olanzapine or clozapine using a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, nutritional assessment, and anthropometric measures to assess the relationship between anthropometric measures and insulin resistance. Results No difference was found between the groups treated with clozapine and olanzapine in age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lipid levels, HOMA-IR, or SI. The disposition index (SI × the acute insulin response to glucose), which measures how the body compensates for insulin resistance to maintain a normal glucose level, was significantly lower in the group treated with clozapine than in the group treated with olanzapine (1067 ± 1390 vs. 2521 ± 2805; p = 0.013), suggesting that the subjects treated with clozapine had a reduced compensatory response to IR compared with the subjects treated with olanzapine. In the clozapine group, both higher WC and BMI were significantly associated with elevated HOMA-IR and lower SI; however, WC was a stronger correlate of IR than BMI, as measured by SI (−0.50 vs. −0.40). In the olanzapine group, neither WC nor BMI was significantly associated with any measure of glucose metabolism. Conclusions In this study, WC was the single best anthropometric surrogate for predicting IR in patients treated with clozapine but not olanzapine. The results suggest that WC may be a valuable screening tool for predicting IR in patients with schizophrenia being treated with clozapine who are at relatively higher risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, type 2

  15. Frequency of Extrapyramidal Adverse Reactions in Schizophrenic Outpatients Treated with Risperidone, Olanzapine, Quetiapine or Haloperidol : Results of the EIRE Study.

    PubMed

    Bobes, Julio; Rejas, J; Garcia-Garcia, M; Rico-Villademoros, F; García-Portilla, M P; Madrigal, M; Hernández, G

    2002-09-01

    The EIRE (Estudio de Investigaciön de Resultados en Esquizofrenia - Outcomes Research Study in Schizophrenia) study was initiated in order to assess the frequency of adverse reactions [extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), hyperprolactinaemia, sexual dysfunction and weight gain] caused by atypical antipsychotics and haloperidol in patients with schizophrenia during routine treatment in clinical practice. This paper presents the results of the assessment of extrapyramidal adverse reactions. Outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), criteria and receiving a single antipsychotic (risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine or haloperidol) for at least 4 weeks were consecutively recruited. In this cross-sectional and non-interventional study data were collected in a single visit; this included demographic and clinical characteristics, current antipsychotic and concomitant treatment, and data on several adverse effects listed in a modified version of the UKU (Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser - Committee on Clinical Investigations) scale. For paired comparisons of the frequency of adverse reactions between treatments the Chi-squared (χ 2 ) test was used. For estimation of the risk of a given adverse reaction with a given treatment a logistic regression method was used. 636 evaluable patients (of 669 recruited) were assessed. The frequency of EPS with haloperidol (78.3% of the cases) was higher than with risperidone (55.1%), quetiapine (39.5%) and olanzapine (35.8%) [χ 2 : p < 0.05], and the difference between risperidone and olanzapine was also statistically significant (χ 2 : p < 0.05). Very similar results were obtained in the individualised analysis of the items as regards the occurrence of akathisia, which was also more frequent in the haloperidol (36.8%) and risperidone (19.7%) groups than in the olanzapine (11.4%) and quetiapine (2.6%) groups (χ 2 : p < 0.05). Olanzapine, quetiapine

  16. The impact on health outcome measures of switching to generic medicines consequent to reference pricing: the case of olanzapine in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lessing, Charon; Ashton, Toni; Davis, Peter B

    2015-06-01

    New Zealand's Pharmaceutical Management Agency (PHARMAC) manages the list of medicines available for prescribing with government subsidy, within a fixed annual medicines budget. PHARMAC achieves this through a mix of pricing strategies including reference pricing. In 2011, PHARMAC applied generic reference pricing to olanzapine tablets. This study sought to evaluate change in outcome measures of patients switching from originator to generic olanzapine consequent to the introduction of the policy. A retrospective study using national health data collections was conducted. Outcome measures included medicines indicators (change in dosage, concomitant therapy and treatment cessation), health care service indicators (use of emergency departments, hospitals and specialist services), surveillance reports of adverse events, and mortality. Subsequent to the removal of funding for originator brand olanzapine tablets, 99.7% of patients meeting the inclusion criteria switched to using generic olanzapine. Limited case reports of suspected therapeutic loss were received in the study time period. No increase in use of additional oral or injectable antipsychotic medication was observed after switching, nor any increase in other unique, non-antipsychotic prescription items. However, a high incidence of multiple switching between available brands was found. No net impact of switching brands on health service utilisation or mortality was found. The study shows that a switch can be made safely from originator olanzapine to a generic brand, and suggests that switching to generics should generally be viewed more positively. Generic reference pricing achieves considerable savings and, as a pricing policy, could be applied more widely.

  17. Olanzapine vs. Risperidone in Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia and a Lifetime History of Cannabis Use Disorders: 16-Week Clinical and Substance Use outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sevy, Serge; Robinson, Delbert G.; Sunday, Suzanne; Miller, Rachel; McCormack, Joanne; Kane, John M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of olanzapine and risperidone for the acute treatment of first-episode schizophrenia patients with cannabis use disorders. This secondary analysis of a previously published study included forty-nine first-episode patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, or schizoaffective disorder and a co-occurring lifetime diagnosis of cannabis use disorders randomly assigned to treatment with either olanzapine (n=28) or risperidone (n=21) for 16 weeks. The olanzapine group did not differ significantly from the risperidone group for initial response rates of positive symptoms, and rates of cannabis use or alcohol use during the study. Positive symptoms and SANS global asociality-anhedonia improved over time but did not differ between study medications. In both groups, cannabis use during the study was higher in patients who used cannabis within 3 months of the admission. Thus, our results suggest that olanzapine and risperidone had a similar initial efficacy on psychotic symptoms and substance use in first-episode patients with co-occurring cannabis use disorders. If clinicians are choosing between olanzapine versus risperidone treatment for this population, their decision should be based upon factors other than symptom response and short-term substance misuse. PMID:21636134

  18. Olanzapine treatment of adolescent rats alters adult reward behaviour and nucleus accumbens function

    PubMed Central

    Vinish, Monika; Elnabawi, Ahmed; Milstein, Jean A.; Burke, Jesse S.; Kallevang, Jonathan K.; Turek, Kevin C.; Lansink, Carien S.; Merchenthaler, Istvan; Bailey, Aileen M.; Kolb, Bryan; Cheer, Joseph F.; Frost, Douglas O.

    2018-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are increasingly used in children and adolescents to treat a variety of psychiatric disorders. However, little is known about the long-term effects of early life antipsychotic drug (APD) treatment. Most APDs are potent antagonists or partial agonists of dopamine (DA) D2 receptors ; atypical APDs also have multiple serotonergic activities. DA and serotonin regulate many neurodevelopmental processes. Thus, early life APD treatment can, potentially, perturb these processes, causing long-term behavioural and neurobiological sequelae. We treated adolescent, male rats with olanzapine (Ola) on post-natal days 28–49, under dosing conditions that approximate those employed therapeutically in humans. As adults, they exhibited enhanced conditioned place preference for amphetamine, as compared to vehicle-treated rats. In the nucleus accumbens core, DA D1 receptor binding was reduced, D2 binding was increased and DA release evoked by electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area was reduced. Thus, adolescent Ola treatment enduringly alters a key behavioural response to rewarding stimuli and modifies DAergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens. The persistence of these changes suggests that even limited periods of early life Ola treatment may induce enduring changes in other reward-related behaviours and in behavioural and neurobiological responses to therapeutic and illicit psychotropic drugs. These results underscore the importance of improved understanding of the enduring sequelae of paediatric APD treatment as a basis for weighing the benefits and risks of adolescent APD therapy, especially prophylactic treatment in high-risk, asymptomatic patients. PMID:23351612

  19. Early Exposure to Haloperidol or Olanzapine Induces Long-Term Alterations of Dendritic Form

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Douglas O.; Page, Stephanie Cerceo; Carroll, Cathy; Kolb, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    Exposure of the developing brain to a wide variety of drugs of abuse (eg., stimulants, opioids, ethanol, etc.) can induce life-long changes in behavior and neural circuitry. However, the long-term effects of exposure to therapeutic, psychotropic drugs have only recently begun to be appreciated. Antipsychotic drugs are little studied in this regard. Here we quantitatively analyzed dendritic architecture in adult mice treated with paradigmatic typical- (haloperidol) or atypical (olanzapine) antipsychotic drugs at developmental stages corresponding to fetal or fetal plus early childhood stages in humans. In layer 3 pyramidal cells of the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices and the parietal cortex and in spiny neurons of the core of the nucleus accumbens, both drugs induced significant changes (predominantly reductions) in the amount and complexity of dendritic arbor and the density of dendritic spines. The drug-induced plasticity of dendritic architecture suggests changes in patterns of neuronal connectivity in multiple brain regions that are likely to be functionally significant. PMID:19862684

  20. Acute Poisoning with Dapsone and Olanzapine: Severe Methemoglobinemia and Coma with a Favourable Outcome.

    PubMed

    Iliev, Yanko T; Zagorov, Marin Y; Grudeva-Popova, Janet G

    2015-01-01

    Dapsone is a drug commonly used in the treatment of leprosy. In Europe it is rarely prescribed, mostly for the treatment of skin diseases such as dermatitis herpetiformis. Poisoning with dapsone is rare and reports of such cases are of interest for toxicological practice. We describe the only acute dapsone poisoning in a caseload series of 21,000 intoxications treated in the Clinical Toxicology Clinic at St George University Hospital in Plovdiv, Bulgaria between 1999 and 2013. We report on a 36-year-old woman who attempted deliberate self-poisoning with an ingestion of approximately 4.5 g of dapsone and 0.3 g of olanzapine. On admission, the patient was in a state of severe intoxication and comatose. On admission to hospital 9 hours after the ingestion, the methemoglobin level was 51.7%. The patient recovered 8 days later. She received complex treatment including intubation, ventilation, repeated gastric lavage, hemodialysis, blood exchange transfusion and antidote treatment with methylene blue. She was discharged in good clinical condition with minimal organ damage such as mild toxic hepatitis.

  1. Comparative risk of cerebrovascular adverse events in community-dwelling older adults using risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine: a multiple propensity score-adjusted retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Satabdi; Chen, Hua; Johnson, Michael L; Aparasu, Rajender R

    2012-10-01

    Atypical antipsychotic agents have been associated with cerebrovascular adverse events, particularly in elderly dementia patients. However, limited evidence exists regarding comparative cerebrovascular profiles of individual atypical agents, particularly in community settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of cerebrovascular events associated with use of risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine in community-dwelling older adults in the US. A propensity score-adjusted retrospective cohort design involving the IMS LifeLink™ Health Plan Claims Database was used for the study. The study population included all older adults (aged ≥50 years) who initiated risperidone, olanzapine or quetiapine anytime during 1 July 2000 to 30 June 2008. Patients were followed until hospitalization or an emergency room visit for a cerebrovascular event, or the end of the study period, whichever occurred earlier. The Cox proportional hazard regression model with time-varying covariates was used to evaluate the risk of cerebrovascular events during the follow-up period, using olanzapine as the reference. The covariates adjusted for in the final model included multiple propensity scores and exposure to other medications that could be associated with the risk of cerebrovascular events. A total of 2,458 cerebrovascular events were identified in the study cohort: 1,081 (21.38%) for risperidone users, 816 (18.75%) for olanzapine users and 561 (21.05%) for quetiapine users. After adjusting for propensity scores and other covariates, the Cox proportional hazard model revealed that use of quetiapine [hazard ratio (HR) 0.88; 95% CI 0.78, 0.99] but not risperidone (HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.95, 1.16) was associated with a decrease in the risk of cerebrovascular adverse events compared with olanzapine. The study suggested that quetiapine use may be associated with a moderately lower risk of cerebrovascular events than olanzapine in older adults. Prescribers should closely monitor the

  2. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging of olanzapine in a single hair using esculetin as a matrix.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Ge; Hong, Lizhi

    2017-07-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI) for the analysis of intact hair is a powerful tool for monitoring changes in drug consumption. The embedding of a low drug concentration in the hydrophobic hair matrix makes it difficult to extract and detect, and requires an improved method to increase detection sensitivity. In this study, an MSI method using MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance was developed for direct identification and imaging of olanzapine in hair samples using the positive ion mode. Following decontamination, scalp hair samples from an olanzapine user were scraped from the proximal to the distal end three times, and 5mm hair sections were fixed onto an Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO)-coated microscopic glass slide. Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one) was used as a new hydrophobic matrix to increase the affinity, extraction and ionization efficiency of olanzapine in the hair samples. The spatial distribution of olanzapine was observed using five single hairs from the same drug user. This matrix improves the affinity of olanzapine in hair for molecular imaging with mass spectrometry. This method may provide a detection power for olanzapine to the nanogram level per 5mm hair. Time course changes in the MSI results were also compared with quantitative HPLC-MS/MS for each 5mm segment of single hair shafts selected from the MALDI target. MALDI imaging intensities in single hairs showed good semi-quantitative correlation with the results from conventional HPLC-MS/MS. MALDI-MSI is suitable for monitoring drug intake with a high time resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Intravenous midazolam-droperidol combination, droperidol or olanzapine monotherapy for methamphetamine-related acute agitation: subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yap, Celene Y L; Taylor, David McD; Knott, Jonathan C; Taylor, Simone E; Phillips, Georgina A; Karro, Jonathan; Chan, Esther W; Kong, David C M; Castle, David J

    2017-07-01

    To examine the efficacy and safety of (1) midazolam-droperidol versus droperidol and (2) midazolam-droperidol versus olanzapine for methamphetamine-related acute agitation. A multi-centre, randomized, double-blind, controlled, clinical trial was conducted in two Australian emergency departments, between October 2014 and September 2015. Three hundred and sixty-one patients, aged 18-65 years, requiring intravenous medication sedation for acute agitation, were enrolled into this study. We report the results of a subgroup of 92 methamphetamine-affected patients. Patients were assigned randomly to receive either an intravenous bolus of midazolam 5 mg-droperidol 5 mg combined, droperidol 10 mg or olanzapine 10 mg. Two additional doses were administered, if required: midazolam 5 mg, droperidol 5 mg or olanzapine 5 mg, respectively. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients sedated adequately at 10 minutes. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (ORs, 95% CI) were estimated. The baseline characteristics of patients in the three groups were similar. At 10 minutes, significantly more patients in the midazolam-droperidol group [29 of 34 (85.3%)] were sedated adequately compared with the droperidol group [14 of 30 (46.7%), OR = 6.63, 95% CI = 2.02-21.78] or with the olanzapine group [14 of 28 (50.0%), OR 5.80, 95% CI = 1.74-19.33]. The number of patients who experienced an adverse event (AE) in the midazolam-droperidol, droperidol and olanzapine groups was seven of 34, two of 30 and six of 28, respectively. The most common AE was oxygen desaturation. A midazolam-droperidol combination appears to provide more rapid sedation of patients with methamphetamine-related acute agitation than droperidol or olanzapine alone. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Olanzapine promotes fat accumulation in male rats by decreasing physical activity, repartitioning energy and increasing adipose tissue lipogenesis while impairing lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Albaugh, V L; Judson, J G; She, P; Lang, C H; Maresca, K P; Joyal, J L; Lynch, C J

    2011-05-01

    Olanzapine and other atypical antipsychotics cause metabolic side effects leading to obesity and diabetes; although these continue to be an important public health concern, their underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Therefore, an animal model of these side effects was developed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Chronic administration of olanzapine elevated fasting glucose, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, increased fat mass but, in contrast to female rats, did not increase body weight or food intake. Acute studies were conducted to delineate the mechanisms responsible for these effects. Olanzapine markedly decreased physical activity without a compensatory decline in food intake. It also acutely elevated fasting glucose and worsened oral glucose and insulin tolerance, suggesting that these effects are adiposity independent. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies measuring (14)C-2-deoxyglucose uptake revealed tissue-specific insulin resistance. Insulin sensitivity was impaired in skeletal muscle, but either unchanged or increased in adipose tissue depots. Consistent with the olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia, there was a tendency for increased (14)C-2-deoxyglucose uptake into fat depots of fed rats and, surprisingly, free fatty acid (FFA) uptake into fat depots was elevated approximately twofold. The increased glucose and FFA uptake into adipose tissue was coupled with increased adipose tissue lipogenesis. Finally, olanzapine lowered fasting plasma FFA, and as it had no effect on isoproterenol-stimulated rises in plasma glucose, it blunted isoproterenol-stimulated in vivo lipolysis in fed rats. Collectively, these results suggest that olanzapine exerts several metabolic effects that together favor increased accumulation of fuel into adipose tissue, thereby increasing adiposity.

  5. Adjunctive Use of Olanzapine in the Treatment of Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder in Children and Adolescents in an Eating Disorders Program.

    PubMed

    Brewerton, Timothy D; D'Agostino, Meredith

    2017-12-01

    There is little information about the pharmacological treatment of avoidant and restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), a challenging feeding disorder associated with marked impairment and developmental arrest. This brief clinical report seeks to fill this gap. A retrospective chart review of nine patients with ARFID treated in an eating disorder (ED) program (residential, partial hospital, and intensive outpatient levels of care) with adjunctive olanzapine was undertaken. The mean initial and final olanzapine doses were 0.9 + 0.63 mg/day and 2.8 + 1.47 mg/day, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in weight gain pre- versus post-olanzapine treatment (3.3 ± 7.3 lbs vs. 13.1 ± 7.9 lbs [2.99 ± 6.62 lb SI vs. 11.88 ± 7.17 lb SI], paired t-test (p < 0.04, t = -2.48). Clinically, adjunctive olanzapine was helpful for not only weight gain but also reduction of associated anxious, depressive, and cognitive symptoms. Clinical Global Impressions scale scores indicated marked improvement in patients receiving adjunctive olanzapine. These cases illustrate that judicious use of low-dose olanzapine, when used as an adjunct to other treatment modalities, may facilitate eating, weight gain, and the reduction of anxious, depressive, and cognitive symptoms in ARFID patients. Future randomized, placebo-controlled studies in ARFID are warranted.

  6. Correlation between changes in quality of life and symptomatic improvement in Chinese patients switched from typical antipsychotics to olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, William; Kadziola, Zbigniew; Ye, Wenye; Xue, Hai Bo; Liu, Li; Treuer, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between changes in symptoms and changes in self-reported quality of life among Chinese patients with schizophrenia who were switched from a typical antipsychotic to olanzapine during usual outpatient care. This post hoc analysis was conducted using data from the Chinese subgroup (n=475) of a multicountry, 12-month, prospective, noninterventional, observational study. The primary publication previously reported the efficacy, safety, and quality of life among patients who switched from a typical antipsychotic to olanzapine. Patients with schizophrenia were included if their symptoms were inadequately controlled with a typical antipsychotic and they were switched to olanzapine. Symptom severity was measured using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale (CGI-S). Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Abbreviated (WHOQOL-BREF). Paired t-tests were performed to assess changes from baseline to endpoint. Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) were used to assess the correlations between change in symptoms (BPRS and CGI-S scores) and change in HRQOL (WHOQOL-BREF scores). Symptoms and HRQOL both improved significantly over the 12 months of treatment (P<0.001). Significant correlations were observed between changes from baseline to end of study on the BPRS and the CGI-S and each of the WHOQOL-BREF four domain scores and two overall quality-of-life questions. The correlation coefficients ranged from r=-0.45 to r=-0.53 for the BPRS and WHOQOL-BREF. The correlation coefficients were slightly smaller between the CGI-S and WHOQOL-BREF, ranging from r=-0.33 to r=-0.40. For patients with schizophrenia, assessing quality of life has the potential to add valuable information to the clinical assessment that takes into account the patient's own perspective of well-being.

  7. Effects of haloperidol, clozapine and olanzapine on the survival of human neuronal and immune cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Heiser, Philip; Enning, Frank; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Vedder, Helmut

    2007-11-01

    Cytotoxic effects on neuronal as well as on immune cells have been reported for both typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. We evaluated the effects of different concentrations of a typical (haloperidol) and two atypical (clozapine, olanzapine) antipsychotics on the survival of human neuronal (SH-SY5Y cells) and immune cells (U937 cells) by determining the metabolic activity after 24 h of incubation by the modified tetrazolium method. The dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and the lymphoma U-937 cell line are well established models for in vitro investigations. To further elucidate possible mechanisms of action we also determined the ATP content in the cultured cells. After experimental treatment, significant effects were detected by Kruskal Wallis test for all treatment conditions. Post-hoc tests (Dunn's method) showed that haloperidol and clozapine at the two highest concentrations (25 and 50 microg/ml) caused a significant decrease of metabolic activity in both cell systems, which was also detectable after treatment with clozapine at a concentration of 12.5 microg/ml in U937 cells. In contrast, olanzapine induced a significant increase in metabolic activity of SH-SY5Y cells at all concentrations except for the concentration of 3.1 microg/ml, whereas the metabolic activity in U937 cells was increased at concentrations of 1.6 and 6.25 microg/ml. For the determination of ATP content, the LD(50) values of the metabolic activity were used, except for olanzapine for which no distinct LD(50) value was available. Significant changes were detected for all treatments and post-hoc tests revealed that haloperidol caused a significant decrease compared to the control condition in both cell systems. These findings suggest that antipsychotic substances of different classes exert differential metabolic effects in both neuronal and immune cell systems.

  8. Design and in vivo evaluation of solid lipid nanoparticulate systems of Olanzapine for acute phase schizophrenia treatment: Investigations on antipsychotic potential and adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Emil; Reddi, Satish; Rinwa, Vibhu; Balwani, Garima; Saha, Ranendra

    2017-06-15

    The present paper discusses the design, characterization and in vivo evaluation of glyceryl monostearate nanoparticles of Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug for acute schizophrenia treatment, during which hospitalization is mandatory and adverse effects are at its peak. The solid lipid nanoparticulate system was obtained by emulsification-ultra sonication technique wherein three factors such as solid lipid content, concentration of surfactant and drug: solid lipid ratio were selected at three different levels in order to study their influence on significant characteristic responses such as particle size, encapsulation efficiency and drug content. A Box Behnken design with 17 runs involving whole factors at three levels was employed for the study. The optimized formulation was further coated with Polysorbate 80 in order to enhance its brain targeting potential through endocytosis transport process via blood brain barrier. The designed formulations were pre-clinically tested successfully in Wistar rat model for in vivo antipsychotic efficacy (apomorphine induced psychosis) and adverse effects (weight gain study for 28days). The results obtained indicated that solid lipid nanoparticles had very narrow size distribution (151.29±3.36nm) with very high encapsulation efficiency (74.51±1.75%). Morphological studies by SEM have shown that solid lipid nanoparticles were spherical in shape with smooth surface. Olanzapine-loaded nanoparticles prepared from solid lipid, extended the release of drug for 48h, as found by the in vitro release studies. The formulations also exhibited high redispersibility after freeze-drying and stability study results demonstrated good stability, with no significant change for a period of 6months. In vivo evaluation and adverse effects studies of Olanzapine-loaded nanoparticulate systems in animal model have demonstrated an improved therapeutic efficacy than pure Olanzapine. The antipsychotic effect of drug loaded nanoparticulate systems

  9. Salience network and olanzapine in schizophrenia: implications for treatment in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Stip, Emmanuel; Lungu, Ovidiu V

    2015-03-01

    The salience network (SN), a set of brain regions composed of the anterior fronto-insular cortex (aFI) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), is usually involved in interoception, self-regulating, and action selection. Accumulating evidence indicates that dysfunctions in this network are associated with various pathophysiological deficits in both schizophrenia and eating disorders, stemming mainly from dysfunctional information processing of internal or external stimuli. In addition, the metabolic side effects of some antipsychotics (APs), as well as their pharmacological mechanisms of action, also suggest a link between the functional and neurophysiological changes in the brain in both schizophrenia and in eating disorders. Nevertheless, there is still a knowledge gap in explicitly and directly linking the metabolic side effects associated with AP treatment with the dysfunction in SN associated with processing of food-related information in schizophrenia. Here we provide neuroimaging evidence for such a link, by presenting data on a group of schizophrenia patients who followed 16 weeks of olanzapine treatment and undertook a passive viewing task while their brain activity was recorded. In response to food-related dynamic stimuli (video clips), we observed a decreased activity in SN (aFI and ACC) after the treatment, which also correlated with ghrelin plasma concentration and a measure of dietary restraint. Taken together with past findings regarding the role of SN in both schizophrenia and eating disorders, our results suggest that enhancing the reactivity in the SN has the potential to be a treatment strategy in people with anorexia nervosa. NCT 00290121.

  10. Contextual and behavioral control of antipsychotic sensitization induced by haloperidol and olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Ming

    2012-02-01

    Repeated administration of haloperidol (HAL) and olanzapine (OLZ) causes a progressively enhanced disruption of the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) and a progressively enhanced inhibition of phencyclidine (PCP)-induced hyperlocomotion in rats (termed antipsychotic sensitization). Both actions are thought to reflect intrinsic antipsychotic activity. The present study examined the extent to which antipsychotic-induced sensitization in one model (e.g. CAR) can be transferred or maintained in another (e.g. PCP hyperlocomotion) as a means of investigating the contextual and behavioral controls of antipsychotic sensitization. Well-trained male Sprague-Dawley rats were first repeatedly tested in the CAR or the PCP (3.2 mg/kg, subcutaneously) hyperlocomotion model under HAL or OLZ for 5 consecutive days. Then they were switched to the other model and tested for the expression of sensitization. Finally, all rats were switched back to the original model and retested for the expression of sensitization. Repeated HAL or OLZ treatment progressively disrupted avoidance responding and decreased PCP-induced hyperlocomotion, indicating a robust sensitization. When tested in a different model, rats previously treated with HAL or OLZ did not show a stronger inhibition of CAR-induced or PCP-induced hyperlocomotion than those treated with these drugs for the first time; however, they did show such an effect when tested in the original model in which they received repeated antipsychotic treatment. These findings suggest that the expression of antipsychotic sensitization is strongly influenced by the testing environment and/or selected behavioral response under certain experimental conditions. Distinct contextual cues and behavioral responses may develop an association with unconditional drug effects through a Pavlovian conditioning process. They may also serve as occasion setters to modulate the expression of sensitized responses. As antipsychotic sensitization mimics the clinical

  11. Preparation of olanzapine and methyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes using a single-step, organic solvent-free supercritical fluid process: An approach to enhance the solubility and dissolution properties.

    PubMed

    Rudrangi, Shashi Ravi Suman; Trivedi, Vivek; Mitchell, John C; Wicks, Stephen Richard; Alexander, Bruce David

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a single-step, organic solvent-free supercritical fluid process for the preparation of olanzapine-methyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes with an express goal to enhance the dissolution properties of olanzapine. The complexes were prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide processing, co-evaporation, freeze drying and physical mixing. The prepared complexes were then analysed by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, solubility and dissolution studies. Computational molecular docking studies were performed to study the formation of molecular inclusion complexation of olanzapine with methyl-β-cyclodextrin. All the binary mixtures of olanzapine with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, except physical mixture, exhibited a faster and greater extent of drug dissolution than the drug alone. Products obtained by the supercritical carbon dioxide processing method exhibited the highest apparent drug dissolution. The characterisation by different analytical techniques suggests complete complexation or amorphisation of olanzapine and methyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide processing method. Therefore, organic solvent-free supercritical carbon dioxide processing method proved to be novel and efficient for the preparation of solid inclusion complexes of olanzapine with methyl-β-cyclodextrin. The preliminary data also suggests that the complexes of olanzapine with methyl-β-cyclodextrin will lead to better therapeutic efficacy due to better solubility and dissolution properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Discovery of a novel non-steroidal GR antagonist with in vivo efficacy in the olanzapine-induced weight gain model in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Hazel J; Ray, Nicholas C; Hynd, George; Sutton, Jon; Sajad, Mohammed; O'Connor, Elizabeth; Ahmed, Shahadat; Lockey, Peter; Daly, Steve; Buckley, Gerry; Clark, Robin D; Roe, Robert; Blasey, Christine; Belanoff, Joe

    2012-12-15

    We report the optimization of a series of non-steroidal GR antagonists that led to the identification of compound 7. This compound is efficacious when dosed orally in an olanzapine-induced weight gain model in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antiemetic Therapy With or Without Olanzapine in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients With Cancer Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase III trial studies antiemetic therapy with olanzapine to see how well they work compared to antiemetic therapy alone in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic (causes vomiting) chemotherapy. Antiemetic drugs, such as palonosetron hydrochloride, ondansetron, and granisetron hydrochloride, may

  14. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for determination of olanzapine in human plasma and its application to bioavailability study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng-Qi; Jia, Jing-Ying; Lu, Chuan; Liu, Gang-Yi; Yu, Cheng-Yin; Gui, Yu-Zhou; Liu, Yun; Liu, Yan-Mei; Wang, Wei; Li, Shui-Jun; Yu, Chen

    2010-06-01

    A simple, reliable and sensitive liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LC-ID/MS) was developed and validated for quantification of olanzapine in human plasma. Plasma samples (50 microL) were extracted with tert-butyl methyl ether and isotope-labeled internal standard (olanzapine-D3) was used. The chromatographic separation was performed on XBridge Shield RP 18 (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm, Waters). An isocratic program was used at a flow rate of 0.4 m x min(-1) with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and ammonium buffer (pH 8). The protonated ions of analytes were detected in positive ionization by multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode. The plasma method, with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.1 ng x mL(-1), demonstrated good linearity over a range of 0.1 - 30 ng x mL(-1) of olanzapine. Specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effect and stability were evaluated during method validation. The validated method was successfully applied to analyzing human plasma samples in bioavailability study.

  15. Evaluation of antidepressant like property of amisulpride per se and its comparison with fluoxetine and olanzapine using forced swimming test in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Ganesh R; Agrawal, Rajendra P; Phadnis, Pradeep; Paliwal, Abhay; Vyas, Savita; Solanki, Pooja

    2009-01-01

    Amisulpride, an atypical antipsychotic was evaluated for antidepressant like activity in forced swimming test in Swiss albino mice. The effect of amisulpride was compared with that of fluoxetine, the standard antidepressant and olanzapine, another atypical antipsychotic claimed to have antidepressant like activity. Both acute and chronic studies were carried out. In both the studies, animals were divided into four groups (n = 8 each) and subjected to oral drug interventions as follows -- Group 1- control (distilled water, 1 mL/kg); Group 2- fluoxetine in a dose of 10 mg/kg 23.5, 5 and 1 h before the test; Group 3-amisulpride in a dose of 70 mg/kg 23.5, 5 and 1 h before the test; Group 4- olanzapine in a dose of 2 mg/kg 23.5, 5 and 1 h before the study. In the chronic study, the treatment was given daily for 28 days with last dose being given 2 h prior to the test. A time sampling method was used to score the behavioral activity in each group. Results of both the studies indicated that animals given amisulpride displayed significant improvement in swimming behavior (p < 0.01), while markedly reducing immobility as compared to control group (p <0.01). Fluoxetine also showed significant difference in activity as compared to amisulpride and olanzapine (p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between amisulpride and olanzapine in terms of effect on immobility and swimming phases in albino mice (p > 0.05). We conclude that amisulpride per se has an antidepressant like activity comparable to that of olanzapine though the activity was significantly less than that of fluoxetine.

  16. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in a randomized, double-blind study with olanzapine or risperidone in young patients with early psychosis.

    PubMed

    van Nimwegen, Lonneke; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Beveren, Nico; Laan, Winfried; van den Brink, Wim; Linszen, Don

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in patients with schizophrenia is relatively high. Antipsychotics have been found to influence OCS. To determine whether induction or severity of OCS differs during treatment with olanzapine or risperidone in young patients with early psychosis. One hundred twenty-two patients with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophreniform disorder were randomized in a double-blind design to groups of 6 weeks' treatment with olanzapine (n = 59) or risperidone (n = 63), with a mean dose of 11.3 mg olanzapine and 3.0 mg risperidone at 6 weeks. Primary outcome measures were the mean baseline-to-endpoint change in total score on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Treatment with olanzapine was associated with greater decreases in Y-BOCS total score than treatment with risperidone in total group (N = 122: -2.2 vs -0.3, z = -2.651, P < 0.01), in patients with baseline Y-BOCS total score greater than 0 (n = 58: -5.1 vs -0.4, z = -2.717, P < 0.01), and in patients with baseline Y-BOCS total score greater than 10 (n = 29: -7.1 vs -0.6, z = -2.138, P = 0.032). In this randomized, 6-week, double-blind trial, we found a significant and clinically relevant difference in decrease in Y-BOCS scores favoring olanzapine compared with risperidone.

  17. Remission, response, and relapse rates in patients with acute schizophrenia treated with olanzapine monotherapy or other atypical antipsychotic monotherapy: 12-month prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Michihiro; Nakahara, Naohiro; Fujikoshi, Shinji; Iyo, Masaomi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the rates of antipsychotic response, remission, and relapse in patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine or other antipsychotics in usual clinical care in Japan. Patients and methods This analysis of a 12-month, prospective, noninterventional study examined outcomes for 1,089 inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia who initiated antipsychotic monotherapy. All treatment decisions, including medication choice, were left to the discretion of the treating physician. The rates of treatment response, relapse, and 6-month sustained remission were compared between olanzapine monotherapy (OLZ) and other anti-psychotic monotherapy (OAN), and between OLZ and other atypical antipsychotic monotherapy (OAT). Visit-wise comparisons of treatment response and remission were examined using repeated-measures logistic regressions. Propensity scores were used to control for potential baseline differences between groups. Results Response rates were higher for OLZ patients and relapse rates were consistently lower for OLZ patients, however the differences were not statistically significant. Rates of 6-month sustained remission were significantly higher for OLZ than OAN patients (P=0.032) and for OLZ than OAT patients (P=0.041). An exploratory analysis of OLZ and OAN comparison found outpatients treated with OLZ or OAN had similar sustained remission rates (OLZ: 22.2%, OAN: 22.8%), while inpatients treated with OLZ had significantly higher sustained remission rates than inpatients treated with OAN (OLZ: 17.1%, OAN: 6.6%, odds ratio [95% confidence interval] =3.54 [2.00–6.25]). Conclusion In usual care in Japan, treating the acute symptoms of schizophrenia with olanzapine was not found to be significantly different for response and relapse rates; however, treatment with olanzapine was found to have significantly greater sustained remission rates than treatment with other antipsychotics. In the inpatient setting, where patients tend to be more severe and

  18. The effectiveness and safety of amisulpride in Chinese patients with schizophrenia who switch from risperidone or olanzapine: a subgroup analysis of the ESCAPE study

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ying; Yu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Second-generation antipsychotics show significant interpatient variability in treatment response and side-effect profiles, and the majority of patients with schizophrenia require multiple treatment changes. This subgroup analysis of the ESCAPE study evaluated the efficacy and safety of amisulpride in Chinese patients with schizophrenia who switched from risperidone or olanzapine. Methods ESCAPE was a prospective, open-label, multicenter, single-arm Phase IV study in which Chinese patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia received amisulpride for 8 weeks. This analysis included 109 patients who switched to amisulpride from risperidone (n=68) or olanzapine (n=41) and 59 treatment-naïve patients for reference. The primary effectiveness outcome was a ≥50% decrease in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Total score from Baseline to Week 8. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01795183). Results Of the patients who switched from risperidone and olanzapine, 77.9% and 56.1% achieved ≥50% reduction in PANSS Total score from Baseline to Week 8 and 57.4% and 46.3% achieved ≥20% reduction in PANSS score from Baseline to Week 2, respectively; these end points were achieved by 66.1% and 61.0% of treatment-naïve patients, respectively. No unexpected adverse events (AEs) were reported. Of the most common AEs, extrapyramidal side effects occurred in 32.4% and 14.6%, blood prolactin increase in 32.4% and 39.0%, and ≥7% increase in body weight in 4.4% and 12% of patients switching from risperidone and olanzapine, respectively. Conclusion The results of this subgroup analysis suggest that switching to amisulpride from risperidone and olanzapine is effective and generally well tolerated in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. PMID:28461752

  19. Belgian Schizophrenia Outcome Survey - results of a 2-year naturalistic study in patients stabilised on monotherapy with olanzapine, risperidone or haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Peuskens, J; Gillain, B; De Graeve, D; Van Vleymen, B; Albert, A

    2009-04-01

    This Schizophrenia Outcome Survey compared medical costs, psychopathology and adverse events in outpatients for 2 years following hospitalisation for an acute schizophrenic episode. Adults stabilised with haloperidol, olanzapine or risperidone entered this observational study olanzapine 149, risperidone 142), baseline characteristics were similar in the olanzapine and risperidone groups, except for more first episodes in the risperidone group (p=0.01). Haloperidol patients were more often single and institutionalised, less educated, had more residual schizophrenia, were longer hospitalised in the previous year, took more corrective and psychotropic drugs and had more extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and gynaecomastia (all significantly). Sixty-eight percent of patients completed a 2-year follow-up. In all groups, CGI and GAF improved during the first 3 months (both p<0.0001) while BPRS deteriorated in the first year (all within group changes p<0.05, between group changes NS) before it stabilised. There were no significant differences in hospitalisations and no change in social profile. At the last visit, 66% of haloperidol (p<0.01), 35% of olanzapine (NS) and 39% (NS) of risperidone patients had >or=1 EPS; 69% (p<0.013), 40 and 44%, respectively, had >or=1 sexual problem (NS). Mean weight gain was 0.4 (NS), 2.6 (p<0.05) and 2.6 kg (p<0.05), respectively. In this naturalistic study, treatment allocation might have introduced a bias in the interpretation of efficiency results, but olanzapine and risperidone caused less EPS than haloperidol during 2 years of outpatient follow-up.

  20. Pretreatment levels of the fatty acid handling proteins H-FABP and CD36 predict response to olanzapine in recent-onset schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Tomasik, Jakub; Schwarz, Emanuel; Lago, Santiago G; Rothermundt, Matthias; Leweke, F Markus; van Beveren, Nico J M; Guest, Paul C; Rahmoune, Hassan; Steiner, Johann; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-02-01

    Traditional schizophrenia pharmacotherapy remains a subjective trial and error process involving administration, titration and switching of drugs multiple times until an adequate response is achieved. Despite this time-consuming and costly process, not all patients show an adequate response to treatment. As a consequence, relapse is a common occurrence and early intervention is hampered. Here, we have attempted to identify candidate blood biomarkers associated with drug response in 121 initially antipsychotic-free recent-onset schizophrenia patients treated with widely-used antipsychotics, namely olanzapine (n=40), quetiapine (n=23), risperidone (n=30) and a mixture of these drugs (n=28). Patients were recruited and investigated as two separate cohorts to allow biomarker validation. Data analysis showed the most significant relationship between pre-treatment levels of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) and response to olanzapine (p=0.008, F=8.6, β=70.4 in the discovery cohort and p=0.003, F=15.2, β=24.4 in the validation cohort, adjusted for relevant confounding variables). In a functional follow-up analysis of this finding, we tested an independent cohort of 10 patients treated with olanzapine and found that baseline levels of plasma H-FABP and expression of the binding partner for H-FABP, fatty acid translocase (CD36), on monocytes predicted the reduction of psychotic symptoms (p=0.040, F=6.0, β=116.3 and p=0.012, F=11.9, β=-0.0054, respectively). We also identified a set of serum molecules changed after treatment with antipsychotic medication, in particular olanzapine. These molecules are predominantly involved in cellular development and metabolism. Taken together, our findings suggest an association between biomarkers involved in fatty acid metabolism and response to olanzapine, while other proteins may serve as surrogate markers associated with drug efficacy and side effects. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Converging evidence for the association of functional genetic variation in the serotonin receptor 2a gene with prefrontal function and olanzapine treatment.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Giuseppe; De Virgilio, Caterina; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Taurisano, Paolo; Gelao, Barbara; Fazio, Leonardo; Ursini, Gianluca; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Andriola, Ileana; Masellis, Rita; Romano, Raffaella; Rampino, Antonio; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Caforio, Grazia; Piva, Francesco; Popolizio, Teresa; Bellantuono, Cesario; Todarello, Orlando; Kleinman, Joel E; Gadaleta, Gemma; Weinberger, Daniel R; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) receptor 2a (5-HT2AR) signaling is important for modulation of corticostriatal pathways and prefrontal activity during cognition. Furthermore, newer antipsychotic drugs target 5-HT2AR. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the 5-HT2AR gene (HTR2A rs6314, C>T; OMIM 182135) has been weakly associated with differential 5-HT2AR signaling and with physiologic as well as behavioral effects. To use a hierarchical approach to determine the functional effects of this single-nucleotide polymorphism on 5-HT2AR messenger RNA and protein expression, on prefrontal phenotypes linked with genetic risk for schizophrenia, and on treatment with olanzapine. In silico predictions, in vitro, and case-control investigations. Academic and clinical facilities. The postmortem study included 112 brains from healthy individuals; the in vivo investigation included a total sample of 371 healthy individuals and patients with schizophrenia. EXPOSURES Patients received olanzapine monotherapy for 8 weeks. In silico predictions, messenger RNA, and protein expression in postmortem human prefrontal cortex and HeLa cells, functional magnetic resonance imaging prefrontal activity and behavior during working memory and attention in healthy individuals, and response to an 8-week trial of olanzapine treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that rs6314 alters patterns of splicing, with possible effects on HTR2A expression. Moreover, the T allele was associated with reduced prefrontal messenger RNA expression in postmortem prefrontal cortex, with reduced protein expression in vitro, inefficient prefrontal blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging response during working memory and attentional control processing, and impaired working memory and attention behavior, as well as with attenuated improvement in negative symptoms after olanzapine treatment. Our results suggest that HTR2A rs6314 affects 5-HT2AR expression and

  2. Intramuscular olanzapine versus intramuscular haloperidol plus lorazepam for the treatment of acute schizophrenia with agitation: An open-label, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Huang, Guan-Hua; Hsieh, Ming H; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Hwu, Hai-Gwo

    2015-05-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety profile between intramuscular (IM) olanzapine and IM haloperidol plus IM lorazepam in acute schizophrenic patients with moderate to severe agitation. This was a prospective, randomized, open-label study. Acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 67) were randomized to receive 10 mg IM olanzapine (n = 37) or 5 mg IM haloperidol plus 2 mg IM lorazepam (n = 30). Agitation was measured with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Excited Component (PANSS-EC) and Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES) during the first 2 hours and at 24 hours after the first injection. Safety was assessed using the Simpson-Angus Scale and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale and by recording adverse events at 24 hours following the first injection. The Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale was also rated. The PANSS-EC scores decreased significantly at 2 hours after the first injection in both groups (olanzapine: -10.2, p < 0.001; haloperidol + lorazepam: -9.9, p < 0.001). Haloperidol plus lorazepam was not inferior to olanzapine in reducing agitation at 2 hours. There were no significant differences in PANSS-EC or ACES scores between the two groups within 2 hours following the first injection. The frequencies of adverse events and changes in Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Simpson-Angus Scale, and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale scores from baseline to 24 hours showed no significant differences between the groups. The findings suggest that IM haloperidol (5 mg) plus lorazepam (2 mg) is not inferior to IM olanzapine (10 mg) in the treatment of acute schizophrenic patients with moderate to severe agitation (ClinialTrials.gov identifier number NCT00797277). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Quality by Design in the development of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography method with gradient elution for the analysis of olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Tumpa, Anja; Stajić, Ana; Jančić-Stojanović, Biljana; Medenica, Mirjana

    2017-02-05

    This paper deals with the development of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method with gradient elution, in accordance with Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) methodology, for the first time. The method is developed for olanzapine and its seven related substances. Following step by step AQbD methodology, firstly as critical process parameters (CPPs) temperature, starting content of aqueous phase and duration of linear gradient are recognized, and as critical quality attributes (CQAs) separation criterion S of critical pairs of substances are investigated. Rechtschaffen design is used for the creation of models that describe the dependence between CPPs and CQAs. The design space that is obtained at the end is used for choosing the optimal conditions (set point). The method is fully validated at the end to verify the adequacy of the chosen optimal conditions and applied to real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder with bipolar diathesis following isotretinoin therapy remitting upon treatment with olanzapine and fluvoxamine

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Isotretinoin, a drug used for moderate to severe acne, has been repeatedly associated with various psychiatric complications, although a definitive causal relationship has not been established to date. This case report describes a 25-year-old male who developed obsessive-compulsive disorder at the age of 23 years following isotretinoin treatment for acne (10–20 mg/day) since the age of 16 years. Although standard treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder caused mood swings, the combination of fluvoxamine 300 mg/day and olanzapine 15 mg/day significantly improves the clinical picture. Although rare, severe adulthood psychiatric complications may occur following isotretinoin treatment, requiring management which is individually tailored to the patient. PMID:21127690

  5. MK-801-induced deficits in social recognition in rats: reversal by aripiprazole, but not olanzapine, risperidone, or cannabidiol.

    PubMed

    Deiana, Serena; Watanabe, Akihito; Yamasaki, Yuki; Amada, Naoki; Kikuchi, Tetsuro; Stott, Colin; Riedel, Gernot

    2015-12-01

    Deficiencies in social activities are hallmarks of numerous brain disorders. With respect to schizophrenia, social withdrawal belongs to the category of negative symptoms and is associated with deficits in the cognitive domain. Here, we used the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) for induction of social withdrawal in rats and assessed the efficacy of several atypical antipsychotics with different pharmacological profiles as putative treatment. In addition, we reasoned that the marijuana constituent cannabidiol (CBD) may provide benefit or could be proposed as an adjunct treatment in combination with antipsychotics. Hooded Lister rats were tested in the three-chamber version for social interaction, with an initial novelty phase, followed after 3 min by a short-term recognition memory phase. No drug treatment affected sociability. However, distinct effects on social recognition were revealed. MK-801 reduced social recognition memory at all doses (>0.03 mg/kg). Predosing with aripiprazole dose-dependently (2 or 10 mg/kg) prevented the memory decline, but doses of 0.1 mg/kg risperidone or 1 mg/kg olanzapine did not. Intriguingly, CBD impaired social recognition memory (12 and 30 mg/kg) but did not rescue the MK-801-induced deficits. When CBD was combined with protective doses of aripiprazole (CBD-aripiprazole at 12 :  or 5 : 2 mg/kg) the benefit of the antipsychotic was lost. At the same time, activity-related changes in behaviour were excluded as underlying reasons for these pharmacological effects. Collectively, the combined activity of aripiprazole on dopamine D2 and serotonin 5HT1A receptors appears to provide a significant advantage over risperidone and olanzapine with respect to the rescue of cognitive deficits reminiscent of schizophrenia. The differential pharmacological properties of CBD, which are seemingly beneficial in human patients, did not back-translate and rescue the MK-801-induced social memory deficit.

  6. Optimal duration of risperidone or olanzapine adjunctive therapy to mood stabilizer following remission of a manic episode: A CANMAT randomized double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Yatham, L N; Beaulieu, S; Schaffer, A; Kauer-Sant'Anna, M; Kapczinski, F; Lafer, B; Sharma, V; Parikh, S V; Daigneault, A; Qian, H; Bond, D J; Silverstone, P H; Walji, N; Milev, R; Baruch, P; da Cunha, A; Quevedo, J; Dias, R; Kunz, M; Young, L T; Lam, R W; Wong, H

    2016-08-01

    Atypical antipsychotic adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate is effective in treating acute mania. Although continuation of atypical antipsychotic adjunctive therapy after mania remission reduces relapse of mood episodes, the optimal duration is unknown. As many atypical antipsychotics cause weight gain and metabolic syndrome, they should not be continued unless the benefits outweigh the risks. This 52-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial recruited patients with bipolar I disorder (n=159) who recently remitted from a manic episode during treatment with risperidone or olanzapine adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate. Patients were randomized to one of three conditions: discontinuation of risperidone or olanzapine and substitution with placebo at (i) entry ('0-weeks' group) or (ii) at 24 weeks after entry ('24-weeks' group) or (iii) continuation of risperidone or olanzapine for the full duration of the study ('52-weeks' group). The primary outcome measure was time to relapse of any mood episode. Compared with the 0-weeks group, the time to any mood episode was significantly longer in the 24-weeks group (hazard ratio (HR) 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33, 0.86) and nearly so in the 52-weeks group (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.39, 1.02). The relapse rate was similar in the 52-weeks group compared with the 24-weeks group (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.99); however, sub-group analysis showed discordant results between the two antipsychotics (HR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.17; 1.32 olanzapine patients; HR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.41 risperidone patients). Average weight gain was 3.2 kg in the 52-weeks group compared with a weight loss of 0.2 kg in the 0-weeks and 0.1 kg in the 24-weeks groups. These findings suggest that risperidone or olanzapine adjunctive therapy for 24 weeks is beneficial but continuation of risperidone beyond this period does not reduce the risk of relapse. Whether continuation of olanzapine beyond this period reduces relapse risk remains unclear

  7. A pooled analysis of injection site-related adverse events in patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine long-acting injection.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Susan; Detke, Holland C; McDonnell, David P; Case, Michael G; Wang, Shufang

    2014-01-14

    Depot antipsychotic injections are an important tool for the management of patients with schizophrenia who have difficulty with adherence to oral medication. However, pain and discomfort at the injection site can be a potential impediment to the use of these long-acting formulations. We report here the results of a pooled analysis of injection site-related adverse events (AEs) collected during treatment with the olanzapine long-acting injection (olanzapine LAI). Unsolicited injection site-related AEs were pooled from 7 olanzapine LAI clinical trials conducted in patients between March 2001 and December 2010. All patients had a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) or Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and were between the ages of 18 and 75. Doses ranged from 45 to 405 mg olanzapine LAI, and injection intervals were 2, 3, or 4 weeks. Events were evaluated for severity, timing, possible risk factors, and outcome. A criterion of p < .05 for statistical significance was used for all tests. A total of 1752 patients received at least 1 olanzapine LAI injection. Of these, 92 patients (5.3%) reported at least 1 injection site-related AE, with "pain" being the most common type (2.9%). Most events were mild (81.4%) and the median duration was 3 days. Four patients (0.2%) discontinued due to injection site-related AEs. Dose volume and body mass index did not appear to affect the probability of injection site-related AEs. However, patients who experienced a post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome event (n = 37) were more likely to have or have had an injection site-related AE at some time during the study. Incidence of injection site-related AEs appeared to decrease over time. In 94.2% of the injection site-related AEs, no specific treatment or concomitant medication was reported; in 9 cases, patients received pharmacologic treatment for reaction, mass, abscess, rash, or

  8. Frequency of sexual dysfunction and other reproductive side-effects in patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or haloperidol: the results of the EIRE study.

    PubMed

    Bobes, J; Garc A-Portilla, M P; Rejas, J; Hern Ndez, G; Garcia-Garcia, M; Rico-Villademoros, F; Porras, A

    2003-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics seem to differ mainly in their tolerability profile. The aim of this cross-sectional study, the Estudio de Investigaci n de Resultados en Esquizofrenia (Outcomes Research Study in Schizophrenia; EIRE study), was to assess in a clinical setting the frequency of several side-effects related to haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine. This article addresses sexual dysfunction and other reproductive side-effects (gynecomastia, menorrhage, amenorrhea, and galactorrhea). We recruited outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria and who had received a single antipsychotic (risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or haloperidol) for at least 4 weeks. During a single visit, we collected data, including demographic and clinical characteristics, current antipsychotic and concomitant treatment, and adverse effects listed in a modified version of the UKU Scale. We used a Chi-squared test to determine pairs comparisons of the frequency of adverse reactions between treatments. To estimate risk of a given adverse reaction with a given treatment, we used a logistic regression method. We assessed 636 evaluable patients out of 669 recruited. Frequency of sexual dysfunction was high with haloperidol (38.1%) and also with olanzapine (35.3%), quetiapine (18.2%), and risperidone (43.2%). We found the frequency of other reproductive side-effects to be relatively low with all four drugs: haloperidol (6.9%), olanzapine (6.4%), quetiapine (2.7%), and risperidone (11.7%). Sexual dysfunction appeared to be dose-related with haloperidol, risperidone, and olanzapine. Risperidone and olanzapine showed a higher risk of sexual dysfunction and other reproductive sideeffects than haloperidol. Quetiapine showed a lower risk of sexual dysfunction during short-term treatment (< 12 weeks). However, data on longer-term treatment (> 12 weeks) are lacking

  9. Reducing the rehospitalization risk after a manic episode: A population based cohort study of lithium, valproate, olanzapine, quetiapine and aripiprazole in monotherapy and combinations.

    PubMed

    Wingård, Louise; Bodén, Robert; Brandt, Lena; Tiihonen, Jari; Tanskanen, Antti; Kieler, Helle; Andersen, Morten; Reutfors, Johan

    2017-08-01

    Data on real-world rehospitalization risks in patients using different drugs and combination therapies for relapse prevention after a manic episode is limited. We conducted a nationwide population based cohort study using data from Swedish national registers. Swedish residents aged 18-75 years who were hospitalized for a manic episode between July 1, 2006 and December 2, 2014 were included. Prescription fills of lithium, valproate, olanzapine, quetiapine and aripiprazole were recorded throughout the first four weeks after hospital discharge, after which the patients were followed for up to one year. General and treatment specific rehospitalization risks were determined and results were adjusted for clinical and sociodemographic factors. The study included follow-up data from 6 502 hospitalizations for mania. Pharmacologic relapse prevention was used after 78% of these hospitalizations. Monotherapies and combination therapies were equally common. The average one-year rehospitalization risk for patients who did versus did not initiate prophylactic treatment was 39% and 46%, respectively. The lowest rehospitalization risks were seen in patients on combination therapy with olanzapine and valproate or olanzapine and lithium, experiencing one year rehospitalization risks of 32% and 34% (adjusted hazard ratios 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62-0.93) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.70-0.98), compared to lithium monotherapy). Register data does not provide information on all clinical parameters affecting treatment choices. One-year rehospitalization rates after a manic episode are considerable also for patients who initiate prophylactic treatment. Combination therapies including olanzapine and a classic mood-stabilizer may be beneficial for reducing rehospitalization risks after a manic episode. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Metformin plus sibutramine for olanzapine-associated weight gain and metabolic dysfunction in schizophrenia: a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Trino; Uzcátegui, Euderruh; Rangel, Nairy; El Fakih, Yamily; Galeazzi, Tatiana; Beaulieu, Serge; de Baptista, Enma Araujo

    2008-05-30

    Metformin (850-1700 mg) plus sibutramine (10-20 mg, n=13) or placebo (n=15) was administered for 12 weeks in olanzapine-treated chronic schizophrenia patients. Weight loss was similar in both groups: -2.8+/-3.2 kg vs. -1.4+/-2.6 kg. Except for preventing a triglyceride increase, the drug combination lacked efficacy for metabolic control in this clinical population.

  11. A Phase II study of palonosetron, aprepitant, dexamethasone and olanzapine for the prevention of cisplatin-based chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with thoracic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Haruyasu; Yokoyama, Kouichi; Omori, Shota; Wakuda, Kazushige; Ono, Akira; Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Naito, Tateaki; Nishiyama, Fumie; Kikugawa, Mami; Kaneko, Masayo; Iwamoto, Yumiko; Koizumi, Satomi; Mori, Keita; Isobe, Takeshi; Takahashi, Toshiaki

    2017-09-01

    The three-drug combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist, a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone is recommended for patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. However, standard antiemetic therapy is not completely effective in all patients. We conducted an open-label, single-center, single-arm Phase II study to evaluate the efficacy of olanzapine in combination with standard antiemetic therapy in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with thoracic malignancy receiving their first cycle of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Patients received 5 mg oral olanzapine on Days 1-5 in combination with standard antiemetic therapy. The primary endpoint was complete response (no vomiting and no use of rescue therapy) during the overall Phase (0-120 h post-chemotherapy). Twenty-three men and seven women were enrolled between May and October 2015. The median age was 64 years (range: 36-75 years). The most common chemotherapy regimen was 75 mg/m2 cisplatin and 500 mg/m2 pemetrexed, which was administered to 14 patients. Complete response rates in acute (0-24 h post-chemotherapy), delayed (24-120 h post-chemotherapy) and overall phases were 100%, 83% and 83% (90% confidence interval: 70-92%; 95% confidence interval: 66-93%), respectively. There were no Grade 3 or Grade 4 adverse events. Although four patients (13%) experienced Grade 1 somnolence, no patients discontinued olanzapine. The addition of 5 mg oral olanzapine to standard antiemetic therapy demonstrates promising efficacy in preventing cisplatin-based chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and an acceptable safety profile in patients with thoracic malignancy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Oral haloperidol or olanzapine intake produces distinct and region-specific increase in cannabinoid receptor levels that is prevented by high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Delis, Foteini; Rosko, Lauren; Shroff, Aditya; Leonard, Kenneth E; Thanos, Panayotis K

    2017-10-03

    Clinical studies show higher levels of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) in the brain of schizophrenic patients while preclinical studies report a significant functional interaction between dopamine D2 receptors and CB1Rs as well as an upregulation of CB1Rs after antipsychotic treatment. These findings prompted us to study the effects of chronic oral intake of a first and a second generation antipsychotic, haloperidol and olanzapine, on the levels and distribution of CB1Rs in the rat brain. Rats consumed either regular chow or high-fat food and drank water, haloperidol drinking solution (1.5mg/kg), or olanzapine drinking solution (10mg/kg) for four weeks. Motor and cognitive functions were tested at the end of treatment week 3 and upon drug discontinuation. Two days after drug discontinuation, rats were euthanized and brains were processed for in vitro receptor autoradiography. In chow-fed animals, haloperidol and olanzapine increased CB1R levels in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus, in a similar, but not identical pattern. In addition, olanzapine had unique effects in CB1R upregulation in higher order cognitive areas, in the secondary somatosensory cortex, in the visual and auditory cortices and the geniculate nuclei, as well as in the hypothalamus. High fat food consumption prevented antipsychotic-induced increase in CB1R levels in all regions examined, with one exception, the globus pallidus, in which they were higher in haloperidol-treated rats. The results point towards the hypothesis that increased CB1R levels could be a confounding effect of antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia that is circumveneted by high fat feeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Two models for weight gain and hyperphagia as side effects of atypical antipsychotics in male rats: validation with olanzapine and ziprasidone.

    PubMed

    Shobo, Miwako; Yamada, Hiroshi; Mihara, Takuma; Kondo, Yuji; Irie, Megumi; Harada, Katsuya; Ni, Keni; Matsuoka, Nobuya; Kayama, Yukihiko

    2011-01-20

    Body weight gain is one of the most serious side effects associated with clinical use of antipsychotics. However, the mechanisms by which antipsychotics induce body weight gain are unknown, and no reliable animal models of antipsychotics-induced weight gain have been established. The present studies were designed to establish male rat models of weight gain induced by chronic and acute treatment with antipsychotics. Six-week chronic treatment with olanzapine (5, 7.5, and 10mg/kg/day) in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a daily diet resembling a human macronutrient diet, significantly increased body weight gain and weight of fatty tissues. In contrast, ziprasidone (1.25, 2.5, and 5mg/kg/day) administration caused no observable adverse effects. We then investigated feeding behavior with acute antipsychotic treatment in male rats using an automated food measurement apparatus. Rats were allowed restricted access to normal laboratory chow (4h/day). With acute olanzapine (0.5, 1, and 2mg/kg, i.p.) treatment in the light phase, food intake volume and duration were significantly increased, while treatment with ziprasidone (0.3, 1, and 3mg/kg, i.p.) did not increase food intake volume or meal time duration. Findings from the present studies showed that chronic treatment with olanzapine in male rats induced body weight gain, and acute injection induced hyperphagia, suggesting that hyperphagia may be involved in the weight gain and obesity-inducing properties of chronically administered olanzapine. These animal models may provide useful experimental platforms for analysis of the mechanism of hyperphagia and evaluating the potential risk of novel antipsychotics to induce weight gain in humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Phencyclidine-induced Loss of Asymmetric Spine Synapses in Rodent Prefrontal Cortex is Reversed by Acute and Chronic Treatment with Olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    Elsworth, John D; Morrow, Bret A; Hajszan, Tibor; Leranth, Csaba; Roth, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    Enduring cognitive deficits exist in schizophrenic patients, long-term abusers of phencyclidine (PCP), as well as in animal PCP models of schizophrenia. It has been suggested that cognitive performance and memory processes are coupled with remodeling of pyramidal dendritic spine synapses in prefrontal cortex (PFC), and that reduced spine density and number of spine synapses in the medial PFC of PCP-treated rats may potentially underlie, at least partially, the cognitive dysfunction previously observed in this animal model. The present data show that the decrease in number of asymmetric (excitatory) spine synapses in layer II/III of PFC, previously noted at 1-week post PCP treatment also occurs, to a lesser degree, in layer V. The decrease in the number of spine synapses in layer II/III was sustained and persisted for at least 4 weeks, paralleling the observed cognitive deficits. Both acute and chronic treatment with the atypical antipsychotic drug, olanzapine, starting at 1 week after PCP treatment at doses that restore cognitive function, reversed the asymmetric spine synapse loss in PFC of PCP-treated rats. Olanzapine had no significant effect on spine synapse number in saline-treated controls. These studies demonstrate that the effect of PCP on asymmetric spine synapse number in PFC lasts at least 4 weeks in this model. This spine synapse loss in PFC is reversed by acute treatment with olanzapine, and this reversal is maintained by chronic oral treatment, paralleling the time course of the restoration of the dopamine deficit, and normalization of cognitive function produced by olanzapine. PMID:21677652

  15. Chronic Sleep Disruption and the Reexperiencing Cluster of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Are Improved by Olanzapine: Brief Review of the Literature and a Case-Based Series

    PubMed Central

    States, James H.; St.Dennis, Clarke D.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in young adults. Early diagnosis and treatment of PTSD are essential to avoid possible long-term neuropsychiatric changes in brain physiology and function. A cardinal symptom of PTSD is chronic sleep disruption, often with recurring nightmares. If untreated, PTSD symptoms often contribute to substance abuse and the development of other comorbid psychiatric disorders. Once PTSD is diagnosed, drug treatment should begin with antidepressant therapy. If antidepressants do not correct the sleep disruption, adjunctive treatment with the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine or other agents should be considered. Method: This case series reviews 7 cases of patients with PTSD (DSM-IV criteria) seen in primary care clinics who were successfully treated with olanzapine. In most cases, olanzapine therapy was adjunctive and followed failed treatment with antidepressant monotherapy for sleep disturbances. Results: All patients reported improved sleep with decreased or absent nightmares, as well as improvements in other PTSD symptom clusters. Conclusion: Further controlled studies are needed to better characterize and validate this therapeutic indication. PMID:15156234

  16. Olanzapine, but not clozapine, increases glutamate release in the prefrontal cortex of freely moving mice by inhibiting D-aspartate oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Sacchi, Silvia; Novellis, Vito De; Paolone, Giovanna; Nuzzo, Tommaso; Iannotta, Monica; Belardo, Carmela; Squillace, Marta; Bolognesi, Paolo; Rosini, Elena; Motta, Zoraide; Frassineti, Martina; Bertolino, Alessandro; Pollegioni, Loredano; Morari, Michele; Maione, Sabatino; Errico, Francesco; Usiello, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    D-aspartate levels in the brain are regulated by the catabolic enzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO). D-aspartate activates NMDA receptors, and influences brain connectivity and behaviors relevant to schizophrenia in animal models. In addition, recent evidence reported a significant reduction of D-aspartate levels in the post-mortem brain of schizophrenia-affected patients, associated to higher DDO activity. In the present work, microdialysis experiments in freely moving mice revealed that exogenously administered D-aspartate efficiently cross the blood brain barrier and stimulates L-glutamate efflux in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Consistently, D-aspartate was able to evoke L-glutamate release in a preparation of cortical synaptosomes through presynaptic stimulation of NMDA, mGlu5 and AMPA/kainate receptors. In support of a potential therapeutic relevance of D-aspartate metabolism in schizophrenia, in vitro enzymatic assays revealed that the second-generation antipsychotic olanzapine, differently to clozapine, chlorpromazine, haloperidol, bupropion, fluoxetine and amitriptyline, inhibits the human DDO activity. In line with in vitro evidence, chronic systemic administration of olanzapine induces a significant extracellular release of D-aspartate and L-glutamate in the PFC of freely moving mice, which is suppressed in Ddo knockout animals. These results suggest that the second-generation antipsychotic olanzapine, through the inhibition of DDO activity, increases L-glutamate release in the PFC of treated mice. PMID:28393897

  17. Expression changes of serotonin receptor gene subtype 5HT3a in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from schizophrenic patients treated with haloperidol and Olanzapin.

    PubMed

    Shariati, Gholam Reza; Ahangari, Ghasem; Hossein-nezhad, Arash; Asadi, Seyed Mohammad; Pooyafard, Farzaneh; Ahmadkhaniha, Hamid Reza

    2009-09-01

    Serotonin receptors are involved in pathophysiology of schizophrenia and may mediate other neurotransmitter effects. We investigated serotonin receptors gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of naïve schizophrenic patients, before and after treatment. Also serotonin receptor gene expression was compared in two treatment groups including Haloperidol and Olanzapine. The PBMC was separated from whole blood by Ficoll-hypaque. The total cellular RNA was extracted and the cDNA was synthesized. This process was followed by real-time PCR using primer pairs specific for 5HT(3a) serotonin receptor mRNA and beta-actin as internal control. The results showed the presence of subtype of serotonin receptor in lymphocytes. Serotonin gene expression showed significant changes in Olanzapine treatment group which correlated with Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score improvement. In conclusion, the present study has shown that human PBMC express serotonin receptors 5HT(3a). Moreover, clinical symptom improvement of Olanzapin may be demonstrated by a change in serotonin receptor gene expression.

  18. The effect of betahistine, a histamine H1 receptor agonist/H3 antagonist, on olanzapine-induced weight gain in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Poyurovsky, Michael; Pashinian, Artashes; Levi, Aya; Weizman, Ronit; Weizman, Abraham

    2005-03-01

    Histamine antagonism has been implicated in antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain. Betahistine, a histamine enhancer with H1 agonistic/H3 antagonistic properties (48 mg t.i.d.), was coadministered with olanzapine (10 mg/day) in three first-episode schizophrenia patients for 6 weeks. Body weight was measured at baseline and weekly thereafter. Clinical rating scales were completed at baseline and at week 6. All participants gained weight (mean weight gain 3.1+/-0.9 kg) and a similar pattern of weight gain was observed: an increase during the first 2 weeks and no additional weight gain (two patients) or minor weight loss (one patient) from weeks 3 to 6. None gained 7% of baseline weight, which is the cut-off for clinically significant weight gain. Betahistine was safe and well tolerated and did not interfere with the antipsychotic effect of olanzapine. Our findings justify a placebo-controlled evaluation of the putative weight-attenuating effect of betahistine in olanzapine-induced weight gain.

  19. Clozapine and olanzapine but not risperidone impair the pre-frontal striatal system in relation to egocentric spatial orientation in a Y-maze.

    PubMed

    Castro, Cibele Canal; Dos Reis-Lunardelli, Eleonora Araujo; Schmidt, Werner J; Coitinho, Adriana Simon; Izquierdo, Iván

    2007-11-01

    Many studies indicate a dissociation between two forms of orientation: allocentric orientation, in which an organism orients on the basis of cues external to the organism, and egocentric spatial orientation (ESO) by which an organism orients on the basis of proprioceptive information. While allocentric orientation is mediated primarily by the hippocampus and its afferent and efferent connections, ESO is mediated by the prefronto-striatal system. Striatal lesions as well as classical neuroleptics, which block dopamine receptors, act through the prefronto-striatal system and impair ESO. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of the atypical antipsychotics clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone which are believed to exert its antipsychotic effects mainly by dopaminergic, cholinergic and serotonergic mechanisms. A delayed-two-alternative-choice-task, under conditions that required ESO and at the same time excluded allocentric spatial orientation was used. Clozapine and olanzapine treated rats made more errors than risperidone treated rats in the delayed alternation in comparison with the controls. Motor abilities were not impaired by any of the drugs. Thus, with regard to the delayed alternation requiring ESO, clozapine and olanzapine but not risperidone affects the prefronto-striatal system in a similar way as classical neuroleptics does.

  20. Orally disintegrating and oral standard olanzapine tablets similarly elevate the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index and plasma triglyceride levels in 12 healthy men: a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Vidarsdottir, Solrun; Vlug, Pauline; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Frölich, Marijke; Pijl, Hanno

    2010-09-01

    Treatment with olanzapine is associated with obesity, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Reports have indicated that orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) cause less weight gain than oral standard tablets (OST). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of short-term treatment with these 2 distinct olanzapine formulations on glucose and lipid metabolism in healthy men. Twelve healthy men (mean ± SEM age: 25.1 ± 5.5 years) received olanzapine ODT (10 mg od, 8 days), olanzapine OST (10 mg od, 8 days), or no intervention in a randomized crossover design. At breakfast and dinner, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), and triglyceride concentrations were measured at 10-minute intervals from 30 minutes prior to 2 hours after ingestion of standard meals. Leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured at 20- and 30-minute intervals, respectively, between 0000h-1200h. Physical activity was assessed with an accelerometer. Fuel oxidation was measured in fasting condition by indirect calorimetry. The study was conducted from April 2006 through September 2006. Treatment with olanzapine ODT and OST equally elevated the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P = .005). At breakfast, both formulations equally increased fasting and postprandial triglyceride concentrations (P = .013 and P = .005, respectively) while decreasing fasting and postprandial FFA concentrations (P = .004 and P = .009, respectively). Body weight, body composition, physical activity, or fuel oxidation did not differ between treatment modalities. Eight days of treatment with both olanzapine formulations similarly increased HOMA-IR and triglyceride concentrations and decreased FFA concentrations in response to standard meals without affecting anthropometrics or physical activity. These data suggest that olanzapine hampers insulin action via mechanistic routes other than body adiposity or physical inactivity. controlled-trials.com. Identifier: ISRCTN17632637. © Copyright

  1. Efficacy and safety of olanzapine/fluoxetine combination in the treatment of treatment-resistant depression: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Shuxin; Wan, Hongquan; Wang, Shijun; Li, He; Zhang, Baogang

    2017-01-01

    Background Whether olanzapine/fluoxetine combination (OFC) is superior to olanzapine or fluoxetine monotherapy in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remains controversial. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the efficacy and safety of OFC with olanzapine or fluoxetine monotherapy for patients with TRD. Materials and methods RCTs published in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry were systematically reviewed to assess the efficacy and safety of OFC. Outcomes included mean changes from baseline in Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S), Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores, response rate, remission rate, and adverse events. Results were expressed with weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and risk ratio (RR) with 95% CIs. Results A total of five RCTs with 3,020 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with olanzapine or fluoxetine monotherapy, OFC was associated with greater changes from baseline in MADRS (WMD =−3.37, 95% CI: −4.76, −1.99; P<0.001), HAM-A (WMD =−1.82, 95% CI: −2.25, −1.40; P<0.001), CGI-S (WMD =−0.37, 95% CI: −0.45, −0.28; P<0.001), and BPRS scores (WMD =−1.46, 95% CI: −2.16, −0.76; P<0.001). Moreover, OFC had significantly higher response rate (RR =1.35, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.63; P=0.001) and remission rate (RR =1.71, 95% CI: 1.31, 2.23; P<0.001). The incidence of treatment-related adverse events was similar between the OFC and monotherapy groups (RR =1.01, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.08; P=0.834). Conclusion OFC is more effective than olanzapine or fluoxetine monotherapy in the treatment of patients with TRD. Our results provided supporting evidence for the use of OFC in TRD. However, considering the limitations in this study, more large-scale, well-designed RCTs are

  2. Use of Antipsychotics Pre- and Post-Dissemination of CATIE Data

    PubMed Central

    Kalali, Amir H.; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Hsiao, John; Keefe, Richard; Stroup, Scott

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the share of branded and generic antipsychotics before and after the publication of the CATIE results in September, 2005. According to our data, the publication of the CATIE results has had very little impact on new patient starts. To determine the impact of CATIE on use of olanzapine (Zyprexa®) subsequent to first line therapy, we also examined product share for switch/add patients. We found that since the publication of the CATIE results, the use of olanzapine has stabilized, following a decline subsequent to first line therapy, and may potentially be growing very slowly. An expert commentary is provided on the data. PMID:20806026

  3. Combination use of atomoxetine hydrochloride and olanzapine in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with comorbid disruptive behavior disorder in children and adolescents 10-18 years of age.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Barry; Lopes, Vasco; Lehman, Robert

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of atomoxetine and olanzapine in combination to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents 10-18 years of age. Eleven subjects ages 10-18 received open-label atomoxetine and olanzapine for a 10 week treatment period. Patients were assessed at baseline, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 10 weeks (posttreatment). ADHD improvement was measured through the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) (Investigator and Parent ratings). Aggression was measured through the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS). The combined use of atomoxetine and olanzapine resulted in statistically significant improvement in ADHD symptoms and overt aggression from baseline to posttreatment. As evidenced by a 33% reduction in symptoms on the ADHD-RS-I and the MOAS, 73% of patients were considered responders to ADHD treatment, whereas 55% responded to treatment for aggression. Both medications were generally well tolerated. Olanzapine treatment was associated with significant weight gain. Patients gained, on average, 3.9 kg. throughout the treatment period. These data provide initial evidence that combination use of atomoxetine and olanzapine for the treatment of ADHD and comorbid disruptive behaviors was effective in reducing ADHD symptoms and aggressive behavior in a 10 week treatment period.

  4. Mesoporous hydroxyapatite as a carrier of olanzapine for long-acting antidepression treatment in rats with induced depression.

    PubMed

    Shyong, Yan-Jye; Wang, Mao-Hsien; Kuo, Li-Wei; Su, Chang-Fu; Kuo, Wei-Ting; Chang, Kuo-Chi; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2017-06-10

    An antidepressant carrier, mesoporous hydroxyapatite olanzapine (mesoHAP-OLZ), was designed to maintain 3weeks of constant medication release. The carrier was intramuscularly (IM) injected, where cellular activity played a role in achieving the goal of constant release. The efficiency of the treatment was evaluated from 3 perspectives in in vivo studies: locomotor activities, biomarkers, and learning and memory ability. MesoHAP-OLZ can increase the locomotor activity in rats with induced depression determined by open field test (OFT) and forced swim test (FST). Serotonin (5-HT), one of the most important biomarker in depression can also be increased by mesoHAP-OLZ, leading to increased hippocampus activity as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). MesoHAP-OLZ can also improve learning and memory ability in rats with induced depression during Morris water maze (MWM) test. Our findings further show that mesoHAP-OLZ can provide long-term drug release with a single IM injection, helping to solve the problem of non-adherent medication intake that often occurs in antidepressant therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Pilot Study of the Usefulness of a Single Olanzapine Plasma Concentration as an Indicator of Early Drug Effect in a Small Sample of First-Episode Psychosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zabala, Arantzazu; Bustillo, Mariana; Querejeta, Imanol; Alonso, Marta; Mentxaka, Oiane; González-Pinto, Ana; Ugarte, Amaia; Meana, J. Javier; Gutiérrez, Miguel; Segarra, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose/Background Studies analyzing concentration-effect relationships in second-generation antipsychotics have reported contradictory results in chronic schizophrenia. No data are available for the early stages of the disease. The present study aims to evaluate the association between a single olanzapine plasma concentration, clinical response, and severity of adverse effects in first-episode psychosis (FEP); to test the utility of various plasma breakpoints as markers of early response to treatment; and to identify variables affecting olanzapine concentrations. Methods Data from 23 compliant FEP patients receiving olanzapine monotherapy (5–30 mg/d) were evaluated 2 months after beginning treatment. Clinical symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Adverse effects were rated using the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser scale. Plasma samples were drawn at 11 (SD, 1) hours after dosing and analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Findings Consistent with findings on chronic disease, dose, age, sex, weight, and cigarettes/day accounted for some of the variability in olanzapine concentrations. While no relationship was found between olanzapine concentrations and adverse effects or improvement of depressive symptoms, response of psychotic symptoms was associated with concentrations between 22.56 and 77.92 ng/mL. Plasma breakpoints did not show sufficiently high specificity, resulting in a large number of false-positive results. Implications Although olanzapine concentrations do not seem to be reliable indicators of early drug effect in FEP, they may still prove useful for detecting noncompliance, as well as pharmacokinetically relevant comorbidities or genetic particularities in drug metabolism. PMID:28796022

  6. Dose reduction of risperidone and olanzapine can improve cognitive function and negative symptoms in stable schizophrenic patients: A single-blinded, 52-week, randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanling; Li, Guannan; Li, Dan; Cui, Hongmei; Ning, Yuping

    2018-05-01

    The long-term effects of dose reduction of atypical antipsychotics on cognitive function and symptomatology in stable patients with schizophrenia remain unclear. We sought to determine the change in cognitive function and symptomatology after reducing risperidone or olanzapine dosage in stable schizophrenic patients. Seventy-five stabilized schizophrenic patients prescribed risperidone (≥4 mg/day) or olanzapine (≥10 mg/day) were randomly divided into a dose-reduction group ( n=37) and a maintenance group ( n=38). For the dose-reduction group, the dose of antipsychotics was reduced by 50%; for the maintenance group, the dose remained unchanged throughout the whole study. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, and Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery were measured at baseline, 12, 28, and 52 weeks. Linear mixed models were performed to compare the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects and MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery scores between groups. The linear mixed model showed significant time by group interactions on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptoms, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, speed of processing, attention/vigilance, working memory and total score of MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (all p<0.05). Post hoc analyses showed significant improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative subscale, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, speed of processing, working memory and total score of MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery for the dose reduction group compared with those for the maintenance group (all p<0.05). This study indicated that a risperidone or olanzapine dose reduction of 50% may not lead to more

  7. Predictors and correlates for weight changes in patients co-treated with olanzapine and weight mitigating agents; a post-hoc analysis.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Virginia L; Lipkovich, Ilya; Hoffmann, Vicki Poole; Heinloth, Alexandra N; McGregor, H Scott; Kinon, Bruce J

    2009-03-28

    This study focuses on exploring the relationship between changes in appetite or eating behaviors and subsequent weight change for adult patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder treated with olanzapine and adjunctive potential weight mitigating pharmacotherapy. The aim is not to compare different weight mitigating agents, but to evaluate patients' characteristics and changes in their eating behaviors during treatment. Identification of patient subgroups with different degrees of susceptibility to the effect of weight mitigating agents during olanzapine treatment may aid clinicians in treatment decisions. Data were obtained from 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 16-week clinical trials. Included were 158 patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and a body mass index (BMI) > or = 25 kg/m2 who had received olanzapine treatment in combination with nizatidine (n = 68), sibutramine (n = 42), or amantadine (n = 48). Individual patients were analyzed for categorical weight loss > or= 2 kg and weight gain > or = 1 kg. Variables that were evaluated as potential predictors of weight outcomes included baseline patient characteristics, factors of the Eating Inventory, individual items of the Eating Behavior Assessment, and the Visual Analog Scale. Predictors/correlates of weight loss > or = 2 kg included: high baseline BMI, low baseline interest in food, and a decrease from baseline to endpoint in appetite, hunger, or cravings for carbohydrates. Reduced cognitive restraint, increase in hunger, and increased overeating were associated with a higher probability of weight gain > or = 1 kg. The association between weight gain and lack of cognitive restraint in the presence of increased appetite suggests potential benefit of psychoeducational counseling in conjunction with adjunctive pharmacotherapeutic agents in limiting weight gain during antipsychotic drug therapy. This analysis was not a clinical trial and did not involve any medical intervention.

  8. Atypical antipsychotic olanzapine reversed deficit on prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex produced by microinjection of dizocilpine (MK-801) into the inferior colliculus in rats.

    PubMed

    Zangrando, Julia; Carvalheira, Renata; Labbate, Giovanna; Medeiros, Priscila; Longo, Beatriz Monteiro; Melo-Thomas, Liana; Silva, Regina Claudia Barbosa

    2013-11-15

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit deficits in an operational measure of sensorimotor gating: prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle. PPI is the normal reduction in the startle response caused by a low intensity non-startling stimulus (prepulse) which is presented shortly before the startle stimulus (pulse). MK-801 is an NMDA receptor-antagonist known to produce hyperactivity, deficits in prepulse inhibition and social withdrawal, behaviors which correlate well with some of the positive, cognitive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The inferior colliculus (IC) is a critical part of the auditory pathway mediating acoustic PPI. The activation of the IC by the acoustic prepulse reduces startle magnitude. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to elucidate the role of glutamatergic transmission in the IC on the expression of acoustic PPI. For that we investigated whether NMDA receptor stimulation or blockade would affect this response. Unilateral microinjections of NMDA (30 nmol/0.5 μL) into the IC did not alter PPI while microinjections of MK-801 (30 nmol/0.5 μL) into this structure disrupted PPI. We also examined the ability of the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine (5.0mg/kg; i.p.) to reverse the disruption of pre-pulse inhibition produced by unilateral microinjections of MK-801 into the IC of rats. Pretreatment with olanzapine blocked MK-801-induced disruption of PPI. Altogether, these results suggest that glutamate-mediated mechanisms of the IC are involved in the expression of PPI in rodents and that this response is sensitive to atypical antipsychotic olanzapine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel analog of olanzapine linked to sarcosinyl moiety (PGW5) demonstrates high efficacy and good safety profile in mouse models of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gil-Ad, Irit; Portnoy, Moshe; Tarasenko, Igor; Bidder, Miri; Kramer, Maria; Taler, Michal; Weizman, Abraham

    2014-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder related to hypo-functioning of glutamatergic neurotransmission. N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor (NMDA-R) positive modulators were reported to reduce schizophrenia symptoms. However, their efficacy is low and inconsistent. We developed a novel antipsychotic possessing an olanzapine moiety linked to the positive modulator of glutamate NMDA-R sarcosine (PGW5) and characterized the pharmacodynamic properties of the novel molecule in-vivo using MK-801 and in-vitro using receptor binding analysis. We investigated the pharmacological activity of PGW5 (olanzapine linked to sarcosinyl moiety) in male mice (BALB/c or C57BL). In an open field test, up to 50mg/kg PGW5 did not affect motility while higher doses were sedative. PGW5 (25-50mg/kg po) antagonized MK-801 (0.15 mg/kg ip) and amphetamine-induced (5mg/kg ip) hyperactivity. PGW5 (25mg/kg po/d) treatment for 15 or 22 days exhibited antidepressant and anxiolytic activity in mice. Moreover, PGW5, but not olanzapine, attenuated phencyclidine (PCP)-induced deficits of social preference in mice and promoted the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) in the hippocampus. Mice treated with PGW5 (25 and 50mg/kg/d) for 28 days did not show toxic effects in terms of weight gain and blood-chemistry analysis. PGW5 is a novel and safe antipsychotic, efficacious against schizophrenia-like positive and negative symptoms at nonsedative doses. The drug shows anxiolytic and antidepressant activity, and improves impaired social performance in phencyclidine (PCP) treated mice. The mechanism underlying its activity seems to involve potentiation of NMDA receptor as well as stimulation of brain BDNF and GAD67 expression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative determination of risperidone, paliperidone and olanzapine in human serum by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with on-line solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Can-Jun; Guo, Wei; Zhou, Miao; Guo, Gui-Xin; Wang, Chuan-Yue; Li, Wen-Biao; de Leon, Jose

    2018-07-01

    A recent guideline recommends therapeutic drug monitoring for risperidone, paliperidone and olanzapine, which are frequently used second-generation antipsychotics. We developed a simple high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with an online solid-phase extraction method that can be used to measure risperidone, paliperidone and olanzapine using small (40 μL) samples. The analytes were extracted from serum samples automatically pre-concentrated and purified by C 8 (5 μm, 2.1 × 30 mm) solid-phase extraction cartridges, then chromatographed on an Xbidge™ C 18 column (3.5 μm, 100 × 2.1 mm) thermostatted at 30°C with a mobile phase consisting of 70% acetonitrile and 30% ammonium hydroxide 1% solution at an isocratic flow rate of 0.3 mL/min, and detected with tandem mass spectrometry. The assay was validated in the concentration range from 2.5 to 160 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision for all analytes was between 1.1 and 8.2%; method accuracy was between 6.6 and 7.6%. The risperidone and paliperidone assay was compared with a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet assay currently used in our hospital for risperidone and paliperidone therapeutic drug monitoring, and the results of weighted Deming regression analysis showed good agreement. For the olanzapine assay, we compared 20 samples in separate re-assays on different days; all the relative errors were within the 20% recommended limit. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Weight management program for treatment-emergent weight gain in olanzapine-treated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: A 12-week randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jun Soo; Choi, Jung-Seok; Bahk, Won-Myoung; Yoon Kim, Chang; Hyung Kim, Chan; Chul Shin, Young; Park, Byung-Joo; Geun Oh, Chang

    2006-04-01

    The main objective was to assess the efficacy of a weight management program designed for outpatients taking olanzapine for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and to compare these patients with a randomized control group. The effects of the weight management program were also assessed with regard to safety and quality of life. Forty-eight patients were enrolled in a 12-week, randomized, multicenter weight management study. Thirty-three patients were randomly allocated to an intervention group in which they received olanzapine within a weight management program. Fifteen patients were allocated to a control group in which they were given olanzapine treatment as usual outpatients. Weight, body mass index (BMI), and measurements of safety and quality of life were evaluated. The study was conducted from January 7, 2003, to September 16, 2003. Thirty-six patients (75%) completed this study. We found significant differences in weight (-3.94 +/- 3.63 kg vs. -1.48 +/- 1.88 kg, p = .006) and BMI (-1.50 +/- 1.34 vs. -0.59 +/- 0.73, p = .007) change from baseline to endpoint between the intervention and control groups, respectively. Significant differences in weight reduction were initially observed at week 8 (p = .040). No significant differences were found with regard to the safety outcomes. When the ratio of low-density lipoproteins to high-density lipoproteins was calculated, change from baseline was greater in the intervention group than the control group (-0.19 vs. -0.04), but the difference was not statistically significant (p = .556). After the completion of the weight management program, there was a trend toward statistical difference in the physical health score changes between the weight management and control groups (1.12 in the intervention group vs. -0.93 in the control group, p = .067). The weight management program was effective in terms of weight reduction in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder taking olanzapine and was also found to

  12. Does participation in a weight control program also improve clinical and functional outcomes for Chinese patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine?

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamas; Ye, Wenyu; Xue, Hai Bo; Wu, Sheng Hu; Liu, Li; Kadziola, Zbigniew; Stensland, Michael D; Ascher-Svanum, Haya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined whether participation in a weight control program (WCP) by patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine was also associated with improvements in clinical and functional outcomes. Methods A post-hoc analysis was conducted using data from the Chinese subgroup (n=330) of a multi-country, 6-month, prospective, observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia who initiated or switched to oral olanzapine. At study entry and monthly visits, participants were assessed with the Clinical Global Impression of Severity, and measures of patient insight, social activities, and work impairment. The primary comparison was between the 153 patients who participated in a WCP at study entry (n=93) or during the study (n=60) and the 177 patients who did not participate in a weight control program (non-WCP). Mixed Models for Repeated Measures with baseline covariates were used to compare outcomes over time. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was used to assess time to response. Results Participants had a mean age of 29.0 years and 29.3 years, and 51.0% and 57.6% were female for WCP and non-WCP groups, respectively. Average initiated daily dose for olanzapine was 9.5±5.4 mg. WCP participants gained less weight than non-participants (3.9 kg vs 4.9 kg, P=0.03) and showed statistically significant better clinical and functional outcomes: greater improvement in illness severity (−2.8 vs −2.1, P<0.001), higher treatment response rates (94.1% vs 80.9%, P<0.001), shorter time to response (P<0.001), and greater improvement in patients’ insight (P<0.001). Patients who enrolled in a WCP during the study had greater initial weight gain than those who enrolled at baseline (P<0.05), but similar total weight gain. Conclusion Participation in a WCP may not only lower the risk of clinically significant weight gain in olanzapine-treated patients, but may also be associated with additional clinical and functional benefits. PMID:25031537

  13. A 52-Week Study of Olanzapine with a Randomized Behavioral Weight Counseling Intervention in Adolescents with Schizophrenia or Bipolar I Disorder.

    PubMed

    Detke, Holland C; DelBello, Melissa P; Landry, John; Hoffmann, Vicki Poole; Heinloth, Alexandra; Dittmann, Ralf W

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the 52-week safety/tolerability of oral olanzapine for adolescents with schizophrenia or bipolar mania and compare effectiveness of a standard versus intense behavioral weight intervention in mitigating risk of weight gain. Patients 13-17 years old with schizophrenia (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale for Children [BPRS-C] total score >30; item score ≥3 for hallucinations, delusions, or peculiar fantasies) or bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episode; Young Mania Rating Scale [YMRS] total score ≥15) received open-label olanzapine (2.5-20 mg/day) and were randomized to standard (n = 102; a single weight counseling session) or intense (n = 101; weight counseling at each study visit) weight intervention. The primary outcome measure was mean change in body mass index (BMI) from baseline to 52 weeks using mixed-model repeated measures. Symptomatology was also assessed. No statistically significant differences between groups were observed in mean baseline-to-52-week change in BMI (standard: +3.6 kg/m 2 ; intense: +2.8 kg/m 2 ; p = 0.150) or weight (standard: +12.1 kg; intense: +9.6 kg; p = 0.148). Percentage of patients at endpoint who had gained ≥15% of their baseline weight was 40% for the standard group and 31% for the intense group (p = 0.187). Safety/tolerability results were generally consistent with those of previous olanzapine studies in adolescents, with the most notable exception being the finding of a mean decrease in prolactin. On symptomatology measures, patients with schizophrenia had a mean baseline-to-52-week change in BPRS-C of -32.5 (standard deviation [SD] = 10.8), and patients with bipolar disorder had a mean change in YMRS of -16.7 (SD = 8.9), with clinically and statistically significant improvement starting at 3-4 days for each. Long-term weight gain was high in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between the standard or intense behavioral weight interventions in BMI or

  14. Long-term effects of asenapine or olanzapine in patients with persistent negative symptoms of schizophrenia: a pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Potkin, Steven G; Phiri, Phillip; Szegedi, Armin; Zhao, Jun; Alphs, Larry; Cazorla, Pilar

    2013-11-01

    A Phase 2 efficacy study suggested that asenapine (ASE) was superior to risperidone in decreasing negative symptoms in schizophrenia at 6 weeks, prompting design of two negative symptom studies. Two 26-week core studies with 26-week extensions compared asenapine (ASE: 5-10mg twice-daily] and olanzapine (OLA: 5-20mg once-daily) as monotherapies in reducing persistent negative symptoms (PNS). While neither study met the primary endpoint of superiority of ASE over OLA, ASE was statistically superior to OLA in one extension study. This prompted a pooled analysis of the treatment effects of both drugs. Data were pooled from two 26-week core studies and extensions. Efficacy endpoints: change in Negative Symptom Assessment scale-16 (NSA-16) total score at Week 26 (prespecified primary endpoint) and Week 52. Additional measures: change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)-total, Marder factors, negative subscale scores, Clinical Global Impression Severity of Illness score (CGI-S) assessments, NSA-16 factor domains, NSA global score, and individual items. Pooled data from the extension studies (n=502) showed no differences between ASE and OLA at Week 26. At Week 52, ASE showed superiority over OLA in NSA-16 total score, NSA global, PANSS Marder negative and PANSS negative subscales, some NSA-16 items, and four of five factor domains. In addition, pooled data for patients who entered the core trials (n=949) were analyzed over 52weeks (whether or not patients entered the extension). No significant differences between groups were observed in change in NSA-16 total score at 26-weeks. At Week 52, ASE was significantly superior over OLA in this measure, NSA global score and PANSS Marder negative factor. There were more early dropouts due to AEs, including worsening of the disease, in the ASE group. In this pooled analysis, ASE and OLA did not differ significantly over 26 weeks, but indicated a signal of superiority for ASE with continued treatment up to 52 weeks.

  15. BPC 157 counteracts QTc prolongation induced by haloperidol, fluphenazine, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, sulpiride, and metoclopramide in rats.

    PubMed

    Strinic, Dean; Belosic Halle, Zeljka; Luetic, Kresimir; Nedic, Ana; Petrovic, Igor; Sucic, Mario; Zivanovic Posilovic, Gordana; Balenovic, Dijana; Strbe, Sanja; Udovicic, Mario; Drmic, Domagoj; Stupnisek, Mirjana; Lovric Bencic, Martina; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2017-10-01

    Commonly, neuroleptics and prokinetics induce a prolonged QTc interval. In this study, stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 counteracts the prolongation of the QTc interval in Wistar rats that underwent daily administration of dopamine neuroleptics or prokinetics. Previously, in rats and mice, BPC 157 counteracted neuroleptic-induced catalepsy and gastric ulcers. To counteract neuroleptic- or prokinetic-induced prolongation of the QTc interval, rats were given a BPC 157 regimen once daily over seven days (10μg, 10ng/kg ip) immediately after each administrations of haloperidol (0.625, 6.25, 12.5, and 25.0mg/kg ip), fluphenazine (0.5, 5.0mg/kg ip), clozapine (1.0, 10.0mg/kg ip), quetiapine (1.0, 10.0mg/kg ip), sulpiride (1.6, 16.0mg/kg ip), metoclopramide (2.5, 25.0mg/kg ip) or (1.0, 10.0mg/kg ip). Controls simultaneously received saline (5ml/kg ip). To assess the ECG presentation before and after neuroleptic/prokinetic medication, the assessment was at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30min (first administration) as well as at 30min, 60min and 24h (first administration and subsequent administrations) and the ECG recording started prior to drug administration. Since very early, a prolonged QTc interval has been continually noted with haloperidol, fluphenazine, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, sulpiride, and metoclopramide in rats as a central common effect not seen with domperidone. Consistent counteraction appears with the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157. Thus, BPC 157 rapidly and permanently counteracts the QTc prolongation induced by neuroleptics and prokinetics. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is suited for counteracting a prolonged QT interval. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prior Haloperidol, but not Olanzapine, Exposure Augments the Pursuit of Reward Cues: Implications for Substance Abuse in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Samaha, Anne-Noël

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse and addiction are excessively common in schizophrenia. Chronic antipsychotic treatment might contribute to this comorbidity by inducing supersensitivity within the brain’s dopamine system. Dopamine supersensitivity can enhance the incentive motivational properties of reward cues, and reward cues contribute to the maintenance and severity of drug addiction. We have shown previously that rats withdrawn from continuous haloperidol (HAL) treatment (via subcutaneous minipump) develop dopamine supersensitivity and pursue reward cues more vigorously than HAL-naive rats following an amphetamine (AMPH) challenge. Atypical antipsychotic drugs are thought to be less likely than typicals to produce dopamine supersensitivity. Thus, we compared the effects of HAL and the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine (OLZ) on the pursuit of reward cues. Rats were trained to associate a light-tone cue with water then treated with HAL or OLZ. Following antipsychotic withdrawal, we assessed AMPH-induced enhancement of lever pressing for the cue. Withdrawal from HAL, but not from OLZ, enhanced this effect. HAL, but not OLZ, also enhanced AMPH-induced psychomotor activation and c-fos mRNA expression in the caudate-putamen. Thus, prior HAL, but not OLZ, enhanced conditioned reward following an AMPH challenge, and this was potentially linked to enhanced behavioral sensitivity to AMPH and AMPH-induced engagement of the caudate-putamen. These findings suggest that HAL, but not an atypical like OLZ, modifies reward circuitry in ways that increase responsiveness to reward cues. Because enhanced responsiveness to reward cues can promote drug-seeking behavior, it should be investigated whether atypical antipsychotics might be a preferential option in schizophrenic patients at risk for drug abuse or addiction. PMID:22927669

  17. Olanzapine-induced weight gain is associated with the -759C/T and -697G/C polymorphisms of the HTR2C gene.

    PubMed

    Godlewska, B R; Olajossy-Hilkesberger, L; Ciwoniuk, M; Olajossy, M; Marmurowska-Michałowska, H; Limon, J; Landowski, J

    2009-08-01

    Weight gain, a serious problem associated with some antipsychotic drugs, notably olanzapine and clozapine, was suggested to be associated with -759C/T polymorphism of the 5-HT2C receptor gene. This study aimed to examine a potential association of two functional polymorphisms of the promoter region of this gene: -759C/T (rs3813929) and -697G/C (rs518147), with weight gain after 6 weeks of olanzapine monotherapy. It included 107 patients with schizophrenia; among them 36 are first-episode drug-naive patients. Analysis was carried out by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. A protective effect of -759T and -697C alleles was found: significantly less patients with -697C (3/51) and no patient with -759T (0/28) alleles experienced body mass index increase >or=10% (P=0.0006 and 0.002, respectively). The same was true for drug-naive patients possessing any of the variant alleles. There was a significant association of haplotypes with a >or=10% body mass index increase (P=0.001). On the basis of the additional statistical analysis, the more important role of -697C allele was suggested.

  18. In Vivo Pharmacological Evaluations of Novel Olanzapine Analogues in Rats: A Potential New Avenue for the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Somayeh; Huang, Xu-Feng; Andrews, Jessica L.; Fernandez-Enright, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Olanzapine (Olz) is one of the most effective antipsychotic drugs commonly used for treating schizophrenia. Unfortunately, Olz administration is associated with severe weight gain and metabolic disturbances. Both patients and clinicians are highly interested in the development of new antipsychotics which are as effective as atypical antipsychotics but which have a lower propensity to induce metabolic side effects. In the present study, we examined two new derivatives of Olz; OlzEt (2-ethyl-4-(4′-methylpiperazin-1′-yl)-10Hbenzo[b]thieno[2,3-e][1,4]diazepine), and OlzHomo (2-ethyl-4-(4′-methyl-1′,4′-diazepan-1′-yl)-10H-benzo[b]thieno[2,3-e] [1,4]diazepine), for their tendency to induce weight gain in rats. Weight gain and metabolic changes were measured in female Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were treated orally with Olz, OlzEt, OlzHomo (3 or 6 mg/kg/day), or vehicle (n = 8), three times daily at eight-hour intervals for 5 weeks. Furthermore, a phencyclidine (PCP)-treated rat model was used to examine the prevention of PCP-induced hyperlocomotor activity relevant for schizophrenia therapy. Male Sprague Dawley rats were pre-treated with a single dose (3 mg/kg/day) of Olz, OlzEt, OlzHomo, or vehicle (n = 12), for 2 weeks. Locomotor activity was recorded following a subcutaneous injection with either saline or PCP (10 mg/kg). Olz was found to induce weight gain, hyperphagia, visceral fat accumulation, and metabolic changes associated with reduced histamatergic H1 receptor density in the hypothalamus of treated rats. In contrast, OlzEt and OlzHomo presented promising antipsychotic effects, which did not induce weight gain or fat deposition in the treated animals. Behavioural analysis showed OlzEt to attenuate PCP-induced hyperactivity to a level similar to that of Olz; however, OlzHomo showed a lower propensity to inhibit these stereotyped behaviours. Our data suggest that the therapeutic effectiveness of OlzHomo may be delivered at a higher dose than

  19. Asenapine for the treatment of adults with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia: results from a randomized, double-blind, fixed-dose, placebo-controlled trial with olanzapine as an active control.

    PubMed

    Landbloom, Ronald; Mackle, Mary; Wu, Xiao; Kelly, Linda; Snow-Adami, Linda; McIntyre, Roger S; Mathews, Maju; Hundt, Carla

    2017-08-01

    Evaluate the efficacy and safety of asenapine 2.5 mg twice daily (bid; n=97) or 5 mg bid (n=113) versus placebo (n=101) in adults with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. Adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) schizophrenia diagnosis were randomized to asenapine 2.5 mg bid, 5 mg bid, placebo, or olanzapine 15 mg once daily. The primary objective was to test superiority of asenapine versus placebo as measured by the change from baseline to day 42 in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score. The key safety objective was to evaluate weight change in asenapine versus olanzapine at day 42. The primary efficacy endpoint was met; the difference in least squares mean change from baseline to day 42 in PANSS total score between asenapine 5 mg bid and placebo was -5.5 points (unadjusted 95% CI: -10.1, -1.0; multiplicity adjusted P=0.0356). Neither asenapine 2.5 mg bid nor olanzapine 15mg were superior to placebo. Both asenapine groups demonstrated significantly less weight gain than olanzapine at day 42. Significantly higher incidences of oral hypoesthesia and dysgeusia (combined) for asenapine 2.5 mg bid (5.2% vs 0.0%; P=0.0217) and 5 mg bid (7.1% vs 0.0%; P=0.0033) were observed versus placebo. There were no significant differences between asenapine and placebo for insomnia, extrapyramidal symptoms, akathisia, dizziness, or combination of somnolence/sedation/hypersomnia. This study supports previous efficacy and safety findings of asenapine; asenapine 5 mg bid is the lowest effective dose in adults with schizophrenia. Asenapine was associated with significantly less weight gain than olanzapine at day 42.

  20. Electrophysiological basis for the ability of olanzapine to improve verbal memory and functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia: a LORETA analysis of P300.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Yuko; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Matsui, Mie; Arai, Hirofumi; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2008-04-01

    Abnormality of P300 waveforms of event-related potentials (ERPs) has been suggested to represent an aspect of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Previous work points to the contribution of altered neural function in discrete brain regions in the left hemisphere to psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. In this study, we sought to determine: 1) if patients with schizophrenia elicit a decreased P300 current source density in brain areas, such as the superior temporal gyrus (STG); 2) if decreased P300 generator density in the left STG is recovered by treatment with the most widely-used antipsychotic drug olanzapine; and 3) if the recovery of P300 source density is associated with improvements of cognitive and functional status. P300 in response to an auditory oddball task, as well as verbal learning memory, psychopathology, and quality of life were evaluated in 16 right-handed patients with schizophrenia before and after treatment with olanzapine for 6 months. ERP data were also obtained from 16 right-handed age and gender-matched normal volunteers. Low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) analysis was used to obtain current density images of P300. Patients with schizophrenia showed significantly smaller LORETA values in several brain regions in the left side, particularly STG, middle frontal gyrus, and precentral gyrus, compared with control subjects. Six-month treatment with olanzapine significantly increased P300 source density only in the left STG. Positive symptoms, negative symptoms, verbal learning memory, and quality of life were also improved during treatment. Significant correlations were found between the increase in LORETA values of left STG vs. improvements of negative symptoms, as measured by Scale for the Assessment of the Negative Symptoms, and verbal learning memory, as measured by the Japanese Verbal Learning Test. Improvement of quality of life, as evaluated by the Quality of Life Scale, were significantly

  1. DRD2/AKT1 interaction on D2 c-AMP independent signaling, attentional processing, and response to olanzapine treatment in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Blasi, Giuseppe; Napolitano, Francesco; Ursini, Gianluca; Taurisano, Paolo; Romano, Raffaella; Caforio, Grazia; Fazio, Leonardo; Gelao, Barbara; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Iacovelli, Luisa; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Popolizio, Teresa; Usiello, Alessandro; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The D2/AKT1/GSK-3β signaling pathway has been involved in the downstream intracellular effects of dopamine, in the pathophysiology of cognitive deficits and related brain activity in schizophrenia, as well as in response to treatment with antipsychotics. Polymorphisms in the D2 (DRD2 rs1076560) and AKT1 (AKT1 rs1130233) genes have been associated with their respective protein expression and with higher-order cognition and brain function, including attention. Given the strong potential for their relationship, we investigated the interaction of these polymorphisms on multiple molecular and in vivo phenotypes associated with this signaling pathway. We measured AKT1 and GSK-3β proteins and phosphorylation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, functional MRI cingulate response during attentional control, behavioral accuracy during sustained attention, and response to 8 wk of treatment with olanzapine in a total of 190 healthy subjects and 66 patients with schizophrenia. In healthy subjects, we found that the interaction between the T allele of DRD2 rs1076560 and the A allele of AKT1 rs1130233 was associated with reduced AKT1 protein levels and reduced phosphorylation of GSK-3β, as well as with altered cingulate response and reduced behavioral accuracy during attentional processing. On the other hand, interaction of these two alleles was associated with greater improvement of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores in patients with schizophrenia after treatment with olanzapine. The present results indicate that these functional polymorphisms are epistatically associated with multiple phenotypes of relevance to schizophrenia. Our results also lend support to further investigation of this downstream molecular pathway in the etiology and treatment of this disorder. PMID:21187413

  2. DRD2/AKT1 interaction on D2 c-AMP independent signaling, attentional processing, and response to olanzapine treatment in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Giuseppe; Napolitano, Francesco; Ursini, Gianluca; Taurisano, Paolo; Romano, Raffaella; Caforio, Grazia; Fazio, Leonardo; Gelao, Barbara; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Iacovelli, Luisa; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Popolizio, Teresa; Usiello, Alessandro; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2011-01-18

    The D2/AKT1/GSK-3β signaling pathway has been involved in the downstream intracellular effects of dopamine, in the pathophysiology of cognitive deficits and related brain activity in schizophrenia, as well as in response to treatment with antipsychotics. Polymorphisms in the D2 (DRD2 rs1076560) and AKT1 (AKT1 rs1130233) genes have been associated with their respective protein expression and with higher-order cognition and brain function, including attention. Given the strong potential for their relationship, we investigated the interaction of these polymorphisms on multiple molecular and in vivo phenotypes associated with this signaling pathway. We measured AKT1 and GSK-3β proteins and phosphorylation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, functional MRI cingulate response during attentional control, behavioral accuracy during sustained attention, and response to 8 wk of treatment with olanzapine in a total of 190 healthy subjects and 66 patients with schizophrenia. In healthy subjects, we found that the interaction between the T allele of DRD2 rs1076560 and the A allele of AKT1 rs1130233 was associated with reduced AKT1 protein levels and reduced phosphorylation of GSK-3β, as well as with altered cingulate response and reduced behavioral accuracy during attentional processing. On the other hand, interaction of these two alleles was associated with greater improvement of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores in patients with schizophrenia after treatment with olanzapine. The present results indicate that these functional polymorphisms are epistatically associated with multiple phenotypes of relevance to schizophrenia. Our results also lend support to further investigation of this downstream molecular pathway in the etiology and treatment of this disorder.

  3. Comparison of Antipsychotics for Metabolic Problems (CAMP): A randomized trial examining the effectiveness of switching from olanzapine, quetiapine, or risperidone to aripiprazole to reduce metabolic risk

    PubMed Central

    Stroup, T. Scott; McEvoy, Joseph P.; Ring, Kimberly D.; Hamer, Robert H.; LaVange, Lisa M.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Rosenheck, Robert A.; Perkins, Diana O.; Nussbaum, Abraham M.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We conducted a multi-site, randomized controlled trial examining the strategy of switching from olanzapine, quetiapine, or risperidone to aripiprazole to ameliorate metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Method Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder with BMI ≥ 27 and non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) ≥ 130 mg/dl on a stable dosage of olanzapine, quetiapine, or risperidone were randomly assigned to stay on the current medication (n=106) or switch to aripiprazole (n=109) for 24 weeks. All participants were enrolled in a behaviorally oriented diet and exercise program. Raters were blinded to treatment assignment. The primary and key secondary outcomes were non-HDL-C change and efficacy failure, respectively. Results The pre-specified primary analysis included 89 switchers and 98 stayers who had at least one post-baseline non-HDL-C measurement. The least squares mean estimates of non-HDL-C decreased more for the switch than the stay groups (−20.2 vs. −10.8 mg/dl). Switching was associated with larger reductions in weight (2.9 kg) and a net reduction of serum triglycerides of 32.7 mg/dl. Twenty-two (20.6%) switchers and 18 (17.0%) stayers experienced protocol-defined efficacy failure. Forty-seven (43.9%) switchers and 26 (24.5%) stayers discontinued the assigned antipsychotic before 24 weeks. Conclusion Switching to aripiprazole led to improvement of non-HDL-C and other metabolic parameters. Rates of efficacy failure were similar between groups, but switching to aripiprazole was associated with a higher rate of treatment discontinuation. In the context of close clinical monitoring, switching from an antipsychotic with high metabolic risk to one with lower risk to improve metabolic parameters is an effective strategy. PMID:21768610

  4. Efficacy and safety of olanzapine combined with aprepitant, palonosetron, and dexamethasone for preventing nausea and vomiting induced by cisplatin-based chemotherapy in gynecological cancer: KCOG-G1301 phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masakazu; Hirashima, Yasuyuki; Kasamatsu, Yuka; Kado, Nobuhiro; Komeda, Satomi; Kuji, Shiho; Tanaka, Aki; Takahashi, Nobutaka; Takekuma, Munetaka; Hihara, Hanako; Ichikawa, Yoshikazu; Itonaga, Yui; Hirakawa, Tomoko; Nasu, Kaei; Miyagi, Kanoko; Murakami, Junko; Ito, Kimihiko

    2016-02-01

    Olanzapine is effective in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). In patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC), its efficacy was reported as rescue therapy for breakthrough emesis refractory to triplet therapy (palonosetron, aprepitant, and dexamethasone). However, its preventive effects with triplet therapy for CINV are unknown. This study aimed to investigate efficacy and safety of preventive use of olanzapine with triplet therapy for CINV of HEC. This study is a prospective multicenter study conducted by Kansai Clinical Oncology Group. Forty chemo-naïve gynecological cancer patients receiving HEC with cisplatin (≥50 mg/m(2)) were enrolled. Oral olanzapine (5 mg) was administered with triplet therapy a day prior to cisplatin administration and on days 1-5. The primary endpoint was complete response (no vomiting and no rescue) rate for the overall phase (0-120 h post-chemotherapy). Secondary endpoints were complete response rate for acute phase (0-24 h post-chemotherapy) and delayed phase (24-120 h post-chemotherapy) and complete control (no vomiting, no rescue, and no significant nausea) rate and total control (no vomiting, no rescue, and no nausea) rate for each phase. These endpoints were evaluated during the first cycle of chemotherapy. Complete response rates for acute, delayed, and overall phases were 97.5, 95.0, and 92.5 %, respectively. Complete control rates were 92.5, 87.5, and 82.5 %, respectively. Total control rates were 87.5, 67.5, and 67.5 %, respectively. There were no grade 3 or 4 adverse events. Preventive use of olanzapine combined with triplet therapy gives better results than those from previously reported studies of triplet therapy.

  5. Tianeptine, olanzapine and fluoxetine show similar restoring effects on stress induced molecular changes in mice brain: An FT-IR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Mutlu, Oğuz; Çelikyurt, İpek K.; Akar, Furuzan; Ulak, Güner

    2016-05-01

    Chronic stress which can cause a variety of disorders and illness ranging from metabolic and cardiovascular to mental leads to alterations in content, structure and dynamics of biomolecules in brain. The determination of stress-induced changes along with the effects of antidepressant treatment on these parameters might bring about more effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced changes in biomolecules in mouse brain and the restoring effects of tianeptine (TIA), olanzapine (OLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on these variations, by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that chronic stress causes different membrane packing and an increase in lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity. A significant increment for lipid/protein, Cdbnd O/lipid, CH3/lipid, CH2/lipid, PO-2/lipid, COO-/lipid and RNA/protein ratios but a significant decrease for lipid/protein ratios were also obtained. Additionally, altered protein secondary structure components were estimated, such as increment in random coils and beta structures. The administration of TIA, OLZ and FLX drugs restored these stress-induced variations except for alterations in protein structure and RNA/protein ratio. This may suggest that these drugs have similar restoring effects on the consequences of stress activity in brain, in spite of the differences in their action mechanisms. All findings might have importance in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying chronic stress and contribute to studies aimed for drug development.

  6. The Influence of Drug Physical State on the Dissolution Enhancement of Solid Dispersions Prepared Via Hot-Melt Extrusion: A Case Study Using Olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Maria Fátima; Zhao, Min; Pinto, João F; Sousa, João J; Craig, Duncan Q M

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine the relationship between the physical structure and dissolution behavior of olanzapine (OLZ) prepared via hot-melt extrusion in three polymers [polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K30, polyvinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate (PVPVA) 6:4, and Soluplus® (SLP)]. In particular, we examine whether full amorphicity is necessary to achieve a favorable dissolution profile. Drug–polymer miscibility was estimated using melting point depression and Hansen solubility parameters. Solid dispersions were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. All the polymers were found to be miscible with OLZ in a decreasing order of PVP>PVPVA>SLP. At a lower extrusion temperature (160°C), PVP generated fully amorphous dispersions with OLZ, whereas the formulations with PVPVA and SLP contained 14%–16% crystalline OLZ. Increasing the extrusion temperature to 180°C allowed the preparation of fully amorphous systems with PVPVA and SLP. Despite these differences, the dissolution rates of these preparations were comparable, with PVP showing a lower release rate despite being fully amorphous. These findings suggested that, at least in the particular case of OLZ, the absence of crystalline material may not be critical to the dissolution performance. We suggest alternative key factors determining dissolution, particularly the dissolution behavior of the polymers themselves. PMID:24765654

  7. Concurrent determination of olanzapine, risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection method: application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Siva Selva Kumar, M; Ramanathan, M

    2016-02-01

    A simple and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of olanzapine (OLZ), risperidone (RIS) and 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OHRIS) in human plasma in vitro. The sample preparation was performed by simple liquid-liquid extraction technique. The analytes were chromatographed on a Waters Acquity H class UPLC system using isocratic mobile phase conditions at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min and Acquity UPLC BEH shield RP18 column maintained at 40°C. Quantification was performed on a photodiode array detector set at 277 nm and clozapine was used as internal standard (IS). OLZ, RIS, 9-OHRIS and IS retention times were found to be 0.9, 1.4, .1.8 and 3.1 min, respectively, and the total run time was 4 min. The method was validated for selectivity, specificity, recovery, linearity, accuracy, precision and sample stability. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 1-100 ng/mL for OLZ, RIS and 9-OHRIS. Intra- and inter-day precisions for OLZ, RIS and 9-OHRIS were found to be good with the coefficient of variation <6.96%, and the accuracy ranging from 97.55 to 105.41%, in human plasma. The validated UPLC method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of RIS and 9-OHRIS in human plasma. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Efficacy and safety of olanzapine/fluoxetine combination vs fluoxetine monotherapy following successful combination therapy of treatment-resistant major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Elizabeth; Tohen, Mauricio; Osuntokun, Olawale; Landry, John; Thase, Michael E

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed prevention of relapse in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) taking olanzapine/fluoxetine combination (OFC). Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who failed to satisfactorily respond to ≥ 2 different antidepressants for ≥ 6 weeks within the current MDD episode were acutely treated for 6-8 weeks, followed by stabilization (12 weeks) on OFC. Those who remained stable were randomized to OFC or fluoxetine for up to 27 weeks. Time-to-relapse was the primary efficacy outcome defined as 50% increase in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score with Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Depression score of ≥ 4; hospitalization for depression or suicidality; or discontinuation for lack of efficacy or worsening of depression or suicidality. A total of 444 patients were randomized 1:1 to OFC (N=221) or fluoxetine (N=223). Time-to-relapse was significantly longer in OFC-treated patients compared with fluoxetine-treated patients (p<0.001). Treatment-emergent weight gain and some mean and categorical fasting metabolic changes were significantly greater in OFC-treated patients. Clinically significant weight gain (≥ 7%) was observed in 55.7% of patients who remained on OFC throughout the study, including the relapse-prevention phase (up to 47 weeks). There were no significant differences between patients treated with OFC and fluoxetine in extrapyramidal symptoms or serious adverse events. We believe this is the first controlled relapse-prevention study in subjects with TRD that supports continued use of a second-generation antipsychotic beyond stabilization. A thorough assessment of benefits and risks (in particular metabolic changes) associated with continuing treatment with OFC or fluoxetine must be done based on individual patient needs.

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Olanzapine/Fluoxetine Combination vs Fluoxetine Monotherapy Following Successful Combination Therapy of Treatment-Resistant Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Elizabeth; Tohen, Mauricio; Osuntokun, Olawale; Landry, John; Thase, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed prevention of relapse in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) taking olanzapine/fluoxetine combination (OFC). Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who failed to satisfactorily respond to ⩾2 different antidepressants for ⩾6 weeks within the current MDD episode were acutely treated for 6–8 weeks, followed by stabilization (12 weeks) on OFC. Those who remained stable were randomized to OFC or fluoxetine for up to 27 weeks. Time-to-relapse was the primary efficacy outcome defined as 50% increase in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score with Clinical Global Impressions−Severity of Depression score of ⩾4; hospitalization for depression or suicidality; or discontinuation for lack of efficacy or worsening of depression or suicidality. A total of 444 patients were randomized 1:1 to OFC (N=221) or fluoxetine (N=223). Time-to-relapse was significantly longer in OFC-treated patients compared with fluoxetine-treated patients (p<0.001). Treatment-emergent weight gain and some mean and categorical fasting metabolic changes were significantly greater in OFC-treated patients. Clinically significant weight gain (⩾7%) was observed in 55.7% of patients who remained on OFC throughout the study, including the relapse-prevention phase (up to 47 weeks). There were no significant differences between patients treated with OFC and fluoxetine in extrapyramidal symptoms or serious adverse events. We believe this is the first controlled relapse-prevention study in subjects with TRD that supports continued use of a second-generation antipsychotic beyond stabilization. A thorough assessment of benefits and risks (in particular metabolic changes) associated with continuing treatment with OFC or fluoxetine must be done based on individual patient needs. PMID:24801768

  10. Development of a stability-indicating UPLC method for determining olanzapine and its associated degradation products present in active pharmaceutical ingredients and pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Ch; Vishnu Murthy, M; Kumar, Ramesh; Mukkanti, K

    2011-03-25

    A simple, sensitive and reproducible ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with a photodiode array detector method was developed for the quantitative determination of olanzapine (OLN) in API and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is applicable to the quantification of related substances and assays of drug substances. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Acquity UPLC BEH 100-mm, 2.1-mm, and 1.7-μm C-18 columns, and the gradient eluted within a short runtime, i.e., within 10.0 min. The eluted compounds were monitored at 250 nm, the flow rate was 0.3 mL/min, and the column oven temperature was maintained at 27°C. The resolution of OLN and eight (potential, bi-products and degradation) impurities was greater than 2.0 for all pairs of components. The high correlation coefficient (r(2)>0.9991) values indicated clear correlations between the investigated compound concentrations and their peak areas within the test ranges. The repeatability and intermediate precision, expressed by the RSD, were less than 2.4%. The accuracy and validity of the method were further ascertained by performing recovery studies via a spike method. The accuracy of the method expressed as relative error was satisfactory. No interference was observed from concomitant substances normally added to the tablets. The drug was subjected to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH)-prescribed hydrolytic, oxidative, photolytic and thermal stress conditions. The performance of the method was validated according to the present ICH guidelines for specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy, precision, ruggedness and robustness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dose reduction of risperidone and olanzapine and estimated dopamine D₂ receptor occupancy in stable patients with schizophrenia: findings from an open-label, randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Suzuki, Takefumi; Bies, Robert R; Remington, Gary; Watanabe, Koichiro; Mimura, Masaru; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    While acute-phase antipsychotic response has been attributed to 65%-80% dopamine D₂ receptor blockade, the degree of occupancy for relapse prevention in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia remains unknown. In this secondary study of an open-label, 28-week, randomized, controlled trial conducted between April 2009 and August 2011, clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) treated with risperidone or olanzapine were randomly assigned to the reduction group (dose reduced by 50%) or maintenance group (dose kept constant). Plasma antipsychotic concentrations at peak and trough before and after dose reduction were estimated with population pharmacokinetic techniques, using 2 collected plasma samples. Corresponding dopamine D₂ occupancy levels were then estimated using the model we developed. Relapse was defined as worsening in 4 Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Positive subscale items: delusion, conceptual disorganization, hallucinatory behavior, and suspiciousness. Plasma antipsychotic concentrations were available for 16 and 15 patients in the reduction and maintenance groups, respectively. Estimated dopamine D₂ occupancy (mean ± SD) decreased following dose reduction from 75.6% ± 4.9% to 66.8% ± 6.4% at peak and 72.3% ± 5.7% to 62.0% ± 6.8% at trough. In the reduction group, 10 patients (62.5%) did not demonstrate continuous D₂ receptor blockade above 65% (ie, < 65% at trough) after dose reduction; furthermore, 7 patients (43.8%) did not achieve a threshold of 65% occupancy even at peak. Nonetheless, only 1 patient met our relapse criteria after dose reduction during the 6 months of the study. The results suggest that the therapeutic threshold regarding dopamine D₂ occupancy may be lower for those who are stable in antipsychotic maintenance versus acute-phase treatment. Positron emission tomography studies are warranted to further test our preliminary findings. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry identifier: UMIN000001834. © Copyright

  12. Doses of olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol used in clinical practice: results of a prospective pharmacoepidemiologic study. EFESO Study Group. Estudio Farmacoepidemiologico en la Esquizofrenia con Olanzapina.

    PubMed

    Sacristán, J A; Gómez, J C; Montejo, A L; Vieta, E; Gregor, K J

    2000-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the doses of olanzapine (OLZ), risperidone (RIS), and haloperidol (HAL) used in clinical practice in outpatients with schizophrenia and the rates of occurrence of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and other adverse events, clinical response, and use of concomitant medications. The present study involved a subset of patients from a 6-month, open-label, prospective observational study. Data were collected by 293 psychiatrists at mental health centers and other outpatient treatment facilities in Spain. Medications and doses used, occurrence of EPS and other adverse events, and scores on the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) of Severity Scale and Global Assessment of Function (GAF) were recorded. Clinical response was defined as a decrease of > or = 2 points on the CGI, with a final CGI score < or = 4. A total of 2657 patients were included in the analysis. The initial and overall mean daily doses for the 3 groups were as follows: OLZ, 12.2 and 13.0 mg, respectively; RIS, 5.2 and 5.4 mg; and HAL, 13.9 and 13.6 mg. Initial and overall median daily doses were the same in each group: OLZ, 10 mg; RIS, 6 mg; and HAL, 10 mg. A significantly lower proportion of OLZ-treated patients (36.9%) experienced EPS compared with RIS-treated (49.6%) and HAL-treated (76.0%) patients (P < or = 0.001). A significantly lower proportion of patients in the OLZ group (47.8%) experienced adverse events compared with patients in the RIS (57.2%) and HAL (79.8%) groups (P < or = 0.001). A significantly greater proportion of OLZ-treated patients (37.3%) were responders compared with RIS-treated patients (31.5%) (P < 0.05). In all 3 groups, patients who had an initial CGI score > or = 5 received significantly higher overall mean daily doses than did patients with an initial CGI score < 5 (P < 0.001). A significantly lower proportion of OLZ-treated patients (10.2%) were receiving concomitant anticholinergic medication at the end of the study (month 6

  13. Predictive value of early changes in triglycerides and weight for longer-term changes in metabolic measures during olanzapine, ziprasidone or aripiprazole treatment for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder post hoc analyses of 3 randomized, controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Vicki P; Case, Michael; Stauffer, Virginia L; Jacobson, Jennie G; Conley, Robert R

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if early changes in triglycerides and weight may be useful in predicting longer-term changes in weight and other metabolic parameters. Data were from three 24- to 28-week randomized, controlled studies comparing olanzapine to ziprasidone or aripiprazole for treatment of schizophrenia. Analyses were restricted to completers with fasting laboratory data at all protocol specified time points. Analyses were primarily descriptive and included mean changes and categorical outcomes. In all treatment groups, participants who did not experience a 20 mg/dL or greater increase in triglycerides at early time points were unlikely to experience a change of 50 mg/dL or more in triglycerides after 6 months. Negative predictive values were 83% to 95%. However, early change in triglycerides was not useful for predicting later change in glucose, cholesterol, or weight. Similarly, early weight change gave robust negative predictive values for longer-term weight change (≥10 kg), but not for change in glucose or cholesterol. Lack of early elevation in triglyceride concentrations was predictive of later lack of substantial increase in triglycerides in olanzapine-, ziprasidone-, and aripiprazole-treated participants. Lack of early elevation in weight was predictive of later lack of substantial increase in weight in all 3 treatment groups. Early monitoring of triglyceride concentrations and weight may help clinicians assess risk that individuals will experience significant increase in triglycerides or weight gain, allowing assessments of potential risks and benefits earlier in treatment. Clinical monitoring is advised throughout treatment for all patients.

  14. Gabapentin pharmacotherapy for antipsychotic-induced akathisia: single-patient experiment and case report.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Maria A; Wilbur, Robert

    2014-04-01

    This clinical study reports upon the efficacy of gabapentin (Neurontin) for treating severe akathisia (3 on the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale) in two patients receiving quetiapine (Seroquel), one of whom also received olanzapine (Zyprexa) for a short period. The first patient participated in an open-label experiment in which the bedtime dose of gabapentin was discontinued three times at intervals 1 week apart, resulting in severe akathisia which was quickly terminated by taking his usual 1200 mg gabapentin dose. This patient was also taking high doses of two benzodiazepines and a beta blocker, without therapeutic effect upon his akathisia; only gabapentin was efficacious. The second case is a report of a woman taking a high dose of quetiapine for anxiety who experienced severe akathisia which was relieved by taking 1200 mg of gabapentin. Possible mechanisms of action of gabapentin are discussed. Particular attention is drawn to the difference between neuroleptic-induced akathisia and the neurological condition of restless legs syndrome.

  15. 75 FR 17927 - Kevin Xu: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... products that bore the trademarks ZYPREXA, TAMIFLU, CASODEX, PLAVIX, and ARICEPT without the authorization... States various blister strips containing counterfeit TAMIFLU, CASODEX, ZYPREXA, and PLAVIX. On or about... of drugs that were misbranded, namely a shipment containing blister strips of PLAVIX pills that were...

  16. In vitro/in vivo evaluation of an optimized fast dissolving oral film containing olanzapine co-amorphous dispersion with selected carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Maher, Eman Magdy; Ali, Ahmed Mahmoud Abdelhaleem; Salem, Heba Farouk; Abdelrahman, Ahmed Abdelbary

    2016-10-01

    Improvement of water solubility, dissolution rate, oral bioavailability, and reduction of first pass metabolism of OL (OL), were the aims of this research. Co-amorphization of OL carboxylic acid dispersions at various molar ratios was carried out using rapid solvent evaporation. Characterization of the dispersions was performed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dispersions with highest equilibrium solubility were formulated as fast dissolving oral films. Modeling and optimization of film formation were undertaken using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The results indicated co-amorphization of OL-ascorbic acid through H-bonding. The co-amorphous dispersions at 1:2 molar ratio showed more than 600-fold increase in solubility of OL. The model optimized fast dissolving film prepared from the dispersion was physically and chemically stable, demonstrated short disintegration time (8.5 s), fast dissolution (97% in 10 min) and optimum tensile strength (4.9 N/cm 2 ). The results of in vivo data indicated high bioavailability (144 ng h/mL) and maximum plasma concentration (14.2 ng/mL) compared with the marketed references. Therefore, the optimized co-amorphous OL-ascorbic acid fast dissolving film could be a valuable solution for enhancing the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of OL.

  17. Methadone

    MedlinePlus

    ... asenapine (Saphris), cariprazine (Vraylar), chlorpromazine, clozapine (Versacloz), fluphenazine, haloperidol (Haldol), iloperidone (Fanapt), loxapine, lurasidone (Latuda), molindone, olanzapine ( ...

  18. Buprenorphine Sublingual and Buccal (opioid dependence)

    MedlinePlus

    ... asenapine (Saphris), cariprazine (Vraylar), chlorpromazine, clozapine (Versacloz), fluphenazine, haloperidol (Haldol), iloperidone (Fanapt), loxapine, lurasidone (Latuda), molindone, olanzapine ( ...

  19. Overlapping of Serotonin Syndrome with Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome due to Linezolid-Fluoxetine and Olanzapine-Metoclopramide Interactions: A Case Report of Two Serious Adverse Drug Effects Caused by Medication Reconciliation Failure on Hospital Admission.

    PubMed

    Mazhar, Faizan; Akram, Shahzad; Haider, Nafis; Ahmed, Rafeeque

    2016-01-01

    Antipsychotic and antidepressant are often used in combination for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. The concomitant use of antipsychotic and/or antidepressant with drugs that may interact can lead to rare, life-threatening conditions such as serotonin syndrome and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. We describe a patient who has a history of taking two offending drugs that interact with drugs given during the course of hospital treatment which leads to the development of serotonin syndrome overlapped with neuroleptic malignant syndrome. The physician should be aware that both NMS and SS can appear as overlapping syndrome especially when patients use a combination of both antidepressants and antipsychotics.

  20. [Lipid spectrum changes and ECG in patients with paranoid schizophrenia in the course of therapy with atypical antipsychotics].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, L P; Parshukova, D A; Borodyuk, Yu N; Kornetova, E G; Tkacheva, G D; Seregin, A A; Burdovitsina, T G; Semke, A V

    2015-01-01

    To study correlations between parameters of lipid metabolism and ECG in patients with schizophrenia in light of therapy with atypical antipsychotics. We examined 42 patients with paranoid schizophrenia. All patients received atypical neuroleptics - seroquel, zyprexa, and rispolept. A group of controls included 25 healthy people. There was a significant increase (p=0.0002) in body mass (in average by 1.5 kg) in 88% patients. A significant increase in the concentration of serum triglycerides was identified as well. The concentration of VLDL in the patients with schizophrenia was 2 times higher compared to controls. After treatment, VLDL concentration increased even more considerably An increase in atherogenic index (AI) was up to 3.1 in patients with schizophrenia compared to 2.2 in controls. After treatment, Al increased up to 4 that demonstrated the high risk of development of atherosclerosis. A significant increase in QT interval in the ECG and heart rate (p=0.03) was revealed only in patients receiving rispolept. In patients receiving zyprexa and seroquel only heart rate was increased. The antipsychotics studied increase the risk of development of cardiovascular pathology.

  1. Dilemma of treating schizophrenia during pregnancy: a Case series and a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Andreea; Ifteni, Petru; Moga, Marius Alexandru; Burtea, Victoria; Bigiu, Nicusor

    2017-08-29

    The choice of antipsychotic treatment during pregnancy remains controversial, mainly due to a lack of exposure and outcome data. Randomized clinical trials are practically impossible due to ethical reasons. Our reports describe three cases of closely monitored female patients with schizophrenia who were treated with olanzapine during pregnancy. The novelty of reports is that all patients were previously treated with olanzapine long acting injectable (LAI) for an average period of 3.8 years. During the LAI treatment period they were in remission and then refused to continue with LAI mainly due to treatment modality (injectable administration). The patients were relatively young, diagnosed with schizophrenia and were previously successfully treated with long acting injectable. The women were pregnant for the first time. In two cases, the patients had become pregnant during remission and they continued treatment with oral olanzapine. In the third case, olanzapine treatment was initiated during admission for a relapse. There are no controlled studies for the use of olanzapine therapy in pregnant women. More studies are needed to determine the effects of antipsychotics, including olanzapine, on pregnant women and the developing fetus. Schizophrenia relapse during pregnancy may expose the mother and the fetus to high risk if olanzapine is stopped. It is important to assess the risks and benefits of treating pregnant or breastfeeding women with antipsychotics, and weigh these against possible risks of anomalies and developmental problems to the fetus or child.

  2. Could pramipexole induce acute mania? A case report.

    PubMed

    Bet, Pierre M; Franken, Linda G W; Klumpers, Ursula M H

    2013-06-01

    In patients with bipolar disorder, olanzapine is commonly used to prevent episodes of acute mania. The drug pramipexole can, in theory, undermine the protective effect of olanzapine. Olanzapine is a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist and pramipexole is a mixed dopamine D2 /D3 receptor agonist. These drugs may therefore theoretically counteract their pharmacological effects. To date, there are no known cases in the literature where this interaction has been described. We report on a case where a patient with bipolar disorder developed mania after taking pramipexole in combination with olanzapine, and describe the pharmacological background of this interaction. A patient with bipolar I disorder was hospitalized with a manic episode characterized by agitation and insomnia after taking pramipexole for restless leg syndrome (RLS) in combination with olanzapine. Co-medication, i.e., lithium and mirtazapine, and other circumstances are not likely to have contributed to this effect. There is a probable interaction between pramipexole and olanzapine, where pramipexole undermines the protective effect of olanzapine, provoking an episode of acute mania and hospitalization. This interaction is of clinical importance since pramipexole is the treatment of choice for RLS, a condition often seen in end-stage renal disease, and has also been investigated as an antidepressant therapy in patients with bipolar disorder. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Identification of Splice Variants as Molecular Markers in Parkinson’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    cyclosporine, cisapride, astemizole; b. NMDA antagonists: e.g. amantadine, budipine, memantine, remacemide, dextromethorphan ; c. Any investigational...f. Drugs known to improve dyskinesias: amantadine, dextromethorphan , beta-blockers, fluoxitene, clozapine, quetiapine, olanzapine, buspirone, other

  4. Expected incidence of tardive dyskinesia associated with atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Glazer, W M

    2000-01-01

    Given the problematic nature of tardive dyskinesia in persons taking conventional antipsychotics, evaluation of newer atypical antipsychotic agents should include a systematic assessment of tardive dyskinesia liability. Results of a prospective double-blind, randomized study of schizophrenic patients who participated in 3 preclinical olanzapine studies and were treated with 5 to 20 mg/day of olanzapine (N = 1192) or haloperidol (N = 522) recently indicated a significantly lower risk of development of tardive dyskinesia with olanzapine treatment than haloperidol treatment. This article discusses the known effects of atypical antipsychotic medications on tardive dyskinesia movements (both withdrawal and persistent) and the incidence rate of tardive dyskinesia among schizophrenic patients undergoing long-term treatment with olanzapine or haloperidol.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of several atypical antipsychotics in orally disintegrating tablets compared with standard oral tablets in the treatment of schizophrenia in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Furiak, Nicolas M; Lawson, Anthony H; Klein, Timothy M; Smolen, Lee J; Conley, Robert R; Culler, Steven D

    2012-01-01

    Although the use of innovative drug delivery systems, like orally disintegrating antipsychotic tablets (ODT), may facilitate medication adherence and help reduce the risk of relapse and hospitalization, no information is available about the comparative cost-effectiveness of standard oral tablets (SOT) vs ODT formulations in the treatment of schizophrenia. This study compared the cost-effectiveness of olanzapine ODT and olanzapine SOT in the usual treatment of outpatients with schizophrenia from a US healthcare perspective. The study also compared olanzapine ODT with risperidone and aripiprazole, two other atypical antipsychotics available in both ODT and SOT formulations. Published medical literature and a clinical expert panel were used to populate a 1-year Monte Carlo Micro-simulation model. The model captures clinical and cost parameters including adherence levels, treatment discontinuation by reason, relapse with and without inpatient hospitalization, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), treatment-emergent adverse events, healthcare resource utilization, and associated costs. Key outcomes were total annual direct cost per treatment, QALY, and incremental cost-effectiveness (ICER) per 1 QALY gained. Based on model projections, olanzapine ODT therapy was more costly ($9808 vs $9533), but more effective in terms of a lower hospitalization rate (15% vs 16%) and better QALYs (0.747 vs 0.733) than olanzapine SOT therapy. Olanzapine ODT was more cost-effective than olanzapine SOT (ICER: $19,643), more cost-effective than risperidone SOT therapy (ICER: $39,966), and dominant (meaning less costly and more effective) than risperidone ODT and aripiprazole in ODT or SOT formulations. Lack of head-to-head randomized studies comparing the three studied atypical antipsychotics required making input assumptions that need further study. This micro-simulation found that the utilization of olanzapine ODT for the treatment of schizophrenia is predicted to be more cost

  6. Central and Peripheral Mechanisms of Antipsychotic Medication-Induced Metabolic Dysregulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    generation APD haloperidol or second-generation APD olanzapine (via i.p. administration). We will also measure serum fasting glucose and insulin levels...food consumption in beta cell-specific D2R (and wildtype littermate controls) treated with either with first- generation APD haloperidol or second...effects of D2R agonists (dopamine, quinpirole) versus APD antagonists ( haloperidol and olanzapine). § We will treat pancreatic islets from wildtype

  7. Ketamine-induced behavioural and brain oxidative changes in mice: an assessment of possible beneficial effects of zinc as mono- or adjunct therapy.

    PubMed

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Ademakinwa, Olayemi Quyyom; Olalekan, Temitayo Opeyemi; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde

    2017-09-01

    We studied the influence of zinc, haloperidol or olanzapine on neurobehaviour (open-field, radial arm maze and elevated plus maze) and brain antioxidant status in vehicle- or ketamine-treated mice, with the aim of ascertaining the potentials of zinc in counteracting ketamine's effects. Experiment 1 assessed the effects of zinc in healthy animals and the relative degrees of modulation of ketamine's effects by zinc, haloperidol or olanzapine, respectively. Experiment 2 assessed the modulation of ketamine's effects following co-administration of zinc with haloperidol or olanzapine. Male mice weighing 18-20 g each were used. Animals were pretreated with ketamine (except vehicle, zinc, haloperidol and olanzapine controls) for 10 days before commencement of 14-day treatment (day 11-24) with vehicle, zinc, haloperidol or olanzapine (alone or in combination). Ketamine injection also continued alongside zinc and/or standard drugs in the ketamine-treated groups. Zinc, haloperidol and olanzapine were administered by gavage. Treatments were given daily and behaviours assessed on days 11 and 24. On day 24, animals were sacrificed and whole brain homogenates used for estimation of glutathione, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Ketamine increased open-field behaviours, nitric oxide and MDA levels, while it decreased working memory, social interaction and glutathione. Administration of zinc alone or in combination with haloperidol or olanzapine was associated with variable degrees of reversal of these effects. Zinc may have the potential of a possible therapeutic agent and/or adjunct in the reversal of schizophrenia-like changes in behaviour and brain oxidative status.

  8. Medication and physical activity and physical fitness in severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cruzado, David; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio; Vera-Garcia, Elisa; Mayoral-Cleries, Fermín

    2018-05-23

    Anti-psychotic medication has emerged as the primary medical treatment for people with severe mental illness, despite the great risks involved in the use of this medication. In addition, this population suffers from problems of obesity, sedentary lifestyle and poor physical fitness, which is aggravated by the use of this type of medication. The objective of this study is to explore the influence of the most commonly used antipsychotics in this population (Olanzapine and Risperidone) on physical activity and the physical fitness of people with severe mental illness. Sixty-two people between 26 and 61 years of age with severe mental illness were assessed. All participants were evaluated with a battery of 11 physical tests to assess their physical fitness and with the IPAQ-short version questionnaire to determine their level of physical activity. The doses of Risperidone and Olanzapine were also evaluated in all participants. Significant differences were found for physical activity, with higher levels reported in those patients with severe mental illness who did not take any of these medications. Regarding physical fitness, significant differences were only found for the consumption of Risperidone, with better physical fitness levels seen in patients who did not consume this medication; on the other hand, for the consumption of Olanzapine, differences were found in muscular strength, balance and aerobic condition with better values in non-Olanzapine consumers compared with Olanzapine consumers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Decision models in the evaluation of psychotropic drugs : useful tool or useless toy?

    PubMed

    Barbui, Corrado; Lintas, Camilla

    2006-09-01

    A current contribution in the European Journal of Health Economics employs a decision model to compare health care costs of olanzapine and risperidone treatment for schizophrenia. The model suggests that a treatment strategy of first-line olanzapine is cost-saving over a 1-year period, with additional clinical benefits in the form of avoided relapses in the long-term. From a clinical perspective this finding is indubitably relevant, but can physicians and policy makers believe it? The study is presented in a balanced way, assumptions are based on data extracted from clinical trials published in major psychiatric journals, and the theoretical underpinnings of the model are reasonable. Despite these positive aspects, we believe that the methodology used in this study-the decision model approach-is an unsuitable and potentially misleading tool for evaluating psychotropic drugs. In this commentary, taking the olanzapine vs. risperidone model as an example, arguments are provided to support this statement.

  10. Asenapine reduces anxiety-related behaviours in rat conditioned fear stress model.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Masayo; Kondo, Maho; Yamauchi, Miki; Imanishi, Taiichiro; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2016-12-01

    Asenapine is an atypical antipsychotic that is currently available for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder. Although the atypical antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine are effective for depression and anxiety in schizophrenia, as demonstrated by animal model studies, this has not been clarified for asenapine. Therefore, we compared the effects of asenapine in the conditioned fear stress model with those of clozapine and olanzapine. Rats were individually fear conditioned using electrical foot shock in a Skinner box. Approximately 24 h later, individual animals were returned to the same Skinner box (without electrical shock) and their freezing behaviour was observed for 5 min. Animals were treated with asenapine, clozapine, olanzapine, the 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist buspirone, or the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB242084 at 30 min before freezing behaviour assessment. The 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 or the 5-HT2C receptor agonist Ro60-0175 was also used concomitantly with asenapine. The effects of asenapine, clozapine, and olanzapine on serotonin release in the rat hippocampus were also measured using in vivo microdialysis. Asenapine reduced freezing behaviour, while neither clozapine nor olanzapine reduced freezing behaviour. Buspirone and SB242084 also reduced freezing behaviour. The effect of asenapine in reducing freezing behaviour was not altered by the concomitant administration of WAY100635 or Ro60-0175. Both asenapine and clozapine, but not olanzapine, increased serotonin release in the rat hippocampus. Asenapine may have superior therapeutic effect on anxiety symptoms than other agents, although the underlying mechanism of its anxiolytic activity remains unknown.

  11. Double-blind comparison of first- and second-generation antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorder: findings from the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (TEOSS) study.

    PubMed

    Sikich, Linmarie; Frazier, Jean A; McClellan, Jon; Findling, Robert L; Vitiello, Benedetto; Ritz, Louise; Ambler, Denisse; Puglia, Madeline; Maloney, Ann E; Michael, Emily; De Jong, Sandra; Slifka, Karen; Noyes, Nancy; Hlastala, Stefanie; Pierson, Leslie; McNamara, Nora K; Delporto-Bedoya, Denise; Anderson, Robert; Hamer, Robert M; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2008-11-01

    Atypical (second-generation) antipsychotics are considered standard treatment for children and adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. However, the superiority of second-generation antipsychotics over first-generation antipsychotics has not been demonstrated. This study compared the efficacy and safety of two second-generation antipsychotics (olanzapine and risperidone) with a first-generation antipsychotic (molindone) in the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. This double-blind multisite trial randomly assigned pediatric patients with early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder to treatment with either olanzapine (2.5-20 mg/day), risperidone (0.5-6 mg/day), or molindone (10-140 mg/day, plus 1 mg/day of benztropine) for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was response to treatment, defined as a Clinical Global Impression (CGI) improvement score of 1 or 2 and >or=20% reduction in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score after 8 weeks of treatment. In total, 119 youth were randomly assigned to treatment. Of these subjects, 116 received at least one dose of treatment and thus were available for analysis. No significant differences were found among treatment groups in response rates (molindone: 50%; olanzapine: 34%; risperidone: 46%) or magnitude of symptom reduction. Olanzapine and risperidone were associated with significantly greater weight gain. Olanzapine showed the greatest risk of weight gain and significant increases in fasting cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, insulin, and liver transaminase levels. Molindone led to more self-reports of akathisia. Risperidone and olanzapine did not demonstrate superior efficacy over molindone for treating early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Adverse effects were frequent but differed among medications. The results question the nearly exclusive use of second-generation antipsychotics to treat early-onset schizophrenia

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Individual Second-Generation vs First-Generation Antipsychotics in First Episode Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Ping; Gallego, Juan A.; Robinson, Delbert G.; Malhotra, Anil K.; Kane, John M.; Correll, Christoph U.

    2012-01-01

    Because early treatment choice is critical in first episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (FES), this meta-analysis compared efficacy and tolerability of individual second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) with first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) in FES. We conducted systematic literature search (until 12/31/2010) and meta-analysis of acute, randomized trials with ≥1 FGA vs. SGA comparison; patients in their first episode of psychosis and diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders; available data for psychopathology change, treatment response, treatment discontinuation, adverse effects, or cognition. Across 13 trials (n=2,509), olanzapine (7 trials) and amisulpride (1 trial) outperformed FGAs (haloperidol: 9/13 trials) in 9/13 and 8/13 efficacy outcomes, respectively, risperidone (8 trials) in 4/13, quetiapine (1 trial) in 3/13, and clozapine (2 trials) and ziprasidone (1 trial) in 1/13, each. Compared to FGAs, EPS-related outcomes were less frequent with olanzapine, risperidone and clozapine, but weight gain was greater with clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone. Pooled SGAs were similar to FGAs regarding total psychopathology change, depression, treatment response, and metabolic changes. SGAs significantly outperformed FGAs regarding lower treatment discontinuation, irrespective of cause, negative symptoms, global cognition, and less EPS and akathisia, while SGAs increased weight more (p’s<0.05-0.01). Results were not affected by FGA dose or publication bias, but industry-sponsored studies favored SGAs more than federally funded studies. To summarize, in FES, olanzapine, amisulpride and, less so, risperidone and quetiapine showed superior efficacy, greater treatment persistence and less EPS than FGAs. However, weight increase with olanzapine, risperidone and clozapine and metabolic changes with olanzapine were greater. Additional FES studies including broader-based SGAs and FGAs are needed. PMID:23199972

  13. Is There a Potential of Misuse for Quetiapine?: Literature Review and Analysis of the European Medicines Agency/European Medicines Agency Adverse Drug Reactions' Database.

    PubMed

    Chiappini, Stefania; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2018-02-01

    A recent years' increase in both prescribing and availability of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) has been observed. According to the literature, typically made up by case studies/series, quetiapine seems to be the most commonly misused SGA, with both intranasal and intravenous intake modalities having been described. Another SGA that has been anecdotally reported to be misused is olanzapine. For these molecules, both a previous history of drug misuse and being an inmate have been described as factors associated with misuse. Hence, while providing here an updated literature review of the topic, we aimed at assessing all cases of quetiapine misuse/abuse/dependence/withdrawal as reported to the European Medicines Agency's EudraVigilance (EV) database; this was carried out in comparison with the reference drug olanzapine. All spontaneous, European Medicines Agency database reports relating to both quetiapine (2005-2016) and olanzapine (2004-2016) misuse/abuse/dependence/withdrawal issues were retrieved, and a descriptive analysis was performed. From the EV database, 18,112 (8.64% of 209,571) and 4178 (7.58% of 55,100) adverse drug reaction reports of misuse/abuse/dependence/withdrawal were associated with quetiapine and olanzapine, respectively. The resulting proportional reporting ratio values suggested that the misuse/abuse-, dependence-, and withdrawal-related adverse drug reactions were more frequently reported for quetiapine (1.07, 1.01, and 5.25, respectively) in comparison with olanzapine. Despite data collection limitations, present EV data may suggest that, at least in comparison with olanzapine, quetiapine misuse may be a cause for concern.

  14. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with JNJ-37822681, a novel, highly selective, fast dissociating D₂ receptor antagonist in the treatment of acute exacerbation of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Mark E; Kent, Justine M; Daly, Ella; Janssens, Luc; Van Osselaer, Nancy; Hüsken, Gitta; Anghelescu, Ion-George; Van Nueten, Luc

    2012-10-01

    JNJ-37822681 is a novel, highly selective dopamine D₂ receptor antagonist characterized by a rapid dissociation rate from the dopamine D₂ receptor. This profile was hypothesized to confer antipsychotic efficacy and improved tolerability. In this 12-week study, the efficacy and safety of JNJ-37822681 were evaluated in patients with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia, randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1) to JNJ-37822681 (10-, 20- or 30-mg bid), olanzapine (15 mg once-daily), or placebo (for 6 weeks followed by olanzapine for 6 weeks). Of 498 randomized patients, 298 (60%) completed the study. All JNJ-37822681 dose groups and the olanzapine group showed significantly greater reduction in PANSS total score from baseline to week 6 versus placebo (all p-values < 0.001). Least-squares adjusted mean changes from baseline to week 6 in PANSS total score were: -6.4 (placebo); -18.4 (10 mg JNJ-37822681), -17.7 (20 mg JNJ-37822681), -20.0 (30 mg JNJ-37822681) and -22.9 (olanzapine). All JNJ-37822681 groups showed significant improvement versus placebo from baseline to week 6 in the PANSS subscales, Marder factors, Clinical Global Impression of Severity, and in the Subjective Well-Being on Neuroleptics scale (all p-values < 0.05). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events with JNJ-37822681 were insomnia (17%) and akathisia (13%). Incidences of extrapyramidal symptoms were dose-related and were comparable for JNJ-37822681 10 mg bid and olanzapine groups. All JNJ-37822681 dose groups showed lesser weight gain compared with olanzapine. The efficacy and tolerability profile of the JNJ-37822681 10 mg bid was consistent with the study hypothesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  15. PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Elias; Theleritis, Christos; Economou, Marina; Georgatou, Korina; Papageorgiou, Charalambos C; Tsaltas, Eleftheria

    2017-07-01

    In the recent study by Verhoeven and Egger, 2015 and the recent letter to the editor by Boot et al. 2015 an emphasis is given to the best possible pharmacological treatment of 22q11-2 Deletion-Syndrome related psychoses. We would like to present the case of a 23-year old Cypriot patient with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome who fulfilled criteria for treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS). He was sequentially treated with aripiprazole, risperidone, olanzapine, haloperidol and a combination treatment with olanzapine and haloperidol. Clozapine was the only antipsychotic medication that has improved his condition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Effectiveness of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Persistent Methamphetamine Psychosis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ziaaddini, Hassan; Roohbakhsh, Toktam; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Ghaffari-Nejad, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background Persistent methamphetamine (METH) psychosis is a psychotic state beyond 1-month after abstinence, for which there is no effective treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in persistent METH psychosis patients hospitalized at Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kerman, Iran, from 6 September 2012 until 6 September 2013, who were not remitted after treatment with olanzapine. Methods This research was a pilot study on hospitalized patients. After 4 weeks of treatment with olanzapine, 10 out of 71 studied patients did not show complete remission of psychotic symptoms despite their response to the treatment. The mentioned 10 patients were divided into 2 groups by random digit numbers. 5 patients had continued olanzapine and other 5 received 6 sessions of bilateral ECT every other day in addition to olanzapine. Findings Remission rate of patients in the initial 4 weeks was 78.7%. Reduction in total brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) scale at the end of 1-week compared with the next week demonstrated improvement in the symptoms until the end of the study. There was no significant difference in BPRS scores between weeks 4 and 6 in the two groups. Conclusion This research demonstrated that few sessions of ECT in persistent METH psychosis will not lead to remission in all patients. PMID:26322206

  17. Self-limiting Atypical Antipsychotics-induced Edema: Clinical Cases and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Musa Usman; Abdullahi, Aminu Taura

    2016-01-01

    A number of atypical antipsychotics have been associated with peripheral edema. The exact cause is not known. We report two cases of olanzapine-induced edema and a brief review of atypical antipsychotic-induced edema, possible risk factors, etiology, and clinical features. The recommendation is given on different methods of managing this side effect. PMID:27335511

  18. Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS): Rationale, Design, and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L.; Frazier, Jean A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hlastala, Stefanie A.; Williams, Emily; Ambler, Denisse; Hunt-Harrison, Tyehimba; Maloney, Ann E.; Ritz, Louise; Anderson, Robert; Hamer, Robert M.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study is a publicly funded clinical trial designed to compare the therapeutic benefits, safety, and tolerability of risperidone, olanzapine, and molindone in youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The rationale, design, and methods of the Treatment of Early…

  19. Double-Blind Maintenance Safety and Effectiveness Findings from the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum (TEOSS) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; Johnson, Jacqueline L.; McClellan, Jon; Frazier, Jean A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hamer, Robert M.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Ritz, Louise; McNamara, Nora K.; Lingler, Jacqui; Hlastala, Stefanie; Pierson, Leslie; Puglia, Madeline; Maloney, Ann E.; Kaufman, Emily Michael; Noyes, Nancy; Sikich, Linmarie

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the long-term safety and efficacy of three antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Method: Patients (8 to 19 years old) who had improved during an 8-week, randomized, double-blind acute trial of olanzapine, risperidone, or molindone (plus benztropine) were eligible to continue on the same medication…

  20. Novel antipsychotics and severe hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J M

    2001-08-01

    Newer atypical antipsychotics demonstrate superior effectiveness, with a diminished incidence of extrapyramidal side effects compared with older typical antipsychotics, but they have been associated with the development of obesity and new-onset diabetes. A small number of reports documenting modest hypertriglyceridemia related to newer antipsychotics have implicated fluperlapine, clozapine, and, most recently, olanzapine. This study summarizes the results of 14 cases of severe hypertriglyceridemia (>600 mg/dL) associated with olanzapine and quetiapine therapy occurring among inpatients at Oregon State Hospital, including 7 patients whose serum triglyceride levels exceeded 1,000 mg/ dL. Four of these patients also developed new-onset diabetes. Nine cases occurred during the first 8 months of treatment, with three cases identified within 3 months of commencing olanzapine or quetiapine therapy. Weight gain in olanzapine and quetiapine groups was modest (12.3 lb and 8.5 lb, respectively) and did not correlate with the severity of hypertriglyceridemia. Biochemical causes for severe hypertriglyceridemia associated with novel antipsychotics are unclear, but clinical monitoring of serum lipids must be added to the concerns about the metabolic consequences of therapy with certain newer antipsychotic agents.

  1. Risperidone-induced enuresis in two children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Hergüner, Sabri; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli

    2007-08-01

    Risperidone appears to be effective in treating behavioral problems in children with autistic disorder. Although increased appetite, weight gain, and sedation are among the most common side effects, risperidone-induced enuresis is rarely reported. We will present two cases with risperidone-induced enuresis, and discuss our findings in the context of current literature. Two children aged 11 and 10 years, diagnosed with autism and mental retardation, have developed new-onset diurnal and nocturnal enuresis respectively on their first and second weeks of risperidone monotherapy (1.5 and 1 mg/day). They did not experience sedation, and their medical history and workup were unremarkable. As enuresis did not resolve spontaneously, we decided to substitute risperidone with olanzapine. Enuresis ceased rapidly after discontinuation of risperidone with no emergence when patients were treated with olanzapine 5 mg/day for a period of 6 months and 1 year, respectively. Although the pathophysiology of antipsychotic-induced enuresis remains unclear, a number of mechanisms including alpha(1)-adrenergic blockade, dopamine blockade, and antimuscarinic effects has been proposed. Olanzapine has lower alpha(1)-adrenergic and dopaminergic blockade properties, thus changing risperidone to olanzapine may be an alternative modality in risperidone-induced enuresis when antipsychotic treatment is crucial. Clinicians should be more vigilant about screening for this side effect, especially in younger population with developmental disabilities.

  2. Metabolic Signature of Antipsychotics used in the Treatment of Autism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    adipokine release in mature human adipocytes. Methods Rat Model: Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats under normal diet were given cookie dough ...metabolic disturbances. Adult female rats were given cookie dough mixed with vehicle, olanzapine or ziprasidone at 4 mg/kg twice/day for 7 days. Fig 1

  3. Cognitive Function and Depression in Symptom Resolution in Schizophrenia Patients Treated with an Atypical Antipsychotic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stip, Emmanuel; Mancini-Marie, Adham

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate which cognitive and affective features contribute most to responder/non-responder group separation during a switching trial with atypical antipsychotic. Design: A prospective open trial with an atypical antipsychotic (olanzapine). Patients: One hundred and thirty-four patients meeting diagnostic criteria for…

  4. Tolerability of outpatient antipsychotic treatment: 36-month results from the European Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes (SOHO) study.

    PubMed

    Novick, Diego; Haro, Josep Maria; Perrin, Elena; Suarez, David; Texeira, João Marques

    2009-08-01

    SOHO is a 3-year, prospective, observational study of schizophrenia patients who started a new antipsychotic in 10 European countries. Cohorts of patients were defined according to the antipsychotic started at baseline: olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, amisulpride, clozapine, oral typical and depot typical antipsychotics. Tolerability in terms of rates of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), tardive dyskinesia (TD), anticholinergic use, loss of libido/impotence, amenorrhoea/galactorrhoea/gynaecomastia, and weight change was assessed in 4939 patients who started monotherapy. Logistic regression models related medication initiated at study entry to adverse events over follow-up, adjusting by baseline differences among treatment cohorts. Patients taking typical antipsychotics or risperidone were more likely to experience EPS and TD during follow-up than patients taking olanzapine. Patients taking olanzapine were less likely to have loss of libido/impotence during follow-up than patients in the risperidone, amisulpride, clozapine, oral typical and depot typical cohorts. Weight gain occurred in all groups, but was greater with olanzapine. In conclusion, antipsychotics have different tolerability profiles in terms of the adverse events we monitored. Results should be interpreted conservatively due to the observational study design.

  5. Self-limiting Atypical Antipsychotics-induced Edema: Clinical Cases and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Umar, Musa Usman; Abdullahi, Aminu Taura

    2016-01-01

    A number of atypical antipsychotics have been associated with peripheral edema. The exact cause is not known. We report two cases of olanzapine-induced edema and a brief review of atypical antipsychotic-induced edema, possible risk factors, etiology, and clinical features. The recommendation is given on different methods of managing this side effect.

  6. Control of Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Anthracycline/Cyclophosphamide Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nawa-Nishigaki, Minako; Kobayashi, Ryo; Suzuki, Akio; Hirose, Chiemi; Matsuoka, Rie; Mori, Ryutaro; Futamura, Manabu; Sugiyama, Tadashi; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Yoshinori

    2018-02-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of most distressing adverse events during cancer chemotherapy. In breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline and cyclophosphamide (AC) chemotherapy, CINV is poorly controlled. The prevalence of guideline-consistent antiemetic medication and control of CINV were investigated retrospectively in breast cancer patients receiving the first cycle of AC chemotherapy. Risks for CINV were analyzed by the multivariate logistic regression analysis. The effect of olanzapine added to the standard antiemetic medication on the incidence of CINV was subsequently evaluated in separate patients who received the first cycle of AC chemotherapy. Although the guideline-consistent antiemetic medication was performed in all subjects, the control rate of nausea (32%), but not vomiting (78%) was low. Risk analysis indicated that age younger than 55-year-old was a significant factor that reduces the control of both nausea and vomiting. Olanzapine (5 mg/day for 5 days), when added to the standard three-drug antiemetic medication, significantly improved the control of nausea and complete response. CINV was poorly controlled in breast cancer patients receiving AC chemotherapy, in which age younger than 55-year-old was a significant risk for both nausea and vomiting. Olanzapine was effective for improvement of the control of CINV associated with AC chemotherapy. Therefore, care should be taken to prevent CINV in young patients receiving AC chemotherapy by adding olanzapine to the standard three-drug antiemetic medication. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of some antipsychotics and a benzodiazepine hypnotic on the sleep-wake pattern in an animal model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Takayuki; Obara, Yoshihito; Kamei, Chiaki

    2009-09-01

    We studied the effects of antipsychotics and a hypnotic on sleep disturbance in schizophrenia using an animal model of the disease. Electrodes for the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) were chronically implanted into the cortex and the dorsal neck muscle of rats. EEG and EMG were recorded with an electroencephalograph for 6 h (10:00 - 16:00). SleepSign ver. 2.0 was used for EEG and EMG analysis. Haloperidol and olanzapine had an antagonizing effect on the increases in sleep latency and total awake time and the decrease in total non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep time induced by MK-801. Olanzapine also antagonized the decrease in total rapid eye movement (REM) sleep time induced by MK-801. Aripiprazole antagonized only the increase in sleep latency induced by MK-801, whereas, risperidone, quetiapine, and flunitrazepam had no effect in the changes of sleep-wake pattern induced by MK-801. Olanzapine increased delta activity and decreased beta activity during NREM sleep. In contrast, flunitrazepam had an opposite effect. It was clarified that haloperidol and olanzapine were effective for decrease of sleep time in this animal model of schizophrenia. In addition, aripiprazole showed a sleep-inducing effect in schizophrenia model rat. On the other hand, flunitrazepam showed no beneficial effect on sleep disturbance in schizophrenia model rat.

  8. Drug attitude and subjective well-being in antipsychotic treatment monotherapy in real-world settings.

    PubMed

    Balestrieri, Matteo; Di Sciascio, Guido; Isola, Miriam; Lomonaco, Emanuele; Maso, Elisa; Merli, Roberto; Calò, Salvatore; Bellantuono, Cesario

    2009-01-01

    To assess using two well-know scales (DAI-30 and SWN) the drug attitude and subjective well-being of patients treated with haloperidol or second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) in four different Italian communities. The sample included 145 patients taking five different antipsychotics (APs) in mono-therapy: haloperidol, clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine. A stepwise multiple regression analysis (SMRA) was used to analyse the contribution of different AP treatments and of other predictors to SWN and DAI-30 scores. Univariate analyses showed no differences in DAI-30 and SWN scores across treatments. The SMRA showed that SWN scores were negatively correlated with the severity of the psychoses (BPRS scores), while the DAI-30 scores were negatively correlated with the severity of the psychoses and positively correlated both with the length of drug treatment and with the use of olanzapine. Our study does not confirm a better drug attitude in patients treated with SGA with respect to haloperidol. The only partial exception is the better performance of olanzapine over haloperidol on DAI-30, which could be due to the lower use of anticholinergic drugs during olanzapine treatment. The differences between the SWN and DAI-30 may give good reason for the use of both instruments during AP treatments.

  9. Central and Peripheral Mechanisms of Antipsychotic Medication Induced Metabolic Dysregulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    consumption in hypothalamus-specific D2R (and wildtype littermate controls) treated with either with first-generation APD haloperidol or second-generation APD...wildtype littermate controls) treated with either with first-generation APD haloperidol or second-generation APD olanzapine (via i.p. administration

  10. Practical Guidelines for the Use of New Generation Antipsychotic Drugs (except Clozapine) in Adult Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leon, Jose; Greenlee, Brian; Barber, Jack; Sabaawi, Mohamed; Singh, Nirbhay N.

    2009-01-01

    New generation antipsychotic (NGA) drugs introduced to the US market after clozapine (aripiprazole, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone) are frequently used in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, there is very limited research to fully establish evidence-based or personalized medicine approaches…

  11. Medication-induced acute esophageal necrosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pautola, Lauri; Hakala, Tapio

    2016-09-29

    Acute esophageal necrosis or Gurvits syndrome is a rare clinical condition characterized by necrotic esophageal mucosa with an abrupt end at the gastroesophageal junction. Its etiology is multifactorial, but mainly related to low-flow states. We describe a case in which a patient accidentally took the wrong medication, with clozapine and olanzapine most probably being the cause of his subsequent acute esophageal necrosis. This situation is, to the best of our knowledge, unprecedented in the medical literature. A 65-year-old Finnish male patient with schizoaffective disorder accidentally took another patient's medication, including clozapine 300 mg, olanzapine 30 mg, teofyllamine 200 mg, warfarin 5 mg, and potassium chloride 1 g. He arrived at our hospital for a routine examination 6 h after the incident. At hospital he started to vomit brownish liquid and had tachycardia and fever. Gastroparesis was found. An endoscopy revealed necrotic esophageal mucosa that was typical for Gurvits syndrome. A computed tomography scan showed an edematous esophagus and raised suspicion of a proximal jejunal obstruction. A laparotomy was performed but only healthy paralytic bowel was found. Our patient healed uneventfully within a week. There are analogous case reports describing ischemic colitis associated with the use of clozapine and olanzapine, but none describing the same for the other medications our patient took. We believe that in this case clozapine and olanzapine caused acute esophageal necrosis and this possibility should be taken into account when treating patients with acute ischemic enteropathy.

  12. Cost effectiveness of long-acting risperidone injection versus alternative antipsychotic agents in patients with schizophrenia in the USA.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Natalie C; Locklear, Julie C; Rupnow, Marcia F T; Diamond, Ronald J

    2005-01-01

    The availability of long-acting risperidone injection may increase adherence and lead to improved clinical and economic outcomes for individuals with schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of long-acting risperidone, oral risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, and haloperidol depot in patients with schizophrenia over 1 year from a healthcare system perspective. Published medical literature, unpublished data from clinical trials and a consumer health database, and a clinical expert panel were utilized to populate a decision analytical model comparing the seven treatment alternatives. The model captured rates of patient compliance, the rates, frequency and duration of relapse, incidence of adverse events, and healthcare resource utilization and associated costs. Primary outcomes were expressed in terms of percentage of patients relapsing per year, number of relapse days per year (number and duration of relapses per patient per year), and total direct 2003 medical cost per patient per year. On the basis of model projections, the proportions of patients experiencing a relapse requiring hospitalization in 1 year were 66% for haloperidol depot, 41% for oral risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole, and 26% for long-acting risperidone, whereas the proportions of patients with an exacerbation not requiring hospitalization were 60% for haloperidol depot, 37% for oral risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole, and 24% for long-acting risperidone. The mean number of days of relapse requiring hospitalization per patient per year were 28 for haloperidol depot, 18 for oral risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole, and 11 for long-acting risperidone, whereas the mean number of days of exacerbation not requiring hospitalization were eight for haloperidol depot, five for oral risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole

  13. Acute weight gain, gender, and therapeutic response to antipsychotics in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Stensland, Michael; Zhao, Zhongyun; Kinon, Bruce J

    2005-01-01

    Background Previous research indicated that women are more vulnerable than men to adverse psychological consequences of weight gain. Other research has suggested that weight gain experienced during antipsychotic therapy may also psychologically impact women more negatively. This study assessed the impact of acute treatment-emergent weight gain on clinical and functional outcomes of patients with schizophrenia by patient gender and antipsychotic treatment (olanzapine or haloperidol). Methods Data were drawn from the acute phase (first 6-weeks) of a double-blind randomized clinical trial of olanzapine versus haloperidol in the treatment of 1296 men and 700 women with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The associations between weight change and change in core schizophrenia symptoms, depressive symptoms, and functional status were examined post-hoc for men and women and for each medication group. Core schizophrenia symptoms (positive and negative) were measured with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), depressive symptoms with the BPRS Anxiety/Depression Scale and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and functional status with the mental and physical component scores on the Medical Outcome Survey-Short Form 36. Statistical analysis included methods that controlled for treatment duration. Results Weight gain during 6-week treatment with olanzapine and haloperidol was significantly associated with improvements in core schizophrenia symptoms, depressive symptoms, mental functioning, and physical functioning for men and women alike. The conditional probability of clinical response (20% reduction in core schizophrenia symptom), given a clinically significant weight gain (at least 7% of baseline weight), showed that about half of the patients who lost weight responded to treatment, whereas three-quarters of the patients who had a clinically significant weight gain responded to treatment. The positive associations between therapeutic response and weight gain

  14. Treatments for acute bipolar depression: meta-analyses of placebo-controlled, monotherapy trials of anticonvulsants, lithium and antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Selle, V; Schalkwijk, S; Vázquez, G H; Baldessarini, R J

    2014-03-01

    Optimal treatments for bipolar depression, and the relative value of specific drugs for that purpose, remain uncertain, including agents other than antidepressants. We searched for reports of placebo-controlled, monotherapy trials of mood-stabilizing anticonvulsants, second-generation antipsychotics, or lithium for acute major depressive episodes in patients diagnosed with type I or II bipolar disorder and applied random-effects meta-analysis to evaluate their efficacy, comparing outcomes based on standardized mean drug-placebo differences (SMD) in improvement, relative response rates (RR), and number-needed-to-treat (NNT). We identified 24 trials of 10 treatments (lasting 7.5 weeks, with ≥ 50 collaborating sites/trial) that met eligibility criteria: lamotrigine (5 trials), quetiapine (5), valproate (4), 2 each for aripiprazole, olanzapine, ziprasidone, and 1 each for carbamazepine, lithium, lurasidone, and olanzapine-fluoxetine. Overall, pooled drug-over-placebo responder-rate superiority (RR) was moderate (29% [CI: 19-40%]), and NNT was 8.2 (CI: 6.4-11). By SMD, apparent efficacy ranked: olanzapine + fluoxetine ≥ valproate > quetiapine > lurasidone > olanzapine, aripiprazole, and carbamazepine; ziprasidone was ineffective, and lithium remains inadequately studied. Notably, drugs were superior to placebo in only 11/24 trials (5/5 with quetiapine, 2/4 with valproate), and only lamotrigine, quetiapine and valproate had > 2 trials. Treatment-associated mania-like reactions were uncommon (drugs: 3.7%; placebo: 4.7%). Controlled trials of non-antidepressant treatments for bipolar depression remain scarce, but findings with olanzapine-fluoxetine, lurasidone, quetiapine, and perhaps carbamazepine and valproate were encouraging; lithium requires adequate testing. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Clinical Symptom Responses to Atypical Antipsychotic Medications in Alzheimer’s Disease: Phase 1 Outcomes from the CATIE-AD Effectiveness Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sultzer, David L.; Davis, Sonia M.; Tariot, Pierre N.; Dagerman, Karen S.; Lebowitz, Barry D.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Rosenheck, Robert A.; Hsiao, John K.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Schneider, Lon S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To measure the effects of atypical antipsychotic medication on psychiatric and behavioral symptoms in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and psychosis or agitated behavior. Method The CATIE-AD effectiveness study included 421 outpatients with AD and psychosis or agitated/aggressive behavior. Patients were assigned randomly to masked flexible-dose treatment with olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or placebo for up to 36 weeks. Patients could be re-randomized to a different medication treatment at the clinician’s discretion, which ended the Phase 1 period. Psychiatric and behavioral symptoms, functional abilities, cognition, care needs, and quality of life were measured at regular intervals. Results At the last observation in Phase 1 compared to placebo, there was greater improvement in patients treated with olanzapine or risperidone on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory total score, with risperidone on the Clinical Global Impression of Change, with olanzapine or risperidone on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) Hostile Suspiciousness factor, and with risperidone on the BPRS Psychosis factor. There was worsening with olanzapine on the BPRS Withdrawn Depression factor. Among patients continuing Phase 1 treatment at 12 weeks, there were no significant antipsychotic – placebo group differences on measures of cognition, functional skills, care needs, or quality of life, except for worsening of functional skills in the olanzapine treatment group compared to placebo. Conclusion In this descriptive analysis of clinical outcomes in AD outpatients in usual care settings, some clinical symptoms improved with atypical antipsychotic treatment. Antipsychotic medications may be more effective for particular symptoms, such as anger, aggression, and paranoid ideas. Functional abilities, care needs, or quality of life do not appear to improve with antipsychotic treatment. PMID:18519523

  16. Allelic variation in ApoC3, ApoA5 and LPL genes and first and second generation antipsychotic effects on serum lipids in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smith, R C; Segman, R H; Golcer-Dubner, T; Pavlov, V; Lerer, B

    2008-06-01

    Schizophrenic patients who are treated with antipsychotics, especially second generation antipsychotics, such as clozapine and olanzapine, manifest an increase in cholesterol and triglycerides as well as other changes associated with diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. Previous studies have shown that polymorphisms in several genes that regulate lipid metabolism can influence the levels of these lipids and response to drug treatment. We have investigated in an exploratory study whether polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC3), apolipoprotein A-V gene (ApoA5) and lipoprotein lipase genes influence differential lipid response to treatment with three second generation antipsychotics-olanzapine, clozapine and risperidone-or treatment with a first generation antipsychotic. A total of 189 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were being treated with a single antipsychotic were studied in a cross-sectional study design in which fasting serum cholesterol and triglycerides and selected single-nucleotide polymorphosms (SNPs) in the three lipid metabolism genes were assessed. The treatment with antipsychotic monotherapy makes drug haplotype ascertainment less complex. Our analyses showed several nominally significant drug x gene and drug x haplotype interactions. The rarer C allele or the ApoA5_1131 (T/C) SNP was associated with higher cholesterol levels in patients treated with first generation antipsychotics and lower cholesterol levels in patients treated with olanzapine or clozapine. The rarer C allele of the ApoA5_SW19 (G/C) SNP was associated with higher cholesterol in risperidone-treated patients. An ApoA5 CG haplotype was associated with decreased cholesterol in olanzapine- or clozapine-treated patients and higher cholesterol in patients treated with first generation antipsychotics. The presence of the rarer T allele of the ApoC3_1100 (C/T) SNP or the presence of the ApoC3 TG haplotype was associated with decreased triglyceride levels in

  17. Effects of chronic antipsychotic drug exposure on the expression of Translocator Protein and inflammatory markers in rat adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Calevro, Anita; Cotel, Marie-Caroline; Natesan, Sridhar; Modo, Michel; Vernon, Anthony C; Mondelli, Valeria

    2018-05-16

    The precise effect of antipsychotic drugs on either central or peripheral inflammation remains unclear. An important issue in this debate is to what extent the known peripheral metabolic effects of antipsychotics, including increased adiposity, may contribute to increased inflammation. Adipose tissue is known to contribute to the development of systemic inflammation, which can eventually lead to insulin resistance and metabolic dysregulation. As a first step to address this question, we evaluated whether chronic exposure to clinically comparable doses of haloperidol or olanzapine resulted in the immune activation of rat adipose tissue. Samples of visceral adipose tissue were sampled from male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to, haloperidol, olanzapine or vehicle (all n = 8), for 8 weeks. From these we measured a cytokine profile, protein expression of F4/80 (a phenotypic macrophage marker) and translocator protein (TSPO), a target for radiotracers putatively indicating microgliosis in clinical neuroimaging studies. Chronic olanzapine exposure resulted in significantly higher adipose IL-6 levels compared with vehicle-controls (ANOVA p = 0.008, Bonferroni post-hoc test p = 0.006); in parallel, animals exposed to olanzapine had significantly higher F4/80 expression when compared with vehicle-controls (Mann Whitney Test, p = 0.014), whereas there was no difference between haloperidol and vehicle groups (Mann Whitney test, p = 0.1). There were no significant effects of either drug on adipose TSPO protein levels. Nevertheless, we found a positive correlation between F4/80 and TSPO adipose protein levels in the olanzapine-exposed rats (Spearman's rho = 0.76, p = 0.037). Our data suggest that chronic exposure to olanzapine, but not haloperidol, increases production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in adipose tissue and increased macrophages expression (F4/80), in the absence of measurable changes in TSPO with respect to vehicle. This may have

  18. Self-harm, Unintentional Injury, and Suicide in Bipolar Disorder During Maintenance Mood Stabilizer Treatment: A UK Population-Based Electronic Health Records Study.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Joseph F; Pitman, Alexandra; Marston, Louise; Walters, Kate; Geddes, John R; King, Michael; Osborn, David P J

    2016-06-01

    Self-harm is a prominent cause of morbidity in patients with bipolar disorder and is strongly associated with suicide. There is evolving evidence that lithium use may reduce suicidal behavior, in addition to concerns that the use of anticonvulsants may increase self-harm. Information is limited about the effects of antipsychotics when used as mood stabilizer treatment. Rates of unintentional injury are poorly defined in bipolar disorder, and understanding drug associations with this outcome may shed light on mechanisms for lithium's potential antisuicidal properties through reduction in impulsive aggression. To compare rates of self-harm, unintentional injury, and suicide in patients with bipolar disorder who were prescribed lithium, valproate sodium, olanzapine, or quetiapine fumarate. This investigation was a propensity score (PS)-adjusted and PS-matched longitudinal cohort study in a nationally representative UK sample using electronic health records data collected between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2013. Participants included all patients diagnosed as having bipolar disorder who were prescribed lithium, valproate, olanzapine, or quetiapine as maintenance mood stabilizer treatment. The primary outcome was any form of self-harm. Secondary outcomes were unintentional injury and suicide. Of the 14 396 individuals with a diagnosis of BPD, 6671 were included in the cohort, with 2148 prescribed lithium, 1670 prescribed valproate, 1477 prescribed olanzapine, and 1376 prescribed quetiapine as maintenance mood stabilizer treatment. Self-harm rates were lower in patients prescribed lithium (205; 95% CI, 175-241 per 10 000 person-years at risk [PYAR]) compared with those prescribed valproate (392; 95% CI, 334-460 per 10 000 PYAR), olanzapine (409; 95% CI, 345-483 per 10 000 PYAR), or quetiapine (582; 95% CI, 489-692 per 10 000 PYAR). This association was maintained after PS adjustment (hazard ratio [HR], 1.40; 95% CI, 1.12-1.74 for valproate, olanzapine

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Citalopram Compared to Atypical Antipsychotics on Agitation in Nursing Home Residents With Alzheimer Dementia.

    PubMed

    Viscogliosi, Giovanni; Chiriac, Iulia Maria; Ettorre, Evaristo

    2017-09-01

    To assess efficacy and safety of citalopram compared to quetiapine and olanzapine for the treatment of agitation in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Longitudinal, 6-month study. Nursing home (NH). 75 NH residents with AD and agitation, randomized to citalopram (n = 25), quetiapine (n = 25), or olanzapine (n = 25). Changes in Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) agitation subscale score and the modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (mADCS-CGIC) were used to assess treatment efficacy. Participants were surveilled for adverse health outcomes. Citalopram treatment (30±5.8 mg/d) resulted in similar 6-month efficacy compared to both quetiapine (94.0±40.4 mg/d) and olanzapine (5.2±1.6 mg/d), lower occurrence of falls than olanzapine [odds ratio (OR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.68-0.97, P = .012], lower incidence of orthostatic hypotension than both quetiapine (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.66-0.95, P = .032) and olanzapine (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.69-0.91, P = .02), and less all-cause hospitalizations than both quetiapine (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.88-0.95, P = .016) and olanzapine (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92, P = .004), after multiple adjustment for potentially confounding variables. No differences were observed for cognitive and functional decline, QTc prolongation, and infections. Citalopram resulted in similar efficacy and less adverse outcomes when compared to 2 atypical antipsychotics for treatment of agitation in NH residents with AD. Replication of these findings and assessment of long-term efficacy and safety of citalopram for treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia are needed. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Other Possible Clinical Applications of Drugs with 5HT2A effect in Liaison Psychiatry: Cases Report].

    PubMed

    Corredor, Catalina Ayala; Castillo, Carolina Solís

    2012-03-01

    In liaison psychiatry it is possible to get an integral view of patient's treatment and needs, paying special attention to pharmacological interactions and contraindications. Some particular cases motivated the description, report and review about other possible applications of 5HT2A and 5HT3 antagonist, particularly Mirtazapine and Olanzapine, in hyperalgesia syndrome, tinnitus and Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy by JC virus. Cases report. We describe 3 cases of patients in which Mirtazapine and Olanzapine were necessary not only to control psychiatric symptoms (affective / behavioral symptoms and insomnia) but to act as adjuvant therapy in axis III diseases. The use of any drug in psychiatry must take in to account the context of the patient, the presence of comorbidity, contraindications and pharmacological interactions so as to grant a positive outcome also promoting the multidisciplinary work between specialists. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hrdlicka, Michal; Dudova, Iva

    2015-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) have been successfully used in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS). This review summarizes the randomized, double-blind, controlled studies of AAPs in EOS, including clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole, paliperidone, quetiapine, and ziprasidone. No significant differences in efficacy between AAPs were found, with the exception of clozapine and ziprasidone. Clozapine demonstrated superior efficacy in treatment-resistant patients with EOS, whereas ziprasidone failed to demonstrate efficacy in the treatment of EOS. Our review also focuses on the onset of action and weight gain associated with AAPs. The data on onset of action of AAPs in pediatric psychiatry are scanty and inconsistent. Olanzapine appears to cause the most significant weight gain in patients with EOS, while ziprasidone and aripiprazole seem to cause the least. PMID:25897226

  2. Pharmacological interventions for borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stoffers, Jutta; Völlm, Birgit A; Rücker, Gerta; Timmer, Antje; Huband, Nick; Lieb, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background Drugs are widely used in borderline personality disorder (BPD) treatment, chosen because of properties known from other psychiatric disorders (“off-label use”), mostly targeting affective or impulsive symptom clusters. Objectives To assess the effects of drug treatment in BPD patients. Search methods We searched bibliographic databases according to the Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group strategy up to September 2009, reference lists of articles, and contacted researchers in the field. Selection criteria Randomised studies comparing drug versus placebo, or drug versus drug(s) in BPD patients. Outcomes included total BPD severity, distinct BPD symptom facets according to DSM-IV criteria, associated psychopathology not specific to BPD, attrition and adverse effects. Data collection and analysis Two authors selected trials, assessed quality and extracted data, independently. Main results Twenty-eight trials involving a total of 1742 trial participants were included. First-generation antipsychotics (flupenthixol decanoate, haloperidol, thiothixene); second-generation antipsychotics (aripirazole, olanzapine, ziprasidone), mood stabilisers (carbamazepine, valproate semisodium, lamotrigine, topiramate), antidepressants (amitriptyline, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, phenelzine sulfate, mianserin), and dietary supplementation (omega-3 fatty acid) were tested. First-generation antipsychotics were subject to older trials, whereas recent studies focussed on second-generation antipsychotics and mood stabilisers. Data were sparse for individual comparisons, indicating marginal effects for first-generation antipsychotics and antidepressants. The findings were suggestive in supporting the use of second-generation antipsychotics, mood stabilisers, and omega-3 fatty acids, but require replication, since most effect estimates were based on single studies. The long-term use of these drugs has not been assessed. Adverse event data were scarce

  3. Measuring neuroleptic-induced akathisia by three-channel actometry.

    PubMed

    Tuisku, K; Lauerma, H; Holi, M; Markkula, J; Rimon, R

    1999-11-30

    Three-channel actometry was used to study neuroleptic-induced akathisia (NIA), a common and often serious disorder in association of traditional neuroleptic therapy. The aim was to explore the diagnostic possibilities of actometry in NIA and to examine in detail the motor phenomenology of the disorder in detail. The actometers were attached to the ankles and waists of ten patients, suffering from NIA, and to ten matched healthy controls. Five of the patients were changed to olanzapine treatment, and these patients were re-examined during the no-NIA condition. NIA was associated with manyfold movement activity during controlled rest (sitting) but not with increased daily overall motor activity. Movement frequencies in NIA seemed to be pathognomonic. Actometry is promising for investigation and clinical assessment of NIA. Olanzapine proved to be an adequate treatment choice for NIA patients.

  4. A case of catatonia in a 14-year-old girl with schizophrenia treated with electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    Häßler, Frank; Reis, Olaf; Weirich, Steffen; Höppner, Jacqueline; Pohl, Birgit; Buchmann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case of a 14-year-old female twin with schizophrenia who developed severe catatonia following treatment with olanzapine. Under a combined treatment with amantadine, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and (currently) ziprasidone alone she improved markedly. Severity and course of catatonia including treatment response were evaluated with the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS). This case report emphasizes the benefit of ECT in the treatment of catatonic symptoms in an adolescent patient with schizophrenic illness.

  5. Treatment patterns of schizophrenia based on the data from seven Central and Eastern European Countries.

    PubMed

    Szkultecka-Dębek, Monika; Miernik, Katarzyna; Stelmachowski, Jarosław; Jakovljević, Miro; Jukić, Vlado; Aadamsoo, Kaire; Janno, Sven; Bitter, István; Tolna, Judit; Jarema, Marek; Jankovic, Slobodan; Pecenak, Jan; Vavrusova, Livia; Tavčar, Rok; Walczak, Jacek; Talbot, Darren; Augustyńska, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    The aim is to analyze how schizophrenia is pharmacologically treated in seven CEE countries: Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia and Slovenia. Psychiatrists from selected centers in each of participating countries were asked to complete a pre-defined questionnaire on their current clinical practice. Information on protocols and resource utilization in schizophrenia treatment was included and derived from randomly selected patient medical records. Expert opinions on country-wide treatment patterns were additionally sought. This sub-analysis focuses on pharmacological treatment patterns in the last six months and over the course of the disease. 961 patients' data show that during last six months the most commonly prescribed medications were oral atypical antipsychotics: olanzapine (n=268), clozapine (n=234) and risperidone (n=160). The most frequently prescribed atypical antipsychotics over course of disease were: risperidone (54.5%), olanzapine (52.4%) and clozapine (35.1%), along with haloperidol (39.3%). Experts reported risperidone (four countries) and olanzapine (three countries) as first-line treatment, with the same two medications prescribed as second-line treatment. Clozapine was the most reported medication for refractory patients. Approximately 22% of patients received polypharmacy with antipsychotics in at least one period over the disease course. Mean time since diagnosis was 13.1 years and on average 4.8 treatment courses received during that period. Anxiolytics (70%), antidepressants (42%), mood-stabilizers (27%) were also prescribed, with diazepam (35.4%), sertraline (10.5%), valproic acid (17.5%) the most commonly reported, respectively, in each group. The most frequently reported treatment change was switch from one oral atypical antipsychotic to another (51%). Oral atypical antipsychotics, mostly older drugs (risperidone, olanzapine, clozapine), were most commonly prescribed for schizophrenia treatment in participating countries

  6. Comparison of Sexual Function and Hormonal Parameters Between Mood Stabilizer Treatment Modalities in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    KESEBİR, Sermin; TOPRAK, Burak; BAYKARAN, Burak; HARİRİ, Aytül; BİLİCİ, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the differences between lithium and atypical antipsychotics (quetiapine and olanzapine) with regard to their effects on sexual functions and hormonal variables and to assess the findings in term of gender differences, in patients with bipolar disorder. Method 28 female and 29 male patients diagnosed as having bipolar disorder type I according to the DSM-IV, using lithium or quetiapine and quetiapine+lithium or olanzapine and olanzapine+lithium were evaluated consecutively. Being in remission period and given informed consent were set as inclusion criteria in these cases. Interviews with the patients were carried out using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) and SKIP-TURK. Sexual functions and satisfaction were evaluated with the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX) and the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS). Blood samples of the patients were taken in order to determine prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), and free testosterone (T) levels. Results GRISS scores in male patients were higher than in female patients (p=.001). The number of manic, depressive and total episodes, and functionality levels were similar between the treatment groups, both in female and male patients. No differences were found between treatment modalities in terms of hormone levels both in female and male patients. Among females, ASEX scores of the patients treated with lithium monotherapy were less than the ones treated with quetiapine and olanzapine. Among patients with quetiapine monotherapy, GRISS scores in male patients were higher than in female patients. Conclusion There are some evidences showing gender-based differences in the side effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs. Future studies with a specific focus on this topic are needed in order to have a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of gender differences

  7. Comparative efficacy and safety of antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia: a network meta-analysis in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Taro; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Matsunaga, Shinji; Matsuda, Yuki; Oya, Kazuto; Iwata, Nakao

    2017-01-01

    The relative efficacy and tolerability of antipsychotics for schizophrenia are considerably well studied. This study aimed to examine whether previous findings could be replicated in a genetically distinct and homogenous group (ie, Japanese patients with schizophrenia) and whether previous findings could be extended to a broader range of antipsychotics with previously unclear relative efficacy and tolerability. Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed in which randomized trials comparing any of the following interventions were included: second-generation antipsychotics, haloperidol, or placebo. The primary outcomes for efficacy and acceptability were the response rate and all-cause discontinuation. The secondary outcomes included the improvement of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores, discontinuation because of adverse events, and individual adverse events. Eighteen relevant studies were identified (total n=3,446; aripiprazole =267, blonanserin =285, clozapine =47, clocapramine =295, haloperidol =857, mosapramine =493, olanzapine =179, paliperidone =136, perospirone =146, placebo =138, quetiapine =212, and risperidone =338; mean study duration =8.33±1.41 weeks). In primary outcomes, olanzapine and paliperidone showed efficacy than placebo, and olanzapine and paliperidone showed superior acceptability compared with placebo. There were differences in the incidences of individual adverse events (the best antipsychotic: extrapyramidal symptoms = olanzapine, hyperprolactinemia- related symptoms = quetiapine, sedation = paliperidone, and weight change = blonanserin) among antipsychotics. Although the current analysis exclusively included Japanese patients with schizophrenia, no remarkable differences were observed in efficacy and safety compared with previous meta-analyses. Diverse hierarchies in safety outcomes also support the implication that individual risk expectations for adverse events can guide clinical decisions. However, the sample size was

  8. Comparative efficacy and safety of antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia: a network meta-analysis in a Japanese population

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Taro; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Matsunaga, Shinji; Matsuda, Yuki; Oya, Kazuto; Iwata, Nakao

    2017-01-01

    Background The relative efficacy and tolerability of antipsychotics for schizophrenia are considerably well studied. This study aimed to examine whether previous findings could be replicated in a genetically distinct and homogenous group (ie, Japanese patients with schizophrenia) and whether previous findings could be extended to a broader range of antipsychotics with previously unclear relative efficacy and tolerability. Methods Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed in which randomized trials comparing any of the following interventions were included: second-generation antipsychotics, haloperidol, or placebo. The primary outcomes for efficacy and acceptability were the response rate and all-cause discontinuation. The secondary outcomes included the improvement of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores, discontinuation because of adverse events, and individual adverse events. Results Eighteen relevant studies were identified (total n=3,446; aripiprazole =267, blonanserin =285, clozapine =47, clocapramine =295, haloperidol =857, mosapramine =493, olanzapine =179, paliperidone =136, perospirone =146, placebo =138, quetiapine =212, and risperidone =338; mean study duration =8.33±1.41 weeks). In primary outcomes, olanzapine and paliperidone showed efficacy than placebo, and olanzapine and paliperidone showed superior acceptability compared with placebo. There were differences in the incidences of individual adverse events (the best antipsychotic: extrapyramidal symptoms = olanzapine, hyperprolactinemia- related symptoms = quetiapine, sedation = paliperidone, and weight change = blonanserin) among antipsychotics. Conclusion Although the current analysis exclusively included Japanese patients with schizophrenia, no remarkable differences were observed in efficacy and safety compared with previous meta-analyses. Diverse hierarchies in safety outcomes also support the implication that individual risk expectations for adverse events can guide clinical decisions

  9. Comparative efficacy between clozapine and other atypical antipsychotics on depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: analysis of the CATIE phase 2E data.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Shinichiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Fervaha, Gagan; Plitman, Eric; Chung, Jun Ku; Caravaggio, Fernando; Iwata, Yusuke; Mihashi, Yukiko; Gerretsen, Philip; Remington, Gary; Mulsant, Benoit; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-02-01

    The comparative antidepressant effects of clozapine and other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia remain elusive, leading us to examine this question using the data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness phase 2E. Ninety-nine patients who discontinued treatment with olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone because of inadequate efficacy were randomly assigned to open-label treatment with clozapine (n=49) or double-blind treatment with another atypical antipsychotic not previously received in the trial (olanzapine [n=19], quetiapine [n=15], or risperidone [n=16]). The primary outcome was the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) total score. Antidepressant effects of clozapine and the other atypical antipsychotics were compared in patients with chronic schizophrenia and those with a major depressive episode (MDE) at baseline (i.e. ≥6 on the CDSS), using mixed models. No differences in the baseline CDSS total scores were found between the treatment groups regardless of presence of an MDE. Clozapine was more effective than quetiapine in antidepressant effects for chronic schizophrenia (p<.01 for the whole sample and p=.01 for those with an MDE), and comparable to olanzapine and risperidone. The present findings suggest that clozapine demonstrates superior antidepressant effects to quetiapine and comparable effects to olanzapine and risperidone in chronic schizophrenia regardless of presence of MDE. Given the indication of clozapine for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and the negative impacts of depressive symptoms on clinical outcomes in schizophrenia, further research is warranted to investigate antidepressant effects of clozapine in TRS with an MDE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) polymorphisms on serum triglyceride levels in schizophrenic patients under long-term atypical antipsychotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chen-Jee; Chen, Tzu-Ting; Bai, Ya Mei; Liou, Ying-Jay; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine or olanzapine often develop hypertriglyceridemia. The apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5), which affects VLDL production and lipolysis, has been implicated in the triglyceride (TG) metabolism. This study examined the association of common APOA5 genetic variants and TG levels in chronically institutionalized schizophrenic patients, on a stable dose of atypical antipsychotic (clozapine, olanzapine or risperidone. The TG levels in 466 schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine (n = 182), olanzapine (n = 89) or risperidone (n = 195) were measured. Patients were genotyped for the three APOA5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs662799 (-1131T > C), rs651821 (3A > G) and rs2266788 (1891T > C). A gene × drug interaction with TG levels was observed. In single-marker-based analysis, the minor alleles of the two polymorphisms (-1131C and -3G) were observed to be associated with increased TGs in patients treated with risperidone, but not with clozapine or olanzapine. Haplotype analysis further revealed that carriers of the haplotype constructed with the three minor alleles had higher TG levels than those who did not carry this haplotype in patients taking risperidone (CGC((+/+)) vs. = 125.4 ± 59.1 vs. 82.2 ± 65.8, P = 0.015; CGC((-/+ )) vs. CGC((-/-)) = 113.7 ± 80.4 vs. 82.2 ± 65.8, P = 0.012). Our findings extend and add new information to the existing data regarding the association between APOA5 and TG regulation during long-term atypical antipsychotic treatment.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of antipsychotics for outpatients with chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Obradovic, M; Mrhar, A; Kos, M

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative treatments for outpatients with chronic schizophrenia from the healthcare payer's perspective. Decision analysis was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the following antipsychotic drugs: amisulpride, aripiprazole, haloperidol (oral formulation), haloperidol (depot formulation), olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone (oral formulation), risperidone (depot formulation) and ziprazidone. Clinical and economic outcomes were modelled over 1-year time horizon. Effectiveness was measured as a percentage of patients in remission. Clinical parameters used in the model included compliance rates, rehospitalisation rates for compliant and non-compliant patients, duration and frequency of hospitalisation, and adverse event rates. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to test the robustness of the model. The most effective treatment was treatment with olanzapine where 64.1% of patients remained in remission. The least effective treatment was treatment with quetiapine where 32.7% of patients remained in remission. Overall costs ranged from 3,726.78 Euro for haloperidol to 8,157.03 Euro for risperidone in depot formulation. Inpatient costs represented the major part of costs for most of antipsychotic drugs. Typical antipsychotic drugs had substantially smaller outpatient costs (6.5%) compared with atypical antipsychotics (37.9%). In the base case scenario the non-dominated treatment strategies were haloperidol, haloperidol decanoate and olanzapine. Additionally, risperidone can also be considered to be part of the efficient frontier based on the sensitivity analysis results. Among second-generation antipsychotics, which have a better safety profile than first-generation antipsychotics, olanzapine and risperidone showed to be the most cost-effective treatment strategies for outpatient treatment of chronic schizophrenia.

  12. Second-generation antipsychotics cause a rapid switch to fat oxidation that is required for survival in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Klingerman, Candice M; Stipanovic, Michelle E; Bader, Mohammad; Lynch, Christopher J

    2014-03-01

    Some second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) increase insulin resistance and fat oxidation, but counter intuitively they do not activate lipolysis. This seems unsustainable for meeting energy demands. Here, we measured dose-dependent effects of SGAs on rates of oxygen consumption (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and physical activity in C57BL/6J mice. The role of H1-histamine receptors and consequences of blocking fat oxidation were also examined. Olanzapine, risperidone, and clozapine (2.5-10mg/kg) elicited rapid drops in dark-cycle RER (~0.7) within minutes, whereas aripiprazole exerted only modest changes. Higher doses of olanzapine decreased VO2, and this was associated with accumulation of glucose in plasma. Clozapine and risperidone also lowered VO2, in contrast to aripiprazole, whereas all decreased physical activity. Astemizole and terfenadine had no significant effects on RER, VO2, or physical activity. The VO2 and RER effects appear independent of sedation/physical activity or H1-receptors. CPT-1 inhibitors can enhance muscle glucose utilization and prevent fat oxidation. However, after etomoxir (2 × 30 mg/kg), a low dose of olanzapine that did not significantly affect VO2 by itself caused precipitous drops in VO2 and body temperature, leading to death within hours or a moribund state requiring euthanasia. One 30 mg/kg dose of either etomoxir or 2-tetradecylglycidate followed by olanzapine, risperidone, or clozapine, but not aripiprazole, dramatically lowered VO2 and body temperature. Thus, mice treated with some SGAs shift their fuel utilization to mostly fat but are unable to either switch back to glucose or meet their energy demands when either higher doses are used or when fat oxidation is blocked.

  13. Haloperidol versus second-generation antipsychotics in the long-term treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Buoli, Massimiliano; Kahn, René S; Serati, Marta; Altamura, A Carlo; Cahn, Wiepke

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare antipsychotic monotherapies in terms of time to discontinuation in a sample of schizophrenia patients followed-up for 36 months. Two hundred and twenty schizophrenia patients, treated with antipsychotic monotherapy and followed-up in psychiatric outpatient clinics of Universities of Milan and Utrecht were included in the study. A survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier) of the 36-month follow-up period was performed to compare the single treatment groups. End-point was considered as discontinuation of treatment for recurrence, side effects or non-compliance. Patients treated with haloperidol discontinued more than the other groups (Breslow: risperidone p < 0.001, olanzapine p < 0.001, quetiapine p = 0.002, clozapine p < 0.001, aripiprazole p = 0.002). Lack of efficacy (recurrence) was a more frequent reason for discontinuation in the haloperidol group than in the olanzapine group (p < 0.05). Extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) were more frequent in the haloperidol group than with olanzapine (p < 0.05). The olanzapine group presented more frequently weight gain than the other groups, without reaching statistical significance. Patients treated with atypical antipsychotics appear to continue pharmacotherapy longer than patients treated with haloperidol. In addition, atypical antipsychotics seem to be more protective against recurrences than haloperidol. However, these results should be cautiously interpreted in the light of potential confounder factors such as duration of illness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Head-to-head comparisons of metabolic side effects of second generation antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Komossa, Katja; Schwarz, Sandra; Hunger, Heike; Schmid, Franziska; Lobos, Claudia Asenjo; Kissling, Werner; Davis, John M; Leucht, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Objective The metabolic side effects of second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) are serious and have not been compared head to head in a meta-analysis. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing the metabolic side effects of the following SGAs head-to-head: amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone, zotepine. Method We searched the register of the Cochrane schizophrenia group (last search May 2007), supplemented by MEDLINE and EMBASE (last search January 2009) for randomized, blinded studies comparing the above mentioned SGA in the treatment of schizophrenia or related disorders. At least three reviewers extracted the data independently. The primary outcome was weight change. We also assessed changes of cholesterol and glucose. The results were combined in a meta-analysis. Results We included 48 studies with 105 relevant arms. Olanzapine produced more weight gain than all other second-generation antipsychotics except for clozapine where no difference was found. Clozapine produced more weight gain than risperidone, risperidone more than amisulpride, and sertindole more than risperidone. Olanzapine produced more cholesterol increase than aripiprazole, risperidone and ziprasidone. (No differences with amisulpride, clozapine and quetiapine were found). Quetiapine produced more cholesterol increase than risperidone and ziprasidone. Olanzapine produced more increase in glucose than amisulpride, aripiprazole, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone; no difference was found with clozapine. Conclusions Some SGAs lead to substantially more metabolic side effects than other SGAs. When choosing an SGA for an individual patient these side effects with their potential cause of secondary diseases must be weighed against efficacy and characteristics of the individual patient. PMID:20692814

  15. DISRUPTION OF CONDITIONED REWARD ASSOCIATION BY TYPICAL AND ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS

    PubMed Central

    Danna, C.L.; Elmer, G.I.

    2013-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are broadly classified into typical and atypical compounds; they vary in their pharmacological profile however a common component is their antagonist effects at the D2 dopamine receptors (DRD2). Unfortunately, diminished DRD2 activation is generally thought to be associated with the severity of neuroleptic-induced anhedonia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine and typical antipsychotic haloperidol in a paradigm that reflects the learned transfer of incentive motivational properties to previously neutral stimuli, namely autoshaping. In order to provide a dosing comparison to a therapeutically relevant endpoint, both drugs were tested against amphetamine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition as well. In the autoshaping task, rats were exposed to repeated pairings of stimuli that were differentially predictive of reward delivery. Conditioned approach to the reward predictive cue (sign-tracking) and to the reward (goal-tracking) increased during repeated pairings in the vehicle treated rats. Haloperidol and olanzapine completely abolished this behavior at relatively low doses (100 μg/kg). This same dose was the threshold dose for each drug to antagonize the sensorimotor gating deficits produced by amphetamine. At lower doses (3–30 μg/kg) both drugs produced a dose-dependent decrease in conditioned approach to the reward predictive cue. There was no difference between drugs at this dose range which indicates that olanzapine disrupts autoshaping at a significantly lower proposed DRD2 receptor occupancy. Interestingly, neither drug disrupted conditioned approach to the reward at the same dose range that disrupted conditioned approach to the reward predictive cue. Thus, haloperidol and olanzapine, at doses well below what is considered therapeutically relevant, disrupts the attribution of incentive motivational value to previously neutral cues. Drug effects on this dimension of reward

  16. Second-Generation Antipsychotics Cause a Rapid Switch to Fat Oxidation That Is Required for Survival in C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Some second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) increase insulin resistance and fat oxidation, but counter intuitively they do not activate lipolysis. This seems unsustainable for meeting energy demands. Here, we measured dose-dependent effects of SGAs on rates of oxygen consumption (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and physical activity in C57BL/6J mice. The role of H1-histamine receptors and consequences of blocking fat oxidation were also examined. Olanzapine, risperidone, and clozapine (2.5–10mg/kg) elicited rapid drops in dark-cycle RER (~0.7) within minutes, whereas aripiprazole exerted only modest changes. Higher doses of olanzapine decreased VO2, and this was associated with accumulation of glucose in plasma. Clozapine and risperidone also lowered VO2, in contrast to aripiprazole, whereas all decreased physical activity. Astemizole and terfenadine had no significant effects on RER, VO2, or physical activity. The VO2 and RER effects appear independent of sedation/physical activity or H1-receptors. CPT-1 inhibitors can enhance muscle glucose utilization and prevent fat oxidation. However, after etomoxir (2 × 30mg/kg), a low dose of olanzapine that did not significantly affect VO2 by itself caused precipitous drops in VO2 and body temperature, leading to death within hours or a moribund state requiring euthanasia. One 30mg/kg dose of either etomoxir or 2-tetradecylglycidate followed by olanzapine, risperidone, or clozapine, but not aripiprazole, dramatically lowered VO2 and body temperature. Thus, mice treated with some SGAs shift their fuel utilization to mostly fat but are unable to either switch back to glucose or meet their energy demands when either higher doses are used or when fat oxidation is blocked. PMID:23328157

  17. Leukopenia and neutropenia induced by quetiapine.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Colin; Oakley, Clare

    2007-01-30

    Leukopenia and neutropenia are recognised as side effects of antipsychotic medication, notably clozapine. A case is presented in which a female Caucasian patient who had previously developed these side effects with clozapine also developed them with quetiapine in conjunction with semisodium valproate. There was no such reaction to zuclopenthixol, sulpiride, olanzapine and aripiprazole. It is concluded that caution should be exercised when treating with quetiapine especially where there has been neutropenia with a previous antipsychotic agent.

  18. [Informed Consent and the Approval by Ethics Committees of Studies Involving the Use of Atypical Antipsychotics in the Management of Delirium].

    PubMed

    Millán-González, Ricardo

    2012-03-01

    Delirium is an acute alteration of consciousness and cognition. Atypical antipsychotics (AA) have recently become a main part of its treatment. Studies in this population generate a series of ethical dilemmas concerning the voluntary participation of patients and their state of vulnerability since their mental faculties are, by definition, compromised. To assess whether studies with AA for the treatment of delirium obtained an approval by an ethics committee on human research (ECHR), if an informed consent (IC) was obtained, whether the IC was verbal or written, and who gave the approval to participate. Systematic review of Medline for studies of delirium where quetiapine and olanzapine were the main treatment, assessing the existence of an ECHR approval and implementation of an IC. 11 studies were identified (6 of quetiapine and 5 of olanzapine). 5 had an ECHR approval. Most studies examining the treatment of delirium with quetiapine or olanzapine were not subject to approval by an ECHR and most of them did not obtain an IC from the patient's legal guardian. It is essential that future studies of antipsychotics and other drugs for the treatment of delirium have the protocol approved by an ECHR and a written IC signed by the patient's legal representative, since by definition delirium is a condition that compromises superior mental processes. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels during antipsychotics treatment in Parkinson's disease and related psychosis.

    PubMed

    Rustembegovic, Avdo; Sofic, Emin; Wichart, Ildiko

    2006-01-01

    Weight gain is a common adverse effect associated with the use of most typical and atypical antipsychotic. Aim of this study was to investigate serum prolactin, leptin, cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoproteins, such high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD)-related psychosis during long-term medication with atypical antipsychotic. The study population comprised 40 patients, who were divided into 4 groups: olanzapine (n=10), risperidone (n=10), seroquel (n=10) monotherapy, a group of 10 patients receiving only antiparkinson drugs and a control group of 8 healthy persons. The patients were evaluated at baseline and at the sixth and twelfth week according to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), body mass index (BMI), and fasting serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels. Treatment of patients with olanzapine caused marked increase of serum LDL, cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin levels (p<0,02). No changes in HDL concentrations. There was positive relationship between serum leptin, lipid levels and BMI. However, treatment of patients with seroquel did not cause changes in serum prolactin, leptin, lipids, and lipoproteins levels. Our results suggest that treatment of patients with PD-related psychosis with seroquel appears to have minimal influence on serum leptin, prolactin, lipids, lipoproteins and BMI compared with olanzapine and risperidone.

  20. Switching and augmentation strategies for antipsychotic medications in acute-phase schizophrenia: latest evidence and place in therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hatta, Kotaro; Sugiyama, Naoya; Ito, Hiroto

    2018-01-01

    In terms of effectiveness of antipsychotics in schizophrenia, discrepancy often exists between results from double-blind randomized controlled trials and observations in emergency or acute-phase clinical practice. For instance, the antipsychotic switching strategy is not always applicable in emergency or acute-phase situations, and augmentation of another antipsychotic is occasionally done instead. In this review, we discuss strategies for early nonresponse to an antipsychotic drug such as switching and augmentation from the perspective of emergency and acute-phase treatment. We searched PubMed for the latest evidence on switching and augmentation strategies of antipsychotics for an emergency or acute-phase period. For risperidone and olanzapine, there is some evidence on switching and augmentation strategies in the management of acute-phase schizophrenia. There may be responders to olanzapine alone among early nonresponders to risperidone, whereas there may be few responders to risperidone alone among early nonresponders to olanzapine. However, there is still insufficient evidence at this time for application of these findings to routine clinical practice. For other antipsychotics, there is little evidence for their augmentation in acute-phase practice. We should be wary of polypharmacy, as multiple agents are too often prescribed by clinicians when not warranted. Considering current evidence, we propose how to switch antipsychotics in the acute phase of schizophrenia in routine practice. PMID:29854396

  1. A comparison of two novel antipsychotics in first episode non-affective psychosis: one-year outcome on symptoms, motor side effects and cognition.

    PubMed

    Malla, Ashok; Norman, Ross; Scholten, Derek; Townsend, Laurel; Manchanda, Rahul; Takhar, Jatinder; Haricharan, Raj

    2004-12-15

    The main objective of this study was to compare 1-year outcome on symptoms, extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) , positive and negative symptoms, and domains of cognition in first episode psychosis (FEP) patients. Drug-naive FEP patients, who were similar on a number of characteristics likely to affect outcome, were treated with only one antipsychotic (risperidone or olanzapine) for at least 1 year and compared at baseline and after 1 year of treatment. Differences in outcome were assessed using an analysis of co-variance with change scores between initial assessment and after 1 year of treatment on levels of psychotic, disorganization and psychomotor poverty symptoms, EPS (parkinsonism, akathesia and dyskineisa) and domains of cognition as the dependent variable, respective baseline scores as covariates, and drug group as the independent variable. While patients in both groups showed substantial improvement, there were no significant differences in the magnitude of change in reality distortion, disorganization and psychomotor poverty symptoms. Trends in change in EPS favouring olanzapine and on some domains of cognition (processing speed and executive functions) favouring risperidone failed to reach statistical significance. The failure to confirm previous claims of greater improvement on either risperidone or olanzapine in patients with a first episode of psychosis may be the result of methodological bias introduced by unequal dosing between the two drugs or the use of chronically ill and treatment-refractory patients in previous studies.

  2. Comparative effect of lurasidone and blonanserin on cortical glutamate, dopamine, and acetylcholine efflux: role of relative serotonin (5-HT)2A and DA D2 antagonism and 5-HT1A partial agonism.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mei; Panos, John J; Kwon, Sunoh; Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2014-03-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) have been suggested to be more effective in improving cognitive impairment in schizophrenia than typical APDs, a conclusion supported by differences in receptor affinities and neurotransmitter efflux in the cortex and the hippocampus. More potent serotonin (5-HT)2A than dopamine (DA) D2 receptors antagonism, and direct or indirect 5-HT1A agonism, characterize almost all AAPDs. Blonanserin, an AAPD, has slightly greater affinity for D2 than 5-HT2A receptors. Using microdialysis and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, we compared the abilities of the typical APD, haloperidol, three AAPDs, blonanserin, lurasidone, and olanzapine, and a selective 5-HT1A partial agonist, tandospirone, and all, except haloperidol, were found to ameliorate the cognitive deficits produced by the N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist, phencyclidine, altering the efflux of neurotransmitters and metabolites in the rat cortex and nucleus accumbens. Blonanserin, lurasidone, olanzapine, and tandospirone, but not haloperidol, increased the efflux of cortical DA and its metabolites, homovanillic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Olanzapine and lurasidone increased the efflux of acetylcholine; lurasidone increased glutamate as well. None of the compounds significantly altered the efflux of 5-HT or its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, or GABA, serine, and glycine. The ability to increase cortical DA efflux was the only shared effect of the compounds which ameliorates the deficit in cognition in rodents following phencyclidine. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. An RCT Evaluating the Effects of Skills Training and Medication Type on Work Outcomes Among Patients With Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Shirley M; Marder, Stephen R; Noordsy, Douglas L; O'Keefe, Christopher; Becker, Deborah R; Drake, Robert E; Sugar, Catherine A

    2017-03-01

    Although supported employment increases job acquisition for people with serious mental illness, data on participants' job tenure have been variable. This study evaluated the effects of a standardized work skills training program (the Workplace Fundamentals Module [WPFM]) on job tenure and other work outcomes among individuals receiving individual placement and support (IPS). The effects of two atypical antipsychotic medications on side effects were also tested. The primary hypothesis tested was that participants in IPS plus WPFM would have increased job tenure compared with those enrolled in IPS only, and the secondary hypothesis was that different antipsychotic medications would yield unique side effects. A 2×2 randomized controlled trial compared work outcomes, including job tenure, of participants receiving IPS with or without WPFM for up to two years after obtaining a job. Participants were also randomly assigned to olanzapine or risperidone. Measures of work outcomes, clinical status, and medication side effects were collected. Among 107 participants, 63% obtained at least one job. WPFM did not increase job tenure (51.53 and 41.37 total weeks worked for IPS only and IPS plus WPFM, respectively) or affect other work outcomes. Participants on olanzapine experienced increased body mass index, whereas those on risperidone lost weight, but medications did not differentially affect clinical or job outcomes. Clinic-based skills training did not improve work outcomes accruing from IPS. Risperidone, compared with olanzapine, may reduce body mass but has no differential effect on other work or clinical outcomes.

  4. Effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs on QT interval in patients with mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Aronow, Wilbert S.

    2018-01-01

    Background Drug-induced QT prolongation is associated with higher risk of cardiac arrhythmias and cardiovascular mortality. We investigated the effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs on QT interval in children and adults with mental disorders. Methods We conducted random-effects direct frequentist meta-analyses of aggregate data from randomized controlled trials (RCT) and appraised the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Our search in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, clinicaltrials.gov, and PharmaPendium up to October 2017 identified studies that examined aripiprazole, quetiapine, risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone and brexpiprazole. Results Low quality evidence suggests that aripiprazole (four meta-analyses and twelve RCTs), brexpiprazole (one systematic review and four RCTs) or olanzapine (five meta-analyses and twenty RCTs) do not increase QT interval. Low quality evidence suggests that ziprasidone (five meta-analyses and 11 RCTs) increases QT interval and the rates of QT prolongation while risperidone (four meta-analyses, 70 RCTs) and quetiapine (two meta-analyses and seven RCTs) are associated with QT prolongation and greater odds of torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia especially in cases of drug overdose. Conclusions The main conclusion of our study is that in people with mental disorders and under treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs, in order to avoid QT prolongation and reduce the risk of ventricular tachycardia clinicians may recommend aripiprazole, brexpiprazole or olanzapine in licensed doses. Long-term comparative safety needs to be established. PMID:29862236

  5. Double-blind maintenance safety and effectiveness findings from the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Study (TEOSS)

    PubMed Central

    Findling, Robert L; Johnson, Jacqueline L; McClellan, Jon; Frazier, Jean A; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hamer, Robert M; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Ritz, Louise; McNamara, Nora K; Lingler, Jacqui; Hlastala, Stefanie; Pierson, Leslie; Puglia, Madeline; Maloney, Ann E; Kaufman, Emily Michael; Noyes, Nancy; Sikich, Linmarie

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the long-term safety and efficacy of three antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOSS). METHOD Patients (age 8–19 years) who had improved during an 8-week, randomized double-blind acute trial of olanzapine, risperidone, or molindone (plus benztropine) were eligible to continue on the same medication for up to 44 additional weeks under double-blind conditions. Adjunctive medications were allowed following defined algorithms. Standardized symptom, safety, and functional assessments were conducted every 4 weeks. RESULTS Of the 116 youth randomized in the acute trial, 54 entered maintenance treatment (molindone, N=20; olanzapine, N=13; risperidone, N=21). Fourteen (26%) completed 44 weeks of treatment. Adverse effects (N=15), inadequate efficacy (N=14), or study non-adherence (N=8) were the most common reasons for discontinuation. The three treatment arms did not significantly differ in symptom reduction or time to discontinuation. Akathisia was more common with molindone and elevated prolactin concentrations more common with risperidone. Although weight gain and metabolic adverse events had occurred more often with olanzapine and risperidone during the acute trial, no significant between-drug differences emerged in most of these parameters during maintenance treatment. CONCLUSIONS Only 12 % of youth with EOSS continued on their originally randomized treatment at 52 weeks. No agent demonstrated superior efficacy, and all were associated with side effects, including weight gain. Improved treatments are needed for EOSS. PMID:20494268

  6. Correlation between plasma homovanillic acid levels and the response to atypical antipsychotics in male patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Ichiro; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs-olanzapine, perospirone, and quetiapine-on plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) in male patients with chronic schizophrenia. In this prospective, open-label study, the subjects were 30 inpatients who were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, criteria for schizophrenia. The authors switched patients from typical antipsychotic drugs to olanzapine, perospirone, or quetiapine. Each patient gave informed consent for the research. pHVA was assessed before and after switching medications. After the switch, the authors found a significant improvement in psychotic symptoms, nonsignificant improvement in extrapyramidal symptoms, and a nonsignificant reduction in pHVA. In addition, the baseline pHVA correlated positively with the score changes from baseline in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) total, positive, and negative symptoms in the group with a whole sample and in the olanzapine-treated group, and with the score changes in the BPRS total and positive symptoms in the quetiapine-treated group. Our findings indicated that the preswitching pHVA levels could be used to predict changes in the psychotic symptoms of male patients with chronic schizophrenia when switching to atypical antipsychotic drugs.

  7. [The influence of antipsychotic therapy on the cognitive functions of schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Tybura, Piotr; Mak, Monika; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Pełka-Wysiecka, Justyna; Grzywacz, Anna; Grochans, Elzbieta; Zaremba-Pechmann, Liliana; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was twofold: 1. to compare the efficacy of three antipsychotics (ziprasidone, olanzapine and perazine) in schizophrenia 2. to compare the improvement in cognitive functioning between groups treated with the three different neuroleptics. A total of 58 Caucasian patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia were recruited into the study group. We used the Polish version of the CIDI (Composite International Diagnostic Interview) to obtain ICD-10 diagnoses. The intensity of psychopathological symptoms was examined using the PANSS. The patients were randomly assigned to treatment with perazine, olanzapine or ziprasidone administered as monotherapy for 3 months. The treatment efficacy was measured as a change in the PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) total score from baseline (T0) to 3 months (T1). The WCST (The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test) was used to measure working memory and executive functions in the evaluated patients. Wilcoxon's and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied to compare changes in the PANSS scores between the treatment groups. To analyze the cognitive functions, Kruskal-Wallis test for the WCST parameters was used. The three antipsychotics similarly reduced the total PANSS score. The WCST parameters in the 3 groups of examined patients using the Kruskal-Wallis test revealed some differences between the three administered antipsychotics. Results suggest that the short-term efficacy of the atypical (olanzapine, ziprasidone) and typical (perazine) antipsychotic drugs did not differ. Based on the analysis, a conclusion can be drawn that the three neuroleptics provided similar improvements in cognitive functioning.

  8. Efficacy and safety of haloperidol versus atypical antipsychotic medications in the treatment of delirium.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung-Jun; Park, Kyoung-Min; Choi, Won-Jung; Choi, Soo-Hee; Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Jae-Jin; Seok, Jeong-Ho

    2013-09-30

    Most previous studies on the efficacy of antipsychotic medication for the treatment of delirium have reported that there is no significant difference between typical and atypical antipsychotic medications. It is known, however, that older age might be a predictor of poor response to antipsychotics in the treatment of delirium. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of haloperidol versus three atypical antipsychotic medications (risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine) for the treatment of delirium with consideration of patient age. This study was a 6-day, prospective, comparative clinical observational study of haloperidol versus atypical antipsychotic medications (risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine) in patients with delirium at a tertiary level hospital. The subjects were referred to the consultation-liaison psychiatric service for management of delirium and were screened before enrollment in this study. A total of 80 subjects were assigned to receive either haloperidol (N = 23), risperidone (N = 21), olanzapine (N = 18), or quetiapine (N = 18). The efficacy was evaluated using the Korean version of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-K) and the Korean version of the Mini Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE). The safety was evaluated by the Udvalg Kliniske Undersogelser side effect rating scale. There were no significant differences in mean DRS-K severity or K-MMSE scores among the four groups at baseline. In all groups, the DRS-K severity score decreased and the K-MMSE score increased significantly over the study period. However, there were no significant differences in the improvement of DRS-K or K-MMSE scores among the four groups. Similarly, cognitive and non-cognitive subscale DRS-K scores decreased regardless of the treatment group. The treatment response rate was lower in patients over 75 years old than in patients under 75 years old. Particularly, the response rate to olanzapine was poorer in the older age group

  9. Cost-effectiveness model of long-acting risperidone in schizophrenia in the US.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Natalie C; Rupnow, Marcia F T; Pashos, Chris L; Botteman, Marc F; Diamond, Ronald J

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating and costly illness that affects 1% of the population in the US. Effective pharmacological therapies are available but suboptimal patient adherence to either acute or long-term therapeutic regimens reduces their effectiveness. The availability of a long-acting injection (LAI) formulation of risperidone may increase adherence and improve clinical and economic outcomes for people with schizophrenia. To assess the cost effectiveness of risperidone LAI compared with oral risperidone, oral olanzapine and haloperidol decanoate LAI over a 1-year time period in outpatients with schizophrenia who had previously suffered a relapse requiring hospitalisation. US healthcare system. Published medical literature, unpublished data from clinical trials and a consumer health database, and a clinical expert panel were used to populate a decision-analysis model comparing the four treatment alternatives. The model captured: rates of patient compliance; rates, frequency and duration of relapse; incidence of adverse events (bodyweight gain and extrapyramidal effects); and healthcare resource utilisation and associated costs. Primary outcomes were: the proportion of patients with relapse; the frequency of relapse per patient; the number of relapse days per patient; and total direct medical cost per patient per year. Costs are in year 2002 US dollars. Based on model projections, the proportions of patients experiencing a relapse requiring hospitalisation after 1 year of treatment were 66% for haloperidol decanoate LAI, 41% for oral risperidone and oral olanzapine and 26% for risperidone LAI, while the proportion of patients with a relapse not requiring hospitalisation were 60%, 37%, 37% and 24%, respectively. The mean number of days of relapse requiring hospitalisation per patient per year was 28 for haloperidol decanoate LAI, 18 for oral risperidone and oral olanzapine and 11 for risperidone LAI, while the mean number of days of relapse not requiring

  10. Neuromotor Adverse Effects in 342 Youth During 12 Weeks of Naturalistic Treatment With 5 Second-Generation Antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Maren; Kapoor, Sandeep; Sheridan, Eva; Al-Jadiri, Aseel; Azzo, Sally; Sarkaria, Tania; Kane, John M; Saito, Ema; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-09-01

    Second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) effects in youth were monitored to quantify extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) and to identify risk profiles for treatment-emergent EPS. Data were analyzed for the nonrandomized, prospective Second-generation Antipsychotic Treatment Indications, Effectiveness and Tolerability in Youth (SATIETY) inception cohort study. EPS were assessed at baseline and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after naturalistic SGA initiation for schizophrenia, mood, disruptive behavior, and autism spectrum disorders using the Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS), Barnes Akathisia Scale, Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS), and Treatment Emergent Side Effect Scale. Drug-induced parkinsonism was defined by incident mean SAS score >0.33, anticholinergic initiation, or increasing total SAS score ≥2 in patients with baseline EPS. In 342 youth aged 13.6 ± 3.5 years (male = 58.2%, antipsychotic-naive = 65.8%), 15.2% developed drug-induced parkinsonism. Raw SGA-grouped drug-induced parkinsonism rates were as follows: quetiapine = 1.5%, olanzapine = 13.8%, risperidone = 16.1%, ziprasidone = 20.0%, and aripiprazole = 27.3%. SGA type, dose, higher age, and lower baseline functioning were jointly associated with drug-induced parkinsonism (R(2) = 0.18; p < .0001). Controlling for these factors, drug-induced parkinsonism rates were significantly lower only for quetiapine and olanzapine. Subjectively reported EPS (5%), EPS-related treatment discontinuation (3.3%), and anticholinergic initiation (3%) were infrequent. Anticholinergic initiation was most frequent with risperidone (10.2%; p = .0004). Treatment-emergent dyskinesia ranged from 4.5% (aripiprazole) to 15.5% (olanzapine). SGA type, younger age, white race/ethnicity, and baseline AIMS were jointly associated with treatment-emergent dyskinesia (R(2) = 0.31; p < .0001). Controlling for these factors, treatment-emergent dyskinesia rates differed among SGA subgroups, with higher rates with olanzapine and ziprasidone. At baseline

  11. [Antipsychotic Treatment of the Adult Patient in the Acute Phase of Schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; García Valencia, Jenny; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; de la Hoz, Ana María; Arenas, Álvaro; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of different antipsychotic drugs in the management of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in the acute phase. To formulate evidence-based recommendations on the antipsychotic (AP) drug management strategies for the treatment of the adult diagnosed with schizophrenia in the acute phase. Clinical practice guidelines were prepared, using the guidelines of the Methodology Guide of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, in order to identify, synthesise, and evaluate the evidence and formulate recommendations as regards the management and follow-up of adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. The evidence of the NICE 82 guideline was adopted and updated, which answered the question on the management of the acute phase of adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The evidence and its level were presented to the Guideline Development Group (GDG) in order to formulate recommendations following the methodology proposed by the GRADE approach. Clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, amisulpride, paliperidone, haloperidol, quetiapine, and aripiprazole were more effective than placebo for the majority of psychotic symptoms and the abandonment of treatment, but asenapine was not. Paliperidone, risperidone, quetiapine, clozapine, and olanzapine showed significant increases in weight compared to placebo. Haloperidol, risperidone, ziprasidone, and paliperidone had a higher risk of extrapyramidal symptoms than placebo. There was a significant risk of sedation or drowsiness with, risperidone, haloperidol, ziprasidone, quetiapine, olanzapine, and clozapine in the comparisons with placebo. Of the results of the comparisons between AP, it was shown that clozapine and paliperidone had a clinically significant effect compared to haloperidol and quetiapine, respectively. Olanzapine and risperidone had a lower risk of abandoning the treatment in general, and due to adverse reactions in two comparisons of each one, haloperidol was the

  12. M13. Identifying Youths at Risk for Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain and Metabolic Dysfunction in the Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS)

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jerome; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Gabriel, Daniel; Bloch, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Antipsychotic-induced metabolic dysfunction is problematic in youths with psychosis. We used limited-access data from the NIH-funded Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS) study to identify risk factors for neuroleptic-associated metabolic dysfunction. Methods: TEOSS randomized 119 youths with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder to 8 weeks of treatment with olanzapine, risperidone or molindone and monitored their response to medication as well as metabolic side effects throughout the trial. TEOSS demonstrated no differences in response rates by antipsychotic agent. In this secondary analysis we used stepwise linear regression and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) to identify baseline predictors associated with changes in weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and total cholesterol at week 8 in TEOSS. Results: Randomized assignment to olanzapine (parameter estimate (PE) = 2.88, SE = 1.08, P = .01) and living at home (vs institutionalization) (PE = 2.62, SE = 1.08, P = .02) associated with increased weight gain. Randomized assignment to molindone (PE = −3.45, SE = 0.97, P = .0007) associated with less weight gain. Greater increase in fasting glucose levels associated with randomization to olanzapine (PE = 18.56, SE = 7.33, P = .01) and the absence of a family history of depression (PE = −6.40, SE = 2.82, P = .03). Greater increase in fasting insulin levels associated with randomization to olanzapine (PE = 17.05, SE = 6.39, P = .01), greater number of past psychiatric hospitalizations (PE = 11.81, SE = 2.54, P < .0001), not taking an antipsychotic prior to study entry (PE = −20.35, SE = 6.50, P = .003) and the absence of a family history of depression (PE=−5.33, SE = 2.46, P = .03). Randomization to olanzapine (PE = 26.78, SE = 6.02, P < .0001), congenital heart disease (PE = 45.61, SE = 13.29, P = .0009) and legal difficulties (arrests

  13. Metabolic Effects of Antipsychotics on Adiposity and Insulin Sensitivity in Youths: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Ginger E; Yingling, Michael D; Flavin, Karen S; Schweiger, Julia A; Patterson, Bruce W; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Newcomer, John W

    2018-06-13

    Antipsychotic medications are commonly used to treat nonpsychotic disruptive behavioral disorders in youths. To characterize the metabolic effects of first exposure to antipsychotics in youths using criterion standard assessments of body composition and insulin sensitivity. This randomized clinical trial recruited antipsychotic-naive youths aged 6 to 18 years in the St Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area who were diagnosed with 1 or more psychiatric disorders and clinically significant aggression and in whom antipsychotic treatment was considered. Participants were enrolled from June 12, 2006, through November 10, 2010. Enrolled participants were randomized (1:1:1) to 1 of 3 antipsychotics commonly used in children with disruptive behavioral disorders and evaluated for 12 weeks. Data were analyzed from January 17, 2011, through August 9, 2017. Twelve weeks of treatment with oral aripiprazole (n = 49), olanzapine (n = 46), or risperidone (n = 49). Primary outcomes included percentage total body fat measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and insulin sensitivity in muscle measured via hyperinsulinemic clamps with stable isotopically labeled tracers. Secondary outcomes included abdominal adiposity measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and adipose and hepatic tissue insulin sensitivity measured via clamps with tracers. The intention-to-treat sample included 144 participants (98 males [68.1%]; mean [SD] age, 11.3 [2.8] years); 74 (51.4%) were African American, and 43 (29.9%) were overweight or obese at baseline. For the primary outcomes, from baseline to week 12, DXA percentage total body fat increased by 1.18% for risperidone, 4.12% for olanzapine, and 1.66% for aripiprazole and was significantly greater for olanzapine than risperidone or aripiprazole (time by treatment interaction P < .001). From baseline to week 12, insulin-stimulated change in glucose rate of disappearance increased by 2.30% for risperidone and decreased by 29

  14. Cost Effectiveness of Paliperidone Long-Acting Injectable Versus Other Antipsychotics for the Maintenance Treatment of Schizophrenia in France.

    PubMed

    Druais, Sylvain; Doutriaux, Agathe; Cognet, Magali; Godet, Annabelle; Lançon, Christophe; Levy, Pierre; Samalin, Ludovic; Guillon, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    French clinical recommendations suggest prescribing long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics to patients with a maintenance treatment indication in schizophrenia. Despite this, and due to their relatively high acquisition and administration costs, LAIs are still underused in clinical practice in France, thus highlighting the need for pharmacoeconomic evaluations. Our objective was to estimate the cost effectiveness of paliperidone LAI (or paliperidone palmitate), a once-monthly second-generation LAI antipsychotic, compared with the most common antipsychotic medications for the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in France. A Markov model was developed to simulate the progression of a cohort of schizophrenic patients through four health states (stable treated, stable non-treated, relapse and death) and to consider up to three lines of treatment to account for changes in treatment management. Paliperidone LAI was compared with risperidone LAI, aripiprazole LAI, olanzapine LAI, haloperidol LAI (or haloperidol decanoate) and oral olanzapine. Costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and number of relapses were assessed over 5 years based on 3-month cycles with a discount rate of 4% and from a French health insurance perspective. Patients were considered to be stabilised after a schizophrenic episode and would enter the model at an initiation phase, followed by a prevention of relapse phase if successful. Data (e.g. relapse or discontinuation rates) for the initiation phase came from randomised clinical trials, whereas relapse rates in the prevention phase were derived from hospitalisation risks based on real-life French data to capture adherence effects. Safety and utility data were derived from international publications. Additionally, costs were retrieved from French health insurance databases and publications. Finally, expert opinion was used for validation purposes or in case of gaps in data. The robustness of results was assessed through deterministic and

  15. mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 rescues NMDA and GABAA receptor level deficits induced in a two-hit mouse model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Engel, Martin; Snikeris, Peta; Matosin, Natalie; Newell, Kelly Anne; Huang, Xu-Feng; Frank, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    An imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission underlies the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia. Agonists of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluR2/3, have been proposed as novel therapeutic agents to correct this imbalance. However, the influence of mGluR2/3 activity on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors has not been explored. We aimed to investigate the ability of a novel mGluR2/3 agonist, LY379268, to modulate the availability of the excitatory N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) and the inhibitory gamma-aminobutyrate-A receptor (GABAA-R), in a two-hit mouse model of schizophrenia. Wild type (WT) and heterozygous neuregulin 1 transmembrane domain mutant mice (NRG1 HET) were treated daily with phencyclidine (10 mg/kg ip) or saline for 14 days. After a 14-day washout, an acute dose of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (3 mg/kg), olanzapine (antipsychotic drug comparison, 1.5 mg/kg), or saline was administered. NMDA-R and GABAA-R binding densities were examined by receptor autoradiography in several schizophrenia-relevant brain regions. In both WT and NRG1 HET mice, phencyclidine treatment significantly reduced NMDA-R and GABAA-R binding density in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens. Acute treatment with LY379268 restored NMDA-R and GABAA-R levels in the two-hit mouse model comparable to olanzapine. We demonstrate that the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 restores excitatory and inhibitory deficits with similar efficiency as olanzapine in our two-hit schizophrenia mouse model. This study significantly contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of LY379268 and supports the use of agents aimed at mGluR2/3.

  16. Atypical Antipsychotics and the Risk of Hyperlipidemia: A Sequence Symmetry Analysis.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Kajiyama, Kazuhiro; Ishiguro, Chieko; Uyama, Yoshiaki

    2015-07-01

    Although hyperlipidemia is a well known adverse event of atypical antipsychotic (AAP) medication, there are few studies that have quantitatively compared the risks of various AAPs. Our aim was to comparatively evaluate the risk of hyperlipidemia associated with the use of AAPs approved in Japan through a consecutive epidemiological study. We conducted a sequence symmetry analysis (SSA) using health insurance claims data to analyze the following nine AAPs approved for use in Japan: risperidone, paliperidone, perospirone hydrochloride hydrate, blonanserin, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine fumarate, aripiprazole, and zotepine. Exposed cases were identified from drug dispensing records as those who had been administered both AAPs and antihyperlipidemic drugs. The adjusted sequence ratio (ASR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for each individual AAP and for all AAPs were calculated while controlling for time trends in dispensing patterns. Olanzapine was significantly associated with increased hyperlipidemia occurrence (ASR 1.56; 95 % CI 1.25-1.95). The ASRs obtained for risperidone (1.01; 95 % CI 0.80-1.27), perospirone hydrochloride hydrate (0.93; 95 % CI 0.63-1.39), blonanserin (0.83; 95 % CI 0.52-1.33), quetiapine fumarate (0.93; 95 % CI 0.73-1.18), and aripiprazole (1.02; 95 % CI 0.82-1.26) were approximately 1.0. Unstable estimates (wide CIs) were obtained for paliperidone and zotepine due to the small sample sizes. Among the AAPs used in Japan, only olanzapine was found to have an elevated risk of hyperlipidemia. In contrast, risperidone, perospirone hydrochloride hydrate, blonanserin, quetiapine fumarate, and aripiprazole had relatively low risks.

  17. Prescribing patterns and the use of therapeutic drug monitoring of psychotropic medication in a psychiatric high-security unit.

    PubMed

    Castberg, Ingrid; Spigset, Olav

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of psychotropic medication and therapeutic drug monitoring in a high-security psychiatric unit and to compare the doses and serum concentrations both with the recommended intervals and with the doses and serum concentrations in a control group. One hundred thirty-two patients were admitted in the period from January 2000 to December 2005. All available samples were used when comparing serum concentrations and doses with the recommended ranges. For the comparison of doses and serum concentration-to-dose (C:D) ratios with the control group only 1 sample from each patient was used. A total of 459 analyses of 27 different drugs in samples from 8 women and 73 men were included. The median number of therapeutic drug monitoring analyses per patient was 4 (range 1-29). Thirty-seven of the 81 patients (46%) used 2 or more antipsychotics at the same time. Clozapine, lamotrigine, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and zuclopenthixol were often given in doses above the recommended. The serum levels were frequently above those recommended for clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, and zuclopenthixol. The serum levels were significantly higher in the study group than in the control group for clozapine, lamotrigine, quetiapine, and zuclopenthixol. The given dose was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group for clozapine, lamotrigine and zuclopenthixol. The C:D ratio was significantly lower in the study group than in the control group for olanzapine but higher for quetiapine. The non-evidence based practice of high-dose polypharmacy with several antipsychotics is widely used in this unit. The use of higher doses in the study group than in the control group was not due to differences in metabolism or adherence to treatment between the 2 groups. The frequent use of therapeutic drug monitoring did not seem to have a great impact on the prescribed doses.

  18. Double-blind maintenance safety and effectiveness findings from the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum (TEOSS) study.

    PubMed

    Findling, Robert L; Johnson, Jacqueline L; McClellan, Jon; Frazier, Jean A; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hamer, Robert M; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Ritz, Louise; McNamara, Nora K; Lingler, Jacqui; Hlastala, Stefanie; Pierson, Leslie; Puglia, Madeline; Maloney, Ann E; Kaufman, Emily Michael; Noyes, Nancy; Sikich, Linmarie

    2010-06-01

    To examine the long-term safety and efficacy of three antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Patients (8 to 19 years old) who had improved during an 8-week, randomized, double-blind acute trial of olanzapine, risperidone, or molindone (plus benztropine) were eligible to continue on the same medication for up to 44 additional weeks under double-blind conditions. Adjunctive medications were allowed according to defined algorithms. Standardized symptom, safety, and functional assessments were conducted every 4 weeks. Of the 116 youths randomized in the acute trial, 54 entered maintenance treatment (molindone, n = 20; olanzapine, n = 13; risperidone, n = 21). Fourteen (26%) completed 44 weeks of treatment. Adverse effects (n = 15), inadequate efficacy (n = 14), or study nonadherence (n = 8) were the most common reasons for discontinuation. The three treatment arms did not significantly differ in symptom decrease or time to discontinuation. Akathisia was more common with molindone and elevated prolactin concentrations more common with risperidone. Although weight gain and metabolic adverse events had occurred more often with olanzapine and risperidone during the acute trial, no significant between-drug differences emerged in most of these parameters during maintenance treatment. Only 12% of youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders continued on their originally randomized treatment at 52 weeks. No agent demonstrated superior efficacy, and all were associated with side effects, including weight gain. Improved treatments are needed for early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Clinical trial registry information-Treatment of Schizophrenia and Related Disorders in Children and Adolescents; URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, unique identifier: NCT00053703. 2010 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (TEOSS): rationale, design, and methods.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Jon; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L; Frazier, Jean A; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hlastala, Stefanie A; Williams, Emily; Ambler, Denisse; Hunt-Harrison, Tyehimba; Maloney, Ann E; Ritz, Louise; Anderson, Robert; Hamer, Robert M; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2007-08-01

    The Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study is a publicly funded clinical trial designed to compare the therapeutic benefits, safety, and tolerability of risperidone, olanzapine, and molindone in youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The rationale, design, and methods of the Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study are described. Using a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group design at four sites, youths with EOSS (ages 8-19 years) were assigned to an 8-week acute trial of risperidone (0.5-6.0 mg/day), olanzapine (2.5-20 mg/day), or molindone (10-140 mg/day). Responders continued double-blind treatment for 44 weeks. The primary outcome measure was responder status at 8 weeks, defined by a 20% reduction in baseline Positive and Negative Symptom Scale scores plus ratings of significant improvement on the Clinical Global Impressions. Secondary outcome measures included assessments of psychopathology, functional impairment, quality of life, and medication safety. An intent-to-treat analytic plan was used. From February 2002 to May 2006, 476 youths were screened, 173 were further evaluated, and 119 were randomized. Several significant study modifications were required to address safety, the use of adjunctive medications, and the termination of the olanzapine treatment arm due to weight gain. The Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study will inform clinical practice regarding the use of antipsychotic medications for youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Important safety concerns emerged during the study, including higher than anticipated rates of suicidality and problems tapering thymoleptic agents before randomization.

  20. Dose Equivalents for Second-Generation Antipsychotic Drugs: The Classical Mean Dose Method

    PubMed Central

    Leucht, Stefan; Samara, Myrto; Heres, Stephan; Patel, Maxine X.; Furukawa, Toshi; Cipriani, Andrea; Geddes, John; Davis, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The concept of dose equivalence is important for many purposes. The classical approach published by Davis in 1974 subsequently dominated textbooks for several decades. It was based on the assumption that the mean doses found in flexible-dose trials reflect the average optimum dose which can be used for the calculation of dose equivalence. We are the first to apply the method to second-generation antipsychotics. Methods: We searched for randomized, double-blind, flexible-dose trials in acutely ill patients with schizophrenia that examined 13 oral second-generation antipsychotics, haloperidol, and chlorpromazine (last search June 2014). We calculated the mean doses of each drug weighted by sample size and divided them by the weighted mean olanzapine dose to obtain olanzapine equivalents. Results: We included 75 studies with 16 555 participants. The doses equivalent to 1 mg/d olanzapine were: amisulpride 38.3 mg/d, aripiprazole 1.4 mg/d, asenapine 0.9 mg/d, chlorpromazine 38.9 mg/d, clozapine 30.6 mg/d, haloperidol 0.7 mg/d, quetiapine 32.3mg/d, risperidone 0.4mg/d, sertindole 1.1 mg/d, ziprasidone 7.9 mg/d, zotepine 13.2 mg/d. For iloperidone, lurasidone, and paliperidone no data were available. Conclusions: The classical mean dose method is not reliant on the limited availability of fixed-dose data at the lower end of the effective dose range, which is the major limitation of “minimum effective dose methods” and “dose-response curve methods.” In contrast, the mean doses found by the current approach may have in part depended on the dose ranges chosen for the original trials. Ultimate conclusions on dose equivalence of antipsychotics will need to be based on a review of various methods. PMID:25841041

  1. Neuroleptic Drugs and PACAP Differentially Affect the mRNA Expression of Genes Encoding PAC1/VPAC Type Receptors.

    PubMed

    Jóźwiak-Bębenista, Marta; Kowalczyk, Edward

    2017-04-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide playing an important role as a neuromodulator. It has been indicated that PACAP is associated with mental diseases, and that regulation of the PACAPergic signals could be a potential target for the treatment of such psychiatric states as schizophrenia. Recent studies have suggested that action of neuroleptic drugs is mediated not only by dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission, but also via neuropeptides which may act both as neurotransmitters and as neuromodulators. The present study examines whether currently-used neuroleptics influence the action of PACAP receptors, whose expression is altered in a schizophrenic patient. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine the effects of haloperidol, olanzapine and amisulpride on the expression of genes coding PAC1/VPAC type receptors in the T98G glioblastoma cell line, as an example of an in vitro model of glial cells. PAC1 mRNA expression fell after 24-h incubation with haloperidol or olanzapine; however the effect was not maintained after 72 h, and haloperidol even up-regulated PAC1 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. All the examined drugs decreased VPAC2 mRNA expression, especially after 72-h incubation. Haloperidol (typical neuroleptic) was distinctly more potent than atypical neuroleptic drugs (olanzapine and amisulpride). In addition, PACAP increased PAC1 and VPAC2 mRNA expression. In conclusion, our findings suggest PACAP receptors may be involved in the mechanism of typical and atypical neuroleptic drugs.

  2. Treatment continuation of four long-acting antipsychotic medications in the Netherlands and Belgium: A retrospective database study

    PubMed Central

    Sermon, Jan; Geerts, Paul; Denee, Tom R.; De Vos, Cedric; Malfait, Bart; Lamotte, Mark; Mulder, Cornelis L.

    2017-01-01

    Achieving greater continuation of treatment is a key element to improve treatment outcomes in schizophrenia patients. However, reported treatment continuation can differ markedly depending on the study design. In a retrospective setting, treatment continuation remains overall poor among patients using antipsychotics. This study aimed to document the difference in treatment continuation between four long-acting injectable antipsychotics based on the QuintilesIMS LRx databases, national, longitudinal, panel based prescription databases of retail pharmacies, in the Netherlands and Belgium. Paliperidone palmitate once monthly, risperidone microspheres, haloperidol decanoate, and olanzapine pamoate were studied. This study demonstrated significantly higher treatment continuation of paliperidone palmitate once monthly compared to risperidone microspheres (p-value<0,01) and haloperidol decanoate (p-value<0,01) in both countries, a significantly higher treatment continuation of paliperidone palmitate once monthly compared to olanzapine pamoate in the Netherlands (p-value<0,01), and a general trend towards better treatment continuation versus olanzapine pamoate in Belgium. Analysing the subgroup of patients without previous exposure to long-acting antipsychotic treatment revealed the positive impact of previous exposure on treatment continuation with a subsequent long acting treatment. Additionally, the probability of restarting the index therapy was higher among patients treated with paliperidone palmitate once monthly compared to patients treated with risperidone microspheres and haloperidol decanoate. The data source used and the methodology defined ensured for the first time a comparison of treatment continuation in a non-interventional study design for the four long-acting injectable antipsychotics studied. PMID:28614404

  3. Did FDA Decisionmaking Affect Anti-Psychotic Drug Prescribing in Children?: A Time-Trend Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Franklin, Jessica M; Eddings, Wesley; Landon, Joan; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-01-01

    Following Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, many drugs are prescribed for non-FDA-approved ("off-label") uses. If substantial evidence supports the efficacy and safety of off-label indications, manufacturers can pursue formal FDA approval through supplemental new drug applications (sNDAs). We evaluated the effect of FDA determinations on pediatric sNDAs for antipsychotic drugs on prescribing of these products in children. Retrospective, segmented time-series analysis using new prescription claims during 2003-2012 for three atypical antipsychotics (olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone). FDA approved the sNDAs for pediatric use of olanzapine and quetiapine in December 2009, but did not approve the sNDA for pediatric use of ziprasidone. During the months before FDA approval of its pediatric sNDA, new prescriptions of olanzapine decreased for both children and adults. After FDA approval, the increase in prescribing trends was similar for both age groups (P = 0.47 for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder; P = 0.37 for other indications). Comparable decreases in use of quetiapine were observed between pediatrics and adults following FDA approval of its pediatric sNDA (P = 0.88; P = 0.63). Prescribing of ziprasidone decreased similarly for pediatric and adult patients after FDA non-approval of its pediatric sNDA (P = 0.61; P = 0.79). The FDA's sNDA determinations relating to use of antipsychotics in children did not result in changes in use that favored the approved sNDAs and disfavored the unapproved sNDA. Improved communication may help translate the agency's expert judgments to clinical practice.

  4. Switching to aripiprazole for the treatment of residual mutism resulted in distinct clinical courses in two catatonic schizophrenia cases.

    PubMed

    Muneoka, Katsumasa; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Kimura, Shou

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of a partial agonist for the dopamine D 2 receptor, aripiprazole, for catatonia in schizophrenia has been reported. We report distinct clinical courses in challenging aripiprazole to treat residual mutism after severe catatonic symptoms improved. In the first case, mutism was successfully treated when the patient was switched from olanzapine to aripiprazole. In contract, switching to aripiprazole from risperidone aggravated auditory hallucinations in the second case. We will discuss the benefits and risks of using aripiprazole for the treatment of catatonic schizophrenia and the possibility of dopamine supersensitivity psychosis.

  5. Challenges in managing a mother with a dual diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy and paranoid schizophrenia - a case report.

    PubMed

    Weerasundera, Rajiv; Yogaratnam, Jegan

    2013-01-01

    Psychotic illness has a low incidence in the puerperal period. Peripartum cardiomyopathy as a complication of pregnancy is also rare. We report a case where the above two conditions occurred simultaneously in a patient and posed significant difficulties in the clinical management. She was diagnosed as having paranoid schizophrenia and peripartum cardiomyopathy. Many of the antipsychotics were contraindicated, and electroconvulsive therapy could not be administered due to the added risks involved with regard to anesthesia. She was therefore managed with clonazepam and olanzapine. This case highlights the challenges in a patient with a psychiatric illness presenting with comorbid physical illness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnoses associated with use of atypical antipsychotics in a commercial health plan: a claims database analysis.

    PubMed

    Citrome, Leslie; Kalsekar, Iftekhar; Guo, Zhenchao; Laubmeier, Kimberly; Hebden, Tony

    2013-12-01

    Atypical antipsychotics are indicated for specific psychiatric conditions; however, they are frequently used for US Food and Drug Administration-nonapproved indications. This study assessed the types of medical diagnoses associated with atypical antipsychotic prescriptions in commercial health care plans. This retrospective cohort study used the OptumInsight commercial data set from January 2008 to June 2011. The index date was defined as the earliest date of prescription for the atypical antipsychotics aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone, from January 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010. Medical claims during a 2-year period (12 months before and 12 months after the index date) were used to identify relevant diagnostic codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification associated with the antipsychotic prescription. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the predictors of use of atypical antipsychotics without a relevant diagnosis, that is, schizophrenia, bipolar, or major depressive disorder (MDD). Of 18,352 patients included in the analysis, 3593 (19.5%) who filled a prescription for atypical antipsychotics did not have an approved diagnosis. Off-label utilization varied, with approximately a quarter of patients with prescriptions for quetiapine (24.1%), risperidone (23.1%), or olanzapine (21.8%) being without a relevant diagnostic code, whereas proportions were lower for patients prescribed aripiprazole (14.0%) or ziprasidone (13.1%). Of those with a psychiatric disorder other than schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or MDD, approximately a third of prescriptions were for anxiety disorders, with similar proportions across all atypical antipsychotics. Patients were often prescribed quetiapine for substance abuse (22.7%), whereas patients with "other psychiatric conditions" were prescribed risperidone (26.3%) or ziprasidone (25.0%). The logistic regression analysis indicated that

  7. [Cognitive behavior therapy of a patient with chronic schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lars Knud

    2002-06-24

    A case of successful cognitive behavioural treatment of a 63-year-old woman with chronic schizophrenia is reported. She suffered from medication-resistant auditory hallucinations and was therefore referred for therapy. She continued throughout the therapy on olanzapine 10 mg, the maximum dose tolerated. The therapy went through the stages of engagement, psychological formulation, normalisation, challenging beliefs and providing alternative explanations to her experiences. Socratic questioning was used throughout the therapy as part of the ongoing engagement process. The therapy lasted 21 sessions and she achieved a significant reduction in the PSYRATS rating scale, which was consistent with the markedly improved clinical picture.

  8. Review of the Safety of Second-Generation Antipsychotics: Are They Really “Atypically” Safe for Youth and Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, David R.; Brooks, Beth Ann; Roberts, Mary W.; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There is general consensus that second-generation antipsychotics are at least as effective as and more tolerable than first-generation antipsychotics. We address questions of safety and tolerability in both the short-term and long-term use of these medications by reviewing the existing literature in youth and adults. Data Sources: A MEDLINE search was conducted via PubMed using the following keywords (in various combinations): typical antipsychotics, atypical antipsychotics, children, adolescents, side effects, weight gain, diabetes, metformin, metabolic syndrome, and CATIE. Only English-language articles published from 2000–2010 were included. The bibliographies of papers identified through MEDLINE searches were also reviewed. Results: Six adult studies were analyzed in detail. A summary of the data suggests that there may be a lower association of weight gain and diabetes with ziprasidone, aripiprazole, and haloperidol, while olanzapine, clozapine, quetiapine, and risperidone appear to be more highly associated. There may be less difference than originally thought concerning frequency of extrapyramidal side effects among these medications. All of these antipsychotics, including perphenazine, are similarly efficacious in treating psychosis, with the exception of clozapine, which demonstrates significantly more effectiveness. Although the studies on youth tend to be small (few subjects with large age ranges of 4 to 19 years) and short term in comparison to the adult studies, the data reviewed from 5 studies suggest that, in youth, olanzapine may be associated with the greatest weight gain, extrapyramidal side effects and metabolic changes are quite prevalent, and the antipsychotics studied seem to be similarly effective. Conclusions: Considering effectiveness, safety, and tolerability, this literature review suggests that in adults there may be a lower association of weight gain and diabetes with ziprasidone, aripiprazole, and haloperidol as compared

  9. Assessing cost-effectiveness of drug interventions for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Anne; Carr, Vaughan; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Carter, Rob; Vos, Theo

    2005-01-01

    To assess from a health sector perspective the incremental cost-effectiveness of eight drug treatment scenarios for established schizophrenia. Using a standardized methodology, costs and outcomes are modelled over the lifetime of prevalent cases of schizophrenia in Australia in 2000. A two-stage approach to assessment of health benefit is used. The first stage involves a quantitative analysis based on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted, using best available evidence. The robustness of results is tested using probabilistic uncertainty analysis. The second stage involves application of 'second filter' criteria (equity, strength of evidence, feasibility and acceptability) to allow broader concepts of benefit to be considered. Replacing oral typicals with risperidone or olanzapine has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 48,000 Australian dollars and 92,000 Australian dollars/DALY respectively. Switching from low-dose typicals to risperidone has an ICER of 80,000 Australian dollars. Giving risperidone to people experiencing side-effects on typicals is more cost-effective at 20,000 Australian dollars. Giving clozapine to people taking typicals, with the worst course of the disorder and either little or clear deterioration, is cost-effective at 42,000 Australian dollars or 23,000 Australian dollars/DALY respectively. The least cost-effective intervention is to replace risperidone with olanzapine at 160,000 Australian dollars/DALY. Based on an 50,000 Australian dollars/DALY threshold, low-dose typical neuroleptics are indicated as the treatment of choice for established schizophrenia, with risperidone being reserved for those experiencing moderate to severe side-effects on typicals. The more expensive olanzapine should only be prescribed when risperidone is not clinically indicated. The high cost of risperidone and olanzapine relative to modest health gains underlie this conclusion. Earlier introduction of clozapine however, would be cost

  10. Electroconvulsive therapy for lycanthropy and Cotard syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sandeep; Shah, Ruchita; Ghosh, Abhishek

    2010-12-01

    We present a case of psychotic depression presenting with lycanthropy (being converted to a pig) and Cotard syndrome simultaneously and treated with electroconvulsive therapy. A 37-year-old female patient developed psychotic depression after a stressor (a possibility of having a malignancy). As her depression worsened, she developed delusional belief of self being metamorphosed to a pig and her children also being metamorphosed into pig. In addition, she had the delusional belief that her own body and body of her children was rotting away. She was treated with electroconvulsive therapy along with venlafaxine and olanzapine, with which she improved completely.

  11. Diurnal variation in Cotard's syndrome (copresent with Capgras delusion) following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Butler, P V

    2000-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to document regular nocturnal intensification of delusional nihilistic and persecutory ideas (Cotard delusion) linked with extreme depersonalisation and hypervivid dreaming. A 17-year-old man presented with Cotard and Capgras delusions after sustaining multiple cognitive impairments secondary to traumatic brain injury. Delusional ideation fully resolved within 14 days of commencement of olanzapine 5 mg daily. This patient's experience of perceptual abnormalities and impairments in meta-abilities related to self-monitoring and critical inferencing lends support to multicomponent sensory processing accounts of brain injury related, content-specific delusional syndromes.

  12. Switching antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    Weiden, P J; Aquila, R; Dalheim, L; Standard, J M

    1997-01-01

    Compared with conventional antipsychotics, the so-called "atypical" antipsychotics promise improved side effect profiles and better control of the symptoms of schizophrenia. Therefore, most patients currently taking conventional antipsychotics could potentially benefit from a switch to an atypical antipsychotic. Often, the key issue in deciding whether to switch is the presence of countervailing factors that mitigate against the change. This paper discusses the indications and contraindications for switching antipsychotics, plus issues that require consideration before a switch is made. Also, the advantages and disadvantages of various switching techniques are discussed, with a particular focus on the newer antipsychotic olanzapine.

  13. Edema associated with quetiapine

    PubMed Central

    Koleva, Hristina K.; Erickson, Mark A.; Vanderlip, Erik R.; Tansey, Janeta; Mac, Joseph; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Edema associated with quetiapine has been described in only one case report to date and represents a potentially serious adverse reaction. Methods We present a case series of three patients who developed bilateral leg edema following initiation of quetiapine. Results One of these patients had a recurrence of edema with subsequent rechallenge. Another patient developed quetiapine-induced edema following a prior episode of olanzapine-induced edema. All the cases present a compelling temporal relationship between the drug challenge and the adverse event. Conclusions Prompt recognition and intervention with discontinuation of the offending agent is important for this potentially serious, seemingly idiosyncratic, vascular complication. PMID:19439156

  14. The effect of second-generation antipsychotic drugs on sleep parameters in patients with unipolar or bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Monti, Jaime M

    2016-07-01

    Sleep disturbances predominantly take the form of insomnia in patients with unipolar disorder, while patients with bipolar disorder show a decreased need for sleep. Sleep impairment in these patients is a risk factor for the development of a major depressive episode and suicidal behavior. Administration of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone as augmentation therapy or monotherapy to unipolar and bipolar disorder patients, respectively, has been shown to improve sleep continuity and sleep architecture. Thus, their use by these patients could ameliorate their sleep disorder. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Acute clenbuterol overdose manifestations in a suicide attempt--a case report.

    PubMed

    Nawrocka, Izabela; Kowalczys, Maria H; Abramczyk, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    A 30-year-old man was admitted to the intensive care unit after a suicide attempt with respiratory difficulties, tremor, sinus tachycardia and significant hypokalemia. On examination, the patient was lucid, fully conscious and did not exhibit positive symptoms. Sings were not typical for overdosing olanzapine, alprazolam and alcohol as declared by the patient. Additional anamnesis revealed high doses of ingested clenbuterol, a selective β2-adrenergic agonist. Due to its anabolic and lipolytic properties, clenbuterol has become a commonly abused drug in bodybuilding industry and is not routinely detected by toxicology screens. This is the first known report of suicide attempt by clenbuterol overdosing. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  16. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of schizophrenic patient care settings: impact of an atypical antipsychotic under long-acting injection formulation].

    PubMed

    Llorca, P M; Miadi-Fargier, H; Lançon, C; Jasso Mosqueda, G; Casadebaig, F; Philippe, A; Guillon, P; Mehnert, A; Omnès, L F; Chicoye, A; Durand-Zaleski, I

    2005-01-01

    pharmaceutical formulation of antipsychotics. Hospitalization and relapse risks are lower in compliant than in non-compliant patients. The main objective of this pharmacoeconomic analysis is to evaluate the impact in terms of medical benefits and costs of the following strategies: 1. Risperidone long-acting injection: first long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic; 2. Haloperidol depot: long-acting injectable conventional neuroleptic; 3. Olanzapine: atypical antipsychotic available commercially in oral formulation. The target population defined for the study are young schizophrenic patients treated for at least 1 year and whose disorder has not been diagnosed for longer than 5 years. The time horizon is 2 years. A cost-effectiveness analysis is performed. The perspective adopted is the French Health System. The main hypothesis of the model is that an increase in compliance linked to the use of long-acting injectable formulation could lead to an increased efficacy and a modification of the cost-effectiveness ratio. A decision tree was built. Six periods of follow-up are identified with a duration of 4-months per period. The tree contains 3 principal arms, each one corresponding to a specific treatment: risperidone LA injection, haloperidol decanoate and olanzapine. For each arm, at the chance node, two health states are identified: either the patient responds favourably to the treatment or does not respond favourably and requires a switch to another drug treatment. After a period of response, the patient can either remain in the same state or experiences a clinical deterioration. If the patient presents a clinical deterioration, he can either go back to a positive response state after a period of intensive follow-up or remain in an insufficient response state; in this case, a change of antipsychotic treatment is necessary. In the model, a patient should receive four different treatments before a long-term hospitalization takes put in place. According to the market

  17. Nocturnal Anxiety in a Youth with Rapid-onset Obesity, Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation, and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD).

    PubMed

    Grudnikoff, Eugene; Foley, Carmel; Poole, Claudette; Theodosiadis, Eva

    2013-08-01

    Behavioral and psychiatric disorders are common in youth with rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD). We outline a rational approach to psychiatric treatment of a patient with a complex medical condition. We report the course of symptoms in a teen with ROHHAD, the inpatient treatment, and review current evidence for use of psychopharmacologic agents in youth with sleep and anxiety disturbances. A 14-year-old female began rapidly gaining weight as a preschooler, developed hormonal imbalance, and mixed sleep apnea. Consultation was requested after a month of ROHHAD exacerbation, with severe anxiety, insomnia, and auditory hallucinations. Olanzapine and citalopram were helpful in controlling the symptoms. Following discharge, the patient gained weight and olanzapine was discontinued. Lorazepam was started in coordination with pulmonary service. Relevant pharmacologic considerations included risk of respiratory suppression, history of paradoxical reaction to hypnotics, hepatic isoenzyme interactions and side effects of antipsychotics. Core symptoms of ROHHAD may precipitate psychiatric disorders. A systematic evidence-based approach to psychopharmacology is necessary in the setting of psychiatric consultation.

  18. Nocturnal Anxiety in a Youth with Rapid-onset Obesity, Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation, and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD)

    PubMed Central

    Grudnikoff, Eugene; Foley, Carmel; Poole, Claudette; Theodosiadis, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral and psychiatric disorders are common in youth with rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD). We outline a rational approach to psychiatric treatment of a patient with a complex medical condition. Methods: We report the course of symptoms in a teen with ROHHAD, the inpatient treatment, and review current evidence for use of psychopharmacologic agents in youth with sleep and anxiety disturbances. Results: A 14-year-old female began rapidly gaining weight as a preschooler, developed hormonal imbalance, and mixed sleep apnea. Consultation was requested after a month of ROHHAD exacerbation, with severe anxiety, insomnia, and auditory hallucinations. Olanzapine and citalopram were helpful in controlling the symptoms. Following discharge, the patient gained weight and olanzapine was discontinued. Lorazepam was started in coordination with pulmonary service. Relevant pharmacologic considerations included risk of respiratory suppression, history of paradoxical reaction to hypnotics, hepatic isoenzyme interactions and side effects of antipsychotics. Conclusions: Core symptoms of ROHHAD may precipitate psychiatric disorders. A systematic evidence-based approach to psychopharmacology is necessary in the setting of psychiatric consultation. PMID:23970913

  19. Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Nightmares at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Detweiler, Mark B.; Pagadala, Bhuvaneshwar; Candelario, Joseph; Boyle, Jennifer S.; Detweiler, Jonna G.; Lutgens, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of medications for PTSD in general has been well studied, but the effectiveness of medicatio.ns prescribed specifically for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) nightmares is less well known. This retrospective chart review examined the efficacy of various medications used in actual treatment of PTSD nightmares at one Veteran Affairs Hospital. Records at the Salem, VA Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) were examined from 2009 to 2013 to check for the efficacy of actual treatments used in comparis.on with treatments suggested in three main review articles. The final sample consisted of 327 patients and 478 separate medication trials involving 21 individual medications plus 13 different medication combinations. The three most frequently utilized medications were prazosin (107 trials), risperidone (81 trials), and quetiapine (72 trials). Five medications had 20 or more trials with successful results (partial to full nightmare cessation) in >50% of trials: risperidone (77%, 1.0–6.0 mg), clonidine (63%, 0.1–2.0 mg), quetiapine (50%, 12.5–800.0 mg), mirtazapine (50%; 7.5–30.0 mg), and terazosin (64%, 50.0–300.0 mg). Notably, olanzapine (2.5–10.0) was successful (full remission) in all five prescription trials in five separate patients. Based on the clinical results, the use of risperidone, clonidine, terazosin, and olanzapine warrants additional investigation in clinically controlled trials as medications prescribed specifically for PTSD nightmares. PMID:27999253

  20. Effect of chronic antipsychotic exposure on astrocyte and oligodendrocyte numbers in macaque monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Konopaske, Glenn T.; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Sweet, Robert A.; Pierri, Joseph N.; Zhang, Wei; Sampson, Allan R.; Lewis, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Both in vivo and post-mortem studies suggest that oligodendrocyte and myelination alterations are present in individuals with schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether prolonged treatment with antipsychotic medications contributes to these disturbances. We recently reported that chronic exposure of macaque monkeys to haloperidol or olanzapine was associated with a 10−18% lower glial cell number in the parietal grey matter. Consequently, in this study we sought to determine whether the lower glial cell number was due to fewer oligodendrocytes as opposed to lower numbers of astrocytes. Methods Using fluorescent immunocytochemical techniques, we optimized the visualization of each cell type throughout the entire thickness of tissue sections, while minimizing final tissue shrinkage. As a result, we were able to obtain robust stereological estimates of total oligodendrocyte and astrocyte numbers in the parietal grey matter using the optical fractionator method. Results We found a significant 20.5% lower astrocyte number with a non-significant 12.9% lower oligodendrocyte number in the antipsychotic-exposed monkeys. Similar effects were seen in both the haloperidol and olanzapine groups. Conclusion These findings suggest that studies investigating glial cell alterations in schizophrenia must take into account the effect of antipsychotic treatment. PMID:17945195

  1. Comparative study of treatment continuation using second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder

    PubMed Central

    Azekawa, Takaharu; Ohashi, Shizuko; Itami, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Background Effectiveness of a drug is a key concept dependent on efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Time to discontinuation of treatment is also representative of effectiveness. We investigated differences in treatment discontinuation among newly started second-generation antipsychotics in the clinical setting. Methods Using a retrospective cohort study design, we screened all outpatients (n = 7936) who visited the Shioiri Mental Clinic between July 1, 2008 and June 30, 2010. We identified a cohort of patients (n = 703) diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and calculated the time to discontinuation of each second-generation antipsychotic. Results Of the 703 patients, 149 were newly treated with aripiprazole, 67 with blonanserin, 95 with olanzapine, 36 with quetiapine, 74 with perospirone, and 120 with risperidone. The time to discontinuation for all causes was significantly longer for aripiprazole than for blonanserin, olanzapine, and risperidone. In addition, aripiprazole tended to be continued for longer than quetiapine and perospirone, but these differences were not significant. Conclusion Aripiprazole may be considered the best available option for long-term treatment of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. PMID:22128254

  2. One-year follow-up study of psychotic patients treated with blonanserin: a case series.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Sakae; Suzuki, Masahiro; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2013-09-01

    Blonanserin is a relatively new atypical antipsychotic drug, and has been used in Korea and Japan for 1 and 3 years, respectively. Therefore, the clinical characteristics of blonanserin remain unclear. In this study, to clarify the features of blonanserin, we performed prospective and long-term comparative investigations of patients treated with blonanserin. We followed 10 psychiatric patients who were switched to blonanserin from other antipsychotics for 1 year (schizophrenia: 8; mental retardation: 2). In the light of quality of life, we focused on adverse effects of patients during the follow-up. In the long-term follow-up, (i) hyperprolactinemia is more frequently in risperidone than in blonanserin; however, it is more often in blonanserin than in olanzapine; and (ii) weight gain is more common in olanzapine than in blonanserin. We switched to blonanserin from other antipsychotic drugs within the same case, and then followed the case for 1 year. We consider that long-term observations within the same case lead to obvious comparisons among drugs. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that blonanserin may be useful for the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia without inducing hyperprolactinemia and weight gain. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Trends in Scientific Literature on Atypical Antipsychotics in South Korea: A Bibliometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Winston W.; Pae, Chi-Un; Moreno, Raquel; Rubio, Gabriel; Molina, Juan D.; Noriega, Concha; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel A.; Huelves, Lorena; Álamo, Cecilio

    2013-01-01

    Objective We have carried out a bibliometric study on the scientific publications in relation to atypical or second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) in South Korea. Methods With the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases, we selected those publications made in South Korea whose title included the descriptors atypic* (atypical*) antipsychotic*, second-generation antipsychotic*, clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, quetiapine, sertindole, aripiprazole, paliperidone, amisulpride, zotepine, asenapine, iloperidone, lurasidone, perospirone and blonanserin. We applied some bibliometric indicators of paper production and dispersion with Price's law and Bradford's law, respectively. We also calculated the participation index (PI) of the different countries, and correlated the bibliometric data with some social and health data from Korea (such as total per capita expenditure on health and gross domestic expenditure on research and development). Results We collected 326 original papers published between 1993 and 2011. Our results state fulfilment of fulfilled Price's law, with scientific production on SGAs showing exponential growth (correlation coefficient r=0.8978, as against an r=0.8149 after linear adjustment). The most widely studied drugs were risperidone (91 papers), aripiprazole (77), olanzapine (53), and clozapine (43). Division into Bradford zones yielded a nucleus occupied by the Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry (36 articles). A total of 86 different journals were published, with 4 of the first 10 used journals having an impact factor being greater than 4. Conclusion The publications on SGAs in South Korea have undergone exponential growth over the studied period, without evidence of reaching a saturation point. PMID:23482954

  4. Comparative study of treatment continuation using second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    PubMed

    Azekawa, Takaharu; Ohashi, Shizuko; Itami, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness of a drug is a key concept dependent on efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Time to discontinuation of treatment is also representative of effectiveness. We investigated differences in treatment discontinuation among newly started second-generation antipsychotics in the clinical setting. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we screened all outpatients (n = 7936) who visited the Shioiri Mental Clinic between July 1, 2008 and June 30, 2010. We identified a cohort of patients (n = 703) diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and calculated the time to discontinuation of each second-generation antipsychotic. Of the 703 patients, 149 were newly treated with aripiprazole, 67 with blonanserin, 95 with olanzapine, 36 with quetiapine, 74 with perospirone, and 120 with risperidone. The time to discontinuation for all causes was significantly longer for aripiprazole than for blonanserin, olanzapine, and risperidone. In addition, aripiprazole tended to be continued for longer than quetiapine and perospirone, but these differences were not significant. Aripiprazole may be considered the best available option for long-term treatment of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

  5. Efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of antipsychotics in children and adolescents with schizophrenia: A network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Krause, Marc; Zhu, Yikang; Huhn, Maximilian; Schneider-Thoma, Johannes; Bighelli, Irene; Chaimani, Anna; Leucht, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    Children and adolescents with schizophrenia are a particularly vulnerable group. Thus, we integrated all the randomized evidence from the available antipsychotics used for this subgroup by performing a network-meta-analysis and pairwise meta-analysis using a random-effects model. We searched multiple databases up to Nov 17, 2016 (final update search in PubMed: Dec 12, 2017). The primary outcome was efficacy as measured by overall change/endpoint in symptoms of schizophrenia. Secondary outcomes included positive and negative symptoms, response, dropouts, quality of life, social functioning, weight gain, sedation, prolactin, extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) and antiparkinsonian medication. Twenty-eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 3003 unique participants (58% males; mean age 14.41 years) published from 1967 to 2017 were identified. Clozapine was significantly more effective than all other analyzed antipsychotics. Nearly all antipsychotics were more efficacious compared to placebo, but ziprasidone showed no efficacy. In terms of preventing weight gain, molindone, lurasidone and ziprasidone were benign. The highest weight gain was found for clozapine, quetiapine and olanzapine. Most antipsychotics had some sedating effects. Risperidone, haloperidol, paliperidone and olanzapine were associated with prolactin increase. There were evidence gaps for some drugs and many outcomes, especially safety outcomes. Most of the comparisons are based only on one study or just on indirect evidence. Nevertheless, the available direct and indirect evidence showed that the treatment effects were similar compared to findings in adult patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  6. Borderline Personality Disorder: Bipolarity, Mood Stabilizers and Atypical Antipsychotics in Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Belli, Hasan; Ural, Cenk; Akbudak, Mahir

    2012-01-01

    In this article, it is aimed to review the efficacies of mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics, which are used commonly in psychopharmacological treatments of bipolar and borderline personality disorders. In this context, common phenomenology between borderline personality and bipolar disorders and differential features of clinical diagnosis will be reviewed in line with the literature. Both disorders can demonstrate common features in the diagnostic aspect, and can overlap phenomenologically. Concomitance rate of both disorders is quite high. In order to differentiate these two disorders from each other, quality of mood fluctuations, impulsivity types and linear progression of disorders should be carefully considered. There are various studies in mood stabilizer use, like lithium, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, sodium valproate and lamotrigine, in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Moreover, there are also studies, which have revealed efficacies of risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine as atypical antipsychotics. It is not easy to differentiate borderline personality disorder from the bipolar disorders. An intensively careful evaluation should be performed. This differentiation may be helpful also for the treatment. There are many studies about efficacy of valproate and lamotrigine in treatment of borderline personality disorder. However, findings related to other mood stabilizers are inadequate. Olanzapine and quetiapine are reported to be more effective among atypical antipsychotics. No drug is approved for the treatment of borderline personality disorder by the entitled authorities, yet. Psychotherapeutic approaches have preserved their significant places in treatment of borderline personality disorder. Moreover, symptom based approach is recommended in use of mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics. PMID:23024731

  7. Antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance and postprandial hormonal dysregulation independent of weight gain or psychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Teff, Karen L; Rickels, Michael R; Grudziak, Joanna; Fuller, Carissa; Nguyen, Huong-Lan; Rickels, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Atypical antipsychotic (AAP) medications that have revolutionized the treatment of mental illness have become stigmatized by metabolic side effects, including obesity and diabetes. It remains controversial whether the defects are treatment induced or disease related. Although the mechanisms underlying these metabolic defects are not understood, it is assumed that the initiating pathophysiology is weight gain, secondary to centrally mediated increases in appetite. To determine if the AAPs have detrimental metabolic effects independent of weight gain or psychiatric disease, we administered olanzapine, aripiprazole, or placebo for 9 days to healthy subjects (n = 10, each group) under controlled in-patient conditions while maintaining activity levels. Prior to and after the interventions, we conducted a meal challenge and a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal. We found that olanzapine, an AAP highly associated with weight gain, causes significant elevations in postprandial insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and glucagon coincident with insulin resistance compared with placebo. Aripiprazole, an AAP considered metabolically sparing, induces insulin resistance but has no effect on postprandial hormones. Importantly, the metabolic changes occur in the absence of weight gain, increases in food intake and hunger, or psychiatric disease, suggesting that AAPs exert direct effects on tissues independent of mechanisms regulating eating behavior.

  8. Treatment-resistant panic disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Freire, Rafael C; Zugliani, Morena M; Garcia, Rafael F; Nardi, Antonio E

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of panic disorder (PD) in the population is high and these patients have work impairment, high unemployment rates, seek medical treatment more frequently and have more hospitalizations than people without panic symptoms. Despite the availability of pharmacological, psychological and combined treatments, approximately one-third of all PD patients have persistent panic attacks and other PD symptoms after treatment. MEDLINE/Pubmed, CENTRAL, PsycINFO and Web of Science databases were searched for clinical trials in treatment-resistant PD. Only studies published between 1980 and 2015, in English, with human subjects, considered "journal articles" and clinical trial were included. We included trials recruiting only adult subjects with treatment-resistant PD, consistent with criteria from DSM-III to DSM5. We included all prospective experimental studies. Case, case series, retrospective studies or studies with <10 PD subjects were not included. Only 11 articles were included in this review. There were few quality studies, only two were randomized, controlled and double blind. Augmentation of the pharmacological treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy demonstrated some short-term efficacy in treatment-resistant PD. There were also preliminary evidences of efficacy for monotherapy with reboxetine and olanzapine, and augmentation with pindolol, divalproex sodium, aripiprazole and olanzapine in short-term treatment.

  9. The Presynaptic Component of the Serotonergic System is Required for Clozapine's Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Prem N; Abbas, Atheir I; Farrell, Martilias S; Setola, Vincent; Sciaky, Noah; Huang, Xi-Ping; Kroeze, Wesley K; Crawford, LaTasha K; Piel, David A; Keiser, Michael J; Irwin, John J; Shoichet, Brian K; Deneris, Evan S; Gingrich, Jay; Beck, Sheryl G; Roth, Bryan L

    2011-01-01

    Clozapine, by virtue of its absence of extrapyramidal side effects and greater efficacy, revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia, although the mechanisms underlying this exceptional activity remain controversial. Combining an unbiased cheminformatics and physical screening approach, we evaluated clozapine's activity at >2350 distinct molecular targets. Clozapine, and the closely related atypical antipsychotic drug olanzapine, interacted potently with a unique spectrum of molecular targets. This distinct pattern, which was not shared with the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol, suggested that the serotonergic neuronal system was a key determinant of clozapine's actions. To test this hypothesis, we used pet1−/− mice, which are deficient in serotonergic presynaptic markers. We discovered that the antipsychotic-like properties of the atypical antipsychotic drugs clozapine and olanzapine were abolished in a pharmacological model that mimics NMDA-receptor hypofunction in pet1−/− mice, whereas haloperidol's efficacy was unaffected. These results show that clozapine's ability to normalize NMDA-receptor hypofunction, which is characteristic of schizophrenia, depends on an intact presynaptic serotonergic neuronal system. PMID:21048700

  10. Blinded Prospective Evaluation of Computer-Based Mechanistic Schizophrenia Disease Model for Predicting Drug Response

    PubMed Central

    Geerts, Hugo; Spiros, Athan; Roberts, Patrick; Twyman, Roy; Alphs, Larry; Grace, Anthony A.

    2012-01-01

    The tremendous advances in understanding the neurobiological circuits involved in schizophrenia have not translated into more effective treatments. An alternative strategy is to use a recently published ‘Quantitative Systems Pharmacology’ computer-based mechanistic disease model of cortical/subcortical and striatal circuits based upon preclinical physiology, human pathology and pharmacology. The physiology of 27 relevant dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate-mediated targets is calibrated using retrospective clinical data on 24 different antipsychotics. The model was challenged to predict quantitatively the clinical outcome in a blinded fashion of two experimental antipsychotic drugs; JNJ37822681, a highly selective low-affinity dopamine D2 antagonist and ocaperidone, a very high affinity dopamine D2 antagonist, using only pharmacology and human positron emission tomography (PET) imaging data. The model correctly predicted the lower performance of JNJ37822681 on the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) total score and the higher extra-pyramidal symptom (EPS) liability compared to olanzapine and the relative performance of ocaperidone against olanzapine, but did not predict the absolute PANSS total score outcome and EPS liability for ocaperidone, possibly due to placebo responses and EPS assessment methods. Because of its virtual nature, this modeling approach can support central nervous system research and development by accounting for unique human drug properties, such as human metabolites, exposure, genotypes and off-target effects and can be a helpful tool for drug discovery and development. PMID:23251349

  11. Antipsychotic Therapy-Induced New Onset Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Yashwant; Lingala, Kiran; Tokala, Hemasri; Kalavakunta, Jagadeesh K

    Atypical antipsychotics are very widely used for various psychiatric ailments because of their less extrapyramidal side effects. Various reports of disturbances in glucose metabolism in the form of new onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of preexisting diabetes mellitus, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar nonketotic coma, acute pancreatitis, and increased adiposity have been reported. We present a case of new onset diabetic ketoacidosis in a patient without a history of glucose intolerance who was being treated with olanzapine for bipolar disorder. He presented in hyperglycemic, hyperosmolar, hyperketotic state with hyperkalemia, and peaked T waves on electrocardiogram. He was treated with vigorous intravenous hydration, insulin, and kaexylate which stabilized his metabolic profile. He was discontinued off of his olanzapine and started on resperidol for his bipolar disorder. Over the course of 6 months, the patient was discontinued off of his insulin and has been doing well on his follow-up appointments. This case highlights the necessity of close blood glucose monitoring of patient on atypical antipsychotic medications irrespective of their diabetic status.

  12. Differential Effects of Various Typical and Atypical Antipsychotics on Plasma Glucose and Insulin Levels in the Mouse: Evidence for the Involvement of Sympathetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Savoy, Yvette E.; Ashton, Michael A.; Miller, Matthew W.; Nedza, Frank M.; Spracklin, Douglas K.; Hawthorn, Mark H.; Rollema, Hans; Matos, F. Fatima; Hajos-Korcsok, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic treatment has been associated with serious metabolic adverse events, such as glucose dysregulation and development of type 2 diabetes. As part of our studies on possible underlying mechanisms, we investigated the acute effects of various typical and atypical antipsychotics on plasma glucose and insulin in FVB/N mice, a strain that showed a more pronounced hyperglycemic response to clozapine than C57BL/6 and CD-1 mice. Acute administration of high doses of clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, perphenazine, or chlorpromazine significantly increased plasma glucose by 100%–140% above basal levels without significant effects on insulin levels. In contrast, risperidone reduced plasma glucose (−30%) and markedly enhanced plasma insulin levels. Doses of ziprasidone that gave 50-fold higher free plasma concentrations than therapeutic plasma levels, as well as high doses of aripiprazole and haloperidol, did not significantly alter either glucose or insulin levels. Clozapine- and olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia occurred at free plasma concentrations that were within, or one order of magnitude above, the range of therapeutic plasma levels. Pretreatment with either the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium, or the α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine, blocked the clozapine- and chlorpromazine-induced increase in glucose levels. Taken together, these results suggest that typical and atypical antipsychotics with known metabolic liability produce acute hyperglycemia in mice and that this effect is likely driven by activation of the sympathetic autonomic nervous system via a central mechanism. PMID:18703666

  13. Usefulness of atypical antipsychotics and choline esterase inhibitors in delirium: a review.

    PubMed

    Grover, S; Mattoo, S K; Gupta, N

    2011-03-01

    Delirium is characterized by disturbances of consciousness, attention, cognition, perception, emotions, sleep, and psychomotor activity. Management of delirium involves ensuring safety, improving functioning, identifying and treating the illness underlying the delirium, and use of antipsychotics or benzodiazepines to control behavioural symptoms and prevent mortality. Haloperidol continues to be the most commonly used antipsychotic in delirium. However, in recent times data have emerged which suggest that atypical antipsychotics may be as efficacious as haloperidol in the treatment of delirium. This review intends to review the data with respect to usefulness of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of delirium. Besides atypical antipsychotics, data with respect to another group of medications - cholinesterase inhibitors are also reviewed. Electronic and manual searches were conducted to identify all the relevant studies and case reports/case series. Evidence suggests that risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine are as efficacious as haloperidol in the treatment of delirium but have lesser side effects. Data for other atypical antipsychotics are scarce. The data on cholinesterase inhibitors for treatment and prevention of delirium are beginning to accumulate, but do not seem to be convincing. Our review suggests that risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine are good alternatives to haloperidol in the treatment of delirium. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Psychopharmacological neuroprotection in neurodegenerative disease: assessing the preclinical data.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Edward C; Victoroff, Jeff; Coburn, Kerry L; Shillcutt, Samuel D; Doonan, Suzanne M; Mendez, Mario F

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript reviews the preclinical in vitro, ex vivo, and nonhuman in vivo effects of psychopharmacological agents in clinical use on cell physiology with a view toward identifying agents with neuroprotective properties in neurodegenerative disease. These agents are routinely used in the symptomatic treatment of neurodegenerative disease. Each agent is reviewed in terms of its effects on pathogenic proteins, proteasomal function, mitochondrial viability, mitochondrial function and metabolism, mitochondrial permeability transition pore development, cellular viability, and apoptosis. Effects on the metabolism of the neurodegenerative disease pathogenic proteins alpha-synuclein, beta-amyloid, and tau, including tau phosphorylation, are particularly addressed, with application to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Limitations of the current data are detailed and predictive criteria for translational clinical neuroprotection are proposed and discussed. Drugs that warrant further study for neuroprotection in neurodegenerative disease include pramipexole, thioridazine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, lithium, valproate, desipramine, maprotiline, fluoxetine, buspirone, clonazepam, diphenhydramine, and melatonin. Those with multiple neuroprotective mechanisms include pramipexole, thioridazine, olanzapine, quetiapine, lithium, valproate, desipramine, maprotiline, clonazepam, and melatonin. Those best viewed circumspectly in neurodegenerative disease until clinical disease course outcomes data become available, include several antipsychotics, lithium, oxcarbazepine, valproate, several tricyclic antidepressants, certain SSRIs, diazepam, and possibly diphenhydramine. A search for clinical studies of neuroprotection revealed only a single study demonstrating putatively positive results for ropinirole. An agenda for research on potentially neuroprotective agent is provided.

  15. Cost effectiveness of long-acting risperidone in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hensen, Marja; Heeg, Bart; Löthgren, Mickael; van Hout, Ben

    2010-01-01

    In Sweden, risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) is generally used in a population of schizophrenia patients who are at a high risk of being non-compliant. However, RLAI might also be suitable for use in the general schizophrenia population. To analyse the clinical and economic effects of RLAI in the Swedish treatment practice using a discrete-event simulation (DES) model. Treatment outcomes and direct costs were analysed for both the high-risk non-compliant patient population and the general schizophrenia population. An existing DES model was adapted to simulate the treatment of schizophrenia in Sweden. Model inputs were based on literature research and supplemented with expert opinion. In the high-risk non-compliant schizophrenia population, RLAI was compared with haloperidol LAI. The analysis was built upon differences in symptom reduction, time between relapses, compliance and adverse effect profile between the two drugs. Main outcomes were the predicted incremental (discounted) costs (€) and effects (QALYs). In the general schizophrenia population, RLAI was compared with oral olanzapine. This analysis was built upon differences in compliance and adverse effects between the drugs. Multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) were carried out to assess the sensitivity of the results of the two analyses. In the high-risk non-compliant patient population, RLAI was predicted to generate 0.103 QALYs per patient over 3 years while realizing cost savings of €5013 (year 2007 values) compared with haloperidol LAI. The main driver of the cost effectiveness of RLAI was the difference in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) reduction between the two drugs, followed by the difference in adverse effects. The PSA showed that, in this setting, RLAI had a probability of 100% of being cost effective at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of €43,300 per QALY gained, compared with haloperidol LAI. The probability that RLAI combines additional

  16. Summary of the comparative effectiveness review on off-label use of atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Maher, Alicia R; Theodore, George

    2012-06-01

    Conventional and atypical antipsychotic medications are approved by the FDA for treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Over many decades, the widespread use of conventional antipsychotics produced various side effects requiring additional medications, such as the atypical antipsychotics. Beginning in 2006, 9 atypical antipsychotic drugs have been approved by the FDA for indications that were previously off-label uses: aripiprazole (as augmentation for major depressive disorder [MDD] and for autism spectrum disorders), asenapine, clozapine, iloperidone, olanzapine (in combination with fluoxetine for MDD and bipolar depression), paliperidone, quetiapine (quetiapine and quetiapine XR [extended release] as monotherapy in bipolar depression and quetiapine XR as augmentation for MDD), risperidone (for autism spectrum disorders), and ziprasidone. In 2006, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) published a systematic review on the comparative effectiveness of off-label uses of atypical antipsychotics. Since that time, numerous studies have been published evaluating these therapies in various new off-label uses; new or increased adverse effects have been observed with off-label uses; new atypical antipsychotics have been approved; and previously off-label uses have been approved for some atypical antipsychotics. Hence, AHRQ published an updated review in September 2011 that summarized the benefits and harms of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit disorder (ADHD), anxiety, behavioral disturbances of dementia and severe geriatric agitation, depression, eating disorders, insomnia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use and dependence disorders, and Tourette's syndrome. The new report also investigated topics for which data in the previous report were found to be insufficient to make conclusions, including

  17. Risperidone versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Komossa, Katja; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Schwarz, Sandra; Schmid, Franziska; Hunger, Heike; Kissling, Werner; Leucht, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries of the industrialised world second-generation (“atypical”) antipsychotics (SGAs) have become the first line drug treatment for people with schizophrenia. The question as to whether and if so how much the effects of the various SGAs differ is a matter of debate. In this review we examined how the efficacy and tolerability of risperidone differs from that of other SGAs. Objectives To evaluate the effects of risperidone compared with other atypical antipsychotics for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis. Search methods 1. Electronic searching We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (April 2007) which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. 2. Reference searching We inspected the references of all identified studies for more trials. 3. Personal contact We contacted the first author of each included study for missing information. 4. Drug companies We contacted the manufacturers of all atypical antipsychotics included for additional data. Selection criteria We included all randomised, blinded trials comparing oral risperidone with oral forms of amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, sertindole, ziprasidone or zotepine in people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratio (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random-effects model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again based on a random-effects model. Main results The review currently includes 45 blinded RCTs with 7760 participants. The number of RCTs available for each comparison varied: four studies compared risperidone with amisulpride, two with aripiprazole, 11 with clozapine, 23 with olanzapine, eleven with

  18. CX-516 Cortex pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Danysz, Wojciech

    2002-07-01

    CX-516 is one of a series of AMPA modulators under development by Cortex, in collaboration with Shire and Servier, for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), schizophrenia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) [234221]. By June 2001, CX-516 was in phase II trials for both schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [412513]. A phase II trial in fragile X syndrome and autism was expected to start in May 2002 [449861]. In October 2001, Cortex was awarded a Phase II SBIR grant of $769,818 from the National Institutes of Mental Health to investigate the therapeutic potential of AMPAkines in schizophrenia. This award was to support a phase IIb study of CX-516 as a combination therapy in schizophrenia patients concomitantly treated with olanzapine. The trial was to enroll 80 patients and employ a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design in which the placebo group was to receive olanzapine plus placebo and the active group was to receive olanzapine plus CX-516 [425982]. In April 2000, Shire and Cortex signed an option agreement in which Shire was to evaluate CX-516for the treatment of ADHD. Under the terms of the agreement, Shire would undertake a double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of CX-516 involving ADHD patients. If the study proved effective, Shire would have the right to convert its option into an exclusive worldwide license for the AMPAkines for ADHD under a development and licensing agreement. Should Shire elect to execute this agreement, Shire would bear all future developmental costs [363618]. By February 2002, Cortex and Servier had revealed their intention to begin enrolment for an international study of an AMPAkine compound as a potential treatment for MCI in the near future. Assuming enrollment proceeded as anticipated, results were expected during the second quarter of 2003 [439301]. By May 2002, phase II trials were underway [450134]. In March 2002, Cortex was awarded extended funding under the

  19. Acute Antipsychotic Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pagsberg, Anne Katrine; Tarp, Simon; Glintborg, Dorte; Stenstrøm, Anne Dorte; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Correll, Christoph Ulrich; Christensen, Robin

    2017-03-01

    To determine the comparative efficacy and safety of antipsychotics for youth with early-onset schizophrenia using network meta-analytic methods combining direct and indirect trial data. The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and clinicaltrials.gov and selected randomized controlled trials allocating youth with schizophrenia spectrum disorders to a (non-clozapine) antipsychotic versus placebo or another antipsychotic. Major efficacy outcomes were Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total and positive symptoms. Major safety outcomes were weight, plasma triglyceride levels, extrapyramidal symptoms, akathisia, and all-cause discontinuation. Sixteen additional outcomes were analyzed. A random-effects arm-based network meta-analysis was applied, and consistency was assessed by pairwise meta-analysis. Confidence in PANSS total estimates was assessed by applying the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Twelve 6- to 12-week trials (N = 2,158; 8-19 years old; 61% boys) involving 8 antipsychotics (aripiprazole, asenapine, paliperidone, risperidone, quetiapine, olanzapine, molindone, and ziprasidone) were analyzed. PANSS total symptom change was comparable among antipsychotics (low- to moderate-quality evidence), except ziprasidone (very low- to low-quality evidence), and all antipsychotics were superior to placebo (low- to high-quality evidence), except ziprasidone and asenapine (low- to moderate-quality evidence). PANSS positive changes and additional efficacy outcomes were comparable among antipsychotics. Weight gain was primarily associated with olanzapine; extrapyramidal symptoms and akathisia were associated with molindone; and prolactin increased with risperidone, paliperidone, and olanzapine. Serious adverse events, discontinuation of treatment, sedation, insomnia, or change in triglycerides did not differ among antipsychotics. This network meta-analysis showed comparable efficacy

  20. Contrasting contribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor activation to neurochemical profile of novel antipsychotics: frontocortical dopamine and hippocampal serotonin release in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Assié, Marie-Bernadette; Ravailhe, Véronique; Faucillon, Valérie; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2005-10-01

    Several novel antipsychotics, such as aripiprazole, bifeprunox, SSR181507 [(3-exo)-8-benzoyl-N-(((2S)7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-1-yl)methyl)-8-azabicyclo(3.2.1)octane-3-methanamine], and SLV313 [1-(2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-4-[5-(4-fluorophenyl)-pyridin-3-ylmethyl]-piperazine], activate serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptors. Such activity is associated with enhanced treatment of negative symptoms and cognitive deficits, which may be mediated by modulation of cerebral dopamine and serotonin levels. We employed microdialysis coupled to high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection to examine 5-HT1A receptor activation in the modulation of extracellular dopamine in medial prefrontal cortex and serotonin in hippocampus of freely moving rats. The above compounds were compared with drugs that have less interaction with 5-HT1A receptors (clozapine, nemonapride, ziprasidone, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol). Hippocampal 5-HT was decreased by bifeprunox, SSR181507, SLV313, sarizotan, and nemonapride, effects similar to those seen with the 5-HT1A agonist, (+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin [(+)8-OH-DPAT], consistent with activation of 5-HT1A autoreceptors. These decreases were reversed by the selective 5-HT1A antagonist, WAY100635 [N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide]. In contrast, haloperidol, risperidone, clozapine, olanzapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole did not significantly modify hippocampal serotonin levels. In medial prefrontal cortex, dopamine levels were increased by SSR181507, SLV313, sarizotan, and (+)8-OH-DPAT. These effects were reversed by WAY100635, indicating mediation by 5-HT1A receptors. In contrast, the increases in dopamine levels induced by clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, and ziprasidone were not blocked by WAY100635, consistent with predominant influence of other mechanisms in the actions of these drugs. Haloperidol, nemonapride

  1. Comparably high retention and low relapse rates in different subpopulations of bipolar patients in a German non-interventional study.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Susanne; Minarzyk, Anette; Eppendorfer, Steffen; Henneges, Carsten; Hundemer, Hans-Peter; Wilhelm, Stefan; Grunze, Heinz

    2013-07-17

    Although a range of pharmacotherapeutical options are available for the treatment of bipolar disorder, patient non-adherence to prescribed treatment regimens and early treatment discontinuation remain among the primary obstacles to effective treatment. Therefore, this observational study assessed time on mood stabilizing medication and retention rates in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). In an 18-month, prospective, multicenter, non-interventional study conducted in Germany 761 outpatients (≥18 years) with BD and on maintenance therapy were documented. For analysis, patients were stratified by baseline medication: monotherapy olanzapine (OM, N = 186), lithium (LM, N = 152), anticonvulsants (N = 216), other mood stabilizing medication (OMS, N = 44); combination therapy olanzapine/lithium (N = 47), olanzapine/anticonvulsant (N = 68), other combinations (OC, N = 48). Continuation on medication was assessed as retention rates with 95% confidence intervals. Time to discontinuation and relapse-free time were calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. A relapse was defined as increase to CGI-BP >3, worsening of CGI-BP by ≥2 points, hospitalization or death related to BD. A Cox regression was calculated for the discontinuation of mood stabilizing therapy (reference: OM). Logistic regression models with stepwise forward selection were used to explore possible predictors of maintenance of treatment and relapse. After 540 days (18 months), the overall retention rate of baseline medication was 87.7%, without notable differences between the cohorts. The overall mean time on mood stabilizing treatment was 444.7 days, with a range of 377.5 (OMS) to 481 (LM) by cohort. 74.0% of all patients were without relapse, with rates between the cohorts ranging from 58.4% (OC) to 80.2% (LM). Retention rates exceeded controlled trial results in all treatment cohorts, in addition to other explanations possibly reflecting that the physicians were expertly

  2. [Treatment-resistant anxiety disorders: A literature review of drug therapy strategies].

    PubMed

    Ammar, G; Naja, W J; Pelissolo, A

    2015-06-01

    Anxiety disorders are widespread psychiatric conditions with significant social and professional disability, poor quality of life, an increased risk of suicide, and frequent attendance of medical services. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI) and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) have demonstrated a rather robust efficacy for the treatment of most of anxiety disorders. Nevertheless a substantial number of patients are resistant or still suffer from residual symptoms despite this first line treatment. The objective of our paper is to review relevant studies for the pharmacologic management of anxiety disorders resistant to the first line treatment. For this purpose, we conducted a pubmed/medline search for double-blind placebo-controlled trials of treatment-resistant anxiety disorders. An adequate trial for a SRI in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) should continue for at least 12 weeks. Special considerations of the comorbidities and symptom profile could help in the choice of an appropriate pharmacotherapy. Several trials have highlighted the efficacy of antipsychotics as an add-on to SRI in treatment-resistant OCD such as haloperidol more so when comorbid with a tic disorder, or risperidone that can reduce OCD as well as depressive symptoms. Aripiprazole has been shown efficacious in two placebo-controlled double-blind trials, while the efficacy of quetiapine and olanzapine remains controversial. Other trials showed some efficacy of anticonvulsants (lamotrigine, topiramate), pindolol, memantin and N-acetylcystein as an adjunctive treatment to SRI for resistant OCD. Few trials have investigated selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) or SNRI resistant generalized anxiety disorder showing a failure of adjunctive therapy with olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone and risperidone. These studies were underpowered and very limited in number. Adjunctive risperidone for resistant post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) showed

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of antipsychotics in reducing schizophrenia relapses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is a severe form of mental illness which is associated with significant and long-lasting health, social and financial burdens. The aim of this project is to assess the efficiency of the antipsychotics used in Spain in reducing schizophrenia relapses under the Spanish Health System perspective. Material and methods A decision-analytic model was developed to explore the relative cost-effectiveness of five antipsychotic medications, amisulpride, aripiprazole, olanzapine, paliperidone Extended-Release (ER) and risperidone, compared to haloperidol, over a 1-year treatment period among people living in Spain with schizophrenia. The transition probabilities for assessed therapies were obtained from the systemic review and meta-analysis performed by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Results Paliperidone ER was the option that yielded more quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained per patient (0.7573). In addition, paliperidone ER was the least costly strategy (€3,062), followed by risperidone (€3,194), haloperidol (€3,322), olanzapine (€3,893), amisulpride (€4,247) and aripiprazole (€4,712). In the incremental cost-effectiveness (ICE) analysis of the assessed antipsychotics compared to haloperidol, paliperidone ER and risperidone were dominant options. ICE ratios for other medications were €23,621/QALY gained, €91,584/QALY gained and €94,558/QALY gained for olanzapine, amisulpride and aripiprazole, respectively. Deterministic sensitivity analysis showed that risperidone is always dominant when compared to haloperidol. Paliperidone ER is also dominant apart from the exception of the scenario with a 20% decrease in the probability of relapses. Conclusions Our findings may be of interest to clinicians and others interested in outcomes and cost of mental health services among patients with schizophrenia. Paliperidone ER and risperidone were shown to be dominant therapies compared to haloperidol in Spain

  4. [Mania associated with Usher syndrome type II].

    PubMed

    Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Acharya, Mahima; Sarvanan, Arul; Kongasseri, Sreejayan; Behere, Rishikesh V; Sharma, P S V N

    2012-01-01

    Usher syndrome (or Hallgren syndrome) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by sensorineural deafness, retinitis pigmentosa, and variable vestibular deficit; Usher syndrome type II is the most common form. Various neuropsychiatric disorders have been reported to occur in those with Usher syndrome, including schizophrenia-like disorder, atypical psychosis, recurrent depressive illness, neurotic disorder, and mental retardation; however, bipolar disorder is not common in those with Usher syndrome. Herein we describe a 30-year-old male with Usher syndrome type II that developed features indicative of a probable manic episode. The patient had complete remission of symptoms in response to treatment with olanzapine 20 mg d-1. In persons with dual sensory impairment there are inherent problems with assessment and diagnosis is difficult due to their limited communication abilities. The diagnosis of Usher syndrome depends heavily on behavioral observation and disturbances in vegetative functions.

  5. Self inflicted corneal abrasions due to delusional parasitosis

    PubMed Central

    Meraj, Adeel; Din, Amad U; Larsen, Lynn; Liskow, Barry I

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of self inflicted bilateral corneal abrasions and skin damage due to ophthalmic and cutaneous delusional parasitosis. A male in his 50s presented with a 10 year history of believing that parasites were colonizing his skin and biting into his skin and eyes. The patient had received extensive medical evaluations that found no evidence that symptoms were due to a medical cause. He was persistent in his belief and had induced bilateral corneal abrasions and skin damage by using heat lamps and hair dryers in an attempt to disinfect his body. The patient was treated with olanzapine along with treatment for his skin and eyes. His delusional belief system persisted but no further damage to his eyes and skin was noted on initial follow-up. PMID:22689836

  6. An atypical case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome precipitated by valproate

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Junewar, Vivek; Rathaur, Bhanu Pratap Singh

    2014-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) can be caused by various drugs. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with high-grade fever, muscular rigidity, tachycardia, tachypnoea and altered sensorium along with seizures. She had been taking olanzapine for the past 2 years for psychosis. For the last month valproate was added to her treatment. Her blood investigations revealed hyponatraemia and raised serum ammonia and creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) levels. In view of hyperthermia, muscular rigidity, autonomic disturbances, altered mental status and raised CPK, a diagnosis of NMS was made. Valproate could have probably precipitated NMS; although the patient was taking antipsychotics for a long time, it was only with the addition of valproate that she developed these symptoms. Raised serum ammonia levels also indicated the presence of valproate toxicity. Seizures were probably due to electrolyte disturbances. Offending drugs were withdrawn. The patient improved with treatment by dopamine agonist and other supportive treatments. PMID:24604797

  7. An atypical case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome precipitated by valproate.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajesh; Junewar, Vivek; Rathaur, Bhanu Pratap Singh

    2014-03-06

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) can be caused by various drugs. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with high-grade fever, muscular rigidity, tachycardia, tachypnoea and altered sensorium along with seizures. She had been taking olanzapine for the past 2 years for psychosis. For the last month valproate was added to her treatment. Her blood investigations revealed hyponatraemia and raised serum ammonia and creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) levels. In view of hyperthermia, muscular rigidity, autonomic disturbances, altered mental status and raised CPK, a diagnosis of NMS was made. Valproate could have probably precipitated NMS; although the patient was taking antipsychotics for a long time, it was only with the addition of valproate that she developed these symptoms. Raised serum ammonia levels also indicated the presence of valproate toxicity. Seizures were probably due to electrolyte disturbances. Offending drugs were withdrawn. The patient improved with treatment by dopamine agonist and other supportive treatments.

  8. One-Year Follow-Up of Serum Prolactin Level in Schizophrenia Patients Treated with Blonanserin: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Sakae; Suzuki, Masahiro; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    In our previous study, a prolactin elevation was more frequently in risperidone than in blonanserin; however, it was more often in blonanserin than in olanzapine. Therefore, while a rate of PRL rising is low to moderate, hyperprolactinemia is a considerable adverse effect in the blonanserin treatment. In this study, to examine detailed characteristics of hyperprolactinemia of blonanserin, we analyzed the prolactin data in six schizophrenic patients who were switched to blonanserin from other antipsychotics and followed for one year. As a result, blonanserin dose was clearly associated with serum prolactin level. The average prolactin level was almost normal when the mean blonanserin dosage was 8.0 mg/day. Regardless of the dose decrease of blonanserin, there were no remarkable changes in symptoms and social functions. Based on our findings, we conclude that low dose blonanserin medication may be useful for schizophrenia maintenance treatment without hyperprolactinemia and a high rate of relapse.

  9. One-Year Follow-Up of Serum Prolactin Level in Schizophrenia Patients Treated with Blonanserin: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, a prolactin elevation was more frequently in risperidone than in blonanserin; however, it was more often in blonanserin than in olanzapine. Therefore, while a rate of PRL rising is low to moderate, hyperprolactinemia is a considerable adverse effect in the blonanserin treatment. In this study, to examine detailed characteristics of hyperprolactinemia of blonanserin, we analyzed the prolactin data in six schizophrenic patients who were switched to blonanserin from other antipsychotics and followed for one year. As a result, blonanserin dose was clearly associated with serum prolactin level. The average prolactin level was almost normal when the mean blonanserin dosage was 8.0 mg/day. Regardless of the dose decrease of blonanserin, there were no remarkable changes in symptoms and social functions. Based on our findings, we conclude that low dose blonanserin medication may be useful for schizophrenia maintenance treatment without hyperprolactinemia and a high rate of relapse. PMID:26508971

  10. Changes in weight and other metabolic indicators in persons with schizophrenia following a switch to aripiprazole.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Rohan; Brar, Jaspreet S; Garbut, Ronald; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Basu, Ranita

    2011-07-01

    For patients who gain a troublesome amount of weight on antipsychotics, switching to a less obesogenic agent is an option. Aripiprazole appears to cause less weight gain than many other antipsychotics. We report on changes in weight, and other risk factors for heart disease, in thirty-three schizophrenia patients who agreed to switch from other antipsychotics to aripiprazole in an open, flexible-dose, eight-week trial. All patients were successfully switched. There were no significant changes in PANSS symptom scores or in CGI. Weight (Wt), waist circumference (WC), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) decreased significantly in the group as a whole. In patients switched from olanzapine to aripiprazole, Wt, WC, LDL, fasting glucose, and triglycerides were significantly decreased as compared to baseline. Substantial decreases in several risk factors were also seen in patients switched from quetiapine, but these changes did not reach statistical significance.

  11. Antipsychotic switching for people with schizophrenia who have neuroleptic-induced weight or metabolic problems.

    PubMed

    Mukundan, Anitha; Faulkner, Guy; Cohn, Tony; Remington, Gary

    2010-12-08

    Weight gain is common for people with schizophrenia and this has serious implications for a patient's health and well being. Switching strategies have been recommended as a management option. To determine the effects of antipsychotic medication switching as a strategy for reducing or preventing weight gain and metabolic problems in people with schizophrenia. We searched key databases and the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's trials register (January 2005 and June 2007), reference sections within relevant papers and contacted the first author of each relevant study and other experts to collect further information. All clinical randomised controlled trials comparing switching of antipsychotic medication as an intervention for antipsychotic induced weight gain and metabolic problems with continuation of medication and/or other weight loss treatments (pharmacological and non pharmacological) in people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. Studies were reliably selected, quality assessed and data extracted. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratio (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a fixed-effect model. The primary outcome measures were weight loss, metabolic syndrome, relapse and general mental state. We included four studies for the review with a total of 636 participants. All except one study had a duration of 26 weeks or less. There was a mean weight loss of 1.94 kg (2 RCT, n = 287, CI -3.9 to 0.08) when switched to aripiprazole or quetiapine from olanzapine. BMI also decreased when switched to quetiapine (1 RCT, n = 129, MD -0.52 CI -1.26 to 0.22) and aripiprazole (1 RCT, n = 173, RR 0.28 CI 0.13 to 0.57) from olanzapine.Fasting blood glucose showed a significant decrease when switched to aripiprazole or quetiapine from olanzapine. (2 RCT, MD -2.53 n = 280 CI -2.94 to -2.11). One RCT also showed a favourable lipid profile when switched to aripiprazole but these measures were reported as percentage

  12. Second-generation antipsychotics for major depressive disorder and dysthymia.

    PubMed

    Komossa, Katja; Depping, Anna M; Gaudchau, Andrea; Kissling, Werner; Leucht, Stefan

    2010-12-08

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common condition with a lifetime prevalence of 15% to 18%, which leads to considerable suffering and disability. Some antipsychotics have been reported to induce remission in major depression, when added to an antidepressant. To evaluate the effects of second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) drugs (alone or augmentation) compared with placebo or antidepressants for people with MDD or dysthymia. The Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group's controlled trial registers (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) were searched up to 21 July 2010. The author team ran complementary searches on clinicaltrials.gov and contacted key authors and drug companies. We included all randomised, double-blind trials comparing oral SGA treatment (alone or augmentation) with other forms of pharmaceutical treatment or placebo in people with MDD or dysthymia. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, and for continuous data the mean difference (MD), based on a random-effects model. We presented each comparison separately; we did not perform a pooled data analysis. We included 28 trials with 8487 participants on five SGAs: amisulpride, aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone.Three studies (1092 participants) provided data on aripiprazole augmentation in MDD. All efficacy data (response n = 1092, three RCTs, OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.63), (MADRS n = 1077, three RCTs, MD -3.04; 95% CI -4.09 to -2) indicated a benefit for aripiprazole but  more side effects (weight gain, EPS) .Seven trials (1754 participants) reported data on olanzapine. Compared to placebo fewer people discontinued treatment due to inefficacy; compared to antidepressants there were no efficacy differences, olanzapine augmentation showed symptom reduction (MADRS n = 808, five RCTs, MD -2.84; 95% CI -5.48 to -0.20), but also more weight or prolactin increase

  13. Body weight gain induced by a newer antipsychotic agent reversed as negative symptoms improved.

    PubMed

    Koga, M; Nakayama, K

    2005-07-01

    We describe a patient in whom improvement in negative symptoms contributed to early weight loss and subsequent long-term improvement in weight management. Case report. A 26-year-old woman with schizophrenia gained 7 kg over the course of 1 year after starting treatment with olanzapine. However, as negative symptoms gradually improved with treatment, she became motivated to diet and exercise regularly. She quickly lost 9 kg and subsequently maintained optimal weight (55 kg; body mass index, 24.1 kg/m(2) ). Important strategies for minimizing weight gain in patients taking antipsychotic agents include improving negative symptoms of avolition and apathy, regular monitoring of body weight and potential medical consequences of overweight and obesity, and educating the patient about the importance of diet and regular exercise.

  14. Randomized Trial of the Effect of Four Second-Generation Antipsychotics and One First-Generation Antipsychotic on Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol, and Drug Use in Chronic Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Somaia; Rosenheck, Robert A; Lin, Haiqun; Swartz, Marvin; McEvoy, Joseph; Stroup, Scott

    2015-07-01

    No large-scale randomized trial has compared the effect of different second-generation antipsychotic drugs and any first-generation drug on alcohol, drug and nicotine use in patients with schizophrenia. The Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention Effectiveness study randomly assigned 1432 patients formally diagnosed with schizophrenia to four second-generation antipsychotic drugs (olanzapine, risperidone quetiapine, and ziprasidone) and one first-generation antipsychotic (perphenazine) and followed them for up to 18 months. Secondary outcome data documented cigarettes smoked in the past week and alcohol and drug use severity ratings. At baseline, 61% of patients smoked, 35% used alcohol, and 23% used illicit drugs. Although there were significant effects of time showing reduction in substance use over the 18 months (all p < 0.0001), this study found no evidence that any antipsychotic was robustly superior to any other in a secondary analysis of data on substance use outcomes from a large 18-month randomized schizophrenia trial.

  15. S23. INTRODUCING COMPASS: COMPARING BRAIN ACTIVITY ACROSS PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT RESPONSE IN SCHIZOPHRENIA – AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, Sandra; Siemerkus, Jakob; Bischof, Martin; Tomiello, Sara; Schöbi, Dario; Weber, Lilian; Heinzle, Jakob; Möller, Julian; Egger, Stephan; Gerke, Wolfgang; Baumgartner, Markus; Kawohl, Wolfram; Borgwardt, Stefan; Kaiser, Stefan; Haker, Helene; Stephan, Klaas Enno

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Present pharmacological treatment approaches in schizophrenia rest on “neuroleptic” drugs, all of which act as antagonists at dopamine D2/D3 receptors but additionally display major variability in their binding capacity to neurotransmitter receptors (Van Os & Kapur 2009). At present, the choice of any particular drug does not rest on any principled criteria: Once individual treatment has been started, therapeutic efficacy is monitored clinically, and a switch to a different drug is initiated when clear improvements remain absent after a few weeks. It is presently not possible to predict in advance which patients will respond well to a particular drug and who will experience little or no benefit (Case et al. 2011; Kapur et al. 2012). For instance, clozapine and olanzapine are often prescribed after other antipsychotics have shown to be ineffective in patients with schizophrenia or related disorders due to their pronounced side-effects. Both drugs, clozapine and olanzapine, share certain pharmacodynamic properties with comparatively low affinity towards dopamine D2-receptors, but very high affinity towards muscarinic receptors – a unique constellation that distinguishes them from other common antipsychotics. Importantly, previous studies have shown that a subgroup of schizophrenia patients might particularly benefit from these properties (Raedler et al. 2003, Scarr et al. 2009). Here, we present an ongoing observational study (COMPASS) which builds on these observations and addresses the question whether functional readouts of dopaminergic and muscarinic systems in individual patients could enable personalised treatment predictions. Guided by the dysconnection hypothesis of schizophrenia (Stephan et al., 2009), which postulates aberrant interactions between NMDA receptors and neuromodulators like dopamine/acetylcholine, the COMPASS study adopts a neuromodeling approach. The focus is on EEG/fMRI paradigms and computational models with

  16. Smoking in Schizophrenia: an Updated Review.

    PubMed

    Šagud, Marina; Vuksan-Ćusa, Bjanka; Jakšić, Nenad; Mihaljević-Peleš, Alma; Rojnić Kuzman, Martina; Pivac, Nela

    2018-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia continue to have the highest rate of both smoking and heavy nicotine dependence. The interaction between smoking and schizophrenia is complex. There is evidence of the shared genetic background. Recent preclinical and clinical research has further investigated self-medication hypothesis, given that nicotine might alleviate cortical dysfunction. While prior research indicated some favorable effects of smoking on cognitive performance, particulatly on attention/vigilance, recent studies did not confirm those findings. Lower severity of negative symptoms in smokers was not confirmed across studies. Cigarette smoking decreases clozapine and olanzapine concentrations. There is no consistent evidence of favorable effects of nicotine on symptoms in schizophrenia, but the evidence of detrimental effects of smoking on general health is highly consistent. Smoking cessation should be a priority in patients with schizophrenia.

  17. No alterations of brain GABA after 6 months of treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs in early-stage first-episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Goto, Naoki; Yoshimura, Reiji; Kakeda, Shingo; Moriya, Junji; Hori, Hikaru; Hayashi, Kenji; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Nakano-Umene, Wakako; Katsuki, Asuka; Nishimura, Joji; Korogi, Yukunori; Nakamura, Jun

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs on GABA concentrations in early-stage, first-episode schizophrenia patients. Sixteen (8 males, 8 females; age, 30±11 years old) patients were followed up for six months. We also included 18 sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects. All patients were treated with atypical antipsychotic drugs (5 patients with risperidone, 5 patients with olanzapine, 4 patients with aripiprazole, and 2 patients with quetiapine). In all three regions measured (frontal lobe, left basal ganglia, and parieto-occipital lobe), no differences in GABA concentrations were observed in a comparison of pre-treatment levels and those six months after treatment. These results suggest that relatively short-term treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs may not affect GABAergic neurotransmission; however, it is also possible that such treatment prevents further reductions in brain GABA levels in people with early-stage, first-episode schizophrenia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Do Atypical Antipsychotics Have Antisuicidal Effects? A Hypothesis-Generating Overview

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Forte, Alberto; Erbuto, Denise; Serafini, Gianluca; Fiorillo, Andrea; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Modern antipsychotic drugs are employed increasingly in the treatment of mood disorders as well as psychoses, stimulating interest in their possible contributions to altering suicidal risk. Clozapine remains the only treatment with an FDA-recognized indication for reducing suicidal risk (in schizophrenia). We carried out a systematic, computerized search for reports of studies involving antipsychotic drug treatment and suicidal behaviors. A total of 19 reports provide data with preliminary support for potential suicide risk-reducing effects of olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, and asenapine in addition to clozapine, and provide some support for antipsychotic drug treatment in general. These preliminary findings encourage further testing of antipsychotics for effects on suicidal behavior, making use of explicit, pre-planned assessments of suicidal behavior. PMID:27727180

  19. Do not treat the numbers: lithium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Foulser, Peter; Abbasi, Yasmin; Mathilakath, Anand; Nilforooshan, Ramin

    2017-06-02

    We describe the case of a 62-year-old man with a history of bipolar disorder, previously stable on lithium for over 20 years, who presented with a manic relapse and signs of lithium toxicity in the form of a coarse tremor. Serum lithium levels were in the normal range, and the patient had stage 3 chronic kidney disease. He was admitted for treatment under Section 2 of the Mental Health Act, and after stopping lithium was started on olanzapine. Signs of lithium toxicity improved after withdrawal of lithium. This case highlights the need to treat normal serum lithium levels with caution in patients showing signs of clinical lithium toxicity. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Current and Emerging Directions in the Treatment of Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are a significant source of psychiatric morbidity in young women and demonstrate high comorbidity with mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Thus, clinicians may encounter eating disorders in the context of treating other conditions. This review summarizes the efficacy of current and emerging treatments for anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Treatment trials were identified using electronic and manual searches and by reviewing abstracts from conference proceedings. Family based therapy has demonstrated superiority for adolescents with AN but no treatment has established superiority for adults. For BN, both 60 mg fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have well-established efficacy. For BED, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, CBT, and interpersonal psychotherapy have demonstrated efficacy. Emerging directions for AN include investigation of the antipsychotic olanzapine and several novel psychosocial treatments. Future directions for BN and BED include increasing CBT disseminability, targeting affect regulation, and individualized stepped-care approaches. PMID:22879753

  1. Role of ranitidine in negative symptoms of schizophrenia--an open label study.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Varun S; Ram, Daya

    2014-12-01

    In this open label study, 75 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were randomized to three groups of 25 each, receiving 150mg/day ranitidine, 300mg/day ranitidine and receiving only olanzapine. They were rated on PANSS at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. There was a significant reduction in the scores of negative scale in patients receiving 300mg/day ranitidine in comparison to patients not receiving ranitidine at the end of 4 weeks but was not seen again when assessed at the end of 8 weeks. Though effective in reducing the negative symptoms, the effect was not sustained due to the tolerance to the actions of ranitidine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as schizophrenia with an alpha coma pattern in a child.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Ayşe; Kurt, Ayşegül Neşe Çitak; Gürkaş, Esra; Aydin, Kurşad; Serdaroğlu, Ayşe

    2014-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system, can present atypically with uncharacteristic electroencephalographic (EEG) features at its onset albeit typically with progressive mental deterioration, behavioral changes, and myoclonic jerks. An atypical presentation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can lead to a delay in diagnosis, thus hindering early treatment. Herein, we describe a 14-year-old girl who presented with insomnia, amnesia, auditory and visual hallucinations. The patient's electroencephalography on admission showed an alpha coma pattern. In spite of antipsychiatric treatment (olanzapine 20 mg/d) for 3 months, a progressive deterioration in neurologic function was observed. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was suspected and diagnosis was confirmed by increased titers of measles antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid. The attention of pediatricians should be drawn to psychiatric symptoms as possible initial presentations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in order to avoid needless diagnostic and treatment procedures. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Differential impact of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders on treatment outcome for psychotic depression in the STOP-PD study

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Simon J.C.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Flint, Alastair J.; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Whyte, Ellen M.; Meyers, Barnett S.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are conflicting results on the impact of anxiety on depression outcomes. The impact of anxiety has not been studied in major depression with psychotic features (“psychotic depression”). Aims We assessed the impact of specific anxiety symptoms and disorders on the outcomes of psychotic depression. Methods We analyzed data from the Study of Pharmacotherapy for Psychotic Depression that randomized 259 younger and older participants to either olanzapine plus placebo or olanzapine plus sertraline. We assessed the impact of specific anxiety symptoms from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (“tension”, “anxiety” and “somatic concerns” and a composite anxiety score) and diagnoses (panic disorder and GAD) on psychotic depression outcomes using linear or logistic regression. Age, gender, education and benzodiazepine use (at baseline and end) were included as covariates. Results Anxiety symptoms at baseline and anxiety disorder diagnoses differentially impacted outcomes. On adjusted linear regression there was an association between improvement in depressive symptoms and both baseline “tension” (coefficient = 0.784; 95% CI: 0.169–1.400; p = 0.013) and the composite anxiety score (regression coefficient = 0.348; 95% CI: 0.064–0.632; p = 0.017). There was an interaction between “tension” and treatment group, with better responses in those randomized to combination treatment if they had high baseline anxiety scores (coefficient = 1.309; 95% CI: 0.105–2.514; p = 0.033). In contrast, panic disorder was associated with worse clinical outcomes (coefficient = −3.858; 95% CI: –7.281 to −0.434; p = 0.027) regardless of treatment. Conclusions Our results suggest that analysis of the impact of anxiety on depression outcome needs to differentiate psychic and somatic symptoms. PMID:24656524

  4. Metabolic syndrome and obesity among users of second generation antipsychotics: A global challenge for modern psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Leonel E; Gaspar, Pablo A; Silva, H; Risco, L; Arena, Pamela; Cubillos-Robles, Karen; Jara, Belen

    2015-11-01

    Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), such as clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone and quetiapine, are among the most effective therapies to stabilize symptoms schizophrenia (SZ) spectrum disorders. In fact, clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone have improved the quality of life of billions SZ patients worldwide. Based on the broad spectrum of efficacy and low risk of extrapyramidal symptoms displayed by SGAs, some regulatory agencies approved the use of SGAs in non-schizophrenic adults, children and adolescents suffering from a range of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, increasing number of reports have shown that SGAs are strongly associated with accelerated weight gain, insulin resistance, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and increased cardiovascular risk. These metabolic alterations can develop in as short as six months after the initiation of pharmacotherapy, which is now a controversial fact in public disclosure. Although the percentage of schizophrenic patients, the main target group of SGAs, is estimated in only 1% of the population, during the past ten years there was an exponential increase in the number of SGAs users, including millions of non-SZ patients. The scientific bases of SGAs metabolic side effects are not yet elucidated, but the evidence shows that the activation of transcriptional factor SRBP1c, the D1/D2 dopamine, GABA2 and 5HT neurotransmitions are implicated in the SGAs cardiovascular toxicity. Polypharmacological interventions are either non- or modestly effective in maintaining low cardiovascular risk in SGAs users. In this review we critically discuss the clinical and molecular evidence on metabolic alterations induced by SGAs, the evidence on the efficacy of classical antidiabetic drugs and the emerging concept of antidiabetic polyphenols as potential coadjutants in SGA-induced metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Therapeutic equivalence of antipsychotics and antidepressants - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cessak, Grzegorz; Rokita, Konrad; Dąbrowska, Marta; Sejbuk-Rozbicka, Katarzyna; Zaremba, Anna; Mirowska-Guzel, Dagmara; Bałkowiec-Iskra, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    The number of newly approved generic psychotropic drugs increases every year and, in many countries, their sales exceed the sales of brand-name counterparts. In order for any generic drug to receive an approval of regulatory authorities, its bioequivalence with the corresponding reference product must be demonstrated. Moreover, generic drugs must meet the same quality standards as reference drugs. However, many psychiatrists express concerns about use of generic drugs. We carried out a systematic analysis of the relevant literature indexed in PubMed and Cochrane databases. The MeSH term "generic" was combined with terms describing antipsychotic and antidepressive drugs, including their pharmaceutical names and relevant mental disorders. All 26 articles including either clinical studies or case reports have been qualified for a detailed analysis. No cases describing switches between two generics were found. Therapeutic equivalence studies evaluating antipsychotics included clozapine, olanzapine, and risperidone. The clinical status was judged to have worsened in 15.7% patients treated with clozapine. The number of relapses before and after the switch was not significantly different in patients treated with olanzapine. Two case reports showed clinical state deterioration after switch to generic risperidone. The clinical outcome after conversion to a generic antidepressant was evaluated only in one retrospective study. That study analyzed the outcomes of treatment with citalopram and revealed mental state deterioration in 11.6% of patients. Only single reports describe cases of impaired efficacy or adverse events after the switch to a generic antidepressant, including fluoxetine, mirtazapine, and venlafaxine. No cases of suicidal attempt after the switch were reported. Although the overall number of described cases is rather modest, health professionals should be aware of possible changes in the therapeutic effectiveness after changing to a generic medicine. Copyright

  6. An acute rat in vivo screening model to predict compounds that alter blood glucose and/or insulin regulation.

    PubMed

    Brott, David A; Diamond, Melody; Campbell, Pam; Zuvich, Andy; Cheatham, Letitia; Bentley, Patricia; Gorko, Mary Ann; Fikes, James; Saye, JoAnne

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced glucose dysregulation and insulin resistance have been associated with weight gain and potential induction and/or exacerbation of diabetes mellitus in the clinic suggesting they may be safety biomarkers when developing antipsychotics. Glucose and insulin have also been suggested as potential efficacy biomarkers for some oncology compounds. The objective of this study was to qualify a medium throughput rat in vivo acute Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT) for predicting compounds that will induce altered blood glucose and/or insulin levels. Acute and sub-chronic studies were performed to qualify an acute IVGTT model. Double cannulated male rats (Han-Wistar and Sprague-Dawley) were administered vehicle, olanzapine, aripiprazole or other compounds at t=-44min for acute studies and at time=-44min on the last day of dosing for sub-chronic studies, treated with dextrose (time=0min; i.v.) and blood collected using an automated Culex® system for glucose and insulin analysis (time=-45, -1, 2, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150 and 180min). Olanzapine significantly increased glucose and insulin area under the curve (AUC) values while aripiprazole AUC values were similar to control, in both acute and sub-chronic studies. All atypical antipsychotics evaluated were consistent with literature references of clinical weight gain. As efficacy biomarkers, insulin AUC but not glucose AUC values were increased with a compound known to have insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) activity, compared to control treatment. These studies qualified the medium throughput acute IVGTT model to more quickly screen compounds for 1) safety - the potential to elicit glucose dysregulation and/or insulin resistance and 2) efficacy - as a surrogate for compounds affecting the glucose and/or insulin regulatory pathways. These data demonstrate that the same in vivo rat model and assays can be used to predict both clinical safety and efficacy of compounds. © 2013.

  7. Schizophrenia: multi-attribute utility theory approach to selection of atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Bettinger, Tawny L; Shuler, Garyn; Jones, Donnamaria R; Wilson, James P

    2007-02-01

    Current guidelines/algorithms recommend atypical antipsychotics as first-line agents for the treatment of schizophrenia. Because there are extensive healthcare costs associated with the treatment of schizophrenia, many institutions and health systems are faced with making restrictive formulary decisions regarding the use of atypical antipsychotics. Often, medication acquisition costs are the driving force behind formulary decisions, while other treatment factors are not considered. To apply a multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) analysis to aid in the selection of a preferred agent among the atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia. Five atypical antipsychotics (risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole) were selected as the alternative agents to be included in the MAUT analysis. The attributes identified for inclusion in the analysis were efficacy, adverse effects, cost, and adherence, with relative weights of 35%, 35%, 20%, and 10%, respectively. For each agent, attribute scores were calculated, weighted, and then summed to generate a total utility score. The agent with the highest total utility score was considered the preferred agent. Aripiprazole, with a total utility score of 75.8, was the alternative agent with the highest total utility score in this model. This was followed by ziprasidone, risperidone, and quetiapine, with total utility scores of 71.8, 69.0, and 65.9, respectively. Olanzapine received the lowest total utility score. A sensitivity analysis was performed and failed to displace aripiprazole as the agent with the highest total utility score. This model suggests that aripiprazole should be considered a preferred agent for the treatment of schizophrenia unless found to be otherwise inappropriate.

  8. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels in selected areas of the brain in patients with chronic schizophrenia treated with typical and atypical neuroleptics: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) study.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Agata; Galińska, Beata; Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Kubas, Bozena; Dzienis, Wojciech; Konarzewska, Beata; Poplawska, Regina; Tomczak, Anna A; Czernikiewicz, Andrzej; Walecki, Jerzy

    2007-05-01

    NAA, marker of neurons integrity and viability, is one of the most important brain metabolites visible in 1H MRS. In most studies of schizophrenia, the decrease of NAA level was observed in the temporal, frontal lobes and in the thalamus. This finding was observed more often among chronic patients, what suggests the influence of disease duration or the effect of neuroleptic treatment. The aim of the present study was the comparison of NAA levels in brain of schizophrenic patients taking typical and atypical neuroleptics. We analyzed the NAA levels in selected brain areas in 58 schizophrenic patients and 21 healthy controls. 10 patients were treated with typical neuroleptics, 10 patients with clozapine, 17 received olanzapine and 21 - risperidone. 1H MRS was performed on a 1,5 MR scanner with PRESS sequence. Voxels of 2x2x2 cm were localized in the left frontal, left temporal lobe and left thalamus. There were no differences in NAA levels between patients on typical and atypical medications analyzed together and separately (olanzapine, clozapine and risperidone groups). We also did not find any differences between patients taking selected atypical neuroleptics and controls. The NAA level in the thalamus in the group of patients receiving typical antipsychotics was the lowest among all groups and differed significantly from healthy controls. The results of our study suggest that atypical neuroleptics may have favorable effect on NAA concentration in brain of schizophrenic patients. Decrease in NAA level in patients taking typical medication may be caused by the progression of the disease or by the direct action of these drugs.

  9. The effects of neuroleptics on the GABA-induced Cl- current in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons: differences between some neuroleptics.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Kenjiro; Tatebayashi, Hideharu; Matsuo, Tadashi; Shoge, Takashi; Motomura, Haruhiko; Matsuno, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Akira; Tashiro, Nobutada

    2002-03-01

    1. Several neuroleptics inhibited the 3 microM gamma-aminobutyric acid induced-chloride current (GABA-current) on dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons in whole-cell patch-clamp investigations. 2. The IC(50) for clozapine, zotepine, olanzapine, risperidone and chlorpromazine were 6.95, 18.26, 20.30, 106.01 and 114.56 microM, respectively. The values for the inhibitory effects of neuroleptics on the GABA (3 microM)-current, which were calculated by the fitting Hill's equations where the concentrations represent the mean therapeutic blood concentrations, were ranked clozapine>zotepine>chlorpromazine>olanzapine>risperidone. These inhibitory effects, weighted with the therapeutic concentrations of neuroleptics, were correlated with the clinical incidences of seizure during treatment with neuroleptics. 3. Clozapine reduced the picrotoxin-inhibiton, and may compete with a ligand of the t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) binding site. 4. Haloperidol and quetiapine did not affect the peak amplitude of the GABA (3 microM)-current. However, haloperidol reduced the clozapine-inhibition, and may antagonize ligand binding to TBPS binding site. 5. Neuroleptics including haloperidol and quetiapine enhanced the desensitization of the GABA (3 microM)-current. However, haloperidol and quetiapine at 100 microM inhibited the desensitization at the beginning of application. 6. Blonanserin (AD-5423) at 30 and 50 microM potentiated the GABA (3 microM)-current to 170.1+/-6.9 and 192.0+/-10.6% of the control current, respectively. Blonanserin shifted GABA concentration-response curve leftward. Blonanserin only partly negatively interacted with diazepam. The blonanserin-potentiation was not reversed by flumazenil. Blonanserin is not a benzodiazepine receptor agonist. 7. The various effects of neuroleptics on the GABA-current may be related to the clinical effects including modifying the seizure threshold.

  10. The effects of neuroleptics on the GABA-induced Cl− current in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons: differences between some neuroleptics

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Kenjiro; Tatebayashi, Hideharu; Matsuo, Tadashi; Shoge, Takashi; Motomura, Haruhiko; Matsuno, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Akira; Tashiro, Nobutada

    2002-01-01

    Several neuroleptics inhibited the 3 μM γ-aminobutyric acid induced-chloride current (GABA-current) on dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons in whole-cell patch-clamp investigations. The IC50 for clozapine, zotepine, olanzapine, risperidone and chlorpromazine were 6.95, 18.26, 20.30, 106.01 and 114.56 μM, respectively. The values for the inhibitory effects of neuroleptics on the GABA (3 μM)-current, which were calculated by the fitting Hill's equations where the concentrations represent the mean therapeutic blood concentrations, were ranked clozapine>zotepine>chlorpromazine>olanzapine>risperidone. These inhibitory effects, weighted with the therapeutic concentrations of neuroleptics, were correlated with the clinical incidences of seizure during treatment with neuroleptics. Clozapine reduced the picrotoxin-inhibiton, and may compete with a ligand of the t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) binding site. Haloperidol and quetiapine did not affect the peak amplitude of the GABA (3 μM)-current. However, haloperidol reduced the clozapine-inhibition, and may antagonize ligand binding to TBPS binding site. Neuroleptics including haloperidol and quetiapine enhanced the desensitization of the GABA (3 μM)-current. However, haloperidol and quetiapine at 100 μM inhibited the desensitization at the beginning of application. Blonanserin (AD-5423) at 30 and 50 μM potentiated the GABA (3 μM)-current to 170.1±6.9 and 192.0±10.6% of the control current, respectively. Blonanserin shifted GABA concentration-response curve leftward. Blonanserin only partly negatively interacted with diazepam. The blonanserin-potentiation was not reversed by flumazenil. Blonanserin is not a benzodiazepine receptor agonist. The various effects of neuroleptics on the GABA-current may be related to the clinical effects including modifying the seizure threshold. PMID:11906969

  11. Japan useful medication program for schizophrenia (JUMPs)-long-term study on discontinuation rate, resolution and remission, and improvement in social functioning rate associated with atypical antipsychotic medications in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is desirable to establish evidence for the selection of antipsychotics from the viewpoint of recovery of social activity in individual patient with schizophrenia receiving medication. From this perspective, awareness of the importance of studies about drug effectiveness on treatment discontinuation rate, remission rate, and improvement in QOL has grown recently. In Western countries, numerous reports are available in effectiveness studies, which are related to olanzapine and risperidone primarily, whereas evidence for other second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) is poor. In Japan, no effectiveness study has been reported: thus, it is desirable to collect data that will serve as evidence for selection of the 3 SGAs approved after olanzapine. Methods The present study was a long-term effectiveness study under healthcare setting in Japan. It was designed as an open-label, multicenter, randomized, comparative study involving 104-week oral treatment with 1 of the 3 drugs (aripiprazole, blonanserin, and paliperidone) in patients with schizophrenia aged 20 years or over who required antipsychotic medication or switching of the current medication to others for reasons such as lack of efficacy and intolerability. The primary endpoint is treatment discontinuation rate for any causes. The secondary endpoints include remission rate, improvement of social activity, alleviation, aggravation or recurrence of psychiatric symptoms, and safety. The target number of subjects was set at 300. Discussion Because this study is expected to yield evidence regarding the selection of antipsychotics for facilitating the recovery of social activity in patients with schizophrenia, it is considered highly valuable to perform this effectiveness study under ordinary healthcare setting in Japan. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry 000007942 PMID:24090047

  12. Blonanserin ameliorates phencyclidine-induced visual-recognition memory deficits: the complex mechanism of blonanserin action involving D₃-5-HT₂A and D₁-NMDA receptors in the mPFC.

    PubMed

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Mori, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Yurie; Seki, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Iwamoto, Kunihiro; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2015-02-01

    Blonanserin differs from currently used serotonin 5-HT₂A/dopamine-D₂ receptor antagonists in that it exhibits higher affinity for dopamine-D₂/₃ receptors than for serotonin 5-HT₂A receptors. We investigated the involvement of dopamine-D₃ receptors in the effects of blonanserin on cognitive impairment in an animal model of schizophrenia. We also sought to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this involvement. Blonanserin, as well as olanzapine, significantly ameliorated phencyclidine (PCP)-induced impairment of visual-recognition memory, as demonstrated by the novel-object recognition test (NORT) and increased extracellular dopamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). With blonanserin, both of these effects were antagonized by DOI (a serotonin 5-HT₂A receptor agonist) and 7-OH-DPAT (a dopamine-D₃ receptor agonist), whereas the effects of olanzapine were antagonized by DOI but not by 7-OH-DPAT. The ameliorating effect was also antagonized by SCH23390 (a dopamine-D₁ receptor antagonist) and H-89 (a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor). Blonanserin significantly remediated the decrease in phosphorylation levels of PKA at Thr(197) and of NR1 (an essential subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors) at Ser(897) by PKA in the mPFC after a NORT training session in the PCP-administered mice. There were no differences in the levels of NR1 phosphorylated at Ser(896) by PKC in any group. These results suggest that the ameliorating effect of blonanserin on PCP-induced cognitive impairment is associated with indirect functional stimulation of the dopamine-D₁-PKA-NMDA receptor pathway following augmentation of dopaminergic neurotransmission due to inhibition of both dopamine-D₃ and serotonin 5-HT₂A receptors in the mPFC.

  13. Retrospective cohort study of diabetes mellitus and antipsychotic treatment in a geriatric population in the United States.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Peter D; Hay, Linda K; Deberdt, Walter; Kennedy, John S; Hutchins, David S; Hay, Donald P; Hardy, Thomas A; Hoffmann, Vicki P; Hornbuckle, Kenneth; Breier, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate risk of diabetes among elderly patients during treatment with antipsychotic medications. We conducted a longitudinal, retrospective study assessing the incidence of new prescription claims for antihyperglycemic agents during antipsychotic therapy. Prescription claims from the AdvancePCS claim database were followed for 6 to 9 months. Study participants consisted of patients in the United States aged 60+ and receiving antipsychotic monotherapy. The following cohorts were studied: an elderly reference population (no antipsychotics: n = 1,836,799), those receiving haloperidol (n = 6481) or thioridazine (n = 1658); all patients receiving any conventional antipsychotic monotherapy (n = 11,546), clozapine (n = 117), olanzapine (n = 5382), quetiapine (n = 1664), and risperidone (n = 12,244), and all patients receiving any atypical antipsychotic monotherapy (n = 19,407). We used Cox proportional hazards regression to determine the risk ratio of diabetes for antipsychotic cohorts relative to the reference population. Covariates included sex and exposure duration. New antihyperglycemic prescription rates were higher in each antipsychotic cohort than in the reference population. Overall rates were no different between atypical and conventional antipsychotic cohorts. Among individual antipsychotic cohorts, rates were highest among patients treated with thioridazine (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1- 5.7), lowest with quetiapine (95% CI, 1.3-2.9), and intermediate with haloperidol, olanzapine, and risperidone. Among atypical cohorts, only risperidone users had a significantly higher risk (95% CI, 1.05-1.60; P = 0.016) than for haloperidol. Conclusions about clozapine were hampered by the low number of patients. These data suggest that diabetes risk is elevated among elderly patients receiving antipsychotic treatment. However, causality remains to be demonstrated. As a group, the risk for atypical antipsychotic users was not

  14. Antipsychotic Treatment of Adolescent Dual Diagnosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Price, Scott A.; Brahm, Nancy C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND A diagnosis of schizophrenia requires development of a pharmacotherapy regimen that balances many factors in the therapeutic decision-making process. Patient age and the presence or absence of comorbid chemical dependency represent two factors. Comorbid chemical dependency can have a profound impact on the successful treatment of schizophrenia, making patients with dual diagnoses of schizophrenia and chemical dependence a uniquely challenging population. There is little information regarding treatment of schizophrenia and chemical dependence in the pediatric population. Existing data from pediatric and adult populations may facilitate a well-guided and knowledgeable approach to treating pediatric dual diagnosis patients. METHODS A review of the literature for medication trials evaluating antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia in childhood and adolescence as well as antipsychotic use in the treatment of the dual diagnoses of schizophrenia and chemical dependence was done. Databases for Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and PsycInfo were searched using the terms “addiction,” “adolescence,” “childhood,” “dual diagnosis,” “schizophrenia,” and “substance abuse.” Results were limited to English-language articles. RESULTS Seven articles were identified related to psychotic disorders and substance abuse in pediatric populations. Psychosis measurement instruments included the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Clinical Global Impression. Mean improvements were insignificant in most cases. Medication trials included clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and molindone. Trial safety concerns included metabolic effects, increased prolactin levels, and akathisia. One study with random assignment to olanzapine was discontinued early because of substantial weight gain without evidence of superior efficacy. Clozapine treatment was associated with more adverse drug events. CONCLUSION There is a great need for

  15. Antipsychotic-like vs cataleptogenic actions in mice of novel antipsychotics having D2 antagonist and 5-HT1A agonist properties.

    PubMed

    Bardin, Laurent; Kleven, Mark S; Barret-Grévoz, Catherine; Depoortère, Ronan; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2006-09-01

    A new generation of proven or potential antipsychotics, including aripiprazole, bifeprunox, SSR181507 and SLV313, exhibit agonist actions at serotonin 5-HT1A receptors, but little comparative data are available on their pharmacological profiles. Here, we compared in mice the in vivo antipsychotic-like vs cataleptogenic activities of these compounds with those of drugs that exhibit little interaction at 5-HT1A receptors, such as haloperidol, olanzapine and risperidone. All the drugs dose-dependently reduced apomorphine-induced climbing or sniffing and, with the exception of ziprasidone, produced complete suppression of these responses. In the bar catalepsy test, when administered alone, haloperidol, olanzapine and risperidone produced marked catalepsy, whereas, at doses up to 40 mg/kg, aripiprazole, SLV313, SSR181507, and sarizotan produced little or no catalepsy. The latter compounds, therefore, displayed a large separation between doses with 'antipsychotic-like' and those with cataleptogenic actions. When 5-HT1A receptors were blocked by pretreatment with WAY100635 (2.5 mg/kg, s.c.), cataleptogenic properties of SSR181507 and sarizotan were unmasked, and the catalepsy induced by bifeprunox was enhanced. In the case of aripiprazole and SLV313, although WAY100635 produced upward shifts in their dose-response, the magnitude of catalepsy appeared to reach an asymptotic plateau, suggesting that other mechanisms may be involved in their low cataleptogenic liability. The present data confirm that 5-HT1A receptor activation reduces or even completely prevents the cataleptogenic potential of novel antipsychotic agents. Further, they indicate that the balance of affinity and/or efficacy between D2 and 5-HT1A receptors profoundly influences their pharmacological activities, and will likely impact their therapeutic profiles.

  16. Psychotropic drug-induced weight gain and other metabolic complications in a Swiss psychiatric population.

    PubMed

    Choong, Eva; Bondolfi, Guido; Etter, Manuela; Jermann, Françoise; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Bartolomei, Javier; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Eap, Chin B

    2012-04-01

    To describe the weight gain-related side-effects of psychotropic drugs and their consequences on metabolic complications (hypercholesterolemia, obesity) in a Swiss cohort of psychiatric patients. This cross-sectional observational study was performed in an out-patient psychiatric division with patients having received for more than 3 months the following drugs: clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, lithium, and/or valproate. Clinical measures and lifestyle information (smoking behaviour, physical activity) were recorded. 196 inclusions were completed. Weight gain (≥10% of initial weight) following drug treatment was reported in 47% of these patients. Prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30), hypercholesterolemia (≥6.2 mmol/L) and low HDL-cholesterol (<1.0 mmol/L in men, <1.3 mmol/L in women) were present in 38%, 21%, and 27% of patients, respectively. A higher standardised dose, an increase of appetite following medication introduction, the type of medication (clozapine or olanzapine > quetiapine or risperidone > lithium or valproate), and the gender were shown to be significantly associated with evolution of BMI. High prevalence of obesity and hypercholesterolemia was found in an out-patient psychiatric population and confirms drug-induced weight gain complications during long-term treatment. The results support the recently published recommendations of monitoring of metabolic side-effects during treatment with atypical antipsychotics. Moreover, the weight gain predictors found in the present study could help to highlight patients with special health care management requirement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Weight change from 3-year observational data: findings from the worldwide schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes database.

    PubMed

    Bushe, Chris J; Slooff, Cees J; Haddad, Peter M; Karagianis, Jamie L

    2012-06-01

    Weight change data from randomized clinical trials are often of limited duration and trials do not always report a full range of clinically relevant categorical end points. We conducted a post hoc analysis of data from the observational Worldwide Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes database (2000-2005) on weight change in 4,626 patients completing 3 years of antipsychotic monotherapy with amisulpride, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and oral and depot first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). Reported outcomes included mean and categorical weight changes and the trajectories of different measures of weight change. Mean weight gain was lowest with amisulpride (1.8 kg; 95% CI, 0.2-3.3) and highest with olanzapine (4.2 kg; 95% CI, 3.9-4.5). Weight change for all antipsychotics was most rapid during the first 6 months; subsequent weight change was slower but did not plateau. All drugs showed considerable individual variation in weight change. The proportion losing ≥7% of their baseline bodyweight was highest with quetiapine (10%; 95% CI, 7%-16%) and lowest with depot FGAs (5%; 95% CI, 3%-10%). Between 7% and 15% of patients moved into an overweight or obese body mass index (kg/m2)category (≥25). The degree of weight gain varied between antipsychotics. All antipsychotics were associated with significant (≥7%) weight loss and gain from baseline. The mean rate of weight gain was maximal during the first 6 months but continued over 3 years without a plateau in this specific cohort. Patients should receive regular monitoring of weight throughout treatment. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  18. Carbamazepine-induced hyperammonemia.

    PubMed

    Adams, Erin N; Marks, Alla; Lizer, Mitsi H

    2009-08-15

    A case of carbamazepine-induced hyperammonemia is presented. A 26-year-old man with bipolar disorder, seizures, and mild mental retardation secondary to a traumatic brain injury began treatment with carbamazepine for aggression and seizure control. After three weeks of carbamazepine therapy, the patient arrived at the emergency department (ED) with severe agitation and aggressive behavior. His oral medications included topiramate, carbamazepine, olanzapine, quetiapine, guanfacine, and desmopressin acetate. The patient's medications had been stable for at least six months except for the addition of carbamazepine one month before his arrival at the ED. Upon admission, the patient's vital signs were found to be within normal limits, as were his liver profile results, complete blood count, thyroid-stimulating-hormone level, and serum chemistry panel. His serum carbamazepine concentration was 3.9 microg/mL (reference range, 4-12 microg/mL), and his serum ammonia concentration was 127 microg/dL (reference range, 19-60 microg/dL). Carbamazepine was discontinued upon admission, and the patient was treated with oral lactulose. Since carbamazepine was discontinued and had been prescribed for bipolar disorder, his olanzapine dosage was increased, and trazodone was added at bedtime for insomnia. Of note, the patient had been on carbamazepine therapy one year earlier and had experienced the same adverse event. He had also developed elevated serum ammonia levels while on valproic acid. The patient's serum ammonia level returned to normal by hospital day 4, and he was discharged to his group home. A 26-year-old man with bipolar disorder developed hyperammonemia three weeks after initiating carbamazepine therapy.

  19. Reviewing current and emerging antiemetics for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Natale, James J

    2015-01-01

    This review provides background information on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) classification and pathophysiology and reviews various antiemetic agents for CINV prophylaxis, including corticosteroids, serotonin receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs), tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists (NK1 RAs), and olanzapine. Other less commonly used agents are briefly discussed. Practical considerations are reviewed as well, including emetogenicity of chemotherapeutic regimens, patient-specific risk factors for CINV, principles of CINV management, health economics outcome research, and quality of life. Available data on the newly FDA-approved antiemetic combination netupitant/palonosetron (NEPA) is also reviewed. Prevention of CINV is an important goal in managing patients with cancer and is especially difficult with respect to nausea and delayed CINV. Corticosteroids are a mainstay of CINV prophylaxis and are usually given in combination with other therapies. The 5-HT3 RA palonosetron has shown increased efficacy over other agents in the same class for prevention of delayed emesis with moderately emetogenic chemotherapy and NK1 RAs improve emesis prevention in combination with 5-HT3 RAs and dexamethasone. Olanzapine has shown efficacy for CINV prophylaxis and the treatment of breakthrough CINV. The new combination therapy, NEPA, has been shown to be efficacious for the prevention of acute, delayed, and overall CINV. Risk factors that have been identified for CINV include gender, age, and alcohol intake. It is important to assess the emetogenicity of chemotherapy regimens as well as the potential impact of patient risk factors in order to provide adequate prophylaxis. Acute and delayed CINV are severe, burdensome side effects of chemotherapy; however, new data on prevention and the discovery of new agents can further improve CINV control.

  20. A bibliometric study of scientific research conducted on second-generation antipsychotic drugs in Singapore.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Sim, Kang; Shen, Winston Wu; Huelves, Lorena; Moreno, Raquel; Molina, Juan de Dios; Rubio, Gabriel; Noriega, Concha; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel; Alamo, Cecilio

    2014-01-01

    A bibliometric study was carried out to ascertain the volume and impact of scientific literature published on second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) in Singapore from 1997 to 2011. A search of the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases was performed to identify articles originating from Singapore that included the descriptors 'atypic* antipsychotic*', 'second-generation antipsychotic*', 'clozapine', 'risperidone', 'olanzapine', 'ziprasidone', 'quetiapine', 'sertindole', 'aripiprazole', 'paliperidone', 'amisulpride', 'zotepine', 'asenapine', 'iloperidone', 'lurasidone', 'perospirone' and 'blonanserin' in the article titles. Certain bibliometric indicators of production and dispersion (e.g. Price's Law on the increase of scientific literature, and Bradford's Law) were applied, and the participation index of various countries was calculated. The bibliometric data was also correlated with some social and health data from Singapore, such as the total per capita expenditure on health and gross domestic expenditure on research and development. From 1997 to 2011, a total of 51 articles on SGAs in Singapore were published. Our results suggested non-fulfilment of Price's Law (r = 0.0648 after exponential adjustment vs. r = 0.2140 after linear adjustment). The most widely studied drugs were clozapine (21 articles), risperidone (16 articles) and olanzapine (8 articles). Division into Bradford zones yielded a nucleus occupied by the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology (6 articles) and the Singapore Medical Journal(4 articles). The analysed material was published in a total of 30 journals, with the majority from six journals. Four of these six journals have an impact factor greater than 2. Publications on SGAs in Singapore are still too few to confirm an exponential growth of scientific literature.

  1. Blonanserin Ameliorates Phencyclidine-Induced Visual-Recognition Memory Deficits: the Complex Mechanism of Blonanserin Action Involving D3-5-HT2A and D1-NMDA Receptors in the mPFC

    PubMed Central

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Mori, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Yurie; Seki, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Iwamoto, Kunihiro; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Blonanserin differs from currently used serotonin 5-HT2A/dopamine-D2 receptor antagonists in that it exhibits higher affinity for dopamine-D2/3 receptors than for serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. We investigated the involvement of dopamine-D3 receptors in the effects of blonanserin on cognitive impairment in an animal model of schizophrenia. We also sought to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this involvement. Blonanserin, as well as olanzapine, significantly ameliorated phencyclidine (PCP)-induced impairment of visual-recognition memory, as demonstrated by the novel-object recognition test (NORT) and increased extracellular dopamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). With blonanserin, both of these effects were antagonized by DOI (a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist) and 7-OH-DPAT (a dopamine-D3 receptor agonist), whereas the effects of olanzapine were antagonized by DOI but not by 7-OH-DPAT. The ameliorating effect was also antagonized by SCH23390 (a dopamine-D1 receptor antagonist) and H-89 (a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor). Blonanserin significantly remediated the decrease in phosphorylation levels of PKA at Thr197 and of NR1 (an essential subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors) at Ser897 by PKA in the mPFC after a NORT training session in the PCP-administered mice. There were no differences in the levels of NR1 phosphorylated at Ser896 by PKC in any group. These results suggest that the ameliorating effect of blonanserin on PCP-induced cognitive impairment is associated with indirect functional stimulation of the dopamine-D1-PKA-NMDA receptor pathway following augmentation of dopaminergic neurotransmission due to inhibition of both dopamine-D3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in the mPFC. PMID:25120077

  2. The Impact of Antipsychotic Polytherapy Costs in the Public Health Care in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Razzouk, Denise; Kayo, Monica; Sousa, Aglaé; Gregorio, Guilherme; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Cardoso, Andrea Alves; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Guidelines for the treatment of psychoses recommend antipsychotic monotherapy. However, the rate of antipsychotic polytherapy has increased over the last decade, reaching up to 60% in some settings. Studies evaluating the costs and impact of antipsychotic polytherapy in the health system are scarce. Objective To estimate the costs of antipsychotic polytherapy and its impact on public health costs in a sample of subjects with psychotic disorders living in residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Method A cross-sectional study that used a bottom-up approach for collecting costs data in a public health provider´s perspective. Subjects with psychosis living in 20 fully-staffed residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo were assessed for clinical and psychosocial profile, severity of symptoms, quality of life, use of health services and pharmacological treatment. The impact of polytherapy on total direct costs was evaluated. Results 147 subjects were included, 134 used antipsychotics regularly and 38% were in use of antipsychotic polytherapy. There were no significant differences in clinical and psychosocial characteristics between polytherapy and monotherapy groups. Four variables explained 30% of direct costs: the number of antipsychotics, location of the residential facility, time living in the facility and use of olanzapine. The costs of antipsychotics corresponded to 94.4% of the total psychotropic costs and to 49.5% of all health services use when excluding accommodation costs. Olanzapine costs corresponded to 51% of all psychotropic costs. Conclusion Antipsychotic polytherapy is a huge economic burden to public health service, despite the lack of evidence supporting this practice. Great variations on antipsychotic costs explicit the need of establishing protocols for rational antipsychotic prescriptions and consequently optimising resource allocation. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to estimate the best value for money

  3. Targeting Neural Synchrony Deficits is Sufficient to Improve Cognition in a Schizophrenia-Related Neurodevelopmental Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heekyung; Dvorak, Dino; Fenton, André A.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive symptoms are core features of mental disorders but procognitive treatments are limited. We have proposed a “discoordination” hypothesis that cognitive impairment results from aberrant coordination of neural activity. We reported that neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion (NVHL) rats, an established neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, have abnormal neural synchrony and cognitive deficits in the active place avoidance task. During stillness, we observed that cortical local field potentials sometimes resembled epileptiform spike-wave discharges with higher prevalence in NVHL rats, indicating abnormal neural synchrony due perhaps to imbalanced excitation–inhibition coupling. Here, within the context of the hypothesis, we investigated whether attenuating abnormal neural synchrony will improve cognition in NVHL rats. We report that: (1) inter-hippocampal synchrony in the theta and beta bands is correlated with active place avoidance performance; (2) the anticonvulsant ethosuximide attenuated the abnormal spike-wave activity, improved cognitive control, and reduced hyperlocomotion; (3) ethosuximide not only normalized the task-associated theta and beta synchrony between the two hippocampi but also increased synchrony between the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus above control levels; (4) the antipsychotic olanzapine was less effective at improving cognitive control and normalizing place avoidance-related inter-hippocampal neural synchrony, although it reduced hyperactivity; and (5) olanzapine caused an abnormal pattern of frequency-independent increases in neural synchrony, in both NVHL and control rats. These data suggest that normalizing aberrant neural synchrony can be beneficial and that drugs targeting the pathophysiology of abnormally coordinated neural activities may be a promising theoretical framework and strategy for developing treatments that improve cognition in neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:24592242

  4. Modulation of mGlu2 Receptors, but Not PDE10A Inhibition Normalizes Pharmacologically-Induced Deviance in Auditory Evoked Potentials and Oscillations in Conscious Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahnaou, Abdallah; Biermans, Ria; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus H.

    2016-01-01

    Improvement of cognitive impairments represents a high medical need in the development of new antipsychotics. Aberrant EEG gamma oscillations and reductions in the P1/N1 complex peak amplitude of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) are neurophysiological biomarkers for schizophrenia that indicate disruption in sensory information processing. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase (i.e. PDE10A) and activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2) signaling are believed to provide antipsychotic efficacy in schizophrenia, but it is unclear whether this occurs with cognition-enhancing potential. The present study used the auditory paired click paradigm in passive awake Sprague Dawley rats to 1) model disruption of AEP waveforms and oscillations as observed in schizophrenia by peripheral administration of amphetamine and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist phencyclidine (PCP); 2) confirm the potential of the antipsychotics risperidone and olanzapine to attenuate these disruptions; 3) evaluate the potential of mGluR2 agonist LY404039 and PDE10 inhibitor PQ-10 to improve AEP deficits in both the amphetamine and PCP models. PCP and amphetamine disrupted auditory information processing to the first click, associated with suppression of the P1/N1 complex peak amplitude, and increased cortical gamma oscillations. Risperidone and olanzapine normalized PCP and amphetamine-induced abnormalities in AEP waveforms and aberrant gamma/alpha oscillations, respectively. LY404039 increased P1/N1 complex peak amplitudes and potently attenuated the disruptive effects of both PCP and amphetamine on AEPs amplitudes and oscillations. However, PQ-10 failed to show such effect in either models. These outcomes indicate that modulation of the mGluR2 results in effective restoration of abnormalities in AEP components in two widely used animal models of psychosis, whereas PDE10A inhibition does not. PMID:26808689

  5. The impact of antipsychotic polytherapy costs in the public health care in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Razzouk, Denise; Kayo, Monica; Sousa, Aglaé; Gregorio, Guilherme; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Cardoso, Andrea Alves; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Guidelines for the treatment of psychoses recommend antipsychotic monotherapy. However, the rate of antipsychotic polytherapy has increased over the last decade, reaching up to 60% in some settings. Studies evaluating the costs and impact of antipsychotic polytherapy in the health system are scarce. To estimate the costs of antipsychotic polytherapy and its impact on public health costs in a sample of subjects with psychotic disorders living in residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study that used a bottom-up approach for collecting costs data in a public health provider's perspective. Subjects with psychosis living in 20 fully-staffed residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo were assessed for clinical and psychosocial profile, severity of symptoms, quality of life, use of health services and pharmacological treatment. The impact of polytherapy on total direct costs was evaluated. 147 subjects were included, 134 used antipsychotics regularly and 38% were in use of antipsychotic polytherapy. There were no significant differences in clinical and psychosocial characteristics between polytherapy and monotherapy groups. Four variables explained 30% of direct costs: the number of antipsychotics, location of the residential facility, time living in the facility and use of olanzapine. The costs of antipsychotics corresponded to 94.4% of the total psychotropic costs and to 49.5% of all health services use when excluding accommodation costs. Olanzapine costs corresponded to 51% of all psychotropic costs. Antipsychotic polytherapy is a huge economic burden to public health service, despite the lack of evidence supporting this practice. Great variations on antipsychotic costs explicit the need of establishing protocols for rational antipsychotic prescriptions and consequently optimising resource allocation. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to estimate the best value for money among antipsychotics, especially in low and middle

  6. Effect of Clozapine vs Other Second-Generation Antipsychotics on Hospitalization and Seclusion: A Retrospective Mirror-Image Study in a Japanese Public Psychiatric Hospital.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Fuminari; Suzuki, Takefumi; Fujii, Yasuo

    2017-12-01

    Clozapine has been regarded as the gold standard for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but a recent network meta-analysis has questioned its relative superiority over other second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) such as olanzapine and risperidone. We conducted a retrospective mirror-image study of clozapine vs other SGAs to evaluate real-world effectiveness of clozapine in terms of the duration of hospitalization and seclusion, both of which represent a critical outcome. We included all patients who initiated clozapine at the Yamanashi Prefectural KITA Hospital and had continued to take any SGA(s) other than clozapine for at least 1 year before the initiation of clozapine. We obtained data on hospitalization and seclusion during 1 year of SGA treatment (SGA phase) and 1 year after the treatment was switched to clozapine (clozapine phase). The study included 35 patients (21 men, 31 with schizophrenia, 4 with schizoaffective disorder) with the average ± SD age of 37.3 ± 11.1 years. The results indicated that total hospitalization days did not differ significantly between SGA and clozapine treatment. However, total duration of seclusion was significantly shorter in the clozapine phase than in the SGA phase. Furthermore, the number of patients who were secluded at least once was significantly smaller in the clozapine phase than in the SGA phase. The results were essentially unchanged when outlier patients were excluded and only when patients taking olanzapine and/or risperidone during the SGA phase were considered. Although the findings from this retrospective analysis need to be further tested in prospective trials, they endorse the relative effectiveness of clozapine over other SGAs in the real world.

  7. The impact of reference pricing and extension of generic substitution on the daily cost of antipsychotic medication in Finland.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Hanna; Ahola, Elina; Saastamoinen, Leena K; Mikkola, Hennamari; Martikainen, Jaana E

    2014-12-01

    To assess the impact of reference pricing and extension of generic substitution on the daily cost of antipsychotic drugs in Finland during the first year after its launch. Furthermore, the additional impact of reference pricing on prior implemented generic substitution is assessed. A retrospective analysis was performed between 2006 and 2010. A segmented linear regression analysis of interrupted time series was used to estimate changes in the levels and trends in the cost of one day of treatment. Of the study drugs, clozapine belonged to generic substitution already at the start of the study period while olanzapine and quetiapine were included in generic substitution alongside with reference pricing in 2009. Risperidone was included in generic substitution in 2008, before reference pricing. A substantial decrease in the daily cost of all four antipsychotic substances was seen after one year of the implementation of reference pricing and the extension of generic substitution. The impact ranged from -29.9% to -66.3%, and it was most substantial on the daily cost of olanzapine. Also in the daily cost of risperidone a substantial decrease of -43.3% was observed. However, most of these savings, -32.6%, were generated by generic substitution which had been adopted prior. Reference pricing and the extension of generic substitution produced substantial savings on antipsychotic medication costs during the first year after its launch, but the intensity of the impact differed between active substances. Furthermore, our results suggest that the additional cost savings from reference pricing after prior implemented generic substitution, are comparatively low.

  8. Effects of licence change on prescribing and poisons enquiries for antipsychotic agents in England and Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, D N; Good, A M; Afshari, R; Kelly, C A

    2003-01-01

    Aims To examine the effect of licence change for thioridazine at the end of 2000 on the prescription of antipsychotic drugs in England and Scotland, and investigate changes in poisons information inquiries and, for Edinburgh, poisons admissions. Methods Prescription data for antipsychotic drugs were obtained for England and Scotland and quarterly trends examined for 2000 and 2001. Accesses to the UK National Poisons Information Service website TOXBASE for antipsychotic products were examined for the same period. For Scotland telephone enquiry data, and admission data to the Edinburgh Poisons Unit were also evaluated. Trends in poisonings were compared with prescribing change. Results In England prescriptions for thioridazine fell rapidly in 2001 from approximately 35% of market share to less than 5%, and were replaced by risperidone, chlorpromazine and olanzapine. TOXBASE accesses fell from 39.3% of antipsychotics to 4.4%. Accesses for chlorpromazine, olanzapine and risperidone increased. In Scotland prescribing of thioridazine was similar to changes in England, but it was principally replaced by chlorpromazine. These changes were mirrored by TOXBASE accesses, telephone enquiries and in-patient admissions. The ratio of TOXBASE accesses for thioridazine to prescription numbers for the drug increased after the licence change. Conclusions Licence change produced rapid change in prescribing behaviour within 3 months. Prescribing behaviour in England and Scotland was different. Changes in prescribing were mirrored by changes in accesses for poisons information in both England and Scotland, and in Edinburgh by hospital admissions. The increase in the ratio of TOXBASE accesses to prescriptions for thioridazine suggests doctors may have become more aware of its potential toxicity. PMID:12814455

  9. Differences in Antipsychotic-Related Adverse Events in Adult, Pediatric, and Geriatric Populations.

    PubMed

    Sagreiya, Hersh; Chen, Yi-Ren; Kumarasamy, Narmadan A; Ponnusamy, Karthik; Chen, Doris; Das, Amar K

    2017-02-26

    In recent years, antipsychotic medications have increasingly been used in pediatric and geriatric populations, despite the fact that many of these drugs were approved based on clinical trials in adult patients only. Preliminary studies have shown that the "off-label" use of these drugs in pediatric and geriatric populations may result in adverse events not found in adults. In this study, we utilized the large-scale U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Events Reporting System (AERS) database to look at differences in adverse events from antipsychotics among adult, pediatric, and geriatric populations. We performed a systematic analysis of the FDA AERS database using MySQL by standardizing the database using structured terminologies and ontologies. We compared adverse event profiles of atypical versus typical antipsychotic medications among adult (18-65), pediatric (age < 18), and geriatric (> 65) populations. We found statistically significant differences between the number of adverse events in the pediatric versus adult populations with aripiprazole, clozapine, fluphenazine, haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and thiothixene, and between the geriatric versus adult populations with aripiprazole, chlorpromazine, clozapine, fluphenazine, haloperidol, paliperidone, promazine, risperidone, thiothixene, and ziprasidone (p < 0.05, with adjustment for multiple comparisons). Furthermore, the particular types of adverse events reported also varied significantly between each population for aripiprazole, clozapine, haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone (Chi-square, p < 10 -6 ). Diabetes was the most commonly reported side effect in the adult population, compared to behavioral problems in the pediatric population and neurologic symptoms in the geriatric population. We also found discrepancies between the frequencies of reports in AERS and in the literature. Our analysis of the FDA AERS database shows that there are

  10. Antipsychotic medications for the treatment of delirium: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Taro; Hirota, Tomoya; Matsunaga, Shinji; Iwata, Nakao

    2016-07-01

    We performed an updated meta-analysis of antipsychotic treatment in patients with delirium, based on a previous meta-analysis published in 2007. Included in this study were randomised, placebo-controlled or usual care (UC) controlled trials of antipsychotics in adult patients with delirium. Our primary outcome measure was response rate at the study end point. The secondary outcome measures included improvement of severity of delirium, Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S), time to response (TTR), discontinuation rate and individual adverse effects. The risk ratio (RR), the number-needed-to-treat/harm (NNT/NNH), 95% CIs and standardised mean difference (SMD), were calculated. We identified 15 studies (mean duration: 9.8 days) for the systematic review (total n=949, amisulpride=20, aripiprazole=8, chlorpromazine=13, haloperidol=316, intramuscular olanzapine or haloperidol injection=62, olanzapine=144, placebo=75, quetiapine=125, risperidone=124, UC=30 and ziprasidone=32), 4 of which were conference abstracts and unpublished. When pooled as a group, antipsychotics were superior to placebo/UC in terms of response rate (RR=0.22, NNT=2), delirium severity scales scores (SMD=-1.27), CGI-S scores (SMD=-1.57) and TTR (SMD=-1.22). The pooled antipsychotic group was associated with a higher incidence of dry mouth (RR=13.0, NNH=5) and sedation (RR=4.59, NNH=5) compared with placebo/UC. Pooled second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) were associated with shorter TTR (SMD=-0.27) and a lower incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms (RR=0.31, NNH=7) compared with haloperidol. Our results suggested that SGAs have a benefit for the treatment of delirium with regard to efficacy and safety compared with haloperidol. However, further study using larger samples is required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity caused by combined use of lithium and risperidone: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Lee, Yu; Lee, Chun-Yi; Lin, Pao-Yen

    2016-12-14

    Combination lithium, a mood stabilizer, and risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, is widely used for treatment of psychotic disorders. Rare reports concern severe adverse drug reaction in multiple organic systems with their combined use. We report two episodes of neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in a patient following the combined use of lithium and risperidone. A 55-year-old male had a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder at the age of 51. He was initially treated with a combination of lithium and olanzapine 5 to 15 mg/day for 2 years. He was admitted to psychiatric ward at the age of 53 due to manic episode with psychotic feature. Because of poor blood sugar control, we switched olanzapine 20 mg/day to risperidone 4.5 mg/day with combination of lithium 900mg/day. The patient presented neurotoxicity, neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome like symptoms, and nephrotoxicity, elevation of blood creatinine and decreased urine output few days later. These signs were fully recovered within 2 days after we discontinued all medications and gave normal saline hydration. Then we re-administered decreased dosage of lithium 600 mg/day and risperidone 3 mg/day, and the similar episode occurred again 3 days later. All drugs were discontinued again, then his delirium resolved and abnormal data returned to normal 1 day later. Finally, the patient was treated with risperidone 2 mg/day as monotherapy, and no episode of neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity appeared in the following 2 years. The case exemplifies neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity after combined use of lithium and risperidone. These adverse effects resolved soon after discontinuing these medications and adequate hydration. Clinicians should be cautious about neurological and renal adverse effects.

  12. [Conference report: Belgian consensus on metabolic problems associated with atypical antipsychotics].

    PubMed

    De Nayer, A; De Hert, M; Scheen, A; Van Gaal, L; Peuskens, J

    2007-01-01

    The current literature supports that schizophrenia (and bipolar disorders) appear to be associated with a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Because of the silent nature of diabetes mellitus, and the fact that schizophrenic patients are not screened comprehensively for the disease, the true prevalence of hyperglycemia and diabetes may be substantially underestimated. Notably, it has been suggested that schizophrenia as such carries an increased risk, as certain characteristics of schizophrenic patients such as unhealthy life style promote the diabetes risk. This risk may be increased by antipsychotic drug treatment, as was already suggested for first-generation antipsychotics (FGA). The amount of literature on the association of SGA and metabolic disorders is much larger however, although well-controlled prospective data are sparse. Reports comprise abnormal glucose regulation, exacerbation of existing type 1 and 2 diabetes, new-onset pseudo-type 1 or type 2 diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, coma and death. In large-scale studies (mostly retrospective), reviews and meta-analyses, the association was not found for all drugs. According to recent reviews, the risk of developing diabetes was highest for clozapine and olanzapine, followed by quetiapine and risperidone. The hierarchy of liability of weight gain, or differential effects on insulin resistance was also in the described order. Apart from disturbances in glucose metabolism, further frequent metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenic patients on SGA include features of the metabolic syndrome. Antipsychotics such as clozapine and olanzapine have also been associated with hypertriglyceridemia, while agents such as haloperidol, risperidone and ziprasidone were associated with reductions in plasma triglycerides. Amisulpride, aripiprazole and ziprasidone seem to carry the lowest risk for weight gain, diabetes and effects on insulin resistance. As a consequence, there is a shift in attention toward physical health

  13. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea: the role of neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Bošnjak, Snežana M; Gralla, Richard J; Schwartzberg, Lee

    2017-05-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN) has a significant negative impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. The use of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT 3 ) receptor antagonists (RAs) has reduced the risk of vomiting, but (except for palonosetron) their effect on nausea, especially delayed nausea, is limited. This article reviews the role of NK 1 RAs when combined with 5-HT 3 RA-dexamethasone in CIN prophylaxis. Aprepitant has not shown consistent superiority over a two-drug (ondansetron-dexamethasone) combination in nausea control after cisplatin- or anthracycline-cyclophosphamide (AC)-based highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). Recently, dexamethasone and dexamethasone-metoclopramide were demonstrated to be non-inferior to aprepitant and aprepitant-dexamethasone, respectively, for the control of delayed nausea after HEC (AC/cisplatin), and are now recognized in the guidelines. The potential impact of the new NK 1 RAs rolapitant and netupitant (oral fixed combination with palonosetron, as NEPA) in CIN prophylaxis is discussed. While the clinical significance of the effect on nausea of the rolapitant-granisetron-dexamethasone combination after cisplatin is not conclusive, rolapitant addition showed no improvement in nausea prophylaxis after AC or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). NEPA was superior to palonosetron in the control of nausea after HEC (AC/cisplatin). Moreover, the efficacy of NEPA in nausea control was maintained over multiple cycles of HEC/MEC. Recently, NK 1 RAs have been challenged by olanzapine, with olanzapine showing superior efficacy in nausea prevention after HEC. Fixed antiemetic combinations (such as NEPA) or new antiemetics with a long half-life that may be given once per chemotherapy cycle (rolapitant or NEPA) may improve patient compliance with antiemetic treatment.

  14. [Pharmacological Treatment for Adult Diagnosed With Schizophrenia With Agitation or Violent Behavior].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia; Ávila, Mauricio J; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Vélez Fernández, Carolina; Vélez Traslaviña, Ángela; García Valencia, Jenny; Pinzón-Amado, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    To determine the most effective pharmacological intervention and to bring recommendations for decision-making in the management of adults with schizophrenia with violent behavior or agitation. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. The evidence of NICE guide 82 was adopted and updated. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. It is recommended the use of parenteral drugs in all agitated patient who does not respond to the measures of persuasion. The drugs with better evidence on effectiveness (control of violent behavior) are haloperidol and benzodiazepines, administered jointly or individually. Olanzapine is also an option considering that should only be used in institutions where a psychiatrist is available 24hours. Ziprasidone can be considered as a second-line drug. The information about the side effects associated with these drugs is insufficient and has low quality. Violent behavior in adults with schizophrenia represents a risk for themselves and for those around them, so the opportune implementation of interventions aimed to calm the patient, in order to prevent potential negative outcomes is necessary. It is recommended to initiate these interventions with measures of verbal persuasion, and if these measures are not effective, appropriate use of parenteral drugs: haloperidol and benzodiazepines as first-line and olanzapine and ziprasidone as second choices. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Time to Discontinuation of Second-Generation Antipsychotics Versus Haloperidol and Sulpiride in People With Schizophrenia: A Naturalistic, Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hung-Yu; Pan, Yi-Ju; Chen, Jiahn-Jyh; Chen, Chiung-Hsu

    2017-02-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the time to discontinuation (TTD) of the first- (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). In total, 918 treatment episodes of patients with schizophrenia, initiated on one of the investigated drugs on an outpatient basis during 2004-2006, were entered into the study. The primary outcome was the duration of the investigated treatment episode. Discontinuation was defined when either patients were admitted or the investigated drug had been stopped for more than 28 days. We used the Cox proportional hazard model to compare hazards of discontinuations among 8 SGAs versus 2 FGAs (haloperidol and sulpiride). The follow-up period was up to 18 months. During the follow-up period, clozapine had the highest rate of continuous treatment in the primary analysis: clozapine, 40.6%; olanzapine, 23.4%; aripiprazole, 22.9%; amisulpride, 21.9%; zotepine, 21.3%; sulpiride, 17.0%; risperidone, 12.8%; quetiapine, 12.5%; haloperidol, 10.6%; and ziprasidone, 10.4%. Compared with haloperidol, 5 SGAs had significantly longer TTD (adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals): clozapine (0.403, 0.267-0.607), olanzapine (0.611, 0.439-0.849), aripiprazole (0.570, 0.407-0.795), amisulpride (0.680, 0.487-0.947), and zotepine (0.687, 0.497-0.948), but only clozapine had significantly longer TTD compared with sulpiride (0.519, 0.342-0.786). The sensitivity analysis showed similar results. The current findings suggested that SGAs or FGAs are not homogeneous groups. Clozapine has the highest rate of continuous treatment among SGAs, and haloperidol is not the representative drug for all FGAs. Furthermore, antipsychotics dropout rate is high in naturalistic situation. A good service model needs to be constructed to enhance antipsychotic treatment adherence of people with schizophrenia.

  16. Topiramate as an adjuvant treatment for obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder: a randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sahraian, Ali; Bigdeli, Mohammad; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2014-09-01

    It has not been examined trialed whether obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder respond to topiramate as an adjuvant treatment. This 4-month double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial examined the efficacy and safety of augmentation with topiramat for treating the patients with bipolar disorder, manic phase type-I, and obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms. Both groups received lithium+olanzapine+clonazepam. However, one group received topiramate and the other group placebo as adjuvant medications. Yale Brown obsessive compulsive behavior scale was used to assess the outcome. Adverse effects were also recorded. A total of 32 patients completed this trial. The mean score decreased from 24.2(4.8) to 17.6(8.7) in the topiramate group (P<0.003) and from 20.9(2.9) to 9.6(3.5) in the placebo group during this trial (P<0.0001). Additionally, 9(52.9%) out of 17 patients in the topiramate group and 2(12.5%) out of 16 patients in the placebo group showed more than 34% decline in YBOC score (x2=6.0, df=1, P<0.01). No serious adverse effects were detected. The limitations of the present study were its small sample size and the fact that it was conducted in a single center. The combination of lithium+olanzapine+clonazepam decreased the symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder in the patients with bipolar disorder type I. However, topiramate had a more significant effect than placebo on improvement of the patients with bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive symptoms. This combination seems to be without serious adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of reboxetine and citalopram as adjuncts to atypical antipsychotics for negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Usall, Judith; López-Carrilero, Raquel; Iniesta, Raquel; Roca, Mercedes; Caballero, Montserrat; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto; Oliveira, Cristina; Bernardo, Miguel; Corripio, Iluminada; Sindreu, Santiago Durán; González Piqueras, Jose Carlos; Felipe, Ana Espliego; Fernandez de Corres, Blanca; Ibáñez, Angela; Huerta, Raúl

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we assessed the efficacy of 2 pharmacodynamically different antidepressants, citalopram (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and reboxetine (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor), as adjunctive therapy to risperidone and olanzapine for the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. We performed a 6-month, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The recruitment period was from November 2008 to December 2011.The sample comprised 90 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (DSM-IV criteria) who exhibited negative symptoms. The patients were recruited from 10 centers in different cities of the Spanish State. The primary efficacy measure was change in score on the negative subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) between baseline and 6-month assessment. Other efficacy measures were changes in the PANSS subscales and total score, as well as the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) subscales and total score. For statistical analysis, we employed mixed-effects models. We did not find statistically significant differences between the placebo group and the 2 treatment groups at 6-month assessments for the PANSS total (P=.6511), any PANSS subscale (negative [P=.5533], positive [P=.1723], or general psychopathology [P=.2083]), or the SANS (P= .5884). Cohen d measure showed a small effect size below the 0.5 threshold for all comparisons. In conclusion, our results do not support adjunctive use of citalopram or reboxetine with risperidone or olanzapine for the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01300364. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  18. The psychopharmacology algorithm project at the Harvard South Shore Program: an algorithm for acute mania.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Othman; Osser, David N

    2014-01-01

    This new algorithm for the pharmacotherapy of acute mania was developed by the Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project at the Harvard South Shore Program. The authors conducted a literature search in PubMed and reviewed key studies, other algorithms and guidelines, and their references. Treatments were prioritized considering three main considerations: (1) effectiveness in treating the current episode, (2) preventing potential relapses to depression, and (3) minimizing side effects over the short and long term. The algorithm presupposes that clinicians have made an accurate diagnosis, decided how to manage contributing medical causes (including substance misuse), discontinued antidepressants, and considered the patient's childbearing potential. We propose different algorithms for mixed and nonmixed mania. Patients with mixed mania may be treated first with a second-generation antipsychotic, of which the first choice is quetiapine because of its greater efficacy for depressive symptoms and episodes in bipolar disorder. Valproate and then either lithium or carbamazepine may be added. For nonmixed mania, lithium is the first-line recommendation. A second-generation antipsychotic can be added. Again, quetiapine is favored, but if quetiapine is unacceptable, risperidone is the next choice. Olanzapine is not considered a first-line treatment due to its long-term side effects, but it could be second-line. If the patient, whether mixed or nonmixed, is still refractory to the above medications, then depending on what has already been tried, consider carbamazepine, haloperidol, olanzapine, risperidone, and valproate first tier; aripiprazole, asenapine, and ziprasidone second tier; and clozapine third tier (because of its weaker evidence base and greater side effects). Electroconvulsive therapy may be considered at any point in the algorithm if the patient has a history of positive response or is intolerant of medications.

  19. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for the Biological Treatment of Bipolar Disorders: Acute and long-term treatment of mixed states in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Grunze, Heinz; Vieta, Eduard; Goodwin, Guy M; Bowden, Charles; Licht, Rasmus W; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Yatham, Lakshmi; Mosolov, Sergey; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Kasper, Siegfried

    2018-02-01

    Although clinically highly relevant, the recognition and treatment of bipolar mixed states has played only an underpart in recent guidelines. This WFSBP guideline has been developed to supply a systematic overview of all scientific evidence pertaining to the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar mixed states in adults. Material used for these guidelines is based on a systematic literature search using various data bases. Their scientific rigour was categorised into six levels of evidence (A-F), and different grades of recommendation to ensure practicability were assigned. We examined data pertaining to the acute treatment of manic and depressive symptoms in bipolar mixed patients, as well as data pertaining to the prevention of mixed recurrences after an index episode of any type, or recurrence of any type after a mixed index episode. Manic symptoms in bipolar mixed states appeared responsive to treatment with several atypical antipsychotics, the best evidence resting with olanzapine. For depressive symptoms, addition of ziprasidone to treatment as usual may be beneficial; however, the evidence base is much more limited than for the treatment of manic symptoms. Besides olanzapine and quetiapine, valproate and lithium should also be considered for recurrence prevention. The concept of mixed states changed over time, and recently became much more comprehensive with the release of DSM-5. As a consequence, studies in bipolar mixed patients targeted slightly different bipolar subpopulations. In addition, trial designs in acute and maintenance treatment also advanced in recent years in response to regulatory demands. Current treatment recommendations are still based on limited evidence, and there is a clear demand for confirmative studies adopting the DSM-5 specifier with mixed features concept.

  20. Pharmacogenetically driven treatments for alcoholism: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Arias, Albert J; Sewell, R Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Pharmacogenetic analyses of treatments for alcohol dependence attempt to predict treatment response and side-effect risk for specific medications. We review the literature on pharmacogenetics relevant to alcohol dependence treatment, and describe state-of-the-art methods of pharmacogenetic research in this area. Two main pharmacogenetic study designs predominate: challenge studies and treatment-trial analyses. Medications studied include US FDA-approved naltrexone and acamprosate, both indicated for treating alcohol dependence, as well as several investigational (and off-label) treatments such as sertraline, olanzapine and ondansetron. The best-studied functional genetic variant relevant to alcoholism treatment is rs1799971, a single-nucleotide polymorphism in exon 1 of the OPRM1 gene that encodes the μ-opioid receptor. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that the presence of the variant G allele of rs1799971 may predict better treatment response to opioid receptor antagonists such as naltrexone. Evidence from clinical trials also suggests that several medications interact pharmacogenetically with variation in genes that encode proteins involved in dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission. Variation in the DRD4 gene, which encodes the dopamine D(4) receptor, may predict better response to naltrexone and olanzapine. A polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 promoter region appears related to differential treatment response to sertraline depending on the subject's age of onset of alcoholism. Genetic variation in SLC6A4 may also be associated with better treatment response to ondansetron. Initial pharmacogenetic efforts in alcohol research have identified functional variants with potential clinical utility, but more research is needed to further elucidate the mechanism of these pharmacogenetic interactions and their moderators in order to translate them into clinical practice.

  1. Fast quantification of ten psychotropic drugs and metabolites in human plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ansermot, Nicolas; Brawand-Amey, Marlyse; Kottelat, Astrid; Eap, Chin B

    2013-05-31

    A sensitive and selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was developed for the fast quantification of ten psychotropic drugs and metabolites in human plasma for the needs of our laboratory (amisulpride, asenapine, desmethyl-mirtazapine, iloperidone, mirtazapine, norquetiapine, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine and risperidone). Stable isotope-labeled internal standards were used for all analytes, to compensate for the global method variability, including extraction and ionization variations. Sample preparation was performed by generic protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved in less than 3.0min on an Acquity UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column (2.1mm×50mm; 1.7μm), using a gradient elution of 10mM ammonium formate buffer pH 3.0 and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4ml/min. The compounds were quantified on a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electrospray ionization mode, using multiple reaction monitoring. The method was fully validated according to the latest recommendations of international guidelines. Eight point calibration curves were used to cover a large concentration range 0.5-200ng/ml for asenapine, desmethyl-mirtazapine, iloperidone, mirtazapine, olanzapine, paliperidone and risperidone, and 1-1500ng/ml for amisulpride, norquetiapine and quetiapine. Good quantitative performances were achieved in terms of trueness (93.1-111.2%), repeatability (1.3-8.6%) and intermediate precision (1.8-11.5%). Internal standard-normalized matrix effects ranged between 95 and 105%, with a variability never exceeding 6%. The accuracy profiles (total error) were included in the acceptance limits of ±30% for biological samples. This method is therefore suitable for both therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Atypical antipsychotics for psychosis in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajit; Datta, Soumitra S; Wright, Stephen D; Furtado, Vivek A; Russell, Paul S

    2013-10-15

    bias was assessed for included studies. We included 13 RCTs, with a total of 1112 participants. We found no data on service utilisation, economic outcomes, behaviour or cognitive response. Trials were classified into the following groups. 1. Atypical antipsychotics versus placebo: Only two studies compared one atypical antipsychotic medication with placebo. In one study, the number of non-responders treated with olanzapine was not different from the number treated with placebo (1 RCT, n = 107, RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.10); however, significantly more (57% vs 32%) people left the study early (1 RCT, n = 107, RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.87) from the placebo group compared with the olanzapine group. With regard to adverse effects, young people treated with aripiprazole had significantly lower serum cholesterol compared with those given placebo (1 RCT, n = 302, RR 3.77, 95% CI 1.88 to 7.58). 2. Atypical antipsychotics versus typical antipsychotics: When the findings of all five trials comparing atypical antipsychotic medications with a typical antipsychotic medication were collated, no difference in the mean end point Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) score was noted between the two arms (5 RCTs, n = 236, MD -1.08, 95% CI -3.08 to 0.93). With regard to adverse effects, the mean end point serum prolactin concentration was much higher than the reference range for treatment with risperidone, olanzapine and molindone in one of the studies. However, fewer adolescents who were receiving atypical antipsychotic medications left the study because of adverse effects (3 RCTs, n = 187, RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.15) or for any reason (3 RCTs, n = 187, RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.97).3. One atypical antipsychotic versus another atypical antipsychotic: The mean end point BPRS score was not significantly different for people who received risperidone compared with those who received olanzapine; however, the above data were highly skewed. Overall no difference was noted in the number of

  3. What do large scale studies of medication in schizophrenia add to our management strategies?

    PubMed

    Agius, Mark; Davis, Abigail; Gilhooley, Michael; Chapman, Shelley; Zaman, Rashid

    2010-06-01

    A number of large naturalistic trials have reported in recent years comparing second generation antipsychotic drugs with their predecessors. The conclusions they draw have rightly sparked much debate, but are these studies truly comparable? If not, which of them are most methodologically robust and are these the studies most suitable as a foundation for clinical care guidelines with a strong evidence base. We aimed to conduct a review of the current literature to establish the appropriateness of several recent major clinical studies being used as the basis for clinical guidelines. A literature search using the PUBMED database was carried out. Five major studies comparing antipsychotic efficacy were selected as possible candidates and subjected to further analysis. The studies were: * CUTLASS (Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia study); * CATIE (Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study); * SOHO (Schizophrenia outpatients Health Outcomes study); * CAFE (Comparison of Atypicals in First Episode study); * EUFEST (European First Episode Schizophrenia Trial). The trials: * CAFE - the trial, although well randomised and blinded, uses discontinuation as a primary endpoint - this is hard to draw conclusions from: patients may discontinue due to side effects, due to lack of efficacy or with against medical advice for a multitude of reasons. As a secondary endpoint, the study does make use of a PANSS scoring system to measure efficacy, adding some weight to the conclusion that olanzapine, quetiaine and risperidone in early psychosis patients have equivalent efficacies. * CATIE - This trial was a comparative study, and so lacked a control arm and used discontinuation of medication an inverse measure of efficacy - an easily quantifiable event, but making for difficult interpretation. However most criticism has been directed at the unusually low (quitiapine, ziprasidone) and high (olanzapine and perphenazine) doses of drug

  4. Cognitive and psychomotor effects of risperidone in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    PubMed

    Houthoofd, Sofie A M K; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G C

    2008-09-01

    functioning), although the results for verbal fluency, verbal learning and memory, and reasoning and problem solving were not unanimous, and no comparative data on social cognition were available. Similar cognitive effects were found with risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine on the domains of verbal working memory and reasoning and problem solving, as well as verbal fluency. More research is needed on the domains in which study results were contradictory. For olanzapine versus risperidone, these were verbal and visual learning and memory and psychomotor functioning. No comparative data for olanzapine and risperidone were available for the social cognition domain. For quetiapine versus risperidone, the domains in which no unanimity was found were processing speed, attention/vigilance, nonverbal working memory, and verbal learning and memory. The limited available reports on risperidone versus clozapine suggest that: risperidone was associated with improved, and clozapine with worsened, performance on the nonverbal working memory domain; risperidone improved and clozapine did not improve reasoning and problem-solving performance; clozapine improved, and risperidone did not improve, social cognition performance. Use of long-acting injectable risperidone seemed to be associated with improved performance in the domains of attention/vigilance, verbal learning and memory, and reasoning and problem solving, as well as psychomotor functioning. The results for the nonverbal working memory domain were indeterminate, and no clear improvement was seen in the social cognition domain. The domains of processing speed, verbal working memory, and visual learning and memory, as well as verbal fluency, were not assessed. The results of this review of within-group comparisons of oral risperidone suggest that the agent appeared to be associated with improved functioning in the cognitive domains of processing speed, attention/vigilance, verbal and visual learning and memory, and reasoning and

  5. Costs and effects of long-acting risperidone compared with oral atypical and conventional depot formulations in Germany.

    PubMed

    Laux, Gerd; Heeg, Bart; van Hout, Ben A; Mehnert, Angelika

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most expensive psychiatric conditions because of high direct and indirect costs associated with the nature of the illness, its resistance to treatment and the consequences of relapse. Long-acting risperidone is a new formulation of an atypical antipsychotic drug that also offers the improvements in compliance associated with haloperidol depot. The aim of this simulation study was to compare the benefits and costs of three pharmacological treatment strategies comprising first-line treatment with long-acting risperidone injection, a haloperidol depot or an oral atypical antipsychotic agent, over a 5-year period in Germany. A discrete event simulation model was developed to compare three treatment scenarios from the perspective of major third-party payers (sickness funds and social security 'Sozialversicherung'). The scenarios comprised first-line treatment with haloperidol depot (scenario 1), long-acting risperidone (scenario 2) and oral olanzapine (scenario 3). Switches to second or third-line options were allowed when side-effects occurred or a patient suffered more than a fixed number of relapses. The model accounted for fixed patient characteristics, and on the basis of these, simulated patient histories according to several time-dependent variables. The time horizon for this model was limited to 5 years, and in accordance with German guidelines, costs and effects were discounted by between 3 and 10%. Direct costs included medication, type of physician visits and treatment location. Indirect costs were not included. Information on treatment alternatives, transition probabilities, model structure and healthcare utilization were derived from the literature and an expert panel. Outcomes were expressed in terms of the number and duration of psychotic episodes, cumulative symptom scores, costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). Univariate sensitivity analyses were carried out, as were subgroup analyses based on disease severity and

  6. Lurasidone for the acute treatment of adults with schizophrenia: what is the number needed to treat, number needed to harm, and likelihood to be helped or harmed?

    PubMed

    Citrome, Leslie

    2012-07-01

    To describe the efficacy, safety and tolerability of lurasidone for the acute treatment of schizophrenia using the metrics number needed to treat (NNT) and number needed to harm (NNH). Study data were pooled from six Phase II and III, 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trials that were conducted to test the efficacy and safety of lurasidone for the acute treatment of schizophrenia. Included were the following interventions: fixed doses of lurasidone 20, 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg/d; haloperidol 10 mg/d; olanzapine 15 mg/d; quetiapine extended-release 600 mg/d; placebo. The following outcomes were assessed: responder rates as defined by a reduction of ≥20, 30, 40 or 50% from baseline on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score; study completion; discontinuation due to an adverse event (AE); weight gain ≥7% from baseline; incidence of spontaneously reported AEs; incidence of total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥160 mg/dL, fasting triglycerides ≥200 mg/dL and glucose ≥126 mg/dL at endpoint. NNT for the efficacy outcomes were calculated after excluding one failed study. NNH for the safety/tolerability outcomes were calculated using all six studies. Likelihood of being helped or harmed (LHH) was also calculated to illustrate trade-offs between outcomes of improvement ≥30% on the PANSS vs. incidence of akathisia, nausea, sedation, somnolence and parkinsonism. NNT vs. placebo for PANSS reductions ≥30% were 6, 6, 7 and 4 for lurasidone doses of 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg/d, respectively, and 4 and 3 for olanzapine 15 mg/d and quetiapine extended-release 600 mg/d, respectively. Lurasidone was not associated with any statistically significant disadvantages over placebo for weight gain or metabolic abnormalities; NNH vs. placebo for weight gain ≥7% from baseline was 4 for olanzapine and 9 for quetiapine extended-release in contrast to a NNH for this outcome ranging from 43 to 150 for lurasidone 40-160 mg/d. The 5

  7. Efficacy and safety of second-generation antipsychotics in children and adolescents with psychotic and bipolar spectrum disorders: comprehensive review of prospective head-to-head and placebo-controlled comparisons.

    PubMed

    Fraguas, David; Correll, Christoph U; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Carmen; Arango, Celso

    2011-08-01

    To review data on efficacy and safety of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in children and adolescents with psychotic and bipolar spectrum disorders. Medline/PubMed/Google Scholar search for studies comparing efficacy and/or tolerability: (i) between two or more SGAs; (ii) between SGAs and placebo; and (iii) between at least one SGA and one first-generation antipsychotic (FGA). The review focused on three major side-effect clusters: 1. body weight, body mass index, and cardiometabolic parameters, 2. prolactin levels, and 3. neuromotor side effects. In total, 34 studies with 2719 children and adolescents were included. Studies lasted between 3 weeks and 12 months, with most studies (79.4%) lasting 3 months or less. Nine studies (n=788) were conducted in patients with schizophrenia, 6 (n=719) in subjects with bipolar disorder, and 19 (n=1212) in a mixed population. Data on efficacy showed that, except for clozapine being superior for refractory schizophrenia, there were no significant differences between SGAs. By contrast, safety assessments showed relevant differences between SGAs. Mean weight gain ranged from 3.8 kg to 16.2 kg in patients treated with olanzapine (n=353), from 0.9 kg to 9.5 kg in subjects receiving clozapine (n=97), from 1.9 kg to 7.2 kg in those on risperidone (n=571), from 2.3 kg to 6.1 kg among patients taking quetiapine (n=133), and from 0 kg to 4.4 kg in those treated with aripiprazole (n=451). Prolactin levels increased the most in subjects on risperidone (mean change ranging from 8.3 ng/mL to 49.6 ng/mL), followed by olanzapine (-1.5 ng/mL to +13.7 ng/mL). Treatment with aripiprazole was associated with decreased prolactin levels, while clozapine and quetiapine were found to be mostly neutral. With respect to neuromotor side effects, SGAs were associated with less parkinsonism and akathisia than FGAs. Most of the studies comparing neuromotor side effects between SGAs found no significant differences. SGAs do not behave as a homogeneous

  8. A study on the quality of outpatient prescription of psychopharmaceuticals in the City of Zagreb 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Zivković, Kresimir; Zelić-Kerep, Ana; Stimac, Danijela; Ozić, Sanja; Zivković, Nikica

    2014-06-01

    The lack of Croatian studies which could determine the justifiability of excessive psychopharmaceutical utilization was an encouragement to conduct this research. Furthermore, regarding the conduction of this study, it would be possible to determine whether the trend of drug utilization has increased, decreased or perhaps stabilized. The data on the outpatient utilization of psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics were collected from all Zagreb pharmacies, 2006-2009. Based on the collected data for all N05 and N06 groups of drugs, the defined daily doses (DDD) and DDD per thousand inhabitants per day (DDD/TID) have been calculated using the Anatomical-Therapeutic-Chemical classification (ATC) for 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009. To indicate the quality of drug prescription the Drug Utilization 90% (DU 90%) method was used. Moreover, in order to determine a more precise quality of individual drug group prescriptions, the indicators have been calculated by determining the proportion of the total utilization of individual therapeutic and pharmacological therapeutic subgroups in DDD/TID a day. The utilization of anxiolytics (N05B) accounts for most of the psycholeptic utilization in the City of Zagreb throughout the entire study period. In the study period, the utilization of antidepressants has slightly increased, by 10.5%, taking the first and the last years of the period into account. In 2006, 5 benzodiazepines and the hypnotic zolpidem, as well as 5 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and 1 third generation antipsychotic (olanzapin) were found in the DU 90% segment. In 2009, the DU 90% segment also comprised 5 benzodiazepines and the hypnotic zolpidem, as well as 6 SSRIs and 1 third generation antipsychotic (olanzapin). In the City of Zagreb, a general insight into the quality of psychopharmaceutical prescriptions indicates stability in comparison to earlier studies. The ratio index of the first generation antipsychotic utilization, compared to the third

  9. Diet and exercise effects on aerobic fitness and body composition in seriously mentally ill adults.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Botonis, Petros; Kostara, Christina; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Low exercise capacity and high obesity levels are the main characteristics of people with serious mental illness (SMI). We conducted a pilot study on the effects of a 3-month exercise and dietary intervention on the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI taking Olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic medication known to induce weight increments. Fifty adults with SMI (15 males and 35 females) followed a 3-month weight loss intervention programme based on exercise and diet. Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. All participants were obese (body mass index (BMI): 33.61 ± 0.91 kg/m(2)). Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test on the treadmill was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. Significant reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat and waist circumference were found from pre to post (p < 0.01). [Formula: see text]O2max was significantly improved in both genders (males: pre: 30.63 ± 2.06 vs. post: 33.19 ± 1.77 ml(.)kg(-1) min(-1), females: pre: 25.93 ± 1.01 vs. post: 29.51 ± 1.06 ml(.)kg(-1) min(-1), p < 0.01). A significant correlation was found between the change in [Formula: see text]O2max and the change in body weight and BMI (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the relative change in [Formula: see text]O2max explained approximately 26% of the variance in the changes for both BMI (p = 0.07) and body weight (p = 0.06). A treatment of exercise and diet improves the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI, despite the use of Olanzapine.

  10. Design and validation of standardized clinical and functional remission criteria in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mosolov, Sergey N; Potapov, Andrey V; Ushakov, Uriy V; Shafarenko, Aleksey A; Kostyukova, Anastasiya B

    2014-01-01

    Background International Remission Criteria (IRC) for schizophrenia were developed recently by a group of internationally known experts. The IRC detect only 10%–30% of cases and do not cover the diversity of forms and social functioning. Our aim was to design a more applicable tool and validate its use – the Standardized Clinical and Functional Remission Criteria (SCFRC). Methods We used a 6-month follow-up study of 203 outpatients from two Moscow centers and another further sample of stable patients from a 1-year controlled trial of atypical versus typical medication. Diagnosis was confirmed by International Classification of Diseases Version 10 (ICD10) criteria and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Patients were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, including intensity threshold, and further classified using the Russian domestic remission criteria and the level of social and personal functioning, according to the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP). The SCFRC were formulated and were validated by a data reanalysis on the first population sample and on a second independent sample (104 patients) and in an open-label prospective randomized 12-month comparative study of risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) versus olanzapine. Results Only 64 of the 203 outpatients (31.5%) initially met the IRC, and 53 patients (26.1%) met the IRC after 6 months, without a change in treatment. Patients who were in remission had episodic and progressive deficit (39.6%), or remittent (15%) paranoid schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder (17%). In addition, 105 patients of 139 (51.7%), who did not meet symptomatic IRC, remained stable within the period. Reanalysis of data revealed that 65.5% of the patients met the SCFRC. In the controlled trial, 70% of patients in the RLAI group met the SCFRC and only 19% the IRC. In the routine treatment group, 55.9% met the SCFRC and only 5.7% the IRC. Results of the further independent

  11. Comparison of health-related quality of life among patients using atypical antipsychotics for treatment of depression: results from the National Health and Wellness Survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Use of atypical antipsychotics (AA) in combination with an antidepressant is recommended as an augmentation strategy for patients with depression. However, there is a paucity of data comparing aripiprazole and other AAs in terms of patient reported outcomes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the levels of HRQoL and health utility scores in patients with depression using aripiprazole compared with patients using olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone. Methods Data were obtained from the 2009, 2010, and 2011 National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS), a cross-sectional, internet-based survey that is representative of the adult US population. Only those patients who reported being diagnosed with depression and taking an antidepressant and an atypical antipsychotic for depression were included. Patients taking an atypical antipsychotic for less than 2 months or who reported being diagnosed with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia were excluded. Patients taking aripiprazole were compared with patients taking other atypical antipsychotics. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and health utilities were assessed using the Short Form 12-item (SF-12) health survey. Differences between groups were analyzed using General Linear Models (GLM) controlling for demographic and health characteristics. Results Overall sample size was 426 with 59.9% taking aripiprazole (n = 255) and 40.1% (n = 171) taking another atypical antipsychotic (olanzapine (n = 19), quetiapine (n = 127), risperidone (n = 14) or ziprasidone (n = 11)). Of the SF-12 domains, mean mental component summary (MCS) score (p = .018), bodily pain (p = .047), general health (p = .009) and emotional role limitations (p = .009) were found to be significantly higher in aripiprazole users indicating better HRQoL compared to other atypical antipsychotics. After controlling for demographic and health characteristics, patients taking

  12. Pharmacotherapy for trichotillomania.

    PubMed

    Rothbart, Rachel; Amos, Taryn; Siegfried, Nandi; Ipser, Jonathan C; Fineberg, Naomi; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Stein, Dan J

    2013-11-08

    (SSRIs) demonstrated strong evidence of a treatment effect on any of the outcomes of interest. The unpublished naltrexone study did not provide strong evidence of a treatment effect. Two studies, an olanzapine study and a N-acetylcysteine (NAC) study, reported statistically significant treatment effects. One study of clomipramine demonstrated a treatment effect on two out of three measures of response to treatment. No particular medication class definitively demonstrates efficacy in the treatment of trichotillomania. Preliminary evidence suggests treatment effects of clomipramine, NAC and olanzapine based on three individual trials, albeit with very small sample sizes.

  13. Intramuscular preparations of antipsychotics: uses and relevance in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Altamura, A Cario; Sassella, Francesca; Santini, Annalisa; Montresor, Clauno; Fumagalli, Sara; Mundo, Emanuela

    2003-01-01

    Intramuscular formulations of antipsychotics can be sub-divided into two groups on the basis of their pharmacokinetic features: short-acting preparations and long-acting or depot preparations. Short-acting intramuscular formulations are used to manage acute psychotic episodes. On the other hand, long-acting compounds, also called "depot", are administered as antipsychotic maintenance treatment to ensure compliance and to eliminate bioavailability problems related to absorption and first pass metabolism. Adverse effects of antipsychotics have been studied with particular respect to oral versus short- and long-acting intramuscular formulations of the different compounds. For short-term intramuscular preparations the main risk with classical compounds are hypotension and extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). Data on the incidence of EPS with depot formulations are controversial: some studies point out that the incidence of EPS is significantly higher in patients receiving depot preparations, whereas others show no difference between oral and depot antipsychotics. Studies on the strategies for switching patients from oral to depot treatment suggest that this procedure is reasonably well tolerated, so that in clinical practice depot antipsychotic therapy is usually begun while the oral treatment is still being administered, with gradual tapering of the oral dose. Efficacy, pharmacodynamics and clinical pharmacokinetics of haloperidol decanoate, fluphenazine enanthate and decanoate, clopenthixol decanoate, zuclopenthixol decanoate and acutard, flupenthixol decanoate, perphenazine enanthate, pipothiazine palmitate and undecylenate, and fluspirilene are reviewed. In addition, the intramuscular preparations of atypical antipsychotics and clinical uses are reviewed. Olanzapine and ziprasidone are available only as short-acting preparations, while risperidone is to date the only novel antipsychotic available as depot formulation. To date, acutely ill, agitated psychotic patients

  14. Persistence in Therapy With Risperidone and Aripiprazole in Pediatric Outpatients: A 2-Year Naturalistic Comparison.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Marco; Pisano, Simone; Bertella, Silvana; Capuano, Annalisa; Rizzo, Renata; Antoniazzi, Stefania; Auricchio, Fabiana; Carnovale, Carla; Cattaneo, Dario; Ferrajolo, Carmen; Gentili, Marta; Guastella, Giuseppe; Mani, Elisa; Rafaniello, Concetta; Riccio, Maria Pia; Scuderi, Maria Grazia; Sperandeo, Serena; Sportiello, Liberata; Villa, Laura; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio; Rossi, Francesco; Pascotto, Antonio; Bernardini, Renato; Molteni, Massimo; Bravaccio, Carmela

    2016-12-01

    The practical effectiveness of second-generation antipsychotics in children and adolescents is an understudied issue. It is a crucial area of study, though, because such patients are often treated for long-lasting disorders. We carried out a 24-month (March 2012-March 2014) observational study on an unselected population of pediatric outpatients treated with risperidone, aripiprazole, olanzapine, or quetiapine aiming to (1) describe drug use, (2) compare post hoc the discontinuation rates due to specific causes and dose adjustments by Kaplan-Meier analyses between drugs, and (3) analyze predictors influencing these outcomes by Cox multivariate models. Among 184 pediatric patients, 77% patients were prescribed risperidone, and 18% were prescribed aripiprazole. Olanzapine or quetiapine were scantly used; therefore, they were excluded from analyses. Risperidone was prevalent in younger, male patients with disruptive behavioral disorders; aripiprazole, in patients with tic disorders. Overall, discontinuations occurred mostly in the first 6 months, and, at 24 months, the discontinuation numbers were similar between users of risperidone and aripiprazole (41.5% vs 39.4%). In univariate analyses, dose reduction was higher for aripiprazole (P = .033). Multivariate analyses yielded the following predictors: for all-cause discontinuation, baseline severity (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.48, P = .001) and dose increase (HR = 3.55, P = .001); for patient-decided discontinuation, dose change (increase: HR = 6.43, P = .004; reduction: HR = 7.89, P = .049) and the presence of concomitant drugs (HR = 4.03, P = .034), while autistic patients discontinued less (HR = 0.23, P = .050); for clinician-decided discontinuation due to adverse drug reactions, baseline severity (HR = 1.96, P = .005) and dose increase (HR = 5.09, P = .016); for clinician-decided discontinuation due to inefficacy, baseline severity (HR = 2.88, P = .014) and the use of aripiprazole (HR = 5.55, P = .013); for dose

  15. A Gender Analysis of the Study of the Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression (STOP-PD): gender and age as predictors of response and treatment-associated changes in body mass index and metabolic measures

    PubMed Central

    Deligiannidis, Kristina M.; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Barton, Bruce A.; Kroll-Desrosiers, Aimee R.; Meyers, Barnett S.; Flint, Alastair J.; Whyte, Ellen M.; Mulsant, Benoit H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gender differences exist in psychiatric disorders; however gender has not been well studied in psychotic depression. This analysis of the largest clinical trial in psychotic depression examined the effects of age and gender on clinical characteristics and predictors of treatment outcome and treatment-associated changes in body mass index (BMI) and metabolic measures. Methods: Analyses were performed on data from 259 subjects aged 18-93 in the double-blind randomized controlled trial of olanzapine plus sertraline (OLZ/SERT) vs. olanzapine plus placebo (OLZ/PBO) for psychotic depression (STOP-PD). Sociodemographic factors, clinical characteristics, treatment outcome and treatment-associated changes in BMI and metabolic measures were analyzed by gender and age. Results: Female gender was associated with divorced (χ2=5.3, d.f.=1, p=0.03) or widowed (χ2=8.1, d.f.=1, p=<0.01) marital status. Co-morbid anxiety disorders were more common in females than males (χ2=4.9, d.f.=1, p=0.03). Hallucinations(χ2=7.8, d.f.=1, p=0.005) and delusions with disorganization (t-test= −2.10, d.f. =257, p=0.04) were significantly associated with female gender as were higher cholesterol measures( χ2=7.15, d.f.=1, p=0.008).There were no significant interactions between treatment and gender in terms of change in BMI. Gender was not associated with treatment response. Discussion: This is the first analysis of gender and age as predictors of treatment outcome and treatment-associated changes in BMI and metabolic adverse effects in psychotic depression. Gender differences exist in patients with psychotic depression, most notably the presence of hallucinations. Female gender was associated with metabolic measures. Future studies with larger sample sizes may detect small gender differences in treatment outcome and treatment-associated changes in BMI and metabolic measures in psychotic depression. PMID:24229753

  16. Haloperidol for long-term aggression in psychosis.

    PubMed

    Khushu, Abha; Powney, Melanie J

    2016-11-27

    Psychotic disorders can lead some people to become agitated. Characterised by restlessness, excitability and irritability, this can result in verbal and physically aggressive behaviour - and both can be prolonged. Aggression within the psychiatric setting imposes a significant challenge to clinicians and risk to service users; it is a frequent cause for admission to inpatient facilities. If people continue to be aggressive it can lengthen hospitalisation. Haloperidol is used to treat people with long-term aggression. To examine whether haloperidol alone, administered orally, intramuscularly or intravenously, is an effective treatment for long-term/persistent aggression in psychosis. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (July 2011 and April 2015). We included randomised controlled trials (RCT) or double blind trials (implying randomisation) with useable data comparing haloperidol with another drug or placebo for people with psychosis and long-term/persistent aggression. One review author (AK) extracted data. For dichotomous data, one review author (AK) calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a fixed-effect model. One review author (AK) assessed risk of bias for included studies and created a 'Summary of findings' table using GRADE. We have no good-quality evidence of the absolute effectiveness of haloperidol for people with long-term aggression. One study randomising 110 chronically aggressive people to three different antipsychotic drugs met the inclusion criteria. When haloperidol was compared with olanzapine or clozapine, skewed data (n=83) at high risk of bias suggested some advantage in terms of scale scores of unclear clinical meaning for olanzapine/clozapine for 'total aggression'. Data were available for only one other outcome, leaving the study early. When compared with other antipsychotic drugs, people allocated to haloperidol were no more likely to leave the study

  17. Number needed to treat to harm for discontinuation due to adverse events in the treatment of bipolar depression, major depressive disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder with atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Gao, Keming; Kemp, David E; Fein, Elizabeth; Wang, Zuowei; Fang, Yiru; Ganocy, Stephen J; Calabrese, Joseph R

    2011-08-01

    To estimate the number needed to treat to harm (NNTH) for discontinuation due to adverse events with atypical antipsychotics relative to placebo during the treatment of bipolar depression, major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). English-language literature published and cited in MEDLINE from January 1966 to May 2009 was searched with the terms antipsychotic, atypical antipsychotic, generic and brand names of atypical antipsychotics, safety, tolerability, discontinuation due to adverse events, somnolence, sedation, weight gain, akathisia, or extrapyramidal side effect; and bipolar depression, major depressive disorder, or generalized anxiety disorder; and randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. This search was augmented with a manual search. Studies with a cumulative sample of ≥ 100 patients were included. The NNTHs for discontinuation due to adverse events, somnolence, sedation, ≥ 7% weight gain, and akathisia relative to placebo were estimated with 95% confidence intervals to reflect the magnitude of variance. Five studies in bipolar depression, 10 studies in MDD, and 4 studies in GAD were identified. Aripiprazole and olanzapine have been studied in bipolar depression and refractory MDD. Only quetiapine extended release (quetiapine-XR) has been studied in 3 psychiatric conditions with different fixed dosing schedules. For aripiprazole, the mean NNTH for discontinuation due to adverse events was 14 in bipolar depression, but was not significantly different from placebo in MDD. For olanzapine, the mean NNTHs were 24 in bipolar depression and 9 in MDD. The risk for discontinuation due to adverse events during quetiapine-XR treatment appeared to be associated with dose. For quetiapine-XR 300 mg/d, the NNTHs for discontinuation due to adverse events were 9 for bipolar depression, 8 for refractory MDD, 9 for MDD, and 5 for GAD. At the same dose of quetiapine-XR, patients with GAD appeared to have a lower tolerability than

  18. Anxiety, irritability, and agitation as indicators of bipolar mania with depressive symptoms: a post hoc analysis of two clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Suppes, Trisha; Eberhard, Jonas; Lemming, Ole; Young, Allan H; McIntyre, Roger S

    2017-11-06

    Symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation (AIA) are prevalent among patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) mania with depressive symptoms, and could potentially be used to aid physicians in the identification of this more severe form of BD-I. Using data from two clinical trials, the aims of this post hoc analysis were to describe the phenomenology of bipolar mania in terms of AIA and depressive symptoms, and to evaluate the influence of these symptoms on the likelihood of remission during treatment. Patients with a BD-I manic or mixed episode (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria) were randomised to 3 weeks of double-blind treatment with asenapine, placebo, or olanzapine (active comparator). Anxiety was defined as a score of ≥3 on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale 'anxiety' item, irritability as a score of ≥4 on the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) 'irritability' item, and agitation as a score of ≥3 on the YMRS 'increased motor activity-energy' item. Depressive symptoms were defined as a score of ≥1 on three or more individual Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) items, or a MADRS Total score of ≥20. A total of 960 patients with BD-I were analysed, 665 with a manic episode and 295 with a mixed episode. At baseline, 61.4% had anxiety, 62.4% had irritability, 76.4% had agitation, and 34.0% had all three AIA symptoms ('severe AIA'); 47.3% had three or more depressive symptoms, and 13.5% had a MADRS total score of ≥20. Anxiety, irritability, and severe AIA (but not agitation) were statistically significantly more common in patients with depressive symptoms. Patients with anxiety or severe AIA at baseline were statistically significantly less likely to achieve remission (YMRS total <12). In general, remission rates were higher with asenapine and olanzapine than with placebo, irrespective of baseline AIA or depressive symptoms. Assessment of AIA symptoms in bipolar mania could enable physicians to

  19. Investigations on pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of polymeric and solid lipid nanoparticulate systems of atypical antipsychotic drug: effect of material used and surface modification.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Emil; Saha, Ranendra N

    2017-04-01

    The present study focuses on the effect of material used for the preparation of nanoparticulate (NP) systems and surface modification on the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of atypical antipsychotic, olanzapine (OLN). NP carriers of OLN were prepared from two different materials such as polymer (polycaprolactone) and solid lipid (Glyceryl monostearate). These systems were further surface modified with surfactant, Polysorbate 80 and studied for pharmacokinetics-biodistribution in Wistar rats using in-house developed bioanalytical methods. The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies resulted in a modified and varied distribution of NP systems with higher area under curve (AUC) values along with prolonged residence time of OLN in the rat blood circulation. The distribution of OLN to the brain was significantly enhanced with surfactant surface-modified NP systems, followed by nonsurface-modified NP formulations as compared with pure OLN solution. Biodistribution study demonstrated a low uptake of obtained NP systems by kidney and heart, thereby decreasing the nephrotoxicity and adverse cardiovascular effects. By coating the NP with surfactant, uptake of macrophage was found to be reduced. Thus, our studies confirmed that the biodistribution OLN could be modified effectively by incorporating in NP drug delivery systems prepared from different materials and surface modifications. A judicious selection of materials used for the preparation of delivery carriers and surface modifications would help to design a most efficient drug delivery system with better therapeutic efficacy.

  20. LC-MS-MS analysis of 2,4-dinitrophenol and its phase I and II metabolites in a case of fatal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Politi, Lucia; Vignali, Claudia; Polettini, Aldo

    2007-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) analysis of biological fluids (blood, urine, gastric content, and bile) collected at autopsy in a case of suspected 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) fatal poisoning allowed the determination of DNP and its known metabolites (2-amino-4-nitrophenol and nitro-4-aminophenol). The tentative identification of three conjugated metabolites (DNP glucuronide, DNP sulfate, and 2-amino-4-nitrophenol glucuronide) could be made on the basis of their pseudomolecular ion, isotopic and fragmentation patterns, and retention characteristics. Another DNP metabolite reported in the literature, 2,4-diaminophenol, was not detected in the samples. Postmortem blood concentrations were 48.4 mg/L for DNP and 1.2 mg/L for 2-amino-4-nitrophenol. Gas chromatography-MS screening and quantification in postmortem blood revealed the presence of toxic concentrations of citalopram and its desmethylated metabolite (0.58 and 0.40 mg/L, respectively) and therapeutic or lower than therapeutic levels of olanzapine (0.04 mg/L), desalkylflurazepam (0.02 mg/L), and nordazepam (0.01 mg/L). Based on LC-MS-MS results and on available literature data on DNP poisonings, it was concluded that DNP poisoning played a contributing role, together with citalopram, in the cause of death.

  1. A bibliometric analysis of scientific production on atypical antipsychotic drugs from Italy

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; De Berardis, Domenico; Fornaro, Michele; Vellante, Federica; di Giannantonio, Massimo; Povedano-Montero, Francisco J; Póveda Fernández-Martín, Maria; Rubio, Gabriel; Álamo, Cecilio

    2017-01-01

    A bibliometric study of peer-reviewed scientific publications on atypical antipsychotic drugs (AADs) from Italy is herein presented. We selected the documents from Scopus database. We applied several bibliometric indicators of production and dispersion, including Price’s Law about the increase of scientific literature, and Bradford’s Law. We also calculated the participation index across different countries. The bibliometric data have also been correlated with some social and health data sourcing in Italy, such as total per capita expenditure on health and gross domestic expenditure. A total of 2949 original documents were published within the period 1972-2015. Our results state fulfilment of Price’s Law, with scientific production showing exponential growth (r=0.901, as against an r=0.838 after linear adjustment). The drugs most widely studied were clozapine (257 documents), risperidone (179), and olanzapine (172). Stratification into Bradford zones yielded a nucleus represented by the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology and Rivista di Psichiatria (58 articles, each one). A total of 1091 different journals were evaluated. The publications on AADs in Italy have undergone exponential growth over the studied period, which is in line with the progressively burgeoning on novel AAD releases. No evidence of saturation point was observed.

  2. Pharmacology for sleep disturbance in PTSD.

    PubMed

    Lipinska, Gosia; Baldwin, David S; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2016-03-01

    Symptoms of sleep disturbance, particularly nightmares and insomnia, are a central feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emerging evidence suggests that specific treatment of PTSD-related sleep disturbance improves other symptoms of the disorder, which in turn suggests that such disturbance may be fundamental to development and maintenance of the disorder. This mini-review focuses on pharmacological treatment of sleep disturbance in adult PTSD (specifically, studies testing the efficacy of antidepressants, adrenergic inhibiting agents, antipsychotics and benzodiazepine and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics). We conclude that only prazosin, an adrenergic inhibiting agent, has had its efficacy established by multiple randomised controlled trials. There is also high-level evidence supporting use of eszopiclone, as well as risperidone and olanzapine as adjunct therapy. Antidepressants such as sertraline, venlafaxine and mirtazapine, benzodiazepines such as alprazolam and clonazepam and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics such as zolpidem appear ineffective in treating PTSD-related sleep disturbance. Most studies that report reduced frequency of nightmares and insomnia also report decreases in overall symptom severity. Such findings suggest that (i) sleep disruption is central to PTSD; (ii) treating sleep disruption may be an effective way to address other symptoms of the disorder and (iii) PTSD symptoms tend to cluster together in predictable ways. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Cycloserine Induced Late Onset Psychosis and Ethambutol Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Associated with MDR-TB Treatment in an Indian Patient- A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Holla, Sadhana; Bhandarypanambur, Rajeshkrishna; Kamalkishore, Meenakumari; Janardhanan, Manju

    2015-01-01

    Adverse reactions and toxicity inevitably accompany all treatment courses for drug-resistant TB. Our case underscores the importance of awareness regarding neuropsychiatric adverse reactions due to MDR-TB therapy and reversible nature of it. Cycloserine induced psychosis is most life threatening complication and sometimes could be fatal. A 42-year-old male on MDR-TB therapy got admitted for his persistent psychotic complaints like hallucinations, delusions and suicidal ideations, despite being treated with quetiapine/olanzapine. Eventually patient was rehabilitated, cycloserine was stopped and psychotic events regressed slowly. Other culprit drugs like ethambutol and levofloxacin causing psychosis was ruled out because there was no relapse of psychotic events despite being continued with these drugs. He also complained of tingling, numbness, swaying, pain and weakness. On examination, he had distal motor weakness in lower limbs, tandem gait positive, altered position sense, and tenderness over toes and positive Romberg’s sign with ataxia. He was diagnosed to have drug induced sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. All these symptoms persisted after stopping cycloserine and patient continued to have neuropathy with ethambutol and ethionamide. Considering the nature of neuropathy which was mild, mixed sensorimotor and resolved completely after 2-3 weeks of stopping, it was more in favour of ethambutol. However, we could not rule out the possibility of ethionamide or (ethionamide + ethambutol) causing neuropathy or both could have accelerated the neurotoxic effects of cycloserine which remained elusive. PMID:25859468

  4. Cycloserine Induced Late Onset Psychosis and Ethambutol Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Associated with MDR-TB Treatment in an Indian Patient- A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Holla, Sadhana; Amberkar, Mohan Babu; Bhandarypanambur, Rajeshkrishna; Kamalkishore, Meenakumari; Janardhanan, Manju

    2015-02-01

    Adverse reactions and toxicity inevitably accompany all treatment courses for drug-resistant TB. Our case underscores the importance of awareness regarding neuropsychiatric adverse reactions due to MDR-TB therapy and reversible nature of it. Cycloserine induced psychosis is most life threatening complication and sometimes could be fatal. A 42-year-old male on MDR-TB therapy got admitted for his persistent psychotic complaints like hallucinations, delusions and suicidal ideations, despite being treated with quetiapine/olanzapine. Eventually patient was rehabilitated, cycloserine was stopped and psychotic events regressed slowly. Other culprit drugs like ethambutol and levofloxacin causing psychosis was ruled out because there was no relapse of psychotic events despite being continued with these drugs. He also complained of tingling, numbness, swaying, pain and weakness. On examination, he had distal motor weakness in lower limbs, tandem gait positive, altered position sense, and tenderness over toes and positive Romberg's sign with ataxia. He was diagnosed to have drug induced sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. All these symptoms persisted after stopping cycloserine and patient continued to have neuropathy with ethambutol and ethionamide. Considering the nature of neuropathy which was mild, mixed sensorimotor and resolved completely after 2-3 weeks of stopping, it was more in favour of ethambutol. However, we could not rule out the possibility of ethionamide or (ethionamide + ethambutol) causing neuropathy or both could have accelerated the neurotoxic effects of cycloserine which remained elusive.

  5. Atypical antipsychotic use and outcomes in an urban maternal mental health service.

    PubMed

    Hatters Friedman, Susan; Moller-Olsen, Charmian; Prakash, Chandni; North, Abigail

    2016-08-01

    Objective Despite many women suffering from psychosis in their childbearing years, limited data exist about the use of atypical antipsychotic agents in pregnancy. Atypical antipsychotic agents are often used to treat bipolar disorder, instead of lithium or valproate because of the known teratogenicity of those agents. As well, atypical antipsychotics are often prescribed in anxiety disorders and depression. This study sought to describe pregnancy outcomes for women prescribed atypical antipsychotics during pregnancy. Methods This retrospective review included all cases treated by Auckland Maternal Mental Health services in which atypical antipsychotic agents were utilized during pregnancy over three years. Results Over the three years, 45 pregnant women were prescribed atypical antipsychotic agents, most commonly quetiapine or olanzapine. Two-fifths (40%) were diagnosed with bipolar disorder and almost one-third (31%) with a psychotic disorder. Two-thirds (64%) were prescribed multiple psychotropic medications during their pregnancy. Instrumental delivery rates were elevated at 38%. A minority (13%) of the women developed gestational diabetes mellitus. Although 7% of infants were born premature, all were born after 35 weeks. Two major malformations were noted, similar to baseline community rates. Conclusions This naturalistic study adds to the limited literature about treatment with atypical antipsychotic agents in pregnancy, though not adequately powered to detect small differences in malformations or obstetrical outcomes. It also highlights the myriad of indications for which pregnant women are prescribed atypical antipsychotics, and the multiple other risk factors seen in this population.

  6. Abnormal parietal encephalomalacia associated with schizophrenia: A case report.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fen; Wang, Jun-Yuan; Xu, Yi; Huang, Man-Li

    2017-03-01

    It is widely believed that structural abnormalities of the brain contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The parietal lobe is a central hub of multisensory integration, and abnormities in this region might account for the clinical features of schizophrenia. However, few cases of parietal encephalomalacia associated with schizophrenia have been described. In this paper, we present a case of a 25-year-old schizophrenia patient with abnormal parietal encephalomalacia. The patient had poor nutrition and frequently had upper respiratory infections during childhood and adolescence. She showed severe schizophrenic symptoms such as visual hallucinations for 2 years. After examining all her possible medical conditions, we found that the patient had a lesion consistent with the diagnosis of encephalomalacia in her right parietal lobe and slight brain atrophy. The patient was prescribed olanzapine (10 mg per day). Her symptoms significantly improved after antipsychotic treatment and were still well controlled 1 year later. This case suggested that parietal encephalomalacia, which might be caused by inflammatory and infectious conditions in early life and be aggravated by undernutrition, might be implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia.

  7. Naloxone-blocked depriming effect of anxiolytic selank on apomorphine-induced behavioral manifestations of hyperfunction of dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Meshavkin, V K; Kost, N V; Sokolov, O Yu; Zolotarev, Yu A; Myasoedov, N F; Zozulya, A A

    2006-11-01

    Peptide anxiolytic selank (Thr-Lys-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro) applied intraperitoneally in doses of 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 mg/kg to mice reduces behavioral manifestations of dopaminergic system induced by apomorphine in the verticalization test. This effect was comparable to that of atypical antipsychotic olanzapine in near-therapeutic doses (0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and was blocked with nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Radioreceptor assay showed that selank did not displace nonselective D2-dopamine receptor antagonist (3)H-spiperone (EC50>100 microM) and delta- and micro-opioid receptor ligand 3H-DADLE (EC50>40 microM) from specific binding sites on rat brain membranes. It is hypothesized that the revealed behavioral effect of selank is mediated by its modulating effect on the endogenous opioid system and specifically, by its effect on activity of enkephalin-degrading enzymes.

  8. Second-generation antipsychotics and risk of cerebrovascular accidents in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Percudani, Mauro; Barbui, Corrado; Fortino, Ida; Tansella, Michele; Petrovich, Lorenzo

    2005-10-01

    Concern has been recently raised for risperidone and olanzapine, possibly associated with cerebrovascular events in placebo-controlled trials conducted in elderly subjects with dementia. We investigated the relationship between exposure to second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and occurrence of cerebrovascular accidents in the elderly. From the regional database of hospital admissions of Lombardy, Italy, we extracted all patients aged 65 or older with cerebrovascular-related outcomes for the year 2002. From the regional database of prescriptions reimbursed by the National Health Service, we extracted all patients aged 65 or older who received antipsychotic prescriptions during 2001. The 2 databases were linked anonymously using the individual patient code. The proportions of cerebrovascular accidents were 3.31% (95% confidence interval, 2.95-3.69) in elderly subjects exclusively exposed to SGAs and 2.37% (95% confidence interval, 2.19-2.57) in elderly subjects exclusively exposed to first-generation antipsychotics. After background group differences were controlled for, exposure to SGAs significantly increased the risk of accidents. The analysis of cerebrovascular events in elderly subjects exposed to each individual SGA, in comparison with exposure to haloperidol, showed a significantly increased risk for risperidone only (adjusted odds ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.93). These data provide preliminary epidemiological evidence that exposure to SGAs, in comparison with exposure to first-generation antipsychotics, significantly increased the risk of cerebrovascular accidents in the elderly.